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Essentials of quranic arabic vol 2 by masood ranginwala

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  • 1. ‫أصول اللغة العربية القرآنية‬ ESSENTIALS OF QURANIC ARABIC Volume 2 Intermediate Level by Masood Ahmed Ranginwala edited by Dr. Abu Zayd 1
  • 2. Copyright © Masood Aḥmed Ranginwala 2013 First Edition May 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, or otherwise, without written permission of the publisher. ISBN 978-1-304-05248-3 Published by: ILF - Islāmic Learning Foundation (NY) ICNA (Islāmic Circle of North America) 166-26 89th Ave Jamaica, NY 04262 masoodar@gmail.com Additional copies of this book series including Volume 1 can be purchased at <www.lulu.com>, <amazon.com>, or <barnesandnobles.com>. An e-book version of this series is also available at <www.lulu.com>. Cover design by Ādam Ranginwala and Omar Ranginwala. Any mistakes or shortcomings in this book are due to errors of the author, and all that is correct and true solely are due to Allah . Please feel free to contact the author at the email listed above to notify him of any errors present. 2
  • 3. ‫بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم‬ ‫الحمد لله ر ّ العالمين و ال ّالة و ال ّالم على نبينا مح ّد‬ ‫م‬ ‫س‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ب‬ ‫و على آله و صحبه أجمعين و من است ّ ِسّته إلى يوم الدين‬ ‫نب ن‬ ‫ق ل ك ن ب ر ِد د لكلم ت َب لن ِد ب ر ق ل أ ت َد‬ ‫﴿ ُلْ َوْ َا َ الَْحْ ُ م َا ًا ِ َِ َا ِ رِّي ََف َ الَْحْ ُ َبْ َ َنْ َنْف َ‬ ‫َِ َا ُ رِّي ََوْ ِئَْا ِ ِثِْ ِ م َ ًا‬ ‫كلم ت َب ول ج ن بم له َدد‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫,‪“Say: If the sea were ink for the words of my Lord‬‬ ‫,‪the sea would surely be consumed before the words of my Lord are exhausted‬‬ ‫.)901 :‪though We were to bring the like of that (sea) to add.” (Sūrah Kahf‬‬ ‫3‬
  • 4. 4
  • 5. Acknowledgments All Praise is to Allah for this work could never have been accomplished without His Help and Guidance. Furthermore, this book on Qur’ānic Arabic was made possible through my many teachers who have guided me and imparted me knowledge in this sacred language. I am even more indebted to my parents who have raised me on the Deen and its foundation, and who continue to advise and guide me. I am also grateful to my wife and children who have been very patient with this effort, and whose precious time I have sacrificed. I am very grateful to Dr. Abu Zayd, founder of the Qur’ān Literacy Institute who edited this textbook and improved on its format and readability. A special note of thanks also goes to one of my early teachers, Ustādh Nouman Alī Khan, founder of the Bayyinah Arabic Institute. He was my initial inspiration to teach what I learned of Qur’ānic Arabic and make it accessible to those who wish to learn from its treasures. I thank my teachers at the Qibla Institute (formerly the Sunnipath Institute) namely Sheikh Hamza Karamali and Sheikh Farīd Dingle. I also thank Sheikh Shakiel Humayun from the Foundation of Knowledge and Development. The individuals involved with websites “The Qur’ānic Arabic Corpus”, “Zekr”, and “OpenBurhan” also deserve thanks as their resources were used extensively for this work. May Allah reward all these special people and others not mentioned here who contributed to this book. The journey of learning this sacred language has been an arduous one for me and has come with its challenges. It is my hope that this book series can facilitate this journey for other students, enabling them to understand the lofty and majestic words of the Qur’ān. 5
  • 6. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic TABLE OF CONTENTS TRANSLITERATION KEY __________________________________________________________________________ 14 FOREWORD __________________________________________________________________________________ 15 PREFACE ____________________________________________________________________________________ 17 LESSON 1: IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES OF MORPHOLOGY [ ‫91 ____________________________________ ] َّ رْف‬ ‫الص‬ I. INTRODUCTION TO ṢARF [‫91 ___________________________________________________________________ ] َّرْف‬ ‫الص‬ II. IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES FROM ṢARF _______________________________________________________________ 19 Principle # 1: Deletion of a Letter [ ‫91 _________________________________________________________ ]تَخْفِي ف‬ Principle # 2: Changing of the Hamza ___________________________________________________________ 19 Principle # 3: Merging of heavy letters o r light letters [‫02 ___________________________________________ ]إِدْغام‬ Table 1: Examples of Idghām [‫12 _____________________________________________________________________ ]ِدْغام‬ ‫إ‬ Principle # 4: Changing of weak letters preceded by a vo wel [ ‫22 _____________________________________ ]تَعْلِيل‬ Principle # 5: Impossibility of Pronouncing Any Vowel on an Alif [‫22 __________________________________ ] َّع ُّر‬ ‫الت َذ‬ Principle # 6: Difficulty of Pronouncing Certain Vo wels on Alif/Yā [ ‫22 _________________________________ ] ِّقْل‬ ‫الث‬ Table 2: Examples of [‫ -] ِّقْل‬Variation of Endings on Alif and Yā ____________________________________________ 23 ‫الث‬ Principle # 7: Adding or Deleting the Tā letter ____________________________________________________ 23 Table 3: Deletion of the Tā Letter ______________________________________________________________________ 23 LESSON 2: IRREGULA R VERBS - ROOT LETTERS WITH HAMZA/S HADDA : ‫52 _________ َلْ ِعْ ُ الْ َهْ ُوز َ الْ ُ َا َف‬ ‫ا ف ل م م و مض ع‬ I. INTRODUCTION TO IRREGULAR VERBS _______________________________________________________________ 25 II. IRREGULAR VERBS ] ‫62 _______________________________________________________________]فِعْ ُ ُّالثِي إِىل غَيْر ساِم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل الث‬ I. IRREGULAR VERBS [ ‫62 ___________________________________________________________________]اَلفِع ل غَيْر سال ِم‬ ْ A. Classification and Division of Family I Verbs ____________________________________________________ 26 B. Algorithm for Classification of Regular and Irregular Verbs ________________________________________ 27 III. V ERBS WITH A HAMZA LETTER ]‫72 __________________________________________________________ [اَلْفِعْ ُ اْلمَ ه ُوز‬ ‫ل ْم‬ Table 4: Verb Conjugation Summary for [‫82 ______________________________________________________ ]َ لْ ِعْ ُ ا لْ َهْ ُوز‬ ‫اف ل م م‬ IV. VERBS WITH A D OUBLED LETTER/SHADDA [‫82 _________________________________________________ ]الفِعْ ُ اْل ُضَاعَف‬ ‫ل م‬ Table 5: Detailed Verb Conjugation for [‫92 ______________________________________________________ ] ال ِعل اُضا َفال‬ ‫ف مل ع‬ Table 6: Various Conjugations of [‫03 ___________________________________________________________ ]َ لْ ِعْ ُ ا لْ ُ َا َف‬ ‫ا ف ل مض ع‬ LESSON 3: IRREGULAR VERBS - VERBS WITH VOWEL LETT ERS: ّ َْ‫13 __________________________َلْ ِعْ ُ الْ ُع‬ ‫ا ف ل م تل‬ I. INTRODUCTION TO IRREGULAR VERBS WITH WEAK LETTERS [ّ َ‫13 ________________________________________ ]اَلفِعْ ُ اْل ُعْت‬ ‫ل م ل‬ A. Irregular Verbs: [ ‫13 ___________________________________________________________________ ]الفِعْل اْلمِثال‬ Table 7: Various Conjugations of the Derivatives of [‫13 ______________________________________________ ]الفعل املثال‬ Table 8: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense of [‫23 _________________________________________________ ] الفعل املثال‬ B. Irregular Verbs [ ‫23 __________________________________________________________________ ]الفِعْل الْأَجْ وَف‬ Table 9: Various Conjugations of Derivatives of ]‫43 _________________________________________________ [ الفع ُ ا َجْ َف‬ ‫ل أل و‬ Table 10: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs ]}‫43 ______________________________________ [الفع ُ ا َجْ َف {و‬ ‫ل أل و‬ Table 11: Conjugations of [‫ ] الفع ُ ا َجْ َف‬in Jazm and Naṣb __________________________________________________ 35 ‫ل أل و‬ Table 12: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs ]}‫63 ______________________________________ [ الفع ُ ا َجْ َف {ي‬ ‫ل أل و‬ Table 13: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs [{١} ‫ا َ ْ َف‬ ‫ألجو‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ‫_______________________________________ ]الفع‬ 37 C. Irregular Verbs [ ‫73 ___________________________________________________________________ ]الفِعْل َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ 6
  • 7. Table of Contents Table 14: Conjugation of Various Derivatives of [‫83 ___________________________________________________ ]َ لْفعل َّاِص‬ ‫ا الن ق‬ Table 15: Conjugation of [} ‫83 __________________________________________________________________ ]َلْ ِعْ ُ َّاِص {و‬ ‫ا ف ل الن ق‬ Table 16: Conjugation of [‫ ]َ لْ ِعْ ُ َّاِص‬in Jazm and Naṣb ____________________________________________________ 39 ‫ا ف ل الن ق‬ Table 17: Conjugation of [} ‫04 __________________________________________________________________]َلْ ِعْ ُ َّاِص { ي‬ ‫ا ف ل الن ق‬ Table 18: Conjugation of [} ‫14 __________________________________________________________________ ]َ لْفعل َّاِص {ا‬ ‫الن ق‬ ‫ا‬ II. VERBS WITH TWO VOWELLED LETTERS: [‫24 ___________________________________________]لفِي ُ اْلمَقْ ُون[ & ] لَفِي ُ املَفْ ُوق‬ ‫ف ر‬ ‫ف ر‬ A. Verbs with Two Separate Vowelled letters ]‫24 _____________________________________________ ]لَفِي ُ املَفْ ُوق‬ ‫ف ر‬ Table 19: Verb Conjugation of Various Derivatives of {‫34 _____________________________________ ] ََى [ :}َ ِي ُ اَفْ ُوق‬ ‫لف ف مل ر‬ ‫وق‬ Table 20: Verb Conjugation of [‫34 _______________________________________________________________ ]َ ِي ُ اَفْ ُوق‬ ‫لف ف مل ر‬ B. Verbs wi th Two Adjacent Vo welled letters: [ ‫44 _____________________________________________ ]لَفِي ُ املَقْ ُون‬ ‫ف ر‬ Table 21: Conjugation of Various Derivatives of [‫44 ________________________________________________ ]َ ِي ُ اَقْ ُون‬ ‫لف ف مل ر‬ III. V ERB CONJUGATION OF IRREGULAR VERB COMBINATION [‫54 _______________________________________ ]امل ه ُوز وَ الّاقِص‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ْم‬ Table 22: Conjugation of Other Irregular Verbs [‫54 ______________________________________________] املهْ ُوز و الّاِص‬ ‫م َ نق‬ Table 23 A: Summary of [ِ‫64 ___________________________________________________________ ]ِعْل ُّالثي َ لْ ُ ج َّ ِ ا لْ َ ِ َا‬ ‫ف الث ا م َرد غريس مل‬ Table 23B: Present Tense Verbs and Their Different Inflections ___________________________________________ 47 LESSON 4: IRREGULAR V ERBS IN FAMILIES II TO X: ٍ ِ‫94 ________________________ ِعْ ُ ُّالِي ا َ ِي َ ِي ِ إىل َِر َا‬ ‫ف ل الث ث ملز د ف ه غي س لم‬ I. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE HIGHER FAMILIES __________________________________________________________ 49 A. Introduction ____________________________________________________________________________ 49 B. Examples of Irregular Verbs in Families II to X __________________________________________________ 50 Table 24: Examples of Some Irregular Verbs of higher families __________________________________________ 50 II. FAMILY II [‫05 ______________________________________________________________________ ]با ُ "ف َّلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب َع‬ Table 25: Irregular Family II Verbs [َ َّ ‫05 ______________________________________________________________ ] با ُ ف‬ ‫ب َعل‬ III. V ERB FAMILY III: [ ‫15 ________________________________________________________________ ]با ُ "فَاعَلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 26: Irregular Family III Verbs: [َ َ ‫15 ___________________________________________________________ ] با ُ َا‬ ‫ب ف عل‬ IV. VERB FAMILY IV:]‫25 ________________________________________________________________ [با ُ "أَفْعَلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 27: Irregular Family IV Verbs [َ َ ْ‫25 ____________________________________________________________ ] با ُ َف‬ ‫ب أ عل‬ V. VERB FAMILY V: [‫35 __________________________________________________________________ ]با ُ "تَف َّلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب َع‬ Table 28: Irregular Family V Verbs [َ َّ ‫35 _____________________________________________________________ ] با ُ َف‬ ‫ب ت َعل‬ VI. VERB FAMILY VI: [‫45 _______________________________________________________________ [با ُ "تَفاعَلَ " غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 29: Irregular Family V Verbs [َ َ ‫45 _____________________________________________________________] با ُ َ َا‬ ‫ب تف عل‬ VII. VERB FAMILY VII: [ ‫55 _______________________________________________________________]با ُ "اِنْفَعَلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 30: Irregular Family VII Verbs [َ َ َ ْ‫55 ______________________________________________________________] با ُ ِ ن‬ ‫ب ا فعل‬ VIII. VERB FAMILY VIII ]‫55 _____________________________________________________________ [با ُ "اِفْتَعَلَ" غَيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ Table 31: Irregular Family VIII Verbs [َ َ َْ‫65 _____________________________________________________________ ] با ُ ِف‬ ‫ب ا تعل‬ IX. V ERB FAMILY X: [‫75 ________________________________________________________________ ]با ُ "اِسْتَفْعَلَ" غَيْ ُ سالِم‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ب‬ Table 32: Irregular Family X Verbs [َ َ ْ‫75 ___________________________________________________________ ] با ُ ِسَْف‬ ‫ب ا ت عل‬ X. Q UADRILATERAL VERBS: VERBS WITH FOUR-LETTER ROOTS [‫85 ___________________________________ ]الْفِعْ ُ ُّباعي املُج َّد‬ ‫َر‬ ‫ل الر‬ A. Introduction to Quadrilateral Verbs ] ‫85 _______________________________________________]الْفِعْ ُ ُّباعي املُج َّد‬ ‫َر‬ ‫ل الر‬ Table 33: Conjugation of [‫ ] الفعل ُّباعي اُ ج َّد‬on pattern [َ َْ‫85 _________________________________________________ ]َع‬ ‫مل َر‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ف لل‬ Table 34: Conjugation of [‫ ] الفعل الرباعي املزيد‬and its Various Derivatives _______________________________________ 58 B. Quadrilateral Verbs of Irregular Pattern [‫95 __________________________________________ ]الفعل ُّباعي غ ُ سالِم‬ ‫ري‬ ‫الر‬ C. Quadrilateral Verbs of Higher Families [ ‫95 _____________________________________________ ]الفعل ُّباعي املزيد‬ ‫الر‬ 7
  • 8. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic LESSON 5: INCOMPLETE V ERBS [ ‫16 ________________________________________________] َّواسِخ[ & ]أَفْعا ُ َّاقِصَة‬ ‫ل الن‬ ‫الن‬ I. THE INCOMPLETE VERBS [ ‫16 ________________________________________________________________ ]أَفْعا ُ َّاقِصَة‬ ‫ل الن‬ A. Introduction ____________________________________________________________________________ 61 B. Division and Classification of Incomplete Verbs [ ‫26 __________________________________________ ]أَفْعا ُ َّاقِصَة‬ ‫ل الن‬ C. Categories of the Inco mplete Verbs ___________________________________________________________ 62 II. KĀNA AND ITS SISTERS [ ‫36 _________________________________________________________________ ]كان وَ أَخَواُها‬ ‫ت‬ A. The Grammar of Kāna and its Sisters _________________________________________________________ 63 B. Past Continuous Tense [ ‫46 ______________________________________________________ ]الفعل املاضي االِ سِْتمْراري‬ C. Far Past Tense [ ‫ ]الفعل املاضي البَعِيد‬and Near Past Tense [ ‫46 ____________________________________ ]الفعل املاضي القَريب‬ D. Sisters of Kāna [َ‫56 ___________________________________________________________________ ]أَخَ وَا ُ كا ن‬ ‫ت‬ Table 35: Sisters of Kāna [َ ‫66 _____________________________________________________________________ ]َ َ َا ُ كا‬ ‫أخو ت ن‬ III. LAISA [َ‫ ]لَ يْ س‬AND OTHER NEGATIVE INCOMPLETE VERBS __________________________________________________ 67 A. Laisa [َ‫76 _______________________________________________________________________________]َليْ س‬ B. Additional Negative Incomplete Verbs _________________________________________________________ 68 Table 36: Laisa and Negative Incomplete Verbs __________________________________________________________ 68 IV. VERBS OF PROXIMITY [‫86 __________________________________________________________________]أَفْعال اْل ُقارَبَة‬ ‫م‬ Table 37: Verbs of Proximity [‫96 ____________________________________________________________ ]كاد و َفْعال ا لْ ُقا ََة‬ ‫م رب‬ ‫َأ‬ V. VERBS OF INITIATION [‫96 __________________________________________________________________ ]أفعال الشروع‬ VI. VERBS OF PRAISE AND BLAME [ ِ‫07 _________________________________________________________ ]أَفْعال اْلمدْحِ وَ َّم‬ ‫الذ‬ َ ُ Table 38: Verbs of Praise and Blame [‫17 _______________________________________________________ ]َفْعا ُ ا لْ َدْح و َّم‬ ِ ‫أ ل م ِ َ الذ‬ VII. VERBS OF WONDER [‫17 __________________________________________________________________ ]أفْعا ُ َّع ُّب‬ ‫ل الت َج‬ VIII. I NNA AND ITS SISTERS [ ‫27 ________________________________________________________________ ]إ َّ وَ أَخَواتِها‬ ‫ِن‬ Table 39: Inna and its Sisters [‫37 ________________________________________________________________ ] إ َّ و َ َواُها‬ ‫ِن َ أخ ت‬ IX. O THER VERB-LIKE ENTITIES: WARNINGS [‫37 ______________________________________________________ ]اإلنذارَات‬ Table 40: Warnings [‫47 ___________________________________________________________________________ ] اإلنذا َات‬ ‫ر‬ LESSON 6: NEGATION AND EXCEPTIONS [ ‫57 _____________________________________________ ] َّفِيَة وَ االستِثْناء‬ ‫الن‬ I. NEGATION [‫57 ______________________________________________________________________________ ]ا َّافِيَ ة‬ ‫َلن‬ Table 41: Particles of Negation_________________________________________________________________________ 76 A. The Different types of Lā [‫67 _________________________________________________________________ ]ال‬ B. The Mā of Negation [‫87 __________________________________________________________________]ماء َّفِي‬ ‫الن‬ II. E XCEPTIONS [ُ ‫97 ___________________________________________________________________________ ]اَلْإِسْ تِثْنا‬ ‫ء‬ A. Exceptions with [ ‫97 ________________________________________________________________________]إَّا‬ ‫ِل‬ B. Additional Particle(s) of Exception ___________________________________________________________ 83 LESSON 7: PARTICLES [‫ -]احلروف‬A COMPREHENSIVE REV IEW _______________________________________ 85 D IVISION AND CLASSIFICATION OF PARTICLES ___________________________________________________________ 85 I. PARTICLES THE AFFECT I‛RĀB [ٌَ‫68 _____________________________________________________________ ]حرو ٌ عامِل‬ ‫ف ة‬ A. Ḥarf Jarr [‫68 _______________________________________________________________________ ]حروف ج َّة‬ ‫َار‬ Table 42: Ḥarf Jarr [‫68 __________________________________________________________________________ ]حروف ج َّة‬ ‫َار‬ B. Ḥarf Naṣb [‫88 ______________________________________________________________________ ] ُروف نا صِبَة‬ ‫ح‬ Table 43: Ḥarf Naṣb on Verbs [‫98 ___________________________________________________________________ ] َّوا ِب‬ ‫الن ص‬ C. Ḥarf Jazm [‫09 ____________________________________________________________________]حرف جَزْم/اجلَوازِم‬ Table 44: Ḥarf Jazm___________________________________________________________________________________ 91 8
