‫أصول اللغة العربية القرآنية‬

ESSENTIALS OF QURANIC ARABIC
Volume 2
Intermediate Level
by Masood Ahmed Ranginwala
edited ...
Copyright © Masood Aḥmed Ranginwala 2013
First Edition May 2013

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be r...
‫بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم‬

‫الحمد لله ر ّ العالمين و ال ّالة و ال ّالم على نبينا مح ّد‬
‫م‬
‫س‬
‫ص‬
‫ب‬

‫و على آله و صحبه ...
4
Acknowledgments
All Praise is to Allah for this work could never have been accomplished without His Help and Guidance.
Fur...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TRANSLITERATION KEY _____________________________________________________...
Table of Contents
Table 14: Conjugation of Various Derivatives of [‫83 ___________________________________________________...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

LESSON 5: INCOMPLETE V ERBS [ ‫16 ________________________________________________] َّواسِخ...
Table of Contents

II. PARTICLES THAT DO NOT AFFECT I‛RĀB [ٌَ‫29 ____________________________________________________ ]حرو...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

E. Ḥāl: The State or Condition of an Action [‫221 _________________________________________...
Table of Contents

LESSON 11: GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS OF QUR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS _____________________________________ 157
I. ARABIC S...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

LESSON 13: IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES OF ELOQUENCE [ ‫102 _____________________________________]ا...
Table of Contents

LESSON 4 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________
LESSON 5 A...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

Transliteration Key

‫ئ/ؤ/أ/ء‬
١
‫ب‬
‫ت‬
‫ث‬
‫ج‬
‫ح‬
‫خ‬
‫د‬
‫ذ‬

’
ā
b
t
th
j
ḥ
kh
d
dh

‫...
Foreword

Foreword
Dr. Moḥammad Yūnus
Arabic grammar deals with principles by which the states of the endings of the words...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

16
Preface

Preface
The Qur’ān is undoubtedly a vast ocean of Guidance and Wisdom. In order to obtain a deeper meaning
of the...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

texts of Intermediate Grammar. Please note that several topics specific to the study of Ṣar...
Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology [‫]الصرف‬

Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology [‫]الصَّرْف‬
I. Intro...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

2. Changing of the Hamza to [ ‫عَّة‬
‫ِل‬

‫:]حرْف‬

The Maṣdar of [ َ َ ‫ , ]آ‬which is th...
Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology [‫]الصرف‬

5. Examples of Idghām
Table 1: Examples of Idghām [‫]ِ ْغام‬
‫إد‬
...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

Principle # 4: Changing of weak letters preceded by a vowel [‫]َعْ ِيل‬
‫تل‬
a) If a Fatḥah...
‫]الصرف[ ‪Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology‬‬

‫‪ْ ِّ ]- Variation of Endings on Alif and Yā‬ل [ ‪Table 2: Exam...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

2. In Family VIII verbs, if the [ ‫ ]ف‬letter is a weak letter or a Hamza, then it is repla...
Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬
‫ل‬

‫]الفعل‬

Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs - Root Letters with Hamza/Shadda
‫فِعْ ُ ُّا...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

II. Irregular verbs ]‫] ِعْ ُ ُّالِي ِىل َيْر ساِم‬
‫ف ل الث ث إ غ ل‬
A. Classification and...
Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬
‫ل‬

‫]الفعل‬

B. Algorithm for Classification of Regular and Irregular Verbs

‫فِعْل...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

(3) In the present tense conjugation for first person, the two Hamzas join to become an elo...
Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬
‫ل‬

‫]الفعل‬

(3) For Verb conjugations where something is added to the end with a S...
‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬

‫‪Vowel in‬‬

‫مضارع‬

‫‪Ḍammah‬‬

‫‪Kasrah‬‬

‫‪Fatḥah‬‬

‫‪*multiple possible‬‬
‫‪for...
Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬
‫ل‬

‫]الفعل‬

Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs - Verbs with Vowel Letters

‫ل م ل‬
ّ َ‫فِعْ...
Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic

Table 8: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense of [‫املثال‬

‫املاضى‬
‫ُثَّى‬
‫مَن‬

‫جَمع‬

‫...
Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬
‫ل‬

‫]الفعل‬

(5) A less common case is when the middle Alif is actually an Alif. Th...
‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬

‫ل‬
‫[الفع ُ‬
‫ْف‬
‫]حَر ُ‬

‫عَّة [‬
‫ِل‬

‫ا َ ْ َف] ‪Table 9: Various Conjugations o...
‫]الفعل‬

‫املعت ّ[ ‪Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs‬‬
‫ل‬

‫ل‬
‫‪] in Jazm and Naṣb‬الفع ُ‬
‫‪Jazm‬‬

‫ا َ ْ َف [ ‪Table 11: Co...
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Essentials of quranic arabic   vol 2 by masood ranginwala
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Essentials of quranic arabic vol 2 by masood ranginwala

