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Islamic College of Canberra
ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ
Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles
Class Notes – Term 3, Week 5
ﻭﹶﺃْﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﱠﺘﻲ ﹶﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﹺﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ، ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ، ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﹾﻟﺨﻮﻑ
ُ ْ َ َ ُ َ ِ ْ َ ِ َ ِْ ُ ﺪ
ِ ِ َ َ َ ُ َِ َ ِ ﻟِ َ َ ُ َ ِ ﹾ ﹸ ِ ْ ﹺ
ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﺟﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻮﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻏﺒﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻫﺒﺔ ، ﻭﺍﹾﻟﺨﺸﻮﻉ ، ﻭﺍﹾﻟﺨﺸﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻹَﻧﺎَﺑﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﻌﺎَﻧﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ
َ ﺮ َ ُ َ ﺘ َ ﱡ ﹸ َ ﺮ ﹾَ ﹸ َ ﺮ ْ َ ﹸ َ ُ ُ ُ َ َ ْ َ ﹸ َ ِ ﹸ َ ِ ْ ِ َ ﹸ َ ِ ْ ِ َ ﹶ ﹸ
، ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺘﻐﺎﹶﺛﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠْﺑﺢ ، ﻭﺍﻟﱠﺬﺭ ، ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫِﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﹶﺃﻧْﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﱠﺘﻲ ﹶﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﹺﺑﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﷲ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠِﻟﻴﻞ
ﹺ َِ َ ﻟِ َ َ ُ َ ﹸ ﱡ َ ِ َ ﺪ ﹸ
ِ َ َ ِ ِْ َ ﹸ َ ﺬ ُ َ ﻨ ﹾ ُ َ ﹶ ُ ﹶ
ﻗﻮﹸﻟﻪ َﺗﻌﺎﹶﻟﻰ: ﴿ ﻭﹶﺃ ﱠ ﺍﹾﻟﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﷲ ﻓﻼ َﺗﺪﻋﻮﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﷲ ﹶﺃﺣﺪﺍ ﴾. ﻓﻤﻦ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ِﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ
َ ُ ﹶ َ ْ َ َ َ ِ ْ َ َ ْﹰ َ ﹺ ِ ﹶ
ًَ ِ ََ ُْ َﻥ َ َ ﹺَ ِ ﹶ
َ ُ ْﹶ
َ ُ ْ ُ ْ ﹺﻙ ﹶ ِﺮ َ ﺪ ﹸ ﹶ
ﻣﺸﺮ ٌ ﻛﺎﻓ ٌ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠِﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﹸﻟﻪ َﺗﻌﺎﹶﻟﻰ: ﴿ ﻭﻣﻦ َﻳﺪﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﷲ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻬﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻻُﺑﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﹶﻟﻪ ﹺﺑﻪ ﻓﺈﱠﻤﺎ ﺣﺴﺎُﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ
َ ْ ِ ُ َ ِ َ َ َ ْ ْ ُ َ َ ِ ً َ َ ْ َ ﹶ ُ ِ ﹶ ﹺﻧ
ﺭﱢﻪ ﹺﺇﱠﻪ ﻻ ُﻳﻔﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻭﻥ ﴾. ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ "ﺍﻟ ﱡﻋﺎﺀ ﻣ ﱡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ" ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠِﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﹸﻟﻪ َﺗﻌﺎﹶﻟﻰ: ﴿ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ
َ ُ ْ َﺑ ِ ﻧ ُ ﹾ ِ ُ ﹶ ِ ُ ﹶ َ ِ َ ِ ِ ﺪ َ ُ ُﺦ َِ َ ِ َ ﺪ ﹸ ﹶ
.﴾ ﺭﱡﻜﻢ ﺍﺩﻋﻮﹺﻧﻰ ﹶﺃﺳﺘﺠﺐ ﹶﻟﻜﻢ ﹺﺇ ﱠ ﺍﱠﺬﻳﻦ َﻳﺴﺘﻜﺒﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩِﺗﻲ ﺳﻴﺪﺧﻠﻮﻥ ﺟﻬﱠﻢ ﺩﺍﺧﺮﻳﻦ
َ ْ َ ﹺ ْ ﹸ ْ ﻥ ﻟ ِ َ ْ َ ﹾ ﹺ ُ ﹶ َ ْ ِ َ َ َ َ ْ ُ ﹸ ﹶ َ َﻨ َ َ ِ ﹺ
ُ ْ ْ َﺑ ﹸ
All the types of worship which Allah commanded – like Islam (submission and obedience to Allah),
Eeman (true faith comprising belief of the heart, speech of the tongue and action of the limbs), and
Ihsaan (perfection of worship), and from that is invocation/supplication (duaa), reverential fear
(khawf), hope and longing (rajaa), trust and reliance (tawakkul), fervent desire (raghbah), dread
(rahbah), reverence and humility (khushoo’), awe (khashyah), turning repentantly (inaabah),
appealing for aid and assistance (isti’aanah), seeking refuge (isti’adhah), seeking deliverance and
rescue (istighaathah), sacrificing (dhabh), vows (nadhr) and the rest of the types of worship
commanded by Allah, all of them are to be done exclusively for Allah (swt). The proof for this is His
(swt) saying: ‘And the places of prayer are for Allah alone, so do not invoke anyone along with Allah’
[Al‐Jinn; 71:18]. Anyone who directs any part of that to anything besides Allah, then he is a mushrik
(polytheist), an unbeliever (kaafir), and the proof is His (swt) saying: ‘And whoever worships along
with Allah any other object of worship and has no proof for that; his reckoning will be with his Lord,
indeed the unbelievers will never prosper’ [Al‐Muminoon; 23:117]. In the hadeeth there occurs:
“Invocation is the core of worship”, and the evidence for this is the saying of Allah (swt): ‘Your Lord
says: O people, invoke Me and supplicate to Me making your worship sincerely for Me alone, and I will
answer you; indeed those who disdain to worship me will enter the Hellfire in disgrace’ [Ghaafir; 40:60].