  • 9. Table of Contents II. PARTICLES THAT DO NOT AFFECT I‛RĀB [ٌَ‫29 ____________________________________________________ ]حرو ٌ غَيْ ُ عامِل‬ ‫ف ر ة‬ A. Particles of Negation ______________________________________________________________________ 93 B. Connecting Particles [‫39 ______________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف الْعَطْ ف‬ ‫حر‬ C. Qur’ānic Examples of Connecting Particles [ ‫49 ____________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف الْعَطْ ف‬ ‫حر‬ Table 45: Connecting Particles [‫49 ______________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف ا لْ َطْف‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حر‬ D. Resumption Particles [ ‫59 ___________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف الْإسْت ئْنافَّ ة‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫حر‬ E. Rebuttal Particles [‫69 ______________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف االسْتِ دْراك‬ ‫حر‬ F. Particles of Interrogation [‫79 _________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف االسْتِفْهام‬ ‫حر‬ Table 46: Interrogative Particles [‫89 ___________________________________________________________] ُرو ُ ِّاسِْفْهام‬ ‫ح ف ال ت‬ Table 47: Lām and Nūn of Emphasis on Verbs ___________________________________________________________ 99 H. Particles of Calling [ ‫001 _______________________________________________________________ ]حرو ف ِّدا ء‬ ‫الن‬ I. Conditional Particles [ ‫101 _____________________________________________________________ ]حروف َّرْط‬ ‫الش‬ Table 48: Particles of Condition [‫101 ____________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف َّرْط‬ ‫حر الش‬ J. Verbal Noun Particles [ ‫201 ___________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف مَصدَرَّ ة‬ ‫ْ ِي‬ ‫حر‬ K. Particles of the Future [ ‫201 __________________________________________________________ ]حروف اإلستِ قْبال‬ L. Particles of Warning [ ‫201 _____________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف َّ نْبي ه‬ ‫حر الت‬ M. Particles of Encouragement [‫301 _____________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف َّحْضِيض‬ ‫حر الت‬ N. Particles of Response [ ‫301 ____________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف اجلواب‬ ‫حر‬ O. Particles – Time and Place Containers [ ‫401 ___________________________________________ ]حروف َّمان و املكان‬ ‫الز‬ P. Particles of Redundancy [ ‫401 __________________________________________________________ ] ُ ُوف َّائِ دَة‬ ‫حر الز‬ Q. The Definite Article “Al” [ ‫401 ____________________________________________________________]الم َّعْري ف‬ ‫الت‬ Table 49: The Definite Article “Al” [‫501 ____________________________________________________________ ]الم َّعْريف‬ ‫الت‬ R. Miscellaneous Particles ___________________________________________________________________ 106 Table 50: Miscellaneous Particles _____________________________________________________________________ 106 S. Particles with Multiple Distinc t Grammatical Roles ______________________________________________ 106 Table 51A: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [‫701 ______________________________________ ]ما/و‬ Table 51B: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [‫801 ____________________________________ ]ف/ال/ما‬ َ Table 51C: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [ْ‫901 ________________________________ ]َوْ/حَّى/ب/ َن‬ ‫ل َت ِ م‬ Table 51D: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [‫011 ________________________________ ]ل/َلْ/ل ِن/َوْال‬ ‫ب ك ل‬ Table 51E: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [‫111 ______________________________________ ]ِنْ/ ل‬ ‫إ‬ Table 51F: Particles with Multiple Distinct Grammatical Roles [ْ‫211 ______________________________________ ] َّ/أن‬ ‫أن‬ LESSON 8: NOUNS IN THE NAṢB CAS E [ ‫311 ___________________________________________________ ]املَنْ ُوبات‬ ‫ص‬ I. REVIEW OF NOUNS OF THE RAF‛ AND JARR CASE [ ‫311 _________________________________________ ]مَجْ ُورات[ & ]مَرُْوعات‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ر‬ Table 52: Noun Categories fixed to Raf‛ and Jarr ________________________________________________________ 113 Table 53: Review of Inflections of Nouns Based on I‛rāb _________________________________________________ 114 II. NOUNS OF THE NAṢB CASE [ ‫411 _______________________________________________________________ ]املَنْصوبات‬ Table 54: Nouns of the Naṣb Case [‫511 ______________________________________________________________] اَنْصوبات‬ ‫مل‬ A. Time Containers [ ‫ ] ظَرْف ال َّمان‬and Place Containers [ ‫611 ________________________________________ ] ظَرْف اْلمَكَان‬ ‫ْز‬ Table 55: Time Containers [‫711 __________________________________________________________________ ] َرْف ا ل َّمان‬ ‫ْز‬ ‫ظ‬ Table 56: Place Containers [‫811 _________________________________________________________________ ] َرْف ا لْ َ َان‬ ‫مك‬ ‫ظ‬ B. The Reason for an Action [َُ‫911 ____________________________________________________________ ]مَفْعول ل‬ ‫ه‬ C. Noun Accompanying an Action [‫021 ______________________________________________________ ]مَفْ ُول مَعَه‬ ‫ع‬ D. Intensifier of the Action [‫121 ___________________________________________________________ ]مَفْ ُول ُطْلَق‬ ‫ع م‬ 9
  • 10. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic E. Ḥāl: The State or Condition of an Action [‫221 __________________________________________________ ]احلال‬ F. Clarifier [‫421 ___________________________________________________________________________ ]الَّ مْيِيز‬ ‫ت‬ G. The Vocative [ ‫621 _______________________________________________________________________ ]اُنادي‬ ‫مل‬ H. The Follo wers [ ‫821 _________________________________________________________________ ] َّاِب ُ لِلمَنْ ُوب‬ ‫الت ع ص‬ LESSON 9: THE FOLLOWERS [ ‫ ,]ا َّوابِع‬THE DERIVED NOUNS [ُ َّ ‫ ,]اَ ألَسْما ُ اُشْت‬AND THE VERB [َّ ‫921 ____________ ] ظ‬ ‫َلت‬ ‫ء مل َق ة‬ ‫ِن‬ I. THE FOLLOWERS [‫921 ________________________________________________________________________ ]ا َّوابِع‬ ‫َلت‬ B. Connecting Nouns [‫031 _________________________________________________________________ ]اْلمَعْطوف‬ C. Replacers [ ‫031 __________________________________________________________________________ ]الَبدَل‬ D. Nouns of Emphasis [ ‫431 ______________________________________________________________ ] َّ وْكيد لِ َّوابِع‬ ‫لت‬ ‫الت‬ II. D ERIVED NOUNS [ُ َّ ‫531 ____________________________________________________________________ ]اَألَسْما ُ اُشْت‬ ‫ء مل َقة‬ Table 57: Derived Nouns [ ُ َّ ‫531 __________________________________________________________________ ]َ َسْما ُ اُشْت‬ ‫األ ء مل َقة‬ A. The Derived Adjective [ ‫631 ____________________________________________________________ ] ِّفَة اْل ُشَّ هَة‬ ‫الص م َب‬ Table 58: The Derived Adjective [ ‫631 ___________________________________________________________ ] ِّ َة ا لْ ُشَّ َة‬ ‫الصف م َبه‬ B. The Comparative Derived Noun [‫731 _____________________________________________________ ]اِس ُ َّفْضِيل‬ ‫ْم الت‬ Table 59: Conjugation of [‫831 ____________________________________________________________________]ِسْ ُ َّفْ ِيل‬ ‫ا م الت ض‬ C. The Intensive Derived Noun [‫931 _________________________________________________________ ] صِغَ ُ اُبالَغَة‬ ‫ة مل‬ Table 60: Intensive Derived Noun [ ‫931 ____________________________________________________________ ] ِ َ ُ اُباَ َة‬ ‫صغة مل لغ‬ D. Instrument of an Action [ ‫041 _____________________________________________________________ ]اِس ُ الَْآلَ ة‬ ‫ْم‬ III. VERBS TAKING TWO D IRECT OBJECTS [‫041 _____________________________________________________ ] ظ َّ وَ أَخَواُها‬ ‫ت‬ ‫َن‬ Table 61: [‫141 _________________________________________________________________________________]ظ َّ و َ َواُها‬ ‫َن َ أخ ت‬ LESSON 10: NUMBERS [‫341 ___________________________________________________________________ ]اَلْأَ عْدا د‬ INTRODUCTION TO NUMBERS______________________________________________________________________ 143 Table 62: Arabic Numbers Table (#1-30) _______________________________________________________________ 143 I. NUMBERS 1-10 [ ١ - ١١ ] ________________________________________________________________________ A. Dual Numbers __________________________________________________________________________ B. Rules for Numbers 3 to 10 _________________________________________________________________ II. NUMBERS 11-20 [ ١١ - ٠١ ] _____________________________________________________________________ A. Rules for numbering 11-12_________________________________________________________________ B. Rules for Numbering 13-19 ________________________________________________________________ III. NUMBERING 21-99 [ ٠١ - ٩٩] ___________________________________________________________________ IV. NUMBERING 100 AND GREATER [≥ ١١١] ___________________________________________________________ A. Convention(s) for Writing Complex Numbers 100 and greater [≥ ١١١] _______________________________ B. Rules for Numbering 100 and greater [≥ ١١١] __________________________________________________ V. NUMBERING 1000 AND GREATER [≥ ١١١١] __________________________________________________________ Rules for Numbering 1000 and greater [ ≥ ١١١١] __________________________________________________ 144 144 144 145 145 146 148 150 150 151 152 153 Table 63: Summary of Rules for Numbering ____________________________________________________________ 154 VI. O RDINAL NUMBERS [ُّ ‫551 _________________________________________________________________ ]العدَ ُ ال وَ صْف‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫َد‬ Table 64: Ordinal Numbers [ُّ ‫551 ________________________________________________________________ ] ال َ َ ُ ال َ صْف‬ ‫عدد و ِي‬ VII. FRACTIONS [ُّ ‫651 ______________________________________________________________________ ]العدَ ُ الكَسْ ر‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫َد‬ Table 65: Fractions __________________________________________________________________________________ 156 10
  • 11. Table of Contents LESSON 11: GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS OF QUR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS _____________________________________ 157 I. ARABIC SENTENCES: REVISITED __________________________________________________________________ 157 II. R EVIEW OF I‛RĀB OF VERBS ____________________________________________________________________ 157 Table 66: Verbs Categorized by I‛rāb __________________________________________________________________ 157 III. REVIEW OF I‛RĀB OF NOUNS ___________________________________________________________________ 158 Table 67: Nouns Categorized by I‛rāb __________________________________________________________________ 158 IV. M ERGING OF WORD CONSTRUCTIONS _____________________________________________________________ 159 A. Jarr Constructions and Linking _____________________________________________________________ 159 B. Connecting Particles [‫061 _____________________________________________________________ ]حروف العط ف‬ V. PAUSES AND BREAKS WITHIN Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS _______________________________________________________ 160 Table 68: Diacritical Marks in the Muṣḥaf ______________________________________________________________ 161 VI. EMBEDDED SENTENCES WITHIN Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS ____________________________________________________ VII. M ETHODOLOGY OF GRAMMATICAL BREAKDOWN OF Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS_______________________________________ THE 4 – STEP M ETHOD IN ANALYZING A Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAH / SENTENCE _________________________________________ A. Step 1 – Word Analysis ___________________________________________________________________ B. Step 2 – Identifying and Merging Word Constructions ___________________________________________ C. Step 3: Identifying Sentences within a Qur’ānic Ᾱyah ____________________________________________ D. Step 4: Translation ______________________________________________________________________ VIII. ANALYZING Q UR’ĀNIC ĀYAHS USING THE 4-STEP M ETHOD _____________________________________________ IX. TRADITION M ETHODOLOGY OF I'RĀB/GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS ___________________________________________ 161 162 162 162 163 164 165 166 172 LESSON 12: ADVANCED GRAMMAR TOPICS FROM QUR’ĀNIC STUDY _____________________________ 175 I. SHIFTING WORD O RDER IN SENTENCES [ ‫571 ____________________________________________________ ]الَّقْدمي و َّأْخِري‬ ‫الت‬ ‫َت‬ A. Normal Nominal and Verbal Sentence Patterns _________________________________________________ 175 B. Shifting Direct Object [ ِ‫671 _______________________________________________________________]مَفْعول بِه‬ C. Shifting Jarr Construc tion [‫671 ____________________________________________________________]شِبْه مجلة‬ D. Arrangement of Connected Words [ ‫871 _____________________________________________________ ]معطوف‬ E. Established Word Arrangements in the Qur’ān _________________________________________________ 181 II. O MISSION [‫381 ____________________________________________________________________________ ]احلذْف‬ َ A. The Passive Tense and Omission of the Doer ___________________________________________________ B. Omission of the Verb _____________________________________________________________________ C. Omission of a Noun ______________________________________________________________________ D. Omission of a Particle ____________________________________________________________________ E. Omission (Miscellaneous) _________________________________________________________________ III. NARRATIVE SHIFTING IN SENTENCES [ ‫_________________________________________________________ ]اِلْتِفات‬ 184 185 187 188 189 190 A. Narrative Shifting: 3rd person to 2nd person ___________________________________________________ B. Narrative Shifting: 2nd person to 3rd person __________________________________________________ C. Narrative Shifting: 3rd person to 1st person ___________________________________________________ D. Examples from the dynamics of Narrative Shifting ______________________________________________ IV. D EFINITE AND INDEFINITE NOUNS [‫______________________________________________________] َّعْريف و الْتَنْكري‬ ‫الت‬ 190 191 191 192 193 A. Definite Words __________________________________________________________________________ 193 B. Indefinite Words ________________________________________________________________________ 193 Table 49: The Definite Article “Al” [‫591 ____________________________________________________________ ]الم َّعْريف‬ ‫الت‬ V. CHANGING THE GENDER OF THE VERB [‫691 __________________________________________________ ]َتذْكري الفعل أو تَأنيث‬ VI. ACTION NOUNS FUNCTIONING AS VERBS ___________________________________________________________ 197 VII. THE PERMANENCE OF NOUNS AND THE TRANSIENCE OF VERBS ___________________________________________ 198 VIII. BREAKING (FROM THE EXPECTED I‛RĀB) [‫991 ______________________________________________________ ]الْقِطْع‬ 11
  • 12. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic LESSON 13: IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES OF ELOQUENCE [ ‫102 _____________________________________]البالغة‬ INTRODUCTION TO BALĀGHA [‫102 _________________________________________________________________ ]البالغ ة‬ THE STUDY OF ELOQUENCE [ ‫202 _________________________________________________________________ ]عِل ُ البَيان‬ ‫ْم‬ I. M ETAPHORS [‫202 ____________________________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز‬ A. Majāz Mursal [‫502 ___________________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز اُرْسَل‬ ‫مل‬ B. Majāz Bil’istiārah [ ‫702 ______________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز بِاال سْتِعارَة‬ C. Majāz Aʻqli [‫902 ______________________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز العقلي‬ D. Majāz Murakkab [‫012 ________________________________________________________________ ]اجملاز املر ّب‬ ‫ك‬ II. THE SIMILE [‫112 ___________________________________________________________________________ ] َّشْبي ه‬ ‫الت‬ TYPES OF SIMILE [‫212 _______________________________________________________________________ ]أَنْواع َّشْبي ه‬ ‫الت‬ Examples of Simile [‫312 _____________________________________________________________________] َّشْبي ه‬ ‫الت‬ III. IDIOMS [ ‫712 ______________________________________________________________________________ ]الكِنايَ ة‬ LESSON 14: INIMITABILITY OF THE QUR’ĀN [ ‫322 ___________________________________________]ِإعْجا ُ الْ ُرآن‬ ‫ز ق‬ INTRODUCTION TO [‫322 _____________________________________________________________________ ]إِعْجا ُ الْ ُرآ ن‬ ‫ز ق‬ I. E XAMPLES OF Q UR’ĀNIC ELOQUENCE_______________________________________________________________ 224 B. Deep Meaning of Arabic Words _____________________________________________________________ 228 C. Word Order in Sentences [ ‫922 _________________________________________________________ ]الَّقْدمي و َّأْخِري‬ ‫الت‬ ‫َت‬ D. Contrasting Simi lar Āyāhs / Qur’ānic Phrases _________________________________________________ E. Coherence of Qur’ānic Sūrahs _______________________________________________________________ F. Coherence between Sūrahs _________________________________________________________________ G. Gems of Logic and Admonition in the Qur’ān [ ‫__________________________________________ ]املَنْطِق وَ العِ بْرَة‬ 229 233 235 238 H. Rhyming Schemes and Phonation of the Qur’ān [ ‫242 ______________________________________ ] َّجْع و التَسْويت‬ ‫الس‬ I. Graphic Imagery in the Qur’ān [ ‫542 ______________________________________________________ ]الّصوير ِّي‬ ‫الفن‬ ‫ت‬ J. Scientific Miracles [‫642 _______________________________________________________________ ]اإلعجاز العلمي‬ CONCLUDING REMARKS _____________________________________________________________________ 251 D IRECTIONS FOR FUTURE ARABIC STUDY _____________________________________________________________ 251 REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR ESSENTIALS OF QURANIC ARABIC ___________________________________ 253 LESSON 1 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 2 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 3 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 4 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 5 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 6 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 7 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 8 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 9 R EVIEW Q UESTIONS_____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 10 REVIEW Q UESTIONS____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 11 REVIEW Q UESTIONS____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 12 REVIEW Q UESTIONS____________________________________________________________________ LESSON 13 REVIEW Q UESTIONS____________________________________________________________________ 253 254 255 256 257 259 260 262 263 265 267 269 271 ANSWERS FOR REVIEW QUESTIONS __________________________________________________________ 275 LESSON 1 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ 275 LESSON 2 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ 275 LESSON 3 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ 276 12
  • 13. Table of Contents LESSON 4 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 5 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 6 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 7 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 8 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 9 ANSWERS ___________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 10 ANSWERS __________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 11 ANSWERS __________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 12 ANSWERS __________________________________________________________________________ LESSON 13 ANSWERS __________________________________________________________________________ 277 278 279 280 281 283 284 286 290 293 APPENDIX __________________________________________________________________________________ 297 Table 69: The 10 Forms Table – Conjugation of Verb Families ____________________________________________ Table 70: Conjugation of Irregular Type I Verbs ________________________________________________________ Table 71: Conjugation of Irregular Verbs - Families I through VI _________________________________________ Table 72: Conjugation of Irregular Verbs - Families VII - X _______________________________________________ 297 298 299 300 REQUIRED Q UR’ĀNIC VOCABULARY ASSIGNMENTS _______________________________________________________ 301 SUPPLEMENTARY Q UR’ĀNIC VOCABULARY_____________________________________________________________ 302 SUPPLEMENTARY QURANIC V OCABULARY ____________________________________________________ 302 GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫503 ___________________________________________________ ] َّشبيه - األج وَف‬ ‫الت‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫603 ______________________________________________ ] َّشْبيه البليغ - اَلْحذْ ُ ُّون‬ ‫َ ف الن‬ ‫الت‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫703 _________________________________________________ ]حَرْف - ضمِري ُنْفَصِل‬ ‫َ م‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫803 ____________________________________________ ] ظَرْف - الفعل املاضي االِسِْتمْراري‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫903 ______________________________________________ ]الفعل املاضي القَريب - ُتَكَّم‬ ‫م َل‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [ِ‫013 ___________________________________________________ ]املِثال - املَفْ ُول فِيْه‬ ‫ع‬ GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [‫113 ___________________________________________________ ]املَفْ ُول مَعَه - نَظْم‬ ‫ع‬ REFERENCES _______________________________________________________________________________ 313 About the Author ____________________________________________________________________________ 317 13