  1. 1. ‫أصول اللغة العربية القرآنية‬ ESSENTIALS OF QURANIC ARABIC Volume 2 Intermediate Level by Masood Ahmed Ranginwala edited by Dr. Abu Zayd 1
  2. 2. Copyright © Masood Aḥmed Ranginwala 2013 First Edition May 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, or otherwise, without written permission of the publisher. ISBN 978-1-304-05248-3 Published by: ILF - Islāmic Learning Foundation (NY) ICNA (Islāmic Circle of North America) 166-26 89th Ave Jamaica, NY 04262 masoodar@gmail.com Additional copies of this book series including Volume 1 can be purchased at <www.lulu.com>, <amazon.com>, or <barnesandnobles.com>. An e-book version of this series is also available at <www.lulu.com>. Cover design by Ādam Ranginwala and Omar Ranginwala. Any mistakes or shortcomings in this book are due to errors of the author, and all that is correct and true solely are due to Allah . Please feel free to contact the author at the email listed above to notify him of any errors present. 2
  3. 3. ‫بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم‬ ‫الحمد لله ر ّ العالمين و ال ّالة و ال ّالم على نبينا مح ّد‬ ‫م‬ ‫س‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ب‬ ‫و على آله و صحبه أجمعين و من است ّ ِسّته إلى يوم الدين‬ ‫نب ن‬ ‫ق ل ك ن ب ر ِد د لكلم ت َب لن ِد ب ر ق ل أ ت َد‬ ‫﴿ ُلْ َوْ َا َ الَْحْ ُ م َا ًا ِ َِ َا ِ رِّي ََف َ الَْحْ ُ َبْ َ َنْ َنْف َ‬ ‫َِ َا ُ رِّي ََوْ ِئَْا ِ ِثِْ ِ م َ ًا‬ ‫كلم ت َب ول ج ن بم له َدد‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫,‪“Say: If the sea were ink for the words of my Lord‬‬ ‫,‪the sea would surely be consumed before the words of my Lord are exhausted‬‬ ‫.)901 :‪though We were to bring the like of that (sea) to add.” (Sūrah Kahf‬‬ ‫3‬
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Acknowledgments All Praise is to Allah for this work could never have been accomplished without His Help and Guidance. Furthermore, this book on Qur’ānic Arabic was made possible through my many teachers who have guided me and imparted me knowledge in this sacred language. I am even more indebted to my parents who have raised me on the Deen and its foundation, and who continue to advise and guide me. I am also grateful to my wife and children who have been very patient with this effort, and whose precious time I have sacrificed. I am very grateful to Dr. Abu Zayd, founder of the Qur’ān Literacy Institute who edited this textbook and improved on its format and readability. A special note of thanks also goes to one of my early teachers, Ustādh Nouman Alī Khan, founder of the Bayyinah Arabic Institute. He was my initial inspiration to teach what I learned of Qur’ānic Arabic and make it accessible to those who wish to learn from its treasures. I thank my teachers at the Qibla Institute (formerly the Sunnipath Institute) namely Sheikh Hamza Karamali and Sheikh Farīd Dingle. I also thank Sheikh Shakiel Humayun from the Foundation of Knowledge and Development. The individuals involved with websites “The Qur’ānic Arabic Corpus”, “Zekr”, and “OpenBurhan” also deserve thanks as their resources were used extensively for this work. May Allah reward all these special people and others not mentioned here who contributed to this book. The journey of learning this sacred language has been an arduous one for me and has come with its challenges. It is my hope that this book series can facilitate this journey for other students, enabling them to understand the lofty and majestic words of the Qur’ān. 5
  6. 6. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic TABLE OF CONTENTS TRANSLITERATION KEY __________________________________________________________________________ 14 FOREWORD __________________________________________________________________________________ 15 PREFACE ____________________________________________________________________________________ 17 LESSON 1: IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES OF MORPHOLOGY [ ‫91 ____________________________________ ] َّ رْف‬ ‫الص‬ I. INTRODUCTION TO ṢARF [‫91 ___________________________________________________________________ ] َّرْف‬ ‫الص‬ II. IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES FROM ṢARF _______________________________________________________________ 19 Principle # 1: Deletion of a Letter [ ‫91 _________________________________________________________ ]تَخْفِي ف‬ Principle # 2: Changing of the Hamza ___________________________________________________________ 19 Principle # 3: Merging of heavy letters o r light letters [‫02 ___________________________________________ ]إِدْغام‬ Table 1: Examples of Idghām [‫12 _____________________________________________________________________ ]ِدْغام‬ ‫إ‬ Principle # 4: Changing of weak letters preceded by a vo wel [ ‫22 _____________________________________ ]تَعْلِيل‬ Principle # 5: Impossibility of Pronouncing Any Vowel on an Alif [‫22 __________________________________ ] َّع ُّر‬ ‫الت َذ‬ Principle # 6: Difficulty of Pronouncing Certain Vo wels on Alif/Yā [ ‫22 _________________________________ ] ِّقْل‬ ‫الث‬ Table 2: Examples of [‫ -] ِّقْل‬Variation of Endings on Alif and Yā ____________________________________________ 23 ‫الث‬ Principle # 7: Adding or Deleting the Tā letter ____________________________________________________ 23 Table 3: Deletion of the Tā Letter ______________________________________________________________________ 23 LESSON 2: IRREGULA R VERBS - ROOT LETTERS WITH HAMZA/S HADDA : ‫52 _________ َلْ ِعْ ُ الْ َهْ ُوز َ الْ ُ َا َف‬ ‫ا ف ل م م و مض ع‬ I. INTRODUCTION TO IRREGULAR VERBS _______________________________________________________________ 25 II. IRREGULAR VERBS ] ‫62 _______________________________________________________________]فِعْ ُ ُّالثِي إِىل غَيْر ساِم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل الث‬ I. IRREGULAR VERBS [ ‫62 ___________________________________________________________________]اَلفِع ل غَيْر سال ِم‬ ْ A. Classification and Division of Family I Verbs ____________________________________________________ 26 B. Algorithm for Classification of Regular and Irregular Verbs ________________________________________ 27 III. V ERBS WITH A HAMZA LETTER ]‫72 __________________________________________________________ [اَلْفِعْ ُ اْلمَ ه ُوز‬ ‫ل ْم‬ Table 4: Verb Conjugation Summary for [‫82 ______________________________________________________ ]َ لْ ِعْ ُ ا لْ َهْ ُوز‬ ‫اف ل م م‬ IV. VERBS WITH A D OUBLED LETTER/SHADDA [‫82 _________________________________________________ ]الفِعْ ُ اْل ُضَاعَف‬ ‫ل م‬ Table 5: Detailed Verb Conjugation for [‫92 ______________________________________________________ ] ال ِعل اُضا َفال‬ ‫ف مل ع‬ Table 6: Various Conjugations of [‫03 ___________________________________________________________ ]َ لْ ِعْ ُ ا لْ ُ َا َف‬ ‫ا ف ل مض ع‬ LESSON 3: IRREGULAR VERBS - VERBS WITH VOWEL LETT ERS: ّ َْ‫13 __________________________َلْ ِعْ ُ الْ ُع‬ ‫ا ف ل م تل‬ I. INTRODUCTION TO IRREGULAR VERBS WITH WEAK LETTERS [ّ َ‫13 ________________________________________ ]اَلفِعْ ُ اْل ُعْت‬ ‫ل م ل‬ A. Irregular Verbs: [ ‫13 ___________________________________________________________________ ]الفِعْل اْلمِثال‬ Table 7: Various Conjugations of the Derivatives of [‫13 ______________________________________________ ]الفعل املثال‬ Table 8: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense of [‫23 _________________________________________________ ] الفعل املثال‬ B. Irregular Verbs [ ‫23 __________________________________________________________________ ]الفِعْل الْأَجْ وَف‬ Table 9: Various Conjugations of Derivatives of ]‫43 _________________________________________________ [ الفع ُ ا َجْ َف‬ ‫ل أل و‬ Table 10: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs ]}‫43 ______________________________________ [الفع ُ ا َجْ َف {و‬ ‫ل أل و‬ Table 11: Conjugations of [‫ ] الفع ُ ا َجْ َف‬in Jazm and Naṣb __________________________________________________ 35 ‫ل أل و‬ Table 12: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs ]}‫63 ______________________________________ [ الفع ُ ا َجْ َف {ي‬ ‫ل أل و‬ Table 13: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs [{١} ‫ا َ ْ َف‬ ‫ألجو‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ‫_______________________________________ ]الفع‬ 37 C. Irregular Verbs [ ‫73 ___________________________________________________________________ ]الفِعْل َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ 6
  7. 7. Table of Contents Table 14: Conjugation of Various Derivatives of [‫83 ___________________________________________________ ]َ لْفعل َّاِص‬ ‫ا الن ق‬ Table 15: Conjugation of [} ‫83 __________________________________________________________________ ]َلْ ِعْ ُ َّاِص {و‬ ‫ا ف ل الن ق‬ Table 16: Conjugation of [‫ ]َ لْ ِعْ ُ َّاِص‬in Jazm and Naṣb ____________________________________________________ 39 ‫ا ف ل الن ق‬ Table 17: Conjugation of [} ‫04 __________________________________________________________________]َلْ ِعْ ُ َّاِص { ي‬ ‫ا ف ل الن ق‬ Table 18: Conjugation of [} ‫14 __________________________________________________________________ ]َ لْفعل َّاِص {ا‬ ‫الن ق‬ ‫ا‬ II. VERBS WITH TWO VOWELLED LETTERS: [‫24 ___________________________________________]لفِي ُ اْلمَقْ ُون[ & ] لَفِي ُ املَفْ ُوق‬ ‫ف ر‬ ‫ف ر‬ A. Verbs with Two Separate Vowelled letters ]‫24 _____________________________________________ ]لَفِي ُ املَفْ ُوق‬ ‫ف ر‬ Table 19: Verb Conjugation of Various Derivatives of {‫34 _____________________________________ ] ََى [ :}َ ِي ُ اَفْ ُوق‬ ‫لف ف مل ر‬ ‫وق‬ Table 20: Verb Conjugation of [‫34 _______________________________________________________________ ]َ ِي ُ اَفْ ُوق‬ ‫لف ف مل ر‬ B. Verbs wi th Two Adjacent Vo welled letters: [ ‫44 _____________________________________________ ]لَفِي ُ املَقْ ُون‬ ‫ف ر‬ Table 21: Conjugation of Various Derivatives of [‫44 ________________________________________________ ]َ ِي ُ اَقْ ُون‬ ‫لف ف مل ر‬ III. V ERB CONJUGATION OF IRREGULAR VERB COMBINATION [‫54 _______________________________________ ]امل ه ُوز وَ الّاقِص‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ْم‬ Table 22: Conjugation of Other Irregular Verbs [‫54 ______________________________________________] املهْ ُوز و الّاِص‬ ‫م َ نق‬ Table 23 A: Summary of [ِ‫64 ___________________________________________________________ ]ِعْل ُّالثي َ لْ ُ ج َّ ِ ا لْ َ ِ َا‬ ‫ف الث ا م َرد غريس مل‬ Table 23B: Present Tense Verbs and Their Different Inflections ___________________________________________ 47 LESSON 4: IRREGULAR V ERBS IN FAMILIES II TO X: ٍ ِ‫94 ________________________ ِعْ ُ ُّالِي ا َ ِي َ ِي ِ إىل َِر َا‬ ‫ف ل الث ث ملز د ف ه غي س لم‬ I. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE HIGHER FAMILIES __________________________________________________________ 49 A. Introduction ____________________________________________________________________________ 49 B. Examples of Irregular Verbs in Families II to X __________________________________________________ 50 Table 24: Examples of Some Irregular Verbs of higher families __________________________________________ 50 II. FAMILY II [‫05 ______________________________________________________________________ ]با ُ "ف َّلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب َع‬ Table 25: Irregular Family II Verbs [َ َّ ‫05 ______________________________________________________________ ] با ُ ف‬ ‫ب َعل‬ III. V ERB FAMILY III: [ ‫15 ________________________________________________________________ ]با ُ "فَاعَلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 26: Irregular Family III Verbs: [َ َ ‫15 ___________________________________________________________ ] با ُ َا‬ ‫ب ف عل‬ IV. VERB FAMILY IV:]‫25 ________________________________________________________________ [با ُ "أَفْعَلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 27: Irregular Family IV Verbs [َ َ ْ‫25 ____________________________________________________________ ] با ُ َف‬ ‫ب أ عل‬ V. VERB FAMILY V: [‫35 __________________________________________________________________ ]با ُ "تَف َّلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب َع‬ Table 28: Irregular Family V Verbs [َ َّ ‫35 _____________________________________________________________ ] با ُ َف‬ ‫ب ت َعل‬ VI. VERB FAMILY VI: [‫45 _______________________________________________________________ [با ُ "تَفاعَلَ " غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 29: Irregular Family V Verbs [َ َ ‫45 _____________________________________________________________] با ُ َ َا‬ ‫ب تف عل‬ VII. VERB FAMILY VII: [ ‫55 _______________________________________________________________]با ُ "اِنْفَعَلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 30: Irregular Family VII Verbs [َ َ َ ْ‫55 ______________________________________________________________] با ُ ِ ن‬ ‫ب ا فعل‬ VIII. VERB FAMILY VIII ]‫55 _____________________________________________________________ [با ُ "اِفْتَعَلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 31: Irregular Family VIII Verbs [َ َ َْ‫65 _____________________________________________________________ ] با ُ ِف‬ ‫ب ا تعل‬ IX. V ERB FAMILY X: [‫75 ________________________________________________________________ ]با ُ "اِسْتَفْعَلَ" غَيْ ُ سالِم‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ب‬ Table 32: Irregular Family X Verbs [َ َ ْ‫75 ___________________________________________________________ ] با ُ ِسَْف‬ ‫ب ا ت عل‬ X. Q UADRILATERAL VERBS: VERBS WITH FOUR-LETTER ROOTS [‫85 ___________________________________ ]الْفِعْ ُ ُّباعي املُج َّد‬ ‫َر‬ ‫ل الر‬ A. Introduction to Quadrilateral Verbs ] ‫85 _______________________________________________]الْفِعْ ُ ُّباعي املُج َّد‬ ‫َر‬ ‫ل الر‬ Table 33: Conjugation of [‫ ] الفعل ُّباعي اُ ج َّد‬on pattern [َ َْ‫85 _________________________________________________ ]َع‬ ‫مل َر‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ف لل‬ Table 34: Conjugation of [‫ ] الفعل الرباعي املزيد‬and its Various Derivatives _______________________________________ 58 B. Quadrilateral Verbs of Irregular Pattern [‫95 __________________________________________ ]الفعل ُّباعي غ ُ سالِم‬ ‫ري‬ ‫الر‬ C. Quadrilateral Verbs of Higher Families [ ‫95 _____________________________________________ ]الفعل ُّباعي املزيد‬ ‫الر‬ 7
