Islamic College of Canberra
ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ
Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles
Class Notes – Term 3, Week 3
ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﹶﻟﻚ ﹺﺑﻢ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺭﱠﻚ ؟ ﻓﻘﻞ : ﹺﺑﺂَﻳﺎِﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﺨﻠﻮﻗﺎِﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺁَﻳﺎِﺗﻪ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ
ُ َ ِ َ َ ْﹸ ﹶ َ َ ِ ْ ِ ﻠْ ﹸ َ ﻨ َ ْ َ ﺸ ْ ُ ُ ﹶ
ﹶ ﹺ ﹶ ِ ﹶ َ َ َ ﹺ ﹾ َ َﺑ َ ﹶ ﹸ ﹾ
: ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻗﺎِﺗﻪ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺿﻮﻥ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺒﻊ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻬ ﱠ ﻭﻣﺎ َﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ، ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠِﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﹸﻟﻪ َﺗﻌﺎﹶﻟﻰ
َ ُ ْ َ ِ ْ َ ْ ﹸ ﹶ ِ ﺴ َ ُ ُ ﺴ ْ ُ َ َ َ ُ ﹶ ﺴ ْ ُ َ َ ْ ِ ﹺﻦ َ َ َْ ُ َ َ ﺪ ﹸ ﹶ
ِ ْ ُ ُ ﺸ ْ ﹺ َ ﹾﹶ َ ﹺ َ ْ ُ ُ ِ ﻟ
ُ َ َ ِ ْ َ ِ ﻟْ ﹸ َ ﻨ َ ُ َ ﺸ ْ ُ َ ﹶ
﴿ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺀﺍَﻳﺎِﺗﻪ ﺍﱠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﹾﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻻ َﺗﺴﺠﺪﻭﺍ ِﻟﻠ ﱠﻤﺲ ﻭﻻ ِﻟﻠﻘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﺠﺪﻭﺍ ﷲ ﺍﱠﺬﻯ
ﺧﻠﻘﻬ ﱠ ﹺﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﹺﺇﱠﺎﻩ َﺗﻌﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﴾ ﻭﻗﻮﹸﻟﻪ َﺗﻌﺎﹶﻟﻰ : ﴿ ﹺﺇ ﱠ ﺭﱠﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﱠﺬﻱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍ ﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ
ِ َ ْ َ َ ِ َ َ ﻥ َﺑ ﹸ ُ ُ ﻟ ِ َ ﹶ َ ﺴ
َ ُ ْ َ ﹶ ﹶ ُﻦ ﹾ ﹸ ْ ُ ْ ﻳ ُ ْ ُ ُ ﹶ َ ﹶ
ﺳﱠﺔ ﹶﺃﱠﺎﻡ ﹸﺛ ﱠ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻌﺮﺵ ُﻳﻐﺸﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ﱠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﻬﺎﺭ َﻳﻄﻠﺒﻪ ﺣﺜﻴﺜﺎ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﺠﻮﻡ
َ ُ ِﺘ ِ ﻳ ﹴ ﻢ ْ َ َ َ ﹶ َ ْ ﹺ ْ ِ ﻠ ْ ﹶ ﻨ َ َ ﹾ ﹸ ُ ُ َ ِ ﹰ َ ﺸ ْ َ َ ﹶ َ َ َ ﻨ
.﴾ ﻣﺴ ﱠﺮﺍﺕ ﹺﺑﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﹶﺃﻻ ﹶﻟﻪ ﺍﹾﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ َﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﷲ ﺭ ﱡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﹶﻟﻤﲔ
َ ِ َ ُ َﺨ َ ٍ ﹶ ِْ ﹺ ِ ُ َ ﹾ ُ َ َ ْ ُ َ َ َ ُ َﺏ
So if it is said to you: ‘How did you arrive at this knowledge of your Lord?’ Then say: ‘Through His signs
and those things which He has created; and from His signs are the night and the day, the sun and the
moon; and from that which He has created are the seven heavens and the seven earths, and all those
within them, and whatever is between them’. The proof is the saying of Allah, the Most High: ‘And
from His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate to the sun, nor
to the moon, but prostrate to Allah who created them, if you truly worship Him [Fussilat; 41:37] and His,
the Most High’s saying: ‘Your Lord is Allah who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then
ascended upon the Throne. He causes the night to cover the day which it follows with haste; and the
sun, the moon and the stars are subservient and subject to His command. Certainly creation and
commandment are His alone. Exalted is Allah the Lord of all creation. [Al‐Araaf; 7:54]
Favours and blessings of Allah (swt) continued
In our previous lesson we discussed how Allah (swt) creates the creation and then nurtures them
(tarbiya) with his favours and blessings. We mentioned that this was from Allah’s (swt) attributes
We also mentioned that Allah’s blessings on all of His creation are uncountable, and we
supported this with evidence from the Quran in Surat Ibrahim.
What we didn’t mentioned was that the biggest favour and blessing Allah (swt) can bestow upon
the insaan, is the favour and blessing of Islam; to understand and implement it in the manner
ordained by Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw). Allah (swt) says:
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They regard as a favour upon you (O Muhammad) that they have embraced Islam. Say: "Do not count your
Islam as a favour upon me. Nay, but Allah has conferred a favour upon you, that He has guided you to the
faith, if you are indeed true. [Al‐Hujuraat; 49:17]
If you have lost everything but Allah (swt) has blessed you with Islam, then in fact you have not
lost anything, rather you have gained everything.
– ﻣَﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻹﺳْﻼﻡ ﻭﻣَﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻹﺳْﻼﻡWhat has a person lost if they have found
َ ِ َ ﹶﹶ َ َ ْ َ َ َ ِ َ َ َ َ َ َ ْ ﹶﹶ
Islam, and what has a person found if they have lost Islam?!
Such a person who has Islam has not lost anything, even though they may have nothing to eat or
drink. Such a person has lost nothing so long as Allah (swt) continues to bless them with the
correct Iman in their heart.
The Sheikh (ra) continues to instruct the reader with the correct answer to the question: ‘Who is
your Lord?’, when he mentions that everything besides Allah (swt) is a part of the ‘Aalam’.
The definition of Al‐‘Aalam (the creations) is that by which something is known.
Therefore Al‐‘Aalam in this context is so called because they are a sign which indicate the
existence of their Creator who controls all of their affairs.
Thus everything from Al‐‘Aalam is a sign affirming the existence of Allah (swt). I am merely one of
This statement ‘puts you in your place’, in that you have been created and have had blessings
bestowed upon you, simply to worship Allah (swt) because the one who created you and favours
you, is alone worthy of worship.
Knowing Allah (swt) through His signs
The Sheikh (ra) then asks the question: ‘How did you arrive at this knowledge of your Lord?’, in
other words what proofs and evidences do you have for knowing Allah (swt)?
Signs (ayaat – plural for aayah) are that which indicate something and make it clear.
If you recall in our previous lessons, there were two types of proofs and evidences: Rational &
The signs which lead to Allah (swt) are also similarly divided into two types:
– ﺍَﻳﺎﺓ ﻛﻮﹺﻧﱠﺔSigns in the creation, i.e. What He (swt) has created.
– ﺍَﻳﺎﺓ ﺷﺮﻋﱠﺔSigns in His revealed way (sharee’ah), i.e. What He (swt) revealed.
َ ْ ِﻴ
If we return to the text, the Sheikh (ra) mentions “... through His signs and those things which He
has created”. You will notice that he has mentioned the creation both implicitly and explicitly. The
implicit way is by understanding the two types of signs mentioned previously.
This is an example of mentioning something particular after that which is general. An example of
this is the famous hadith about intentions which we discussed in class.
Thus, it first appears very fine, then it increases stage by stage until it becomes full then it returns
as it was. It resembles man who begins as something weak, gains strength, then returns to
weakness in old age.
Evidence from Surat Fussilat
The Sheikh (ra) uses evidence from Surat Fussilat to show that Allah (swt) can be known through
His magnificent signs.
The night and day are from the clear signs and proofs of Allah (swt), both in themselves and how
He (swt) created the night with its darkness, and the day with its light, and they alternate without
ceasing. Within each one there are benefits for mankind such as rest in the night and seeking
sustenance in the day.
He (swt) created the sun with its shining light, and the moon with its reflected light. He gave each
one of them stages and orbits in the heavens, so that by the variations in their movements, man
may know the stages of day and night, months and years, and time periods related to acts of
worship (e.g. salaat timings).
Then Allah (swt) forbids the servants from prostrating to the sun or the moon. Even though they
are great, they are still not deserving of the right to be worshipped, since they too are created
entities which are subject to Allah’s (swt) control.
Evidence from Surat Al‐A’raaf
The Sheikh (ra) uses proof from Surat Al‐Fatiha, to prove that it is indeed Allah (swt) who nurtures
and sustains all of the creation.
The Sheikh (ra) also uses evidence from Surat Al‐A’raaf to establish the signs of Allah (swt). There
are six signs which are mentioned in this great verse:
Allah (swt) created the tremendous creations of the heavens and earth in six days. If
Allah (swt) wished, he could have created them in an instance, but instead from His
wisdom He (swt) connected cause with effect.
He ascended the Throne. How? We do not know, but it does not resemble the ascension
of any of the creation. Rather, he ascended the Throne in a manner befitting His
That he causes the night to envelop and cover the day so that it is like a garment which
descends upon the day and covers it up.
That He (swt) has made the sun, the moon and the stars subservient to Him; He
commands them how He wishes for the benefit of His creation.
His sovereignty and kingship comprehends evertything such that creation and command
are His alone.
That nothing escapes his Lordship.
It is highly recommended to go back to the Quran and become acquainted with it. If you read the
Quran with taddabur (contemplation) you will notice that not a page passes by except that Allah
(swt) mentions one of His signs. Some of the surah’s which are concentrated with verses which
relate to Allah’s signs are Surat Al‐Rahman and Surat Al‐Waqia.
1. What did you understand from the explanation of Al‐'Aalam?
2. Explain the two types of signs a person may come to know of Allah (swt).
3. What are some of the characteristics of the sun and moon which make them from amongst
the great signs of Allah (swt)? You may wish to use Quranic evidence to support your answer.
4. Revise and attempt to memorise the verse in Surat Fussilat used as evidence by the Sheikh (ra).
5. Revise and attempt to memorise the verse in Surat Al‐A'raaf used as evidence by the Sheikh