  • 14. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Transliteration Key ‫ئ/ؤ/أ/ء‬ ١ ‫ب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذ‬ ’ ā b t th j ḥ kh d dh ‫ر‬ ‫ز‬ r z ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ s sh ‫ص‬ ṣ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ḍ ṭ ‫ظ‬ ‫ع‬ ẓ ‛ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ك/ﮎ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه/ﻫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ f q k l m n h w, ū, u y, i, ī gh This transliteration key is being provided to help bridge the gap between Arabic and English letters. There are several letters that are specific to the Arabic language, and do not have an English equivalent. Please also note that we have chosen to capitalize many of the Arabic terms mentioned in this book, especially those of a grammatical context. Furthermore, Arabic terms written in English have been pluralized in English to facilitate the reader. 14
  • 15. Foreword Foreword Dr. Moḥammad Yūnus Arabic grammar deals with principles by which the states of the endings of the words are known in regard to declension (I‛rāb) and construction (Binā‛), and the manner of constructing one word with another. It is highly essential for the students of Arabic to learn this science in order to be proficient in the language. Acquiring an understanding of word patterns (Ṣarf ) is also of prime importance in learning the language. “Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic” is a book compiled for easy understanding of Qur’ānic Arabic with focus on its grammar rules. There are many books on Arabic grammar on the market today. For example, Hidāyatun Naḥw is one classical book that has been used in teaching Arabic grammar for generations. The goal of this book is to enable the student to read, translate, and understand the āyahs of the Qur’ān, Ḥadīths, and Arabic sentences without difficulty. Emphasis is also placed on learning vocabulary with the help of a standard dictionary. Topics in “Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic” are organized in a simple and coherent fashion such that they can be easily understood and learned. Review questions at the end of this book are very useful to practice and revise the concepts learned during the study. This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the important aspects of the subject of Qur’ānic Arabic grammar. I am confident that when a student studies this book thoroughly with the guidance of a teacher or engages in self-study, they would develop a very good foundation in this science, and it would absolve them of the need to study similar books on the subject. I pray to Allah that He may make this book beneficial for the students of Arabic grammar and simplify the path to understanding the Qur’ān, and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muḥammad . I also pray that Allah bestow rewards for the compiler and everyone who contributed to its completion and publication. ‫آمِني‬ Dr. Mohammad Yūnus is currently the director of the Tarbiyah Department of ICNA, and has held the position of Amīr of ICNA for 17 years from 1977 - 2000. He is the Imām/Director at Masjid Daʻwah in Bonifay, FL. Dr. Yūnus is a cardiologist and a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at Florida State University, College of Medicine. 15
  • 16. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 16
  • 17. Preface Preface The Qur’ān is undoubtedly a vast ocean of Guidance and Wisdom. In order to obtain a deeper meaning of the Qur’ān, it is required that the student have a certain depth and knowledge of the Arabic language while also being familiar with Classical Tafsīrs. Furthermore, it goes without saying that the student must develop a strong connection with the Qur’ān on a daily basis. The Prophet said: [ْ ََ َ ‫ذ ﻫب ت‬ ‫]إَّما مَثَ ُ صَاحِبِ الْ ُرْآنِ كَمَثَلِ صَاحِبِ الْإِبِلِ الْ ُع َّلَةِ إِنْ عَاﻫَدَ عَلَيْهَا أَمْسَكَهَا وَإِنْ أَطْلَقَهَا‬ ‫م َق‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ِن ل‬ “The parable of someone who knows the Qur’ān is that of a tethered camel. If he attends to it, it stays with him. If he lets it go, it wanders away”.1 A daily connection to the Qur’ān is essential whether it be recitation, listening, reading its Tafsīrs, contemplating its meanings, etc. Additionally, memorizing the sacred words of the Qur’ān as much as possible has numerous benefits even if it is done without consciously delving into its meaning. Likewise, listening to its recitation on a regular basis strengthens one’s connection to the Qur’ān. Moreover, it is perhaps best experienced through listening, preferably when standing in prayer, before Allah . Keeping this close connection with the Qur’ān prevents it from wandering away, and allows one to attain a unique bond with one’s heart and mind. The Qur’ān becomes devoid of benefit to those whose faith is not increased, and those who are not propelled by it to do good deeds. The Qur’ān is indeed a vehicle in attaining prophetic character. When Ā’isha , the beloved wife of the Prophet , was asked about him, she stated: [َ ‫اْ ُ ْآ‬ ‫ل قر ن‬ was the Qur’ān”2. ‫خلقه‬ ُ ُ ُُ َ‫“ ,]كان‬His character Thus, righteous deeds and excellent conduct are endpoints attained from deep understanding and implementation of the Qur’ān. The main reason behind the Two-Volume series “Essentials in Qur’ānic Arabic” is to bridge the barriers to understanding and comprehending the Qur’ān. Specifically, to enable the student to understand its language by learning its grammar. In particular, the focus is kept on Qur’ānic Grammar, and Conversational Arabic is not emphasized. The goal of Volume 1 was to ground the student on the fundamentals of Arabic grammar. There were several important principles in Qur’ānic Arabic Grammar that could not covered in Volume 1 due to their advanced nature and difficulty. Our aim here in Volume Two is to extract a correct basic meaning from the Qur’ān. Furthermore, many of the topics in this Second Volume are found in Arabic grammar texts like Al-Ajrūmiyyah [‫ ,]األ ْ ُومَّة‬those dealing with the study of Morphology [‫ ,] َّ ْف‬and other ‫جر ِي‬ ‫الصر‬ 1 Saḥīḥ Bukhāri: Ḥadith #4743 in Chapter on the Bounties of the Qur’ān [‫.]كتاب فضائل القرآن‬ 2 Musnad Aḥmed, Ḥadith #24080 in [ِ‫.]بَاقِي ُسْنَدِ الْ أَنْصَار‬ ‫م‬ 17
  • 18. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic texts of Intermediate Grammar. Please note that several topics specific to the study of Ṣarf are merged in this volume with topics of Naḥw to keep a simplified approach and keep the focus on Qur’ānic study. One chapter has been devoted to learning a specific methodology to analyze āyahs from the Qur’ān. The last three chapters are focused on more advanced discussions relative to Qur’ānic Arabic such as Eloquence (Balāgha), the Inimitability of the Qur’ān (I‛jāz al-Qurʾān), and other advanced grammar topics. Similar to the first volume, numerous examples from the Qur’ān have been given so that our focus is maintained. “Review Questions” are included in the back of this book and are an essential part of this text. These questions force the student to review the material each and every week. It is hoped that the content presented here in this second volume will allow for a more thorough understanding of the lofty words of the Qur’ān along with other Classical Islāmic literature Inshā Allah. 18
  • 19. Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology [‫]الصرف‬ Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology [‫]الصَّرْف‬ I. Introduction to Ṣarf [‫] َّرْف‬ ‫الص‬ Ṣarf is the study of morphology of Arabic words in their specific and varied forms. This science deals with Arabic words that have irregular, difficult, or awkward pronunciation or phonation. In particular, it deals with changes of certain letter(s) of the word so that its pronunciation and phonetics can be enhanced. Please note that Ṣarf does not cause a grammatical change or a change in meaning per se. The rules of verb conjugation and derivation of specific types of nouns3 from a root verb do not change. A good grasp of Ṣarf helps a great deal in learning Qur’ānic Arabic, since there are numerous Irregular verbs and nouns found in the Qur’ān. Please note much of the discussions involving verb conjugation, verb families, and “action” nouns directly involve the study of Ṣarf. Half of Ṣarf is really knowing the “default” conjugations of verbs and verb like nouns such as those found in the “10 Forms Table” (see Appendix). II. Important Principles from Ṣarf There are three important principles that will be commonly used when looking at conjugation of the Irregular verbs in Lesson 2. Principle # 1: Deletion of a Letter [‫]تَخْفِيف‬ 1. Changing of a Hamza to a weak letter [‫ ] َ ْف عَّة‬or deleting the Hamza. ‫حر ِل‬ [ ‫. ]َل ِع ُ ا ْ َه ُوز‬ ‫ا ف ْل لم م‬ This occurs in 2. Deleting the Hamza: ◦ Command of [َ ََ ] is [ْ‫ .]ِسَْل‬Here the Hamza is deleted to get [ْ‫ .]ِسْل‬Since it is ‫سأل‬ ‫ا أ‬ ‫ا‬ impossible to have two consecutive Hamzas, the Fatḥah that was originally on the Hamza is placed on the [ ‫ ]س‬since the Hamza al-Waṣl is removed to get [ْ َ ]. ‫سل‬ ◦ Command of [َ َ َ] is [ْ‫ .]ُؤْ ُل‬The Hamza is deleted to obtain [ْ‫ . ]ُ ُل‬Subsequently, the ‫أكل‬ ‫اك‬ ‫اك‬ Hamza al-Waṣl is removed to obtain [ ْ ُ ] . ‫كل‬ Principle # 2: Changing of the Hamza 1. Joining of Hamzas to an Elongated Alif [‫:]آ‬ Conjugating the verb [َ َ َ] in the first person present tense, the verb [ُ ُ َْ]. ‫أكل‬ ‫أأكل‬ Here, the two Hamzas are merged to form an Elongated Alif to get [ُ ُ ‫.]آ‬ ‫كل‬ 3 Nouns that are conjugated from verbs are termed [‫ ]اِسْم فاعل ], [اسم مفعول ], [ مصدر‬which are mentioned above, but also include nouns termed [‫ .]ظرف‬These nouns were covered in Volume 1 in some depth. 19