  8. 8. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic LESSON 5: INCOMPLETE V ERBS [ ‫16 ________________________________________________] َّواسِخ[ & ]أَفْعا ُ َّاقِصَة‬ ‫ل الن‬ ‫الن‬ I. THE INCOMPLETE VERBS [ ‫16 ________________________________________________________________ ]أَفْعا ُ َّاقِصَة‬ ‫ل الن‬ A. Introduction ____________________________________________________________________________ 61 B. Division and Classification of Incomplete Verbs [ ‫26 __________________________________________ ]أَفْعا ُ َّاقِصَة‬ ‫ل الن‬ C. Categories of the Inco mplete Verbs ___________________________________________________________ 62 II. KĀNA AND ITS SISTERS [ ‫36 _________________________________________________________________ ]كان وَ أَخَواُها‬ ‫ت‬ A. The Grammar of Kāna and its Sisters _________________________________________________________ 63 B. Past Continuous Tense [ ‫46 ______________________________________________________ ]الفعل املاضي االِ سِْتمْراري‬ C. Far Past Tense [ ‫ ]الفعل املاضي البَعِيد‬and Near Past Tense [ ‫46 ____________________________________ ]الفعل املاضي القَريب‬ D. Sisters of Kāna [َ‫56 ___________________________________________________________________ ]أَخَ وَا ُ كا ن‬ ‫ت‬ Table 35: Sisters of Kāna [َ ‫66 _____________________________________________________________________ ]َ َ َا ُ كا‬ ‫أخو ت ن‬ III. LAISA [َ‫ ]لَ يْ س‬AND OTHER NEGATIVE INCOMPLETE VERBS __________________________________________________ 67 A. Laisa [َ‫76 _______________________________________________________________________________]َليْ س‬ B. Additional Negative Incomplete Verbs _________________________________________________________ 68 Table 36: Laisa and Negative Incomplete Verbs __________________________________________________________ 68 IV. VERBS OF PROXIMITY [‫86 __________________________________________________________________]أَفْعال اْل ُقارَبَة‬ ‫م‬ Table 37: Verbs of Proximity [‫96 ____________________________________________________________ ]كاد و َفْعال ا لْ ُقا ََة‬ ‫م رب‬ ‫َأ‬ V. VERBS OF INITIATION [‫96 __________________________________________________________________ ]أفعال الشروع‬ VI. VERBS OF PRAISE AND BLAME [ ِ‫07 _________________________________________________________ ]أَفْعال اْلمدْحِ وَ َّم‬ ‫الذ‬ َ ُ Table 38: Verbs of Praise and Blame [‫17 _______________________________________________________ ]َفْعا ُ ا لْ َدْح و َّم‬ ِ ‫أ ل م ِ َ الذ‬ VII. VERBS OF WONDER [‫17 __________________________________________________________________ ]أفْعا ُ َّع ُّب‬ ‫ل الت َج‬ VIII. I NNA AND ITS SISTERS [ ‫27 ________________________________________________________________ ]إ َّ وَ أَخَواتِها‬ ‫ِن‬ Table 39: Inna and its Sisters [‫37 ________________________________________________________________ ] إ َّ و َ َواُها‬ ‫ِن َ أخ ت‬ IX. O THER VERB-LIKE ENTITIES: WARNINGS [‫37 ______________________________________________________ ]اإلنذارَات‬ Table 40: Warnings [‫47 ___________________________________________________________________________ ] اإلنذا َات‬ ‫ر‬ LESSON 6: NEGATION AND EXCEPTIONS [ ‫57 _____________________________________________ ] َّفِيَة وَ االستِثْناء‬ ‫الن‬ I. NEGATION [‫57 ______________________________________________________________________________ ]ا َّافِيَ ة‬ ‫َلن‬ Table 41: Particles of Negation_________________________________________________________________________ 76 A. The Different types of Lā [‫67 _________________________________________________________________ ]ال‬ B. The Mā of Negation [‫87 __________________________________________________________________]ماء َّفِي‬ ‫الن‬ II. E XCEPTIONS [ُ ‫97 ___________________________________________________________________________ ]اَلْإِسْ تِثْنا‬ ‫ء‬ A. Exceptions with [ ‫97 ________________________________________________________________________]إَّا‬ ‫ِل‬ B. Additional Particle(s) of Exception ___________________________________________________________ 83 LESSON 7: PARTICLES [‫ -]احلروف‬A COMPREHENSIVE REV IEW _______________________________________ 85 D IVISION AND CLASSIFICATION OF PARTICLES ___________________________________________________________ 85 I. PARTICLES THE AFFECT I‛RĀB [ٌَ‫68 _____________________________________________________________ ]حرو ٌ عامِل‬ ‫ف ة‬ A. Ḥarf Jarr [‫68 _______________________________________________________________________ ]حروف ج َّة‬ ‫َار‬ Table 42: Ḥarf Jarr [‫68 __________________________________________________________________________ ]حروف ج َّة‬ ‫َار‬ B. Ḥarf Naṣb [‫88 ______________________________________________________________________ ] ُروف نا صِبَة‬ ‫ح‬ Table 43: Ḥarf Naṣb on Verbs [‫98 ___________________________________________________________________ ] َّوا ِب‬ ‫الن ص‬ C. Ḥarf Jazm [‫09 ____________________________________________________________________]حرف جَزْم/اجلَوازِم‬ Table 44: Ḥarf Jazm___________________________________________________________________________________ 91 8
  9. 9. Table of Contents II. PARTICLES THAT DO NOT AFFECT I‛RĀB [ٌَ‫29 ____________________________________________________ ]حرو ٌ غَيْ ُ عامِل‬ ‫ف ر ة‬ A. Particles of Negation ______________________________________________________________________ 93 B. Connecting Particles [‫39 ______________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف الْعَطْ ف‬ ‫حر‬ C. Qur’ānic Examples of Connecting Particles [ ‫49 ____________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف الْعَطْ ف‬ ‫حر‬ Table 45: Connecting Particles [‫49 ______________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف ا لْ َطْف‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حر‬ D. Resumption Particles [ ‫59 ___________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف الْإسْت ئْنافَّ ة‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫حر‬ E. Rebuttal Particles [‫69 ______________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف االسْتِ دْراك‬ ‫حر‬ F. Particles of Interrogation [‫79 _________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف االسْتِفْهام‬ ‫حر‬ Table 46: Interrogative Particles [‫89 ___________________________________________________________] ُرو ُ ِّاسِْفْهام‬ ‫ح ف ال ت‬ Table 47: Lām and Nūn of Emphasis on Verbs ___________________________________________________________ 99 H. Particles of Calling [ ‫001 _______________________________________________________________ ]حرو ف ِّدا ء‬ ‫الن‬ I. Conditional Particles [ ‫101 _____________________________________________________________ ]حروف َّرْط‬ ‫الش‬ Table 48: Particles of Condition [‫101 ____________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف َّرْط‬ ‫حر الش‬ J. Verbal Noun Particles [ ‫201 ___________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف مَصدَرَّ ة‬ ‫ْ ِي‬ ‫حر‬ K. Particles of the Future [ ‫201 __________________________________________________________ ]حروف اإلستِ قْبال‬ L. Particles of Warning [ ‫201 _____________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف َّ نْبي ه‬ ‫حر الت‬ M. Particles of Encouragement [‫301 _____________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف َّحْضِيض‬ ‫حر الت‬ N. Particles of Response [ ‫301 ____________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف اجلواب‬ ‫حر‬ O. Particles – Time and Place Containers [ ‫401 ___________________________________________ ]حروف َّمان و املكان‬ ‫الز‬ P. Particles of Redundancy [ ‫401 __________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف َّائِ دَة‬ ‫حر الز‬ Q. The Definite Article “Al” [ ‫401 ____________________________________________________________]الم َّعْري ف‬ ‫الت‬ Table 49: The Definite Article “Al” [‫501 ____________________________________________________________ ]الم َّعْريف‬ ‫الت‬ R. Miscellaneous Particles ___________________________________________________________________ 106 Table 50: Miscellaneous Particles _____________________________________________________________________ 106 S. Particles with Multiple Distinc t Grammatical Roles ______________________________________________ 106 Table 51A: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [‫701 ______________________________________ ]ما/و‬ Table 51B: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [‫801 ____________________________________ ]ف/ال/ما‬ َ Table 51C: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [ْ‫901 ________________________________ ]َوْ/حَّى/ب/ َن‬ ‫ل َت ِ م‬ Table 51D: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [‫011 ________________________________ ]ل/َلْ/ل ِن/َوْال‬ ‫ب ك ل‬ Table 51E: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [‫111 ______________________________________ ]ِنْ/ ل‬ ‫إ‬ Table 51F: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [ْ‫211 ______________________________________ ] َّ/أن‬ ‫أن‬ LESSON 8: NOUNS IN THE NAṢB CAS E [ ‫311 ___________________________________________________ ]املَنْ ُوبات‬ ‫ص‬ I. REVIEW OF NOUNS OF THE RAF‛ AND JARR CASE [ ‫311 _________________________________________ ]مَجْ ُورات[ & ]مَرُْوعات‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ر‬ Table 52: Noun Categories fixed to Raf‛ and Jarr ________________________________________________________ 113 Table 53: Review of Inflections of Nouns Based on I‛rāb _________________________________________________ 114 II. NOUNS OF THE NAṢB CASE [ ‫411 _______________________________________________________________ ]املَنْصوبات‬ Table 54: Nouns of the Naṣb Case [‫511 ______________________________________________________________] اَنْصوبات‬ ‫مل‬ A. Time Containers [ ‫ ] ظَرْف ال َّمان‬and Place Containers [ ‫611 ________________________________________ ] ظَرْف اْلمَكَان‬ ‫ْز‬ Table 55: Time Containers [‫711 __________________________________________________________________ ] َرْف ا ل َّمان‬ ‫ْز‬ ‫ظ‬ Table 56: Place Containers [‫811 _________________________________________________________________ ] َرْف ا لْ َ َان‬ ‫مك‬ ‫ظ‬ B. The Reason for an Action [َُ‫911 ____________________________________________________________ ]مَفْعول ل‬ ‫ه‬ C. Noun Accompanying an Action [‫021 ______________________________________________________ ]مَفْ ُول مَعَه‬ ‫ع‬ D. Intensifier of the Action [‫121 ___________________________________________________________ ]مَفْ ُول ُطْلَق‬ ‫ع م‬ 9