Types of worship
After explaining that Allah (swt) alone is our Lord who is deserving of all worship, the Sheikh (ra)
goes on to explain the different types of worship a servant may direct to Allah (swt), and that if
any of these are directed to other than Allah (swt) then it constitutes shirk!
The Sheikh (ra) uses the term ‘amara’ (ordered) which is consistent with the evidence used in
Surat Al‐Baqarah, where Allah (swt) orders mankind to worship Him alone.
The Sheikh (ra) mentions these types of worship as an example of some of the types of worship.
They are by no means an exhaustive list!
He commences by mentioning the levels of the deen, i.e. Islam, Iman and Ihsaan. We will
Inshallah discuss these in more details when we cover the second principle, i.e. Knowledge of the
Deen of Islam. In that lesson we will Inshallah come to know that Islam and Iman have ‘arkaan’
(pillars) and how Ihsan has a specific definition.
The Sheikh (ra) mentions them here to indicate that no act of worship falls outside these three
levels (Islam, Iman & Ihsaan) since they constitute the deen in its entirety. There are fourteen
types of worship mentioned in the text (remember these are not the only ones) which we will
Inshallah discuss in more detail in the upcoming weeks. By better understanding these acts of
worship it will assist us greatly in worshipping Allah (swt) in the rightful manner which He
The Sheikh (ra) gives evidences to show that those acts of worship mentioned, should only be
directed to Allah (swt). Directing them to other than Allah (swt) is impermissible and constitutes
shirk (like we now know).
The first of these evidences is in Surat Al‐Jinn which we previously took when explaining that
Allah (swt) is not pleased with shirk (T2, L1):
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And the places of worship are for Allah (alone): so do not invoke any one along with Allah. [Al‐Jinn; 72:18]
This verse is used as proof since Allah (swt) informs us that the ‘masaajid’ (i.e. places where
sujood is made), or the limbs on which a person prostrates, are for Allah (swt) alone.
Then as a consequence of that He (swt) forbids the worship or prostration of anything else
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And whoever invokes (or worships), besides Allah, any other Ilaah (deity), of whom he has no proof, then
his reckoning is with his Lord. Surely! Al‐Kâfirûn (the disbelievers In Allah and in the Oneness of Allah) will
not be successful. [Al‐Mu’minoon; 23:47]
This verse is used as proof since Allah (swt) explains that whoever supplicates and invokes
something else besides Allah (swt), then he is a kaafir (disbeliever in the Oneness of Allah).
Furthermore, the saying ‘... they have no proof for that’ indicates that it not possible for there to
be proof supporting worship of other gods.
It is not a ‘qualifying statement meant to exclude that which is supported by proof’, i.e. it does
not mean that if a person has evidence then it is permissible to worship others besides Allah
(swt), since it is not possible for there to be any proof allowing worship of anything along with
duaa is worship, and every worshipper who prays to Allah, fasts or does Hajj is doing that hoping
for reward from Allah and to attain Paradise and to be saved from punishment.
A gem to remember
Ibrahim Ibn Adham (ra), a third century scholar was asked about the saying of Allah:
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And your Lord says: "Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer) ..." [Ghafir; 40:60]
“We supplicate and we are not answered”. So he said to them:
o You know Allah, yet you do not obey Him.
o You recite the Quran, yet you do not act according to it.
o You know Shaytaan, yet you have agreed with him.
o You proclaim to love the Prophet (saw) yet you abandon his Sunnah.
o You claim to love Paradise, yet you do not act to gain it.
o You claim to fear the fire, yet you do not prevent yourselves from sins.
o You says ‘Indeed death is true’, yet you have not prepared for it.
o You engage yourself in finding fault with others, yet you do not look at your faults.
o You eat that which Allah (swt) has provided, yet you do not thank Him.
o You bury your dead, yet you do not take a lesson from it.
Increase your duaa in Ramadan (and outside of Ramadan), particularly in the last ten days.
1. To familiarise yourself with the fourteen acts of worship mentioned in the text, write them
down in Arabic, then write down their translation. It doesn't matter if you do not know them
in detail at this stage.
2. What is the correct meaning of the part of the verse '... and they have no proof for that' in
Surat Al‐Muminoon? What is the incorrect meaning?
3. Explain how the hadith ‘Invocation is worship’ is supported in the Quran.
4. What are the three ways Allah (swt) can answer the duaa of a servant?
5. List and explain the two types of duaa.