  • 20. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 2. Changing of the Hamza to [ ‫عَّة‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫:]حرْف‬ The Maṣdar of [ َ َ ‫ , ]آ‬which is the Family IV verb from the stem [‫ ]أمن‬is [ ٌ ‫ .]ِ ْ َا‬Here, ‫من‬ ‫إئم ن‬ the second Hamza gets changed to the weak letter [ ‫ ]ي‬because of the preceding Kasrah. And from this, the Maṣdar becomes [ٌ ‫.]ِ ْما‬ ‫إي ن‬ Principle # 3: Merging of heavy letters or light letters [‫]ِدْغام‬ ‫إ‬ 1. Idghām refers to merging of heavy letters or of light letters4. This principle occurs primarily in Verb family VIII [ َ َ َْ ِ] and in [ ‫اْ ُضا َف‬ ‫افتعل‬ ‫لم ع‬ ‫ ,]الفعل‬verbs that contain root letter bearing a Shadda. 2. If the letters are doubled or there are two consecutive light letters [‫ز‬ / ‫, ]د / ذ‬ then there is Idghām and merging of letters into a Shadda. e.g. Verb [َ َ َ ] is converted to [َّ ‫.]ع‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫َد‬ 3. If there are two similar letters preceded by a Sukūn, the vowel on the [‫ ]ع‬letter will be transferred to the preceding [ ‫ ]ف‬letter and there will be joining of the similar letters. e.g. [َ َ َ ] stem in present tense is [ُ ُ ْ َ]. It then becomes [ُ ْ ُ َ] then finally [ُّ ‫.]َض‬ ‫ضرر‬ ‫يضرر‬ ‫يضرر‬ ‫ي ُر‬ 4. In Verb Family VIII conjugations and its noun derivatives, please note following phenomenon that can sometimes occur with the extra inserted Tā [‫ ]ت‬on the [ ‫ ]ف‬letter. If the [ ‫ ]ف‬letter is one of the heavy letters [ ‫ظ‬ / ‫,]ض / ص / ط‬ then the Tā [‫ ]ت‬is changed to the [‫ ,] ط‬which phonetically agrees with the heavy [‫ ]ف‬letter. If the [‫ ]ف‬letter is one of the light letters [‫,]د/ذ‬ then the Tā is changed into a “light” Dāl [‫ ]د‬or is merged into a single letter bearing a Shadda. 4 In Tajwīd, Idghām term classically denotes merging of letters [‫ ,]ن/م/و/ي‬or with the letters [‫ .]ر/ل‬In this Volume however, this term is describing the merging of similar non-vowel letters for enhanced phonetics as per principles of [‫ .]الصرف‬Specifically, the rules described above are based on Idghām called [‫ ]إدغام متماثلني‬and [‫ ,]إدغام متجانسني‬whose discussion is beyond our focus here. Arabic has 28 letters, eight of which are heavy, and the remaining letters being light. The heavy letters are the following: [‫.]ق/غ/ظ/ط/ض/ص /خ‬ 20
  • 21. Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology [‫]الصرف‬ 5. Examples of Idghām Table 1: Examples of Idghām [‫]ِ ْغام‬ ‫إد‬ Form “A” ‫باب‬ Form “B” َ‫صَبَر‬ َ‫اِصْتَبَر‬ VIII َ‫اِصْطبَر‬ َ َ‫ضَرَب‬ َ‫اِضَْترَب‬ VIII َ‫اِضْطرَب‬ َ َ‫ذَكَر‬ َ‫ِاذْتَرَك‬ VIII َ‫ا َّكَر‬ ‫ِذ‬ َ‫زَجَر‬ َ‫اِزَْترَج‬ VIII َ‫اِزْدجَر‬ َ ‫فِعْ ُ ا ُج َّد‬ ‫ل مل َر‬ form “A” or “B” can be used below َ‫دَبَر‬ ‫َبر‬ ُ َّ‫َيتَد‬ V ‫َّبر‬ ُ َّ‫يَد‬ َ‫ذَكَر‬ َ‫ِاتْذ َّر‬ ‫َك‬ V َ‫اِذ َّر‬ ‫َّك‬ َ‫تَدَّر‬ ‫َت‬ ‫ُتَدِّر‬ ‫م َث‬ ‫اسم الفاعل‬ ‫ُدِّر‬ ‫م َّث‬ َ‫تَص َّق‬ ‫َد‬ ‫ُتَص ِّقَة‬ ‫م َد‬ ‫اسم الفاعل‬ ‫ُص ِّقَة‬ ‫م َّد‬ 6. Examples of Idghām from the Qur’ān No Idghām ﴾ Idghām ٰ‫﴿ يَوْمَ َيتَذ َّ ُ ٱلْإِنْسَا ُ مَا سَعَى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫َكر‬ ﴾ “The Day when man will remember that for which he strove”. (79:35) [‫َ ْ ًا‬ ‫عهد‬ “He who fears [Allah] will be reminded.” (87:10) ﴾ ِ‫]أَٱطَتلَعَ الْغَيْبَ أَمِ َّخَذَ عِنْدَ َّحْمَٰن‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ات‬ ْ ‫﴿ أَطلَعَ ٱلْغَيْبَ أَمِ َّخَذَ عِنْدَ َّحْمَٰنِ عَهْدًا‬ ‫ٱلر‬ ‫ٱت‬ َّ “Has he looked into the unseen, or has he taken from the Most Merciful a promise?” (19:78) ۚ ِ‫﴿...وَمَن تَز َّىٰ فَإَّمَا يَتَز َّىٰ لِنَفْسِه‬ ‫َك ِن َك‬ ﴾ ٰ‫﴿ سَيَذ َّ ُ مَنْ يَخْشَى‬ ‫َّكر‬ ﴾ ‫ري‬ ُ ِ‫وَإِلَى ٱ َّهِ ٱلْمَص‬ ‫لل‬ ٰ‫﴿ وَمَا ُدْرِيكَ لَعَّ ُ يَز َّى‬ ‫َله َّك‬ ‫ي‬ “But what would make you perceive, that perhaps he might be purified” (80:3) “And whoever purifies himself only purifies himself for his soul. And to Allah is the [final] destination”. (35:18) 21
  • 22. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Principle # 4: Changing of weak letters preceded by a vowel [‫]َعْ ِيل‬ ‫تل‬ a) If a Fatḥah is followed by a [ ‫ ,]و], [ي‬or [‫ ,]و‬the letter becomes an Alif [ ‫.]ا‬ ▪ e.g., [َ ‫ ] َو‬becomes [َ ‫.]خا‬ ‫خ ِف‬ ‫ف‬ ▪ [ َ َ َ ] becomes [ ‫( ] َ َى‬the [‫ ]ى‬is actually an Alif, and specifically called ‫جر ي‬ ‫جر‬ [ ‫. ]َل ُ اْ َ ْ ُو َة‬ ‫أِف لمقص ر‬ b) The form [ ‫ ]ُ ِل‬or [ ‫ ]ُِل‬is converted to [‫. ]ِيل‬ ‫فو‬ ‫في‬ ‫ف‬ ◦ e.g. [َ ِ ُ] becomes [ َ ْ ِ] . ‫قول‬ ‫قيل‬ c) The form [ َ ِ َ] becomes [ َ ِ َ] . ‫فعو‬ ‫فعي‬ ◦ e.g. [َ ِ َ ] becomes [ َ ِ َ ]. ‫رض و‬ ‫رضي‬ d) The form [ ‫ ]ِ ْل‬becomes [ ‫. ]ِيل‬ ‫فو‬ ‫ف‬ ◦ e.g. [‫ ] ِ ْزان‬becomes [ ‫.] ِيزان‬ ‫مو‬ ‫م‬ e) The form [ ُ ِ ْ ُ] becomes [ ُ ِ ‫.]ُو‬ ‫ييعل‬ ‫ي ْعل‬ ◦ e.g. The verb [ َ َ ْ ‫ ]أ‬becomes [ُ ِْ ُ] and not [ُ ِ ْ ُ]. ‫يقن‬ ‫يوقن‬ ‫ييقن‬ Principle # 5: Impossibility of Pronouncing Any Vowel on an Alif [‫] َّع ُّر‬ ‫الت َذ‬ This applies to both verbs and nouns. When this occurs, the vowel is simply omitted and the result is an [ ‫ , ]َل ُ اْ َ ْ ُو َة‬which is really an Alif. ‫أِف لمقص ر‬ ‫ي‬ ُ َ‫تَرْض‬ a) becomes ‫تَرْضَى‬ ‫م ى‬ ُ َ‫ ُوس‬becomes ‫ُوسَى‬ ‫م‬ b) Principle # 6: Difficulty of Pronouncing Certain Vowels on Alif/Yā [‫] ِّقْل‬ ‫الث‬ This principle applies to both Nouns and Verbs, and does not affect I'rāb. [ ‫ ]ي‬preceded by Kasrah cannot take Ḍammah or Kasrah. a) b) [ ‫ ]و‬preceded by Ḍammah cannot take a Ḍammah. c) Cannot have two consecutive silent letters (i.e. two continuous Sukūns). i. ii. iii. iv. [ ُ ِ ‫ ]َد ُ ُ اْقا‬is incorrect because rule (a) and (b) are violated. ‫ي ْعو ل ضي‬ [ ْ ِ ‫اْقا‬ ‫ل ضي‬ ْ‫ = ] يَد ُو‬correct. ‫ْع‬ [ ٌ ِْ ُ ُ ُ ْ َ ] = incorrect; [ ٍ ْ ُ ْ ُ ْ َ] = correct ‫ينمو مفتي‬ ‫ينمو مفت‬ [ ٌ ِْ ُ ] is changed into two Kasrahs because of [ ‫. ] ِّقل‬ ‫مفتي‬ ‫الث‬ ◦ Other words that can be changed into a similar pattern are those below. [ ٌ ِ ‫ ]قا‬or [ ٍ ِ ‫ ]قا‬becomes [ٍ ‫]قا‬ ‫ضي‬ ‫ضي‬ ‫ض‬ [ ٌ ِ‫ ]مثا‬or [ ٍ ‫ ]متا‬becomes ‫ني‬ ‫ين‬ 22 ٍ‫ثَمان‬
  • 23. ‫]الصرف[ ‪Lesson 1: Important Principles of Morphology‬‬ ‫‪ْ ِّ ]- Variation of Endings on Alif and Yā‬ل [ ‪Table 2: Examples of‬‬ ‫الثق‬ ‫‪ ] Alif‬ا [‬ ‫‪] Yā‬ي [‬ ‫إعراب‬ ‫جَلَسَ الْفَتَى‬ ‫جَلَسَ الْقاضِي‬ ‫رَفْع‬ ‫رأَيْ ُ الْفَتَى‬ ‫َت‬ ‫رأَيْ ُ الْقاضِي‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َت‬ ‫نَصْب‬ ‫أَشَرْ ُ بِالْعَصا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أَشَرْ ُ إِىل الْقاضِي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ر‬ ‫جَ ّ‬ ‫جَلَسَ فَتًا‬ ‫جَلَسَ قاض‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫رَفْع‬ ‫رأَيْ ُ فَتًا‬ ‫َت‬ ‫رأَيْت قاضِيا‬ ‫َ ُ ً‬ ‫نَصْب‬ ‫أَشَرْ ُ إِىل فَتًا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أَشَرْ ُ إِىل قاض‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ر‬ ‫جَ ّ‬ ‫‪Principle # 7: Adding or Deleting the Tā letter‬‬ ‫‪] in the conjugation of‬ت[ ‪Another principle of Ṣarf that is frequently found is the addition or deletion of Tā‬‬ ‫.‪certain verbs and their derivatives‬‬ ‫‪The‬‬ ‫.‪] conjugations of Family V and VI verbs‬فعل‬ ‫مضارع [ ‪1. Deletion of the Tā is allowed in certain‬‬ ‫.‪conjugations where the deletion of Tā is allowed are highlighted in the following table‬‬ ‫‪Table 3: Deletion of the Tā Letter‬‬ ‫]َف َّ َ [ ‪Family V‬‬ ‫ت َعل‬ ‫]َ َا َ َ[ ‪Family VI‬‬ ‫تف عل‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمْع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمْع‬ ‫غائِب ُذَ ّر‬ ‫مك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫يَتَفاعَ ُ‬ ‫يَتَفاعَالنِ‬ ‫يَتَفاعَُونَ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫يَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫يَتَف َّالنِ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫يَتَف َُّونَ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫غائب ُؤّث‬ ‫من‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَ ُ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَالنِ‬ ‫يَتَفَاعَلْنَ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫تَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫تَتَف َّالنِ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫يَتَف َّلْنَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫ُخاطب مذ ّر‬ ‫ك‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُخاطب مؤّث‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَ ُ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَلِنيَ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَالنِ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَالنِ‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَُونَ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تَتَفَاعَلْنَ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫تَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫تَتَف َّلِنيَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫تَتَف َّالنِ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫تَتَف َّالنِ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫تَتَف َُّونَ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫تَتَف َّلْنَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫ُتَكِّم‬ ‫م َل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أَتَفاعَ ُ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫نَتَفاعَ ُ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫نَتَفاعَ ُ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫أَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫نَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫نَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫الفعل املضارع‬ ‫32‬
  • 24. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 2. In Family VIII verbs, if the [ ‫ ]ف‬letter is a weak letter or a Hamza, then it is replaced by a Tā. This enhances its phonation. This is specifically the case with the verbs [َ َ َّ‫ ] ا‬and [‫ ,] اَّ َى‬both of ‫ِتخذ‬ ‫ِتق‬ which are found frequently in the Qur’ān. َ‫أَخَذ‬ ‫وَقَى‬ Family VIII َ‫اِئْتَخَذ‬ [ ‫اِوْتَقَى‬ ‫ ]ت‬replaces َ [ َ ] root letter ‫ف‬ 24 َ‫اَّخَذ‬ ‫ِت‬ ‫اَّقَى‬ ‫ِت‬