  10. 10. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic E. Ḥāl: The State or Condition of an Action [‫221 __________________________________________________ ]احلال‬ F. Clarifier [‫421 ___________________________________________________________________________ ]الَّ مْيِيز‬ ‫ت‬ G. The Vocative [ ‫621 _______________________________________________________________________ ]اُنادي‬ ‫مل‬ H. The Follo wers [ ‫821 _________________________________________________________________ ] َّاِب ُ لِلمَنْ ُوب‬ ‫الت ع ص‬ LESSON 9: THE FOLLOWERS [ ‫ ,]ا َّوابِع‬THE DERIVED NOUNS [ُ َّ ‫ ,]اَ ألَسْما ُ اُشْت‬AND THE VERB [َّ ‫921 ____________ ] ظ‬ ‫َلت‬ ‫ء مل َق ة‬ ‫ِن‬ I. THE FOLLOWERS [‫921 ________________________________________________________________________ ]ا َّوابِع‬ ‫َلت‬ B. Connecting Nouns [‫031 _________________________________________________________________ ]اْلمَعْطوف‬ C. Replacers [ ‫031 __________________________________________________________________________ ]الَبدَل‬ D. Nouns of Emphasis [ ‫431 ______________________________________________________________ ] َّ وْكيد لِ َّوابِع‬ ‫لت‬ ‫الت‬ II. D ERIVED NOUNS [ُ َّ ‫531 ____________________________________________________________________ ]اَألَسْما ُ اُشْت‬ ‫ء مل َقة‬ Table 57: Derived Nouns [ ُ َّ ‫531 __________________________________________________________________ ]َ َسْما ُ اُشْت‬ ‫األ ء مل َقة‬ A. The Derived Adjective [ ‫631 ____________________________________________________________ ] ِّفَة اْل ُشَّ هَة‬ ‫الص م َب‬ Table 58: The Derived Adjective [ ‫631 ___________________________________________________________ ] ِّ َة ا لْ ُشَّ َة‬ ‫الصف م َبه‬ B. The Comparative Derived Noun [‫731 _____________________________________________________ ]اِس ُ َّفْضِيل‬ ‫ْم الت‬ Table 59: Conjugation of [‫831 ____________________________________________________________________]ِسْ ُ َّفْ ِيل‬ ‫ا م الت ض‬ C. The Intensive Derived Noun [‫931 _________________________________________________________ ] صِغَ ُ اُبالَغَة‬ ‫ة مل‬ Table 60: Intensive Derived Noun [ ‫931 ____________________________________________________________ ] ِ َ ُ اُباَ َة‬ ‫صغة مل لغ‬ D. Instrument of an Action [ ‫041 _____________________________________________________________ ]اِس ُ الَْآلَ ة‬ ‫ْم‬ III. VERBS TAKING TWO D IRECT OBJECTS [‫041 _____________________________________________________ ] ظ َّ وَ أَخَواُها‬ ‫ت‬ ‫َن‬ Table 61: [‫141 _________________________________________________________________________________]ظ َّ و َ َواُها‬ ‫َن َ أخ ت‬ LESSON 10: NUMBERS [‫341 ___________________________________________________________________ ]اَلْأَ عْدا د‬ INTRODUCTION TO NUMBERS______________________________________________________________________ 143 Table 62: Arabic Numbers Table (#1-30) _______________________________________________________________ 143 I. NUMBERS 1-10 [ ١ - ١١ ] ________________________________________________________________________ A. Dual Numbers __________________________________________________________________________ B. Rules for Numbers 3 to 10 _________________________________________________________________ II. NUMBERS 11-20 [ ١١ - ٠١ ] _____________________________________________________________________ A. Rules for numbering 11-12_________________________________________________________________ B. Rules for Numbering 13-19 ________________________________________________________________ III. NUMBERING 21-99 [ ٠١ - ٩٩] ___________________________________________________________________ IV. NUMBERING 100 AND GREATER [≥ ١١١] ___________________________________________________________ A. Convention(s) for Writing Complex Numbers 100 and greater [≥ ١١١] _______________________________ B. Rules for Numbering 100 and greater [≥ ١١١] __________________________________________________ V. NUMBERING 1000 AND GREATER [≥ ١١١١] __________________________________________________________ Rules for Numbering 1000 and greater [ ≥ ١١١١] __________________________________________________ 144 144 144 145 145 146 148 150 150 151 152 153 Table 63: Summary of Rules for Numbering ____________________________________________________________ 154 VI. O RDINAL NUMBERS [ُّ ‫551 _________________________________________________________________ ]العدَ ُ ال وَ صْف‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫َد‬ Table 64: Ordinal Numbers [ُّ ‫551 ________________________________________________________________ ] ال َ َ ُ ال َ صْف‬ ‫عدد و ِي‬ VII. FRACTIONS [ُّ ‫651 ______________________________________________________________________ ]العدَ ُ الكَسْ ر‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫َد‬ Table 65: Fractions __________________________________________________________________________________ 156 10
  11. 11. Table of Contents LESSON 11: GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS OF QUR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS _____________________________________ 157 I. ARABIC SENTENCES: REVISITED __________________________________________________________________ 157 II. R EVIEW OF I‛RĀB OF VERBS ____________________________________________________________________ 157 Table 66: Verbs Categorized by I‛rāb __________________________________________________________________ 157 III. REVIEW OF I‛RĀB OF NOUNS ___________________________________________________________________ 158 Table 67: Nouns Categorized by I‛rāb __________________________________________________________________ 158 IV. M ERGING OF WORD CONSTRUCTIONS _____________________________________________________________ 159 A. Jarr Constructions and Linking _____________________________________________________________ 159 B. Connecting Particles [‫061 _____________________________________________________________ ]حروف العط ف‬ V. PAUSES AND BREAKS WITHIN Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS _______________________________________________________ 160 Table 68: Diacritical Marks in the Muṣḥaf ______________________________________________________________ 161 VI. EMBEDDED SENTENCES WITHIN Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS ____________________________________________________ VII. M ETHODOLOGY OF GRAMMATICAL BREAKDOWN OF Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS_______________________________________ THE 4 – STEP M ETHOD IN ANALYZING A Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAH / SENTENCE _________________________________________ A. Step 1 – Word Analysis ___________________________________________________________________ B. Step 2 – Identifying and Merging Word Constructions ___________________________________________ C. Step 3: Identifying Sentences within a Qur’ānic Ᾱyah ____________________________________________ D. Step 4: Translation ______________________________________________________________________ VIII. ANALYZING Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS USING THE 4-STEP M ETHOD _____________________________________________ IX. TRADITION M ETHODOLOGY OF I'RĀB/GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS ___________________________________________ 161 162 162 162 163 164 165 166 172 LESSON 12: ADVANCED GRAMMAR TOPICS FROM QUR’ĀNIC STUDY _____________________________ 175 I. SHIFTING WORD O RDER IN SENTENCES [ ‫571 ____________________________________________________ ]الَّقْدمي و َّأْخِري‬ ‫الت‬ ‫َت‬ A. Normal Nominal and Verbal Sentence Patterns _________________________________________________ 175 B. Shifting Direct Object [ ِ‫671 _______________________________________________________________]مَفْعول بِه‬ C. Shifting Jarr Construc tion [‫671 ____________________________________________________________]شِبْه مجلة‬ D. Arrangement of Connected Words [ ‫871 _____________________________________________________ ]معطوف‬ E. Established Word Arrangements in the Qur’ān _________________________________________________ 181 II. O MISSION [‫381 ____________________________________________________________________________ ]احلذْف‬ َ A. The Passive Tense and Omission of the Doer ___________________________________________________ B. Omission of the Verb _____________________________________________________________________ C. Omission of a Noun ______________________________________________________________________ D. Omission of a Particle ____________________________________________________________________ E. Omission (Miscellaneous) _________________________________________________________________ III. NARRATIVE SHIFTING IN SENTENCES [ ‫_________________________________________________________ ]اِلْتِفات‬ 184 185 187 188 189 190 A. Narrative Shifting: 3rd person to 2nd person ___________________________________________________ B. Narrative Shifting: 2nd person to 3rd person __________________________________________________ C. Narrative Shifting: 3rd person to 1st person ___________________________________________________ D. Examples from the dynamics of Narrative Shifting ______________________________________________ IV. D EFINITE AND INDEFINITE NOUNS [‫______________________________________________________] َّعْريف و الْتَنْكري‬ ‫الت‬ 190 191 191 192 193 A. Definite Words __________________________________________________________________________ 193 B. Indefinite Words ________________________________________________________________________ 193 Table 49: The Definite Article “Al” [‫591 ____________________________________________________________ ]الم َّعْريف‬ ‫الت‬ V. CHANGING THE GENDER OF THE VERB [‫691 __________________________________________________ ]َتذْكري الفعل أو تَأنيث‬ VI. ACTION NOUNS FUNCTIONING AS VERBS ___________________________________________________________ 197 VII. THE PERMANENCE OF NOUNS AND THE TRANSIENCE OF VERBS ___________________________________________ 198 VIII. BREAKING (FROM THE EXPECTED I‛RĀB) [‫991 ______________________________________________________ ]الْقِطْع‬ 11
  12. 12. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic LESSON 13: IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES OF ELOQUENCE [ ‫102 _____________________________________]البالغة‬ INTRODUCTION TO BALĀGHA [‫102 _________________________________________________________________ ]البالغ ة‬ THE STUDY OF ELOQUENCE [ ‫202 _________________________________________________________________ ]عِل ُ البَيان‬ ‫ْم‬ I. M ETAPHORS [‫202 ____________________________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز‬ A. Majāz Mursal [‫502 ___________________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز اُرْسَل‬ ‫مل‬ B. Majāz Bil’istiārah [ ‫702 ______________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز بِاال سْتِعارَة‬ C. Majāz Aʻqli [‫902 ______________________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز العقلي‬ D. Majāz Murakkab [‫012 ________________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز املر ّب‬ ‫ك‬ II. THE SIMILE [‫112 ___________________________________________________________________________ ] َّشْبي ه‬ ‫الت‬ TYPES OF SIMILE [‫212 _______________________________________________________________________ ]أَنْواع َّشْبي ه‬ ‫الت‬ Examples of Simile [‫312 _____________________________________________________________________] َّشْبي ه‬ ‫الت‬ III. IDIOMS [ ‫712 ______________________________________________________________________________ ]الكِنايَ ة‬ LESSON 14: INIMITABILITY OF THE QUR’ĀN [ ‫322 ___________________________________________]ِإعْجا ُ الْ ُرآن‬ ‫ز ق‬ INTRODUCTION TO [‫322 _____________________________________________________________________ ]إِعْجا ُ الْ ُرآ ن‬ ‫ز ق‬ I. E XAMPLES OF Q UR’ĀNIC ELOQUENCE_______________________________________________________________ 224 B. Deep Meaning of Arabic Words _____________________________________________________________ 228 C. Word Order in Sentences [ ‫922 _________________________________________________________ ]الَّقْدمي و َّأْخِري‬ ‫الت‬ ‫َت‬ D. Contrasting Simi lar Āyāhs / Qur’ānic Phrases _________________________________________________ E. Coherence of Qur’ānic Sūrahs _______________________________________________________________ F. Coherence between Sūrahs _________________________________________________________________ G. Gems of Logic and Admonition in the Qur’ān [ ‫__________________________________________ ]املَنْطِق وَ العِ بْرَة‬ 229 233 235 238 H. Rhyming Schemes and Phonation of the Qur’ān [ ‫242 ______________________________________ ] َّجْع و التَسْويت‬ ‫الس‬ I. Graphic Imagery in the Qur’ān [ ‫542 ______________________________________________________ ]الّصوير ِّي‬ ‫الفن‬ ‫ت‬ J. Scientific Miracles [‫642 _______________________________________________________________ ]اإلعجاز العلمي‬ CONCLUDING REMARKS _____________________________________________________________________ 251 D IRECTIONS FOR FUTURE ARABIC STUDY _____________________________________________________________ 251 REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR ESSENTIALS OF QURANIC ARABIC ___________________________________ 253 LESSON 1 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 2 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 3 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 4 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 5 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 6 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 7 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 8 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 9 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 10 REVIEW Q UESTIONS____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 11 REVIEW Q UESTIONS____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 12 REVIEW Q UESTIONS____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 13 REVIEW Q UESTIONS____________________________________________________________________ 253 254 255 256 257 259 260 262 263 265 267 269 271 ANSWERS FOR REVIEW QUESTIONS __________________________________________________________ 275 LESSON 1 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ 275 LESSON 2 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ 275 LESSON 3 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ 276 12
  13. 13. Table of Contents LESSON 4 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 5 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 6 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 7 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 8 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 9 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 10 ANSWERS __________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 11 ANSWERS __________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 12 ANSWERS __________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 13 ANSWERS __________________________________________________________________________ 277 278 279 280 281 283 284 286 290 293 APPENDIX __________________________________________________________________________________ 297 Table 69: The 10 Forms Table – Conjugation of Verb Families ____________________________________________ Table 70: Conjugation of Irregular Type I Verbs ________________________________________________________ Table 71: Conjugation of Irregular Verbs - Families I through VI _________________________________________ Table 72: Conjugation of Irregular Verbs - Families VII - X _______________________________________________ 297 298 299 300 REQUIRED Q UR’ĀNIC VOCABULARY ASSIGNMENTS _______________________________________________________ 301 SUPPLEMENTARY Q UR’ĀNIC VOCABULARY_____________________________________________________________ 302 SUPPLEMENTARY QURANIC V OCABULARY ____________________________________________________ 302 GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫503 ___________________________________________________ ] َّشبيه - األج وَف‬ ‫الت‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫603 ______________________________________________ ] َّشْبيه البليغ - اَلْحذْ ُ ُّون‬ ‫َ ف الن‬ ‫الت‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫703 _________________________________________________ ]حَرْف - ضمِري ُنْفَصِل‬ ‫َ م‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫803 ____________________________________________ ] ظَرْف - الفعل املاضي االِسِْتمْراري‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫903 ______________________________________________ ]الفعل املاضي القَريب - ُتَكَّم‬ ‫م َل‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [ِ‫013 ___________________________________________________ ]املِثال - املَفْ ُول فِيْه‬ ‫ع‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫113 ___________________________________________________ ]املَفْ ُول مَعَه - نَظْم‬ ‫ع‬ REFERENCES _______________________________________________________________________________ 313 About the Author ____________________________________________________________________________ 317 13
  14. 14. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Transliteration Key ‫ئ/ؤ/أ/ء‬ ١ ‫ب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذ‬ ’ ā b t th j ḥ kh d dh ‫ر‬ ‫ز‬ r z ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ s sh ‫ص‬ ṣ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ḍ ṭ ‫ظ‬ ‫ع‬ ẓ ‛ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ك/ﮎ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه/ﻫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ f q k l m n h w, ū, u y, i, ī gh This transliteration key is being provided to help bridge the gap between Arabic and English letters. There are several letters that are specific to the Arabic language, and do not have an English equivalent. Please also note that we have chosen to capitalize many of the Arabic terms mentioned in this book, especially those of a grammatical context. Furthermore, Arabic terms written in English have been pluralized in English to facilitate the reader. 14
  15. 15. Foreword Foreword Dr. Moḥammad Yūnus Arabic grammar deals with principles by which the states of the endings of the words are known in regard to declension (I‛rāb) and construction (Binā‛), and the manner of constructing one word with another. It is highly essential for the students of Arabic to learn this science in order to be proficient in the language. Acquiring an understanding of word patterns (Ṣarf ) is also of prime importance in learning the language. “Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic” is a book compiled for easy understanding of Qur’ānic Arabic with focus on its grammar rules. There are many books on Arabic grammar on the market today. For example, Hidāyatun Naḥw is one classical book that has been used in teaching Arabic grammar for generations. The goal of this book is to enable the student to read, translate, and understand the āyahs of the Qur’ān, Ḥadīths, and Arabic sentences without difficulty. Emphasis is also placed on learning vocabulary with the help of a standard dictionary. Topics in “Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic” are organized in a simple and coherent fashion such that they can be easily understood and learned. Review questions at the end of this book are very useful to practice and revise the concepts learned during the study. This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the important aspects of the subject of Qur’ānic Arabic grammar. I am confident that when a student studies this book thoroughly with the guidance of a teacher or engages in self-study, they would develop a very good foundation in this science, and it would absolve them of the need to study similar books on the subject. I pray to Allah that He may make this book beneficial for the students of Arabic grammar and simplify the path to understanding the Qur’ān, and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muḥammad . I also pray that Allah bestow rewards for the compiler and everyone who contributed to its completion and publication. ‫آمِني‬ Dr. Mohammad Yūnus is currently the director of the Tarbiyah Department of ICNA, and has held the position of Amīr of ICNA for 17 years from 1977 - 2000. He is the Imām/Director at Masjid Daʻwah in Bonifay, FL. Dr. Yūnus is a cardiologist and a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at Florida State University, College of Medicine. 15
  16. 16. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 16
  17. 17. Preface Preface The Qur’ān is undoubtedly a vast ocean of Guidance and Wisdom. In order to obtain a deeper meaning of the Qur’ān, it is required that the student have a certain depth and knowledge of the Arabic language while also being familiar with Classical Tafsīrs. Furthermore, it goes without saying that the student must develop a strong connection with the Qur’ān on a daily basis. The Prophet said: [ْ ََ َ ‫ذ ﻫب ت‬ ‫]إَّما مَثَ ُ صَاحِبِ الْ ُرْآنِ كَمَثَلِ صَاحِبِ الْإِبِلِ الْ ُع َّلَةِ إِنْ عَاﻫَدَ عَلَيْهَا أَمْسَكَهَا وَإِنْ أَطْلَقَهَا‬ ‫م َق‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ِن ل‬ “The parable of someone who knows the Qur’ān is that of a tethered camel. If he attends to it, it stays with him. If he lets it go, it wanders away”.1 A daily connection to the Qur’ān is essential whether it be recitation, listening, reading its Tafsīrs, contemplating its meanings, etc. Additionally, memorizing the sacred words of the Qur’ān as much as possible has numerous benefits even if it is done without consciously delving into its meaning. Likewise, listening to its recitation on a regular basis strengthens one’s connection to the Qur’ān. Moreover, it is perhaps best experienced through listening, preferably when standing in prayer, before Allah . Keeping this close connection with the Qur’ān prevents it from wandering away, and allows one to attain a unique bond with one’s heart and mind. The Qur’ān becomes devoid of benefit to those whose faith is not increased, and those who are not propelled by it to do good deeds. The Qur’ān is indeed a vehicle in attaining prophetic character. When Ā’isha , the beloved wife of the Prophet , was asked about him, she stated: [َ ‫اْ ُ ْآ‬ ‫ل قر ن‬ was the Qur’ān”2. ‫خلقه‬ ُ ُ ُُ َ‫“ ,]كان‬His character Thus, righteous deeds and excellent conduct are endpoints attained from deep understanding and implementation of the Qur’ān. The main reason behind the Two-Volume series “Essentials in Qur’ānic Arabic” is to bridge the barriers to understanding and comprehending the Qur’ān. Specifically, to enable the student to understand its language by learning its grammar. In particular, the focus is kept on Qur’ānic Grammar, and Conversational Arabic is not emphasized. The goal of Volume 1 was to ground the student on the fundamentals of Arabic grammar. There were several important principles in Qur’ānic Arabic Grammar that could not covered in Volume 1 due to their advanced nature and difficulty. Our aim here in Volume Two is to extract a correct basic meaning from the Qur’ān. Furthermore, many of the topics in this Second Volume are found in Arabic grammar texts like Al-Ajrūmiyyah [‫ ,]األ ْ ُومَّة‬those dealing with the study of Morphology [‫ ,] َّ ْف‬and other ‫جر ِي‬ ‫الصر‬ 1 Saḥīḥ Bukhāri: Ḥadith #4743 in Chapter on the Bounties of the Qur’ān [‫.]كتاب فضائل القرآن‬ 2 Musnad Aḥmed, Ḥadith #24080 in [ِ‫.]بَاقِي ُسْنَدِ الْ أَنْصَار‬ ‫م‬ 17
  18. 18. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic texts of Intermediate Grammar. Please note that several topics specific to the study of Ṣarf are merged in this volume with topics of Naḥw to keep a simplified approach and keep the focus on Qur’ānic study. One chapter has been devoted to learning a specific methodology to analyze āyahs from the Qur’ān. The last three chapters are focused on more advanced discussions relative to Qur’ānic Arabic such as Eloquence (Balāgha), the Inimitability of the Qur’ān (I‛jāz al-Qurʾān), and other advanced grammar topics. Similar to the first volume, numerous examples from the Qur’ān have been given so that our focus is maintained. “Review Questions” are included in the back of this book and are an essential part of this text. These questions force the student to review the material each and every week. It is hoped that the content presented here in this second volume will allow for a more thorough understanding of the lofty words of the Qur’ān along with other Classical Islāmic literature Inshā Allah. 18
  19. 19. Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology [‫]الصرف‬ Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology [‫]الصَّرْف‬ I. Introduction to Ṣarf [‫] َّرْف‬ ‫الص‬ Ṣarf is the study of morphology of Arabic words in their specific and varied forms. This science deals with Arabic words that have irregular, difficult, or awkward pronunciation or phonation. In particular, it deals with changes of certain letter(s) of the word so that its pronunciation and phonetics can be enhanced. Please note that Ṣarf does not cause a grammatical change or a change in meaning per se. The rules of verb conjugation and derivation of specific types of nouns3 from a root verb do not change. A good grasp of Ṣarf helps a great deal in learning Qur’ānic Arabic, since there are numerous Irregular verbs and nouns found in the Qur’ān. Please note much of the discussions involving verb conjugation, verb families, and “action” nouns directly involve the study of Ṣarf. Half of Ṣarf is really knowing the “default” conjugations of verbs and verb like nouns such as those found in the “10 Forms Table” (see Appendix). II. Important Principles from Ṣarf There are three important principles that will be commonly used when looking at conjugation of the Irregular verbs in Lesson 2. Principle # 1: Deletion of a Letter [‫]تَخْفِيف‬ 1. Changing of a Hamza to a weak letter [‫ ] َ ْف عَّة‬or deleting the Hamza. ‫حر ِل‬ [ ‫. ]َل ِع ُ ا ْ َه ُوز‬ ‫ا ف ْل لم م‬ This occurs in 2. Deleting the Hamza: ◦ Command of [َ ََ ] is [ْ‫ .]ِسَْل‬Here the Hamza is deleted to get [ْ‫ .]ِسْل‬Since it is ‫سأل‬ ‫ا أ‬ ‫ا‬ impossible to have two consecutive Hamzas, the Fatḥah that was originally on the Hamza is placed on the [ ‫ ]س‬since the Hamza al-Waṣl is removed to get [ْ َ ]. ‫سل‬ ◦ Command of [َ َ َ] is [ْ‫ .]ُؤْ ُل‬The Hamza is deleted to obtain [ْ‫ . ]ُ ُل‬Subsequently, the ‫أكل‬ ‫اك‬ ‫اك‬ Hamza al-Waṣl is removed to obtain [ ْ ُ ] . ‫كل‬ Principle # 2: Changing of the Hamza 1. Joining of Hamzas to an Elongated Alif [‫:]آ‬ Conjugating the verb [َ َ َ] in the first person present tense, the verb [ُ ُ َْ]. ‫أكل‬ ‫أأكل‬ Here, the two Hamzas are merged to form an Elongated Alif to get [ُ ُ ‫.]آ‬ ‫كل‬ 3 Nouns that are conjugated from verbs are termed [‫ ]اِسْم فاعل ], [اسم مفعول ], [ مصدر‬which are mentioned above, but also include nouns termed [‫ .]ظرف‬These nouns were covered in Volume 1 in some depth. 19