  • 25. Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs - Root Letters with Hamza/Shadda ‫فِعْ ُ ُّالثِي َالْ ُج َّدِ إِىل غَيْر سالِم : َالْفِعْ ُ الْمَهْ ُوز و الْفِعْ ُ الْ ُضَاعَف‬ ‫ل م َ ل م‬ ٍ ِ ‫م َر‬ ‫ل الث‬ I. Introduction to Irregular Verbs In the Qur’ān, Irregular Verbs and their derivatives are used very frequently. It is necessary that the student be familiar with their anomalous morphology and structure. This cannot be done unless there is a sound understanding of the conjugation of “Sound” or [ ‫ ]ساِم‬verbs, inflection changes from particles, and ‫ل‬ derivation of “action words” from the verb in question. Thus, the conjugation tables presented in Volume 1 need to be learned “cold”, backwards and forwards. The same holds true for the “10 Family Table”, which really incorporates within it, the essential principles of Ṣarf. If any of these are not thoroughly learned, Irregular Verbs can be quite difficult to learn. The rules of Nominal Sentences and Verbal Sentences and recognition of individual sentences need to be internalized. The acquisition of new Qur’ānic vocabulary is very important with advance in grammatical study. At this stage, the need to stick to Arabic terminology will be of more importance. The student should also be able to readily recognize Qur’ānic words and categorize them into nouns, verbs , and particles. This is irrespective of knowing the meaning of the word.  Furthermore, for nouns, the student should be able to determine its I‛rāb, even if its meaning is not known. Other characteristics such as plurality, gender, flexibility, or belonging to a specific word category (verbal noun, Doer noun, etc.) should also be readily identified.  If the word is a verb, the student should be able to determine its tense and conjugation. The verbal Doer [ ‫ ] فاعل‬and Direct object [ ِ ِ ‫به‬  ‫ ]مَفْ ُول‬or Indirect object should also be recognized if applicable. ‫ع‬ If the word is a particle, they should be able to determine which I‛rāb it causes and whether it acts on a noun or verb. If there is still a great deal of unfamiliarity in the above, then Volume 1 must be revisited and restudied. 25
  • 26. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic II. Irregular verbs ]‫] ِعْ ُ ُّالِي ِىل َيْر ساِم‬ ‫ف ل الث ث إ غ ل‬ A. Classification and Division of Family I Verbs Verb Family I [‫ُّالثي‬ ‫الث‬ ◦ ‫ ]الفعْ ُ الْ ُج َّد‬is the root verb for the vast majority of Arabic nouns. ‫ل م َر‬ You can divide Type I Verbs into two types: Sound [ ‫]ساِم‬and Irregular [‫ساِم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ر‬ ُ ْ‫.]غَي‬ ◦ Please refer to the Verb Categorization Algorithm below for a complete scheme on verb classification. 1. Regular or Sound verbs do not have any of the following letters in its three-letter root: ّ / ‫أ / و/ ي/ ا‬ 2. Irregular Verb I types have one or more of these above letters in the 3-letter root including doubled letters (with a Shadda). These verbs follow the same rules of conjugation, and noun derivation as Sound verbs that were previously mentioned. 3. Irregular verbs can be broken into 3 categories: a. Verbs containing a Hamza ( ‫اْ َ ْ ُوز [ -) أ‬ ‫لمهم‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫.]اَلْفِع‬ b. Verbs containing a Doubled letter with a Shadda [ ‫ا ُضا َف‬ ‫مل ع‬ c. Verbs containing a weak letter [ ‫عَّة‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫.]اَلْفِع‬ ‫ْف‬ ُ ‫ ]حَر‬like (‫.) و / ١ / ي‬ as one of its root letters is called [ ّ َْ ُ ‫ا‬ ‫ملعتل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫.]اَلْفِع‬ A verb, which contain a weak letter This verb type [ ّ َْ ُ ‫ا‬ ‫ملعتل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫ ]اَلْفِع‬is further broken into five different types depending on where the weak letter is located. (i) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ف‬letter, then it is called [‫.] ِثال‬ ‫م‬ (ii) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ع‬letter, then it is called [‫. ]َج َف‬ ‫أ ْو‬ (iii) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ل‬letter, then it is called [‫. ]َج َف‬ ‫أ ْو‬ (iv) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ف‬letter and on the [‫ ,]ل‬then it is called [ ‫ا ْ َ ْ ُوق‬ ‫لمفر‬ (v) If the weak letter is on the [‫ ]ع‬letter and on the [‫ , ]ل‬then it is called [‫ا ْ َ ْ ُن‬ ‫لمقر‬ 26 ‫ف‬ ُ ‫.]لَفِي‬ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫.]لَفِي‬
  • 27. Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ B. Algorithm for Classification of Regular and Irregular Verbs ‫فِعْل‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ ُّالثي‬ ‫ل الث‬ ‫ُّالثي ا ُج َّد‬ ‫مل َر‬ ‫الث‬ ‫الفعل ُّباعي‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ُّباعي ا ُج َّد‬ ‫مل َر‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ُّالثي املزِيد‬ ‫الث‬ ‫غَيْ ُ سالِم‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ال ّالِم‬ ‫س‬ ‫املَهْ ُوز‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُضاعَف‬ ‫م‬ ‫املِثال‬ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫ال ّالِم‬ ‫س‬ ‫مل ل‬ ّ َ‫ا ُعْت‬ ‫ُّباعي املزِيد‬ ‫الر‬ ‫غَيْ ُ سالِم‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ُضا َف‬ ‫م ع‬ ‫مل ل‬ ّ َ‫ا ُعْت‬ ‫املِثال‬ ‫لَفِي ُ املَفْروق‬ ‫ف‬ ‫املَهْ ُوز‬ ‫م‬ ‫الناقِص‬ ‫الْأجْ َف‬ ‫و‬ ‫الْأجْوَف‬ ‫لَفِي ُ الْمَق ُون‬ ‫ف ْر‬ ‫لَفِي ُ املَفْروق‬ ‫ف‬ ‫لَفِي ُ املَق ُون‬ ‫ف ْر‬ III. Verbs with a Hamza Letter ]‫[َلْ ِعْ ُ الْ َهْ ُوز‬ ‫اف ل م م‬ (1) The [ ‫اْ َ ْ ُوز‬ ‫لمهم‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫ ]الفِع‬verbs are almost like [‫ ]ساِم‬verbs, with very few exceptions. ‫ل‬ (2) In the command tense for these verbs, the beginning Hamza can be cut off, or it can be conjugated like a typical Family I verb. Please note that the abbreviated, truncated form is preferred. This, however does not happen for the Lām of [ ‫.]اْ َ ْ ُوز‬ ‫لمهم‬ i. َ‫أَكَل‬ [ ii. َ‫أَمَر‬ [ ْ‫ ] ُل‬or [ْ‫]ُؤْ ُل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫اك‬ ْ‫ ] ُر‬or [ْ‫]ُؤْ ُر‬ ‫م‬ ‫ام‬ 27
  • 28. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic (3) In the present tense conjugation for first person, the two Hamzas join to become an elongated Alif (‫ .)آ‬See the example below.  Verb [ َ َ َ] conjugated to [ ُ ُ َْ] instead becomes [ُ ُ ‫.]آ‬ ‫أخذ‬ ‫أأخذ‬ ‫خذ‬ Table 4: Verb Conjugation Summary for [‫]َلْ ِع ُ الْ َهْ ُوز‬ ‫ا ف ْل م م‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫ماضي جمهول‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫الّنصب‬ ‫األمر‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫ذ‬ ُ َ‫ُيؤْخ‬ َ‫ُأخِذ‬ ْ‫لَمْ َأْ ُذ‬ ‫يخ‬ َ‫لَنْ َأْ ُذ‬ ‫يخ‬ ْ‫ُؤْ ُدْ/ ُذ‬ ‫اخ خ‬ ‫ي خذ‬ ُ ُ ْ‫َأ‬ َ‫أَخَذ‬ ]‫[ ف‬ ‫ُز‬ ُ ْ‫الـمَهْمو‬ ‫ل‬ ُ َ‫ُيسْأ‬ َ‫ُئِل‬ ‫س‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَسْأَل‬ َ‫لَنْ يَسْأَل‬ ْ‫اِسْأَلْ/سَل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ َ‫يَسْأ‬ َ‫سَأَل‬ ]‫[ع‬ ‫ُز‬ ُ ْ‫الـمَهْمو‬ ‫ي َأ‬ ُ‫ُقْر‬ َ‫ُرِئ‬ ‫ق‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَقْرَأ‬ َ‫لَنْ يَقْرأ‬ َ ْ‫اِقْرَأ‬ ‫يَقْرَُأ‬ َ‫قَرَأ‬ ]‫[ل‬ ‫ُز‬ ُ ْ‫الـمَهْمو‬ ‫جمهول‬ (4) Qur’ānic Examples of [ ‫ا ْ َ ْ ُوز‬ ‫لمهم‬ i. ﴾... ‫فعل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫]الفِع‬ ٍ‫﴿ سَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَمْ آتَيْنَا ُم ّنْ آيَةٍ بَّنَة‬ ِ‫ي‬ ِ‫ﻫ م‬ “ Ask the Children of Israel how many clear signs We have sent them...”.( 2:211) [ ‫] فعل ما ٍ] [ فعل أمر‬ ‫ض‬ ii. ﴾... ْ‫﴿.. ُُواْ مِن طَّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَا ُم‬ ‫ك‬ ِ‫ي‬ ‫كل‬ “…Eat of the good things that We have provided for you..” (2:172) [ ‫] فعل أمر‬ IV. Verbs with a Doubled Letter/Shadda [‫]ال ِعْ ُ الْ ُ َا َف‬ ‫ف ل مض ع‬ (1) The [ ‫ ]ال ِ ْ ُ اْ ُ َا َف‬follow the same conjugation pattern ‫فعل لمض ع‬ as Sound verbs with the exception that in some occasions, the Shadda letter is preserved, and in other cases the Shadda letter breaks. (2) For the Command Tense [‫اَْ ْر‬ ‫لأم‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫ ,]الفِع‬the Shadda can be either broken or retained. It also has a multiple number of forms for single person command tense. The Forbidding Command will have a similar number of forms as well. These are due to complex rules of Ṣarf that cannot be elaborated here. An example of Command Tense conjugation is in the following:  [ َّ ‫ ]م‬becomes [ ُّ ‫ ] م‬or [ ْ ُ ْ ُ] . ‫َد‬ ‫ُد‬ ‫امدد‬ 28
  • 29. Lesson 2: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ (3) For Verb conjugations where something is added to the end with a Sukūn on the last root letter, the Shadda typically breaks. For example, let us examine the conjugation of the verb [َّ ‫]م‬ ‫َد‬ below. For the [‫ ]أنتم‬and [ َ ‫ ]أن‬conjugations, the Shadda breaks, and two letters are used instead of a ‫ت‬ single Shadda letter. This happens whenever an unvowelled letter follows the Shadda letter. ‫أنتم‬ ْ‫م َُّم‬ ‫َدت‬ َ‫أنت‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ْ‫مَدَد‬ َ‫م َّت‬ ‫َد‬ ‫ُم‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫م ُّوا‬ ‫َد‬ ‫ُما‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫َد‬ َّ ‫م‬ ْ‫مَدَدُْم‬ ‫ت‬ ‫م َّا‬ ‫َد‬ Table 5: Detailed Verb Conjugation for [‫] ال ِعل ا ُضا َفال‬ ‫ف مل ع‬ ‫الفعل املاضي‬ ‫الفعل املضارع‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ [ َّ ‫]ظ‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ظُّوا‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ظَّا‬ ‫َن‬ ‫َن‬ َّ ‫ظ‬ َ‫يَظُّون‬ ‫ُن‬ ِ‫يَظَّان‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫يَظ‬ ‫غائِب ُذَ ّر‬ ‫مك‬ ‫َن‬ َّ ‫ظَن‬ ‫ظَّا‬ ‫َن‬ ْ‫ظَّت‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ُن‬ َّ ‫يَظْن‬ ِ‫تَظَّان‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫تَظ‬ ‫غائب ُؤّث‬ ‫من‬ ْ‫ظَنَنُْتم‬ ‫ظَنَنُْما‬ ‫ت‬ َ‫ظَنَنْت‬ َ‫تَظُّون‬ ‫ُن‬ ِ‫تَظَّان‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫تَظ‬ ‫ُخاطب مذ ّر‬ ‫ك‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُن‬ َّ ‫ظَنَنْت‬ ‫ظَنَنُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ِ‫ظَنَنْت‬ ‫ُن‬ َّ ‫تَظْن‬ ِ‫تَظَّان‬ ‫ُن‬ َ‫تَظِّني‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُخاطب مؤّث‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫ظَنَّا‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ظَنَّا‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ْ‫ظَنَن‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫نَظ‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫نَظ‬ ‫ُن‬ ُّ ‫أَظ‬ ‫ُتَكِّم‬ ‫م َل‬ ‫ظُّوا‬ ‫ُن‬ *َّ ‫ُ ْن‬ ‫اظُن‬ 5 ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ظَّا‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ظَّا‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن ُن ُن‬ ُّ ‫ظ َّ/ظ ِّ/ظ‬ ‫ُظُْين‬ ‫ان‬ Command5 * female conjugation For [‫ ]الفعل مضاعف‬in the Command Tense, there are three different possibilities for the tense of male single person. Specifically for the verb stem [َّ ‫ ,]يَ ف ُّ/ف‬these are ] ُّ ‫ . [ف ِّ/ف َّ/ف‬There are two possible conjugations in this tense for stems [َّ ‫ ]يَ ف ُّ/ف‬and [َّ ‫.]يَ ف ُّ/ف‬ ‫ُل َل‬ ‫ُل ُل ُل‬ ‫َل َل‬ ‫ِل َل‬ 29