  20. 20. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 2. Changing of the Hamza to [ ‫عَّة‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫:]حرْف‬ The Maṣdar of [ َ َ ‫ , ]آ‬which is the Family IV verb from the stem [‫ ]أمن‬is [ ٌ ‫ .]ِ ْ َا‬Here, ‫من‬ ‫إئم ن‬ the second Hamza gets changed to the weak letter [ ‫ ]ي‬because of the preceding Kasrah. And from this, the Maṣdar becomes [ٌ ‫.]ِ ْما‬ ‫إي ن‬ Principle # 3: Merging of heavy letters or light letters [‫]ِدْغام‬ ‫إ‬ 1. Idghām refers to merging of heavy letters or of light letters4. This principle occurs primarily in Verb family VIII [ َ َ َْ ِ] and in [ ‫اْ ُضا َف‬ ‫افتعل‬ ‫لم ع‬ ‫ ,]الفعل‬verbs that contain root letter bearing a Shadda. 2. If the letters are doubled or there are two consecutive light letters [‫ز‬ / ‫, ]د / ذ‬ then there is Idghām and merging of letters into a Shadda. e.g. Verb [َ َ َ ] is converted to [َّ ‫.]ع‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫َد‬ 3. If there are two similar letters preceded by a Sukūn, the vowel on the [‫ ]ع‬letter will be transferred to the preceding [ ‫ ]ف‬letter and there will be joining of the similar letters. e.g. [َ َ َ ] stem in present tense is [ُ ُ ْ َ]. It then becomes [ُ ْ ُ َ] then finally [ُّ ‫.]َض‬ ‫ضرر‬ ‫يضرر‬ ‫يضرر‬ ‫ي ُر‬ 4. In Verb Family VIII conjugations and its noun derivatives, please note following phenomenon that can sometimes occur with the extra inserted Tā [‫ ]ت‬on the [ ‫ ]ف‬letter. If the [ ‫ ]ف‬letter is one of the heavy letters [ ‫ظ‬ / ‫,]ض / ص / ط‬ then the Tā [‫ ]ت‬is changed to the [‫ ,] ط‬which phonetically agrees with the heavy [‫ ]ف‬letter. If the [‫ ]ف‬letter is one of the light letters [‫,]د/ذ‬ then the Tā is changed into a “light” Dāl [‫ ]د‬or is merged into a single letter bearing a Shadda. 4 In Tajwīd, Idghām term classically denotes merging of letters [‫ ,]ن/م/و/ي‬or with the letters [‫ .]ر/ل‬In this Volume however, this term is describing the merging of similar non-vowel letters for enhanced phonetics as per principles of [‫ .]الصرف‬Specifically, the rules described above are based on Idghām called [‫ ]إدغام متماثلني‬and [‫ ,]إدغام متجانسني‬whose discussion is beyond our focus here. Arabic has 28 letters, eight of which are heavy, and the remaining letters being light. The heavy letters are the following: [‫.]ق/غ/ظ/ط/ض/ص /خ‬ 20
  21. 21. Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology [‫]الصرف‬ 5. Examples of Idghām Table 1: Examples of Idghām [‫]ِ ْغام‬ ‫إد‬ Form “A” ‫باب‬ Form “B” َ‫صَبَر‬ َ‫اِصْتَبَر‬ VIII َ‫اِصْطبَر‬ َ َ‫ضَرَب‬ َ‫اِضَْترَب‬ VIII َ‫اِضْطرَب‬ َ َ‫ذَكَر‬ َ‫ِاذْتَرَك‬ VIII َ‫ا َّكَر‬ ‫ِذ‬ َ‫زَجَر‬ َ‫اِزَْترَج‬ VIII َ‫اِزْدجَر‬ َ ‫فِعْ ُ ا ُج َّد‬ ‫ل مل َر‬ form “A” or “B” can be used below َ‫دَبَر‬ ‫َبر‬ ُ َّ‫َيتَد‬ V ‫َّبر‬ ُ َّ‫يَد‬ َ‫ذَكَر‬ َ‫ِاتْذ َّر‬ ‫َك‬ V َ‫اِذ َّر‬ ‫َّك‬ َ‫تَدَّر‬ ‫َت‬ ‫ُتَدِّر‬ ‫م َث‬ ‫اسم الفاعل‬ ‫ُدِّر‬ ‫م َّث‬ َ‫تَص َّق‬ ‫َد‬ ‫ُتَص ِّقَة‬ ‫م َد‬ ‫اسم الفاعل‬ ‫ُص ِّقَة‬ ‫م َّد‬ 6. Examples of Idghām from the Qur’ān No Idghām ﴾ Idghām ٰ‫﴿ يَوْمَ َيتَذ َّ ُ ٱلْإِنْسَا ُ مَا سَعَى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫َكر‬ ﴾ “The Day when man will remember that for which he strove”. (79:35) [‫َ ْ ًا‬ ‫عهد‬ “He who fears [Allah] will be reminded.” (87:10) ﴾ ِ‫]أَٱطَتلَعَ الْغَيْبَ أَمِ َّخَذَ عِنْدَ َّحْمَٰن‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ات‬ ْ ‫﴿ أَطلَعَ ٱلْغَيْبَ أَمِ َّخَذَ عِنْدَ َّحْمَٰنِ عَهْدًا‬ ‫ٱلر‬ ‫ٱت‬ َّ “Has he looked into the unseen, or has he taken from the Most Merciful a promise?” (19:78) ۚ ِ‫﴿...وَمَن تَز َّىٰ فَإَّمَا يَتَز َّىٰ لِنَفْسِه‬ ‫َك ِن َك‬ ﴾ ٰ‫﴿ سَيَذ َّ ُ مَنْ يَخْشَى‬ ‫َّكر‬ ﴾ ‫ري‬ ُ ِ‫وَإِلَى ٱ َّهِ ٱلْمَص‬ ‫لل‬ ٰ‫﴿ وَمَا ُدْرِيكَ لَعَّ ُ يَز َّى‬ ‫َله َّك‬ ‫ي‬ “But what would make you perceive, that perhaps he might be purified” (80:3) “And whoever purifies himself only purifies himself for his soul. And to Allah is the [final] destination”. (35:18) 21
  22. 22. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Principle # 4: Changing of weak letters preceded by a vowel [‫]َعْ ِيل‬ ‫تل‬ a) If a Fatḥah is followed by a [ ‫ ,]و], [ي‬or [‫ ,]و‬the letter becomes an Alif [ ‫.]ا‬ ▪ e.g., [َ ‫ ] َو‬becomes [َ ‫.]خا‬ ‫خ ِف‬ ‫ف‬ ▪ [ َ َ َ ] becomes [ ‫( ] َ َى‬the [‫ ]ى‬is actually an Alif, and specifically called ‫جر ي‬ ‫جر‬ [ ‫. ]َل ُ اْ َ ْ ُو َة‬ ‫أِف لمقص ر‬ b) The form [ ‫ ]ُ ِل‬or [ ‫ ]ُِل‬is converted to [‫. ]ِيل‬ ‫فو‬ ‫في‬ ‫ف‬ ◦ e.g. [َ ِ ُ] becomes [ َ ْ ِ] . ‫قول‬ ‫قيل‬ c) The form [ َ ِ َ] becomes [ َ ِ َ] . ‫فعو‬ ‫فعي‬ ◦ e.g. [َ ِ َ ] becomes [ َ ِ َ ]. ‫رض و‬ ‫رضي‬ d) The form [ ‫ ]ِ ْل‬becomes [ ‫. ]ِيل‬ ‫فو‬ ‫ف‬ ◦ e.g. [‫ ] ِ ْزان‬becomes [ ‫.] ِيزان‬ ‫مو‬ ‫م‬ e) The form [ ُ ِ ْ ُ] becomes [ ُ ِ ‫.]ُو‬ ‫ييعل‬ ‫ي ْعل‬ ◦ e.g. The verb [ َ َ ْ ‫ ]أ‬becomes [ُ ِْ ُ] and not [ُ ِ ْ ُ]. ‫يقن‬ ‫يوقن‬ ‫ييقن‬ Principle # 5: Impossibility of Pronouncing Any Vowel on an Alif [‫] َّع ُّر‬ ‫الت َذ‬ This applies to both verbs and nouns. When this occurs, the vowel is simply omitted and the result is an [ ‫ , ]َل ُ اْ َ ْ ُو َة‬which is really an Alif. ‫أِف لمقص ر‬ ‫ي‬ ُ َ‫تَرْض‬ a) becomes ‫تَرْضَى‬ ‫م ى‬ ُ َ‫ ُوس‬becomes ‫ُوسَى‬ ‫م‬ b) Principle # 6: Difficulty of Pronouncing Certain Vowels on Alif/Yā [‫] ِّقْل‬ ‫الث‬ This principle applies to both Nouns and Verbs, and does not affect I'rāb. [ ‫ ]ي‬preceded by Kasrah cannot take Ḍammah or Kasrah. a) b) [ ‫ ]و‬preceded by Ḍammah cannot take a Ḍammah. c) Cannot have two consecutive silent letters (i.e. two continuous Sukūns). i. ii. iii. iv. [ ُ ِ ‫ ]َد ُ ُ اْقا‬is incorrect because rule (a) and (b) are violated. ‫ي ْعو ل ضي‬ [ ْ ِ ‫اْقا‬ ‫ل ضي‬ ْ‫ = ] يَد ُو‬correct. ‫ْع‬ [ ٌ ِْ ُ ُ ُ ْ َ ] = incorrect; [ ٍ ْ ُ ْ ُ ْ َ] = correct ‫ينمو مفتي‬ ‫ينمو مفت‬ [ ٌ ِْ ُ ] is changed into two Kasrahs because of [ ‫. ] ِّقل‬ ‫مفتي‬ ‫الث‬ ◦ Other words that can be changed into a similar pattern are those below. [ ٌ ِ ‫ ]قا‬or [ ٍ ِ ‫ ]قا‬becomes [ٍ ‫]قا‬ ‫ضي‬ ‫ضي‬ ‫ض‬ [ ٌ ِ‫ ]مثا‬or [ ٍ ‫ ]متا‬becomes ‫ني‬ ‫ين‬ 22 ٍ‫ثَمان‬
  23. 23. ‫]الصرف[ ‪Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology‬‬ ‫‪ْ ِّ ]- Variation of Endings on Alif and Yā‬ل [ ‪Table 2: Examples of‬‬ ‫الثق‬ ‫‪ ] Alif‬ا [‬ ‫‪] Yā‬ي [‬ ‫إعراب‬ ‫جَلَسَ الْفَتَى‬ ‫جَلَسَ الْقاضِي‬ ‫رَفْع‬ ‫رأَيْ ُ الْفَتَى‬ ‫َت‬ ‫رأَيْ ُ الْقاضِي‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َت‬ ‫نَصْب‬ ‫أَشَرْ ُ بِالْعَصا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أَشَرْ ُ إِىل الْقاضِي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ر‬ ‫جَ ّ‬ ‫جَلَسَ فَتًا‬ ‫جَلَسَ قاض‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫رَفْع‬ ‫رأَيْ ُ فَتًا‬ ‫َت‬ ‫رأَيْت قاضِيا‬ ‫َ ُ ً‬ ‫نَصْب‬ ‫أَشَرْ ُ إِىل فَتًا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أَشَرْ ُ إِىل قاض‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ر‬ ‫جَ ّ‬ ‫‪Principle # 7: Adding or Deleting the Tā letter‬‬ ‫‪] in the conjugation of‬ت[ ‪Another principle of Ṣarf that is frequently found is the addition or deletion of Tā‬‬ ‫.‪certain verbs and their derivatives‬‬ ‫‪The‬‬ ‫.‪] conjugations of Family V and VI verbs‬فعل‬ ‫مضارع [ ‪1. Deletion of the Tā is allowed in certain‬‬ ‫.‪conjugations where the deletion of Tā is allowed are highlighted in the following table‬‬ ‫‪Table 3: Deletion of the Tā Letter‬‬ ‫]َف َّ َ [ ‪Family V‬‬ ‫ت َعل‬ ‫]َ َا َ َ[ ‪Family VI‬‬ ‫تف عل‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمْع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمْع‬ ‫غائِب ُذَ ّر‬ ‫مك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫يَتَفاعَ ُ‬ ‫يَتَفاعَالنِ‬ ‫يَتَفاعَُونَ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫يَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫يَتَف َّالنِ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫يَتَف َُّونَ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫غائب ُؤّث‬ ‫من‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَ ُ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَالنِ‬ ‫يَتَفَاعَلْنَ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫تَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫تَتَف َّالنِ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫يَتَف َّلْنَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫ُخاطب مذ ّر‬ ‫ك‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُخاطب مؤّث‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَ ُ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَلِنيَ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَالنِ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَالنِ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَُونَ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَلْنَ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫تَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫تَتَف َّلِنيَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫تَتَف َّالنِ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫تَتَف َّالنِ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫تَتَف َُّونَ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫تَتَف َّلْنَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫ُتَكِّم‬ ‫م َل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أَتَفاعَ ُ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫نَتَفاعَ ُ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫نَتَفاعَ ُ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫أَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫نَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫نَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫الفعل املضارع‬ ‫32‬
  24. 24. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 2. In Family VIII verbs, if the [ ‫ ]ف‬letter is a weak letter or a Hamza, then it is replaced by a Tā. This enhances its phonation. This is specifically the case with the verbs [َ َ َّ‫ ] ا‬and [‫ ,] اَّ َى‬both of ‫ِتخذ‬ ‫ِتق‬ which are found frequently in the Qur’ān. َ‫أَخَذ‬ ‫وَقَى‬ Family VIII َ‫اِئْتَخَذ‬ [ ‫اِوْتَقَى‬ ‫ ]ت‬replaces َ [ َ ] root letter ‫ف‬ 24 َ‫اَّخَذ‬ ‫ِت‬ ‫اَّقَى‬ ‫ِت‬
  25. 25. Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs - Root Letters with Hamza/Shadda ‫فِعْ ُ ُّالثِي َالْ ُج َّدِ إِىل غَيْر سالِم : َالْفِعْ ُ الْمَهْ ُوز و الْفِعْ ُ الْ ُضَاعَف‬ ‫ل م َ ل م‬ ٍ ِ ‫م َر‬ ‫ل الث‬ I. Introduction to Irregular Verbs In the Qur’ān, Irregular Verbs and their derivatives are used very frequently. It is necessary that the student be familiar with their anomalous morphology and structure. This cannot be done unless there is a sound understanding of the conjugation of “Sound” or [ ‫ ]ساِم‬verbs, inflection changes from particles, and ‫ل‬ derivation of “action words” from the verb in question. Thus, the conjugation tables presented in Volume 1 need to be learned “cold”, backwards and forwards. The same holds true for the “10 Family Table”, which really incorporates within it, the essential principles of Ṣarf. If any of these are not thoroughly learned, Irregular Verbs can be quite difficult to learn. The rules of Nominal Sentences and Verbal Sentences and recognition of individual sentences need to be internalized. The acquisition of new Qur’ānic vocabulary is very important with advance in grammatical study. At this stage, the need to stick to Arabic terminology will be of more importance. The student should also be able to readily recognize Qur’ānic words and categorize them into nouns, verbs , and particles. This is irrespective of knowing the meaning of the word.  Furthermore, for nouns, the student should be able to determine its I‛rāb, even if its meaning is not known. Other characteristics such as plurality, gender, flexibility, or belonging to a specific word category (verbal noun, Doer noun, etc.) should also be readily identified.  If the word is a verb, the student should be able to determine its tense and conjugation. The verbal Doer [ ‫ ] فاعل‬and Direct object [ ِ ِ ‫به‬  ‫ ]مَفْ ُول‬or Indirect object should also be recognized if applicable. ‫ع‬ If the word is a particle, they should be able to determine which I‛rāb it causes and whether it acts on a noun or verb. If there is still a great deal of unfamiliarity in the above, then Volume 1 must be revisited and restudied. 25
  26. 26. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic II. Irregular verbs ]‫] ِعْ ُ ُّالِي ِىل َيْر ساِم‬ ‫ف ل الث ث إ غ ل‬ A. Classification and Division of Family I Verbs Verb Family I [‫ُّالثي‬ ‫الث‬ ◦ ‫ ]الفعْ ُ الْ ُج َّد‬is the root verb for the vast majority of Arabic nouns. ‫ل م َر‬ You can divide Type I Verbs into two types: Sound [ ‫]ساِم‬and Irregular [‫ساِم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ر‬ ُ ْ‫.]غَي‬ ◦ Please refer to the Verb Categorization Algorithm below for a complete scheme on verb classification. 1. Regular or Sound verbs do not have any of the following letters in its three-letter root: ّ / ‫أ / و/ ي/ ا‬ 2. Irregular Verb I types have one or more of these above letters in the 3-letter root including doubled letters (with a Shadda). These verbs follow the same rules of conjugation, and noun derivation as Sound verbs that were previously mentioned. 3. Irregular verbs can be broken into 3 categories: a. Verbs containing a Hamza ( ‫اْ َ ْ ُوز [ -) أ‬ ‫لمهم‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫.]اَلْفِع‬ b. Verbs containing a Doubled letter with a Shadda [ ‫ا ُضا َف‬ ‫مل ع‬ c. Verbs containing a weak letter [ ‫عَّة‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫.]اَلْفِع‬ ‫ْف‬ ُ ‫ ]حَر‬like (‫.) و / ١ / ي‬ as one of its root letters is called [ ّ َْ ُ ‫ا‬ ‫ملعتل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫.]اَلْفِع‬ A verb, which contain a weak letter This verb type [ ّ َْ ُ ‫ا‬ ‫ملعتل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫ ]اَلْفِع‬is further broken into five different types depending on where the weak letter is located. (i) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ف‬letter, then it is called [‫.] ِثال‬ ‫م‬ (ii) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ع‬letter, then it is called [‫. ]َج َف‬ ‫أ ْو‬ (iii) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ل‬letter, then it is called [‫. ]َج َف‬ ‫أ ْو‬ (iv) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ف‬letter and on the [‫ ,]ل‬then it is called [ ‫ا ْ َ ْ ُوق‬ ‫لمفر‬ (v) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ع‬letter and on the [‫ , ]ل‬then it is called [‫ا ْ َ ْ ُن‬ ‫لمقر‬ 26 ‫ف‬ ُ ‫.]لَفِي‬ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫.]لَفِي‬
  27. 27. Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ B. Algorithm for Classification of Regular and Irregular Verbs ‫فِعْل‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ ُّالثي‬ ‫ل الث‬ ‫ُّالثي ا ُج َّد‬ ‫مل َر‬ ‫الث‬ ‫الفعل ُّباعي‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ُّباعي ا ُج َّد‬ ‫مل َر‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ُّالثي املزِيد‬ ‫الث‬ ‫غَيْ ُ سالِم‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ال ّالِم‬ ‫س‬ ‫املَهْ ُوز‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُضاعَف‬ ‫م‬ ‫املِثال‬ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫ال ّالِم‬ ‫س‬ ‫مل ل‬ ّ َ‫ا ُعْت‬ ‫ُّباعي املزِيد‬ ‫الر‬ ‫غَيْ ُ سالِم‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ُضا َف‬ ‫م ع‬ ‫مل ل‬ ّ َ‫ا ُعْت‬ ‫املِثال‬ ‫لَفِي ُ املَفْروق‬ ‫ف‬ ‫املَهْ ُوز‬ ‫م‬ ‫الناقِص‬ ‫الْأجْ َف‬ ‫و‬ ‫الْأجْوَف‬ ‫لَفِي ُ الْمَق ُون‬ ‫ف ْر‬ ‫لَفِي ُ املَفْروق‬ ‫ف‬ ‫لَفِي ُ املَق ُون‬ ‫ف ْر‬ III. Verbs with a Hamza Letter ]‫[َلْ ِعْ ُ الْ َهْ ُوز‬ ‫اف ل م م‬ (1) The [ ‫اْ َ ْ ُوز‬ ‫لمهم‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫ ]الفِع‬verbs are almost like [‫ ]ساِم‬verbs, with very few exceptions. ‫ل‬ (2) In the command tense for these verbs, the beginning Hamza can be cut off, or it can be conjugated like a typical Family I verb. Please note that the abbreviated, truncated form is preferred. This, however does not happen for the Lām of [ ‫.]اْ َ ْ ُوز‬ ‫لمهم‬ i. َ‫أَكَل‬ [ ii. َ‫أَمَر‬ [ ْ‫ ] ُل‬or [ْ‫]ُؤْ ُل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫اك‬ ْ‫ ] ُر‬or [ْ‫]ُؤْ ُر‬ ‫م‬ ‫ام‬ 27
  28. 28. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic (3) In the present tense conjugation for first person, the two Hamzas join to become an elongated Alif (‫ .)آ‬See the example below.  Verb [ َ َ َ] conjugated to [ ُ ُ َْ] instead becomes [ُ ُ ‫.]آ‬ ‫أخذ‬ ‫أأخذ‬ ‫خذ‬ Table 4: Verb Conjugation Summary for [‫]َلْ ِع ُ الْ َهْ ُوز‬ ‫ا ف ْل م م‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫ماضي جمهول‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫الّنصب‬ ‫األمر‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫ذ‬ ُ َ‫ُيؤْخ‬ َ‫ُأخِذ‬ ْ‫لَمْ َأْ ُذ‬ ‫يخ‬ َ‫لَنْ َأْ ُذ‬ ‫يخ‬ ْ‫ُؤْ ُدْ/ ُذ‬ ‫اخ خ‬ ‫ي خذ‬ ُ ُ ْ‫َأ‬ َ‫أَخَذ‬ ]‫[ ف‬ ‫ُز‬ ُ ْ‫الـمَهْمو‬ ‫ل‬ ُ َ‫ُيسْأ‬ َ‫ُئِل‬ ‫س‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَسْأَل‬ َ‫لَنْ يَسْأَل‬ ْ‫اِسْأَلْ/سَل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ َ‫يَسْأ‬ َ‫سَأَل‬ ]‫[ع‬ ‫ُز‬ ُ ْ‫الـمَهْمو‬ ‫ي َأ‬ ُ‫ُقْر‬ َ‫ُرِئ‬ ‫ق‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَقْرَأ‬ َ‫لَنْ يَقْرأ‬ َ ْ‫اِقْرَأ‬ ‫يَقْرَُأ‬ َ‫قَرَأ‬ ]‫[ل‬ ‫ُز‬ ُ ْ‫الـمَهْمو‬ ‫جمهول‬ (4) Qur’ānic Examples of [ ‫ا ْ َ ْ ُوز‬ ‫لمهم‬ i. ﴾... ‫فعل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫]الفِع‬ ٍ‫﴿ سَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَمْ آتَيْنَا ُم ّنْ آيَةٍ بَّنَة‬ ِ‫ي‬ ِ‫ﻫ م‬ “ Ask the Children of Israel how many clear signs We have sent them...”.( 2:211) [ ‫] فعل ما ٍ] [ فعل أمر‬ ‫ض‬ ii. ﴾... ْ‫﴿.. ُُواْ مِن طَّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَا ُم‬ ‫ك‬ ِ‫ي‬ ‫كل‬ “…Eat of the good things that We have provided for you..” (2:172) [ ‫] فعل أمر‬ IV. Verbs with a Doubled Letter/Shadda [‫]ال ِعْ ُ الْ ُ َا َف‬ ‫ف ل مض ع‬ (1) The [ ‫ ]ال ِ ْ ُ اْ ُ َا َف‬follow the same conjugation pattern ‫فعل لمض ع‬ as Sound verbs with the exception that in some occasions, the Shadda letter is preserved, and in other cases the Shadda letter breaks. (2) For the Command Tense [‫اَْ ْر‬ ‫لأم‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫ ,]الفِع‬the Shadda can be either broken or retained. It also has a multiple number of forms for single person command tense. The Forbidding Command will have a similar number of forms as well. These are due to complex rules of Ṣarf that cannot be elaborated here. An example of Command Tense conjugation is in the following:  [ َّ ‫ ]م‬becomes [ ُّ ‫ ] م‬or [ ْ ُ ْ ُ] . ‫َد‬ ‫ُد‬ ‫امدد‬ 28
  29. 29. Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ (3) For Verb conjugations where something is added to the end with a Sukūn on the last root letter, the Shadda typically breaks. For example, let us examine the conjugation of the verb [َّ ‫]م‬ ‫َد‬ below. For the [‫ ]أنتم‬and [ َ ‫ ]أن‬conjugations, the Shadda breaks, and two letters are used instead of a ‫ت‬ single Shadda letter. This happens whenever an unvowelled letter follows the Shadda letter. ‫أنتم‬ ْ‫م َُّم‬ ‫َدت‬ َ‫أنت‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ْ‫مَدَد‬ َ‫م َّت‬ ‫َد‬ ‫ُم‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫م ُّوا‬ ‫َد‬ ‫ُما‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫َد‬ َّ ‫م‬ ْ‫مَدَدُْم‬ ‫ت‬ ‫م َّا‬ ‫َد‬ Table 5: Detailed Verb Conjugation for [‫] ال ِعل ا ُضا َفال‬ ‫ف مل ع‬ ‫الفعل املاضي‬ ‫الفعل املضارع‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ [ َّ ‫]ظ‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ظُّوا‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ظَّا‬ ‫َن‬ ‫َن‬ َّ ‫ظ‬ َ‫يَظُّون‬ ‫ُن‬ ِ‫يَظَّان‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫يَظ‬ ‫غائِب ُذَ ّر‬ ‫مك‬ ‫َن‬ َّ ‫ظَن‬ ‫ظَّا‬ ‫َن‬ ْ‫ظَّت‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ُن‬ َّ ‫يَظْن‬ ِ‫تَظَّان‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫تَظ‬ ‫غائب ُؤّث‬ ‫من‬ ْ‫ظَنَنُْتم‬ ‫ظَنَنُْما‬ ‫ت‬ َ‫ظَنَنْت‬ َ‫تَظُّون‬ ‫ُن‬ ِ‫تَظَّان‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫تَظ‬ ‫ُخاطب مذ ّر‬ ‫ك‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُن‬ َّ ‫ظَنَنْت‬ ‫ظَنَنُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ِ‫ظَنَنْت‬ ‫ُن‬ َّ ‫تَظْن‬ ِ‫تَظَّان‬ ‫ُن‬ َ‫تَظِّني‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُخاطب مؤّث‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫ظَنَّا‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ظَنَّا‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ْ‫ظَنَن‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫نَظ‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫نَظ‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫أَظ‬ ‫ُتَكِّم‬ ‫م َل‬ ‫ظُّوا‬ ‫ُن‬ *َّ ‫ُ ْن‬ ‫اظُن‬ 5 ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ظَّا‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ظَّا‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن ُن ُن‬ ُّ ‫ظ َّ/ظ ِّ/ظ‬ ‫ُظُْين‬ ‫ان‬ Command5 * female conjugation For [‫ ]الفعل مضاعف‬in the Command Tense, there are three different possibilities for the tense of male single person. Specifically for the verb stem [َّ ‫ ,]يَ ف ُّ/ف‬these are ] ُّ ‫ . [ف ِّ/ف َّ/ف‬There are two possible conjugations in this tense for stems [َّ ‫ ]يَ ف ُّ/ف‬and [َّ ‫.]يَ ف ُّ/ف‬ ‫ُل َل‬ ‫ُل ُل ُل‬ ‫َل َل‬ ‫ِل َل‬ 29
  30. 30. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫‪Vowel in‬‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫‪Ḍammah‬‬ ‫‪Kasrah‬‬ ‫‪Fatḥah‬‬ ‫‪*multiple possible‬‬ ‫‪forms‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]اَلْفِعْ ُ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ الْ ُضارع‬ ‫ل م‬ ‫َج‬ ‫ح َّ‬ ‫ُج‬ ‫يَح ُّ‬ ‫َر‬ ‫ف َّ‬ ‫ِر‬ ‫يَف ُّ‬ ‫َس‬ ‫م َّ‬ ‫َس‬ ‫يَم ُّ‬ ‫ا ْ ُ َا َف[ ‪Table 6: Various Conjugations of‬‬ ‫لمض ع‬ ‫الّنصب‬ ‫ُج‬ ‫لَنْ يَح َّ‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ الْأَمْر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫ماضي جمهول‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫جمهول‬ ‫لَمْ يَحْ ُجْ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ُج‬ ‫ح َّ‬ ‫َج‬ ‫ُيح ُّ‬ ‫لَمْ يَفْرِرْ‬ ‫ُر‬ ‫ف َّ‬ ‫َر‬ ‫ُيف ُّ‬ ‫لَمْ يَمْسَسْ‬ ‫ُس‬ ‫م َّ‬ ‫ي َس‬ ‫ُم ُّ‬ ‫ُحْ ُجْ‬ ‫ا ج‬ ‫ُج ُج ُج‬ ‫ح ُّ/ح ِّ/ح َّ‬ ‫اِفْرِرْ‬ ‫ِر‬ ‫لَنْ يَف َّ‬ ‫ِر ِر‬ ‫*ف َّ/ف ِّ‬ ‫اِمْسَسْ‬ ‫َس‬ ‫َلنْ يَم َّ‬ ‫َس َس‬ ‫*م َّ/م ِّ‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫اِسْ ُ الْفاعِل‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ الْمَفْ ُول‬ ‫م ع‬ ‫مَصْدَر‬ ‫َد‬ ‫م َّ‬ ‫ماد‬ ‫ٌّ‬ ‫د‬ ‫مَمْدو ٌ‬ ‫َد‬ ‫م ٌّ‬ ‫]اَلْفِعل‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫ا ُضا َف[ ‪(4) Qur’ānic Examples of‬‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫قَالَتْ أَّى يَ ُو ُ لِي ُالَ ٌ وَلَمْ َيمْسَسْنِي بَشَ ٌ وَلَمْ أَ ُ بَغًّا‬ ‫ك ِي‬ ‫ر‬ ‫َن ك ن غ م‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪i‬‬ ‫] فعل ما ٍ [ )02:91( .”‪“She said: "How shall I have a son, seeing that no man has touched me‬‬ ‫ض‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫...وظَنَنُمْ ظ َّ َّوْءِ وَ ُنُمْ قَوْمًا ُورًا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫َ ت َن ٱلس ك ت‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪ii‬‬ ‫] فعل ما ٍ [ .)21:84( .”‪“ ...you harbored an evil thought, and you are an immensely evil people‬‬ ‫ض‬ ‫﴿ وَجَعَلْ ُ لَ ُ مَالًا َّمْ ُودًا‬ ‫ت ه مد‬ ‫]اِسم‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪iii‬‬ ‫مفعول [ )21:47( .”‪“and to whom I granted extensive wealth‬‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫ك َّ سَنَكُْ ُ مَا يَ ُو ُ وَنَم ُّ لَ ُ مِنَ ٱلْعَذَابِ م ًّا‬ ‫َد‬ ‫َال تب ق ل ُد ه‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫)97:91( .” ‪“No! We will record what he says and extend for him from the punishment extensively‬‬ ‫]مصدر][ فعل مضارع [‬ ‫03‬ ‫.‪iv‬‬
  31. 31. Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs - Verbs with Vowel Letters ‫ل م ل‬ ّ َ‫فِعْ ُ ُّالثِي اَلْ ُج َّدِ إىل غَيْر سالِم : اَلْفِعْ ُ الْ ُعْت‬ ٍ ِ ‫م َر‬ ‫ل الث‬ I. Introduction to Irregular Verbs with Weak Letters [ّ َْ‫]َل ِعْ ُ الْ ُع‬ ‫ا ف ل م تل‬ ‫مل ل‬ ّ َ‫ا ُعْت‬ ‫الْأجْ َف‬ ‫و‬ ‫املِثال‬ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ A. Irregular Verbs: ‫ال ِعْل الْ ِثال‬ ‫ف م‬ (1) In the present tense, the Wāw is replaced by a Yā. As a result, the present tense verb conjugation is composed of at least three letters instead of four letters with a Sound verb. (2) In the command tense, the Wāw is omitted and appears like verbs with a beginning Hamza. This is similar to other verbs that we have studied. Table 7: Various Conjugations of the Derivatives of [‫املثال‬ ‫ماضي جمهول مضارع جمهول‬ ‫]الفعل‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫النصب‬ ّ ‫الفعل األمر‬ ‫الضارع‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫الفعل املِثال‬ ‫ي ن‬ ُ َ‫ُوْز‬ َ‫ُزِن‬ ‫و‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَزِن‬ َ‫لَنْ يَزِن‬ ْ‫زِن‬ ‫ن‬ ُ ِ‫يَز‬ َ‫وَزَن‬ Kasrah in ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫ُيوْض‬ َ‫ُضِع‬ ‫و‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَضَع‬ َ‫لَنْ يَضَع‬ ْ‫ضَع‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫يَض‬ َ‫وَضَع‬ Fatḥah in ‫ي ث‬ ُ َ‫ُور‬ َ‫ُرِث‬ ‫و‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَرِث‬ َ‫لَنْ يَرِث‬ ْ‫رِث‬ ‫ث‬ ُ ِ‫يَر‬ َ‫وَرِث‬ Kasrah in 31 (rare) ‫مضارع‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫ماضي‬ and ‫مضارع‬
  32. 32. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Table 8: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense of [‫املثال‬ ‫املاضى‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ا ُضارِع‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫]الفعل‬ [َ َ َ ] ‫وضع‬ ‫وَضَ ُوا‬ ‫ع‬ َ‫وَضَعْن‬ ‫وَضَعا‬ ‫وَضَعَتا‬ َ‫وَضَع‬ ْ‫وَضَعَت‬ َ‫يَضَ ُون‬ ‫ع‬ َ‫يَضَعْن‬ ِ‫يَضَعان‬ ِ‫تَضَعان‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫يَض‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫تَض‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ْ‫وَضَعُْتم‬ ‫وَضَعُْما‬ ‫ت‬ َ‫وَضَعْت‬ َ‫تَضَ ُون‬ ‫ع‬ ِ‫تَضَعان‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫تَض‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ُن‬ َّ ‫وَضَعْت‬ ‫وَضَعُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ِ‫وَضَعْت‬ َ‫تَضَعْن‬ ِ‫تَضَعان‬ َ‫تَضَعِني‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫وَضَعْنا‬ ‫وَضَعْنا‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ْ‫وَضَع‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫نَض‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫نَض‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫أَض‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫ضَ ُوا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ضَعا‬ ْ‫ضَع‬ ‫الفِعْل األَمْر‬ (3) Qur’ānic Examples of [ ‫ا ِثال‬ ‫مل‬ i. ﴾.... ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫]اَلْفِعل‬ ِ‫﴿ َّيْطَا ُ يَعِ ُ ُ ُ ٱ لْفَقْرَ وَيَأْ ُ ُ ُم بِٱلْفَحْشَاء‬ ‫م رك‬ ‫ٱلش ن دكم‬ “The Evil one threatens you with poverty and orders you to immorality..”. (2:268). [ ‫] فعل مضارع‬ ii. ﴾ ‫﴿ ... وَمَن ُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱلّهِ يَجِد فِي ٱ لْأَرْضِ ُرَاغَمًا كَثِريًا‬ ‫م‬ ْ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ “...He who forsakes his home in the cause of Allah, finds in the earth, a refuge, wide and spacious ”. (4:100). [ ‫] فعل مضارع جمزوم‬ B. Irregular Verbs [‫]ال ِعْل الَْجْ َف‬ ‫ف أ و‬ (1) In [ ‫ ]ََْ ْ َف‬verbs, there is an Alif on the [‫ ]ع‬letter. ‫الأجو‬ (2) The letter Alif on the [ ‫ ]ع‬letter often represents a [‫ ]ي‬or [‫ ]و‬even though it appears to be an Alif. This Alif is known as [ ‫.]َل ُ اْ َ ْ ُو َة‬ ‫أِف لممد د‬ َ‫ : قَال‬its Maṣdar is [ٌ ْ‫ ,]قَو‬its present tense is [ُ ‫.]يَ ُو‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قل‬ َ‫ : جاش‬its Maṣdar is [‫ ,]جَيْشان‬its present tense is [ُ ‫.]يَجِي‬ ‫ش‬ َ‫ : نام‬its Maṣdar is [ٌ ْ‫ ,]نَو‬its present tense is [ُ ‫.]يَنا‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ Depending on the middle letter, whether it is a ‫ , و , ي‬or ‫ , ا‬the middle letter in the [‫]فعل مضارع‬ e.g. (3) form retains this letter. We see that the [‫ ]ع‬middle letter for [ َ ‫ ]قا‬is a [‫ ]و‬because the middle letter ‫ل‬ is expressed as a [ ‫ ]و‬in its [ ‫مضارع‬ ‫ ]فعل‬form. (4) Similarly, for the verb [َ ‫ , ] با‬its middle [‫ ]ع‬letter is a [‫.]ي‬ ‫ع‬ 32
  33. 33. Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ (5) A less common case is when the middle Alif is actually an Alif. This happens in the case of verbs like َ‫,خافَ ,نام‬ or َ‫.شاء‬ In the command tense, there is a Fatḥah, not a Ḍammah or Kasrah. An exception is its conjugation in the past tense, when there is a Kasrah before Sākin letters (letters carrying a Sukūn. For example, for [َ ‫ ]خا‬in the conjugation of [‫ ]َنا‬is conjugated as [ُ ْ ِ ], not ‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫خفت‬ as [ ُ ْ َ ] . ‫خفت‬ (6) For the Command state, the weak letter [ّ َْ ُ ‫معتل‬ ‫ ]حَرْف‬is deleted during conjugation of the single male tense form [ َ ْ ‫ ]أ‬and for [ َّ ‫ . ]أ ْ ت‬For all other conjugations of the Command Tense like [‫,]أ ُْما‬ ‫نت‬ ‫نُن‬ ‫نت‬ 6 [[ ْ ُْ ‫ ,أ‬and [ ِ ْ ‫ , ]أ‬the weak letter is retained. Even though the weak letter is deleted, the vowel is ‫نتم‬ ‫نت‬ retained which denotes the specific deleted vowel. For example, for the verb [ َ ‫ ,]قا‬the middle ‫م‬ letter [َ ] is deleted to derive [ْ ُ] . Here, the Ḍammah on the first letter [ُ ] indicates that the deleted ‫و‬ ‫قم‬ ‫ق‬ weak letter was indeed a [ َ ]. For the verb [َ‫ ,]سار‬the Command Tense form is [ْ ِ ]. Here the Kasrah ‫و‬ ‫سر‬ on the [ ِ ] indicates that the deleted weak letter is a [ ‫.]ي‬ ‫س‬ (7) For the Jazm state in present tense [‫ ,]املضارع‬the conjugation of the [‫ ]َْأ ْ َف‬form is practically ‫ال جو‬ identical. The [ّ َْ ُ ‫معتل‬ ‫]حَرْف‬ is again deleted as in the Command Tense of all single person conjugations (except single second person female) and plural female. The other conjugations retain the weak letter. For example, when a [‫ ] َ ْف َ ْم‬acts on the conjugated verb [ُ ‫ ,]َ ُو‬it becomes [ْ ُ َ] ‫حر جز‬ ‫تق م‬ ‫تقم‬ as the weak letter is omitted. Similarly, for the conjugated verb [ُ ِ َ], its Jazm state is [ْ ِ َ]. For the ‫نسري‬ ‫ن سر‬ conjugated verb [َ ‫ , ]َ ِ ُو‬however, its conjugation is [ ‫ ]َ ِ ُوا‬as the weak letter is retained since it is a ‫يسري ن‬ ‫يسري‬ plural male form. Please see Footnote #6 below regarding the deletion or retaining of the weak letter during conjugation. (8) For the Naṣb state in [ ‫ ,]املضارع‬the weak letter is retained in all conjugations except the conjugations with the Feminine Nūn.7 Similar to Sound verbs, the last vowel on single person conjugations retain a Fatḥah while plural or dual conjugations have their last Nūn deleted. 6 For the verb [َ‫ ,]قَا م‬the Command Tense conjugation for [َ‫ ]أَنْت‬is [ْ‫ ] ُو مِي‬not [ْ‫ ] ُمْي‬simply because it is not possible grammatically to ‫ق‬ ‫ق‬ have two consecutive Sukūn letters. Similarly, for the verb [َ‫ ,]سَار‬it would be [ْ‫ ,]سِ ريِي‬not [ْ‫.]سِرْي‬ 7 The exception is the [‫ ]ن‬of Femininity [‫ ,]نو ُ اإلناث‬which is [‫ ] مَبْنِي‬and cannot change its structure irrespective of I‛rāb. This occurs ‫ن‬ in the tense of [َّ ‫ ]ﻫ‬and [َّ ‫ ]أَنْت‬in verb conjugations. For example, the conjugated verb [ُ ‫ ]تَ ُو‬in Naṣb is [َ‫ ]تَ ُو م‬while [َ‫ ]تَ ُو ُون‬is [‫ .]تَ ُو ُوا‬The ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫قم‬ ‫ق‬ ‫قم‬ ‫قم‬ conjugation of [َ‫ ]تَ ُمْن‬containing the feminine Nūn remains [َ‫.]تَ ُمْن‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ق‬ 33
  34. 34. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫[الفع ُ‬ ‫ْف‬ ‫]حَر ُ‬ ‫عَّة [‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫ا َ ْ َف] ‪Table 9: Various Conjugations of Derivatives of‬‬ ‫ألجو‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫‪on middle letter‬‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫األمر‬ ‫النصب‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫ماضي جمهول مضارع جمهول‬ ‫و‬ ‫قامَ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَ ُو ُ‬ ‫ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫لَنْ يَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫لَمْ يَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫قِيمَ‬ ‫ي م‬ ‫ُقا ُ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫زَادَ‬ ‫د‬ ‫يَزِي ُ‬ ‫زِدْ‬ ‫د‬ ‫لَنْ يَزِي ُ‬ ‫لَمْ يَزِدْ‬ ‫زِيْد‬ ‫ي د‬ ‫ُزا ُ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫خَافَ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫يَخا ُ‬ ‫خَفْ‬ ‫لَنْ يَخَافَ‬ ‫لَمْ يَخَفْ‬ ‫خِيفَ‬ ‫ي ف‬ ‫ُخا ُ‬ ‫ْف‬ ‫]حَر ُ‬ ‫عَّة [‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫مَصْدَر‬ ‫اِسْ ُ الْفاعِل اِسْ ُ الْمَفعول‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫قال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قائِ ٌ‬ ‫قل‬ ‫مَ ُو ٌ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قَوْ ٌ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫زَادَ‬ ‫د‬ ‫زائِ ٌ‬ ‫د‬ ‫مَزي ٌ‬ ‫د‬ ‫زَيْ ٌ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫[الفع ُ‬ ‫ا َ ْ َف {و}] ‪Table 10: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs‬‬ ‫ألجو‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫املاضى‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَ ُو ُ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫تَ ُو ُ‬ ‫يَ ُومانِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُومانِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُو ُونَ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَ ُمْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫قامَ‬ ‫قامَتْ‬ ‫قاما‬ ‫قامَتا‬ ‫قا ُوا‬ ‫م‬ ‫قمْنَ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫قم‬ ‫تَ ُو ُ‬ ‫تَ ُومانِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُو ُونَ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫ُمْتَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُمُْما‬ ‫قت‬ ‫قمُْتمْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَ ُومِنيَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُومانِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُمْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُمْتِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُمُْما‬ ‫قت‬ ‫ُ ُن‬ ‫قمْت َّ‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫قم‬ ‫أَُو ُ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫نَ ُو ُ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫نَ ُو ُ‬ ‫قت‬ ‫ُمْ ُ‬ ‫ُمْنا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫قمْنا‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫فِعْل األَمْر‬ ‫ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫] قا َ [‬ ‫ل‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫ا ُضارِع‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫43‬
  35. 35. ‫]الفعل‬ ‫املعت ّ[ ‪Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫‪] in Jazm and Naṣb‬الفع ُ‬ ‫‪Jazm‬‬ ‫ا َ ْ َف [ ‪Table 11: Conjugations of‬‬ ‫ألجو‬ ‫‪Naṣb‬‬ ‫] قا َ [‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫يَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَ ُومِي‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُمْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُومِي‬ ‫ق‬ ‫أَُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫نَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫نَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫أَُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫يَ ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَ ُمْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَقمْنَ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫تَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَقمْنَ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫نَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫نَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫] الفع ُ ا َج َف {و}[ ‪(9) Qur’ānic Examples of‬‬ ‫ل أل ْو‬ ‫﴿...سَنَكُْ ُ مَا قَاُواْ وَقَتْلَ ُ ُ ٱألَنبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍ وَنَ ُو ُ ُو ُواْ عَذَابَ ٱلْحَرِيقِ‬ ‫ّ قلذق‬ ‫هم‬ ‫تب ل‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪i‬‬ ‫‪“...We will record what they said and their killing of the prophets without right and will say, "Taste‬‬ ‫]فعل أمر][فعل‬ ‫مضارع [ )181:3( .”‪the punishment of the Burning Fire‬‬ ‫﴿...فَإِن ُبُْمْ فَ ُوَ خَيْ ٌ َّ ُمْ ۚ وَإِن تَوَّيُْمْ فَٱعْلَ ُوا أَّ ُمْ غَيْ ُ ُعْجِ ِي َّهِ‬ ‫م َنك ر م ز ٱلل‬ ‫َل ت‬ ‫ت ت ه ر لك‬ ‫...﴾‬ ‫.‪ii‬‬ ‫‪“...So if you repent, that is best for you; but if you turn away - then know that you will not cause failure‬‬ ‫]فعل‬ ‫ما ٍ [ )3:9( .”. ..‪to Allah‬‬ ‫ض‬ ‫﴿ إِّي جَزَيُْ ُ ُ ٱ لْيَوْمَ بِمَا صَبَ ُوا أَّ ُمْ ُ ُ ٱلْفَائِ ُونَ‬ ‫ر َنه ﻫم ز‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫نِ‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫‪“ Indeed, I have rewarded them this Day for their patient endurance that they are the attainers [of‬‬ ‫]اسم فاعل [ )111:32( .”]‪success‬‬ ‫53‬ ‫.‪iii‬‬

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