  • 30. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫‪Vowel in‬‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫‪Ḍammah‬‬ ‫‪Kasrah‬‬ ‫‪Fatḥah‬‬ ‫‪*multiple possible‬‬ ‫‪forms‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]اَلْفِعْ ُ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ الْ ُضارع‬ ‫ل م‬ ‫َج‬ ‫ح َّ‬ ‫ُج‬ ‫يَح ُّ‬ ‫َر‬ ‫ف َّ‬ ‫ِر‬ ‫يَف ُّ‬ ‫َس‬ ‫م َّ‬ ‫َس‬ ‫يَم ُّ‬ ‫ا ْ ُ َا َف[ ‪Table 6: Various Conjugations of‬‬ ‫لمض ع‬ ‫الّنصب‬ ‫ُج‬ ‫لَنْ يَح َّ‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ الْأَمْر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫ماضي جمهول‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫جمهول‬ ‫لَمْ يَحْ ُجْ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ُج‬ ‫ح َّ‬ ‫َج‬ ‫ُيح ُّ‬ ‫لَمْ يَفْرِرْ‬ ‫ُر‬ ‫ف َّ‬ ‫َر‬ ‫ُيف ُّ‬ ‫لَمْ يَمْسَسْ‬ ‫ُس‬ ‫م َّ‬ ‫ي َس‬ ‫ُم ُّ‬ ‫ُحْ ُجْ‬ ‫ا ج‬ ‫ُج ُج ُج‬ ‫ح ُّ/ح ِّ/ح َّ‬ ‫اِفْرِرْ‬ ‫ِر‬ ‫لَنْ يَف َّ‬ ‫ِر ِر‬ ‫*ف َّ/ف ِّ‬ ‫اِمْسَسْ‬ ‫َس‬ ‫َلنْ يَم َّ‬ ‫َس َس‬ ‫*م َّ/م ِّ‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫اِسْ ُ الْفاعِل‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ الْمَفْ ُول‬ ‫م ع‬ ‫مَصْدَر‬ ‫َد‬ ‫م َّ‬ ‫ماد‬ ‫ٌّ‬ ‫د‬ ‫مَمْدو ٌ‬ ‫َد‬ ‫م ٌّ‬ ‫]اَلْفِعل‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫ا ُضا َف[ ‪(4) Qur’ānic Examples of‬‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫قَالَتْ أَّى يَ ُو ُ لِي ُالَ ٌ وَلَمْ َيمْسَسْنِي بَشَ ٌ وَلَمْ أَ ُ بَغًّا‬ ‫ك ِي‬ ‫ر‬ ‫َن ك ن غ م‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪i‬‬ ‫] فعل ما ٍ [ )02:91( .”‪“She said: "How shall I have a son, seeing that no man has touched me‬‬ ‫ض‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫...وظَنَنُمْ ظ َّ َّوْءِ وَ ُنُمْ قَوْمًا ُورًا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫َ ت َن ٱلس ك ت‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪ii‬‬ ‫] فعل ما ٍ [ .)21:84( .”‪“ ...you harbored an evil thought, and you are an immensely evil people‬‬ ‫ض‬ ‫﴿ وَجَعَلْ ُ لَ ُ مَالًا َّمْ ُودًا‬ ‫ت ه مد‬ ‫]اِسم‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪iii‬‬ ‫مفعول [ )21:47( .”‪“and to whom I granted extensive wealth‬‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫ك َّ سَنَكُْ ُ مَا يَ ُو ُ وَنَم ُّ لَ ُ مِنَ ٱلْعَذَابِ م ًّا‬ ‫َد‬ ‫َال تب ق ل ُد ه‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫)97:91( .” ‪“No! We will record what he says and extend for him from the punishment extensively‬‬ ‫]مصدر][ فعل مضارع [‬ ‫03‬ ‫.‪iv‬‬
  • 31. Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs - Verbs with Vowel Letters ‫ل م ل‬ ّ َ‫فِعْ ُ ُّالثِي اَلْ ُج َّدِ إىل غَيْر سالِم : اَلْفِعْ ُ الْ ُعْت‬ ٍ ِ ‫م َر‬ ‫ل الث‬ I. Introduction to Irregular Verbs with Weak Letters [ّ َْ‫]َل ِعْ ُ الْ ُع‬ ‫ا ف ل م تل‬ ‫مل ل‬ ّ َ‫ا ُعْت‬ ‫الْأجْ َف‬ ‫و‬ ‫املِثال‬ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ A. Irregular Verbs: ‫ال ِعْل الْ ِثال‬ ‫ف م‬ (1) In the present tense, the Wāw is replaced by a Yā. As a result, the present tense verb conjugation is composed of at least three letters instead of four letters with a Sound verb. (2) In the command tense, the Wāw is omitted and appears like verbs with a beginning Hamza. This is similar to other verbs that we have studied. Table 7: Various Conjugations of the Derivatives of [‫املثال‬ ‫ماضي جمهول مضارع جمهول‬ ‫]الفعل‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫النصب‬ ّ ‫الفعل األمر‬ ‫الضارع‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫الفعل املِثال‬ ‫ي ن‬ ُ َ‫ُوْز‬ َ‫ُزِن‬ ‫و‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَزِن‬ َ‫لَنْ يَزِن‬ ْ‫زِن‬ ‫ن‬ ُ ِ‫يَز‬ َ‫وَزَن‬ Kasrah in ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫ُيوْض‬ َ‫ُضِع‬ ‫و‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَضَع‬ َ‫لَنْ يَضَع‬ ْ‫ضَع‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫يَض‬ َ‫وَضَع‬ Fatḥah in ‫ي ث‬ ُ َ‫ُور‬ َ‫ُرِث‬ ‫و‬ ْ‫لَمْ يَرِث‬ َ‫لَنْ يَرِث‬ ْ‫رِث‬ ‫ث‬ ُ ِ‫يَر‬ َ‫وَرِث‬ Kasrah in 31 (rare) ‫مضارع‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫ماضي‬ and ‫مضارع‬
  • 32. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Table 8: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense of [‫املثال‬ ‫املاضى‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ا ُضارِع‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫]الفعل‬ [َ َ َ ] ‫وضع‬ ‫وَضَ ُوا‬ ‫ع‬ َ‫وَضَعْن‬ ‫وَضَعا‬ ‫وَضَعَتا‬ َ‫وَضَع‬ ْ‫وَضَعَت‬ َ‫يَضَ ُون‬ ‫ع‬ َ‫يَضَعْن‬ ِ‫يَضَعان‬ ِ‫تَضَعان‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫يَض‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫تَض‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ْ‫وَضَعُْتم‬ ‫وَضَعُْما‬ ‫ت‬ َ‫وَضَعْت‬ َ‫تَضَ ُون‬ ‫ع‬ ِ‫تَضَعان‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫تَض‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ُن‬ َّ ‫وَضَعْت‬ ‫وَضَعُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ِ‫وَضَعْت‬ َ‫تَضَعْن‬ ِ‫تَضَعان‬ َ‫تَضَعِني‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫وَضَعْنا‬ ‫وَضَعْنا‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ْ‫وَضَع‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫نَض‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫نَض‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫أَض‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫ضَ ُوا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ضَعا‬ ْ‫ضَع‬ ‫الفِعْل األَمْر‬ (3) Qur’ānic Examples of [ ‫ا ِثال‬ ‫مل‬ i. ﴾.... ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫]اَلْفِعل‬ ِ‫﴿ َّيْطَا ُ يَعِ ُ ُ ُ ٱ لْفَقْرَ وَيَأْ ُ ُ ُم بِٱلْفَحْشَاء‬ ‫م رك‬ ‫ٱلش ن دكم‬ “The Evil one threatens you with poverty and orders you to immorality..”. (2:268). [ ‫] فعل مضارع‬ ii. ﴾ ‫﴿ ... وَمَن ُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱلّهِ يَجِد فِي ٱ لْأَرْضِ ُرَاغَمًا كَثِريًا‬ ‫م‬ ْ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ “...He who forsakes his home in the cause of Allah, finds in the earth, a refuge, wide and spacious ”. (4:100). [ ‫] فعل مضارع جمزوم‬ B. Irregular Verbs [‫]ال ِعْل الَْجْ َف‬ ‫ف أ و‬ (1) In [ ‫ ]ََْ ْ َف‬verbs, there is an Alif on the [‫ ]ع‬letter. ‫الأجو‬ (2) The letter Alif on the [ ‫ ]ع‬letter often represents a [‫ ]ي‬or [‫ ]و‬even though it appears to be an Alif. This Alif is known as [ ‫.]َل ُ اْ َ ْ ُو َة‬ ‫أِف لممد د‬ َ‫ : قَال‬its Maṣdar is [ٌ ْ‫ ,]قَو‬its present tense is [ُ ‫.]يَ ُو‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قل‬ َ‫ : جاش‬its Maṣdar is [‫ ,]جَيْشان‬its present tense is [ُ ‫.]يَجِي‬ ‫ش‬ َ‫ : نام‬its Maṣdar is [ٌ ْ‫ ,]نَو‬its present tense is [ُ ‫.]يَنا‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ Depending on the middle letter, whether it is a ‫ , و , ي‬or ‫ , ا‬the middle letter in the [‫]فعل مضارع‬ e.g. (3) form retains this letter. We see that the [‫ ]ع‬middle letter for [ َ ‫ ]قا‬is a [‫ ]و‬because the middle letter ‫ل‬ is expressed as a [ ‫ ]و‬in its [ ‫مضارع‬ ‫ ]فعل‬form. (4) Similarly, for the verb [َ ‫ , ] با‬its middle [‫ ]ع‬letter is a [‫.]ي‬ ‫ع‬ 32
  • 33. Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ (5) A less common case is when the middle Alif is actually an Alif. This happens in the case of verbs like َ‫,خافَ ,نام‬ or َ‫.شاء‬ In the command tense, there is a Fatḥah, not a Ḍammah or Kasrah. An exception is its conjugation in the past tense, when there is a Kasrah before Sākin letters (letters carrying a Sukūn. For example, for [َ ‫ ]خا‬in the conjugation of [‫ ]َنا‬is conjugated as [ُ ْ ِ ], not ‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫خفت‬ as [ ُ ْ َ ] . ‫خفت‬ (6) For the Command state, the weak letter [ّ َْ ُ ‫معتل‬ ‫ ]حَرْف‬is deleted during conjugation of the single male tense form [ َ ْ ‫ ]أ‬and for [ َّ ‫ . ]أ ْ ت‬For all other conjugations of the Command Tense like [‫,]أ ُْما‬ ‫نت‬ ‫نُن‬ ‫نت‬ 6 [[ ْ ُْ ‫ ,أ‬and [ ِ ْ ‫ , ]أ‬the weak letter is retained. Even though the weak letter is deleted, the vowel is ‫نتم‬ ‫نت‬ retained which denotes the specific deleted vowel. For example, for the verb [ َ ‫ ,]قا‬the middle ‫م‬ letter [َ ] is deleted to derive [ْ ُ] . Here, the Ḍammah on the first letter [ُ ] indicates that the deleted ‫و‬ ‫قم‬ ‫ق‬ weak letter was indeed a [ َ ]. For the verb [َ‫ ,]سار‬the Command Tense form is [ْ ِ ]. Here the Kasrah ‫و‬ ‫سر‬ on the [ ِ ] indicates that the deleted weak letter is a [ ‫.]ي‬ ‫س‬ (7) For the Jazm state in present tense [‫ ,]املضارع‬the conjugation of the [‫ ]َْأ ْ َف‬form is practically ‫ال جو‬ identical. The [ّ َْ ُ ‫معتل‬ ‫]حَرْف‬ is again deleted as in the Command Tense of all single person conjugations (except single second person female) and plural female. The other conjugations retain the weak letter. For example, when a [‫ ] َ ْف َ ْم‬acts on the conjugated verb [ُ ‫ ,]َ ُو‬it becomes [ْ ُ َ] ‫حر جز‬ ‫تق م‬ ‫تقم‬ as the weak letter is omitted. Similarly, for the conjugated verb [ُ ِ َ], its Jazm state is [ْ ِ َ]. For the ‫نسري‬ ‫ن سر‬ conjugated verb [َ ‫ , ]َ ِ ُو‬however, its conjugation is [ ‫ ]َ ِ ُوا‬as the weak letter is retained since it is a ‫يسري ن‬ ‫يسري‬ plural male form. Please see Footnote #6 below regarding the deletion or retaining of the weak letter during conjugation. (8) For the Naṣb state in [ ‫ ,]املضارع‬the weak letter is retained in all conjugations except the conjugations with the Feminine Nūn.7 Similar to Sound verbs, the last vowel on single person conjugations retain a Fatḥah while plural or dual conjugations have their last Nūn deleted. 6 For the verb [َ‫ ,]قَا م‬the Command Tense conjugation for [َ‫ ]أَنْت‬is [ْ‫ ] ُو مِي‬not [ْ‫ ] ُمْي‬simply because it is not possible grammatically to ‫ق‬ ‫ق‬ have two consecutive Sukūn letters. Similarly, for the verb [َ‫ ,]سَار‬it would be [ْ‫ ,]سِ ريِي‬not [ْ‫.]سِرْي‬ 7 The exception is the [‫ ]ن‬of Femininity [‫ ,]نو ُ اإلناث‬which is [‫ ] مَبْنِي‬and cannot change its structure irrespective of I‛rāb. This occurs ‫ن‬ in the tense of [َّ ‫ ]ﻫ‬and [َّ ‫ ]أَنْت‬in verb conjugations. For example, the conjugated verb [ُ ‫ ]تَ ُو‬in Naṣb is [َ‫ ]تَ ُو م‬while [َ‫ ]تَ ُو ُون‬is [‫ .]تَ ُو ُوا‬The ‫ُن‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫قم‬ ‫ق‬ ‫قم‬ ‫قم‬ conjugation of [َ‫ ]تَ ُمْن‬containing the feminine Nūn remains [َ‫.]تَ ُمْن‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ق‬ 33
  • 34. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫[الفع ُ‬ ‫ْف‬ ‫]حَر ُ‬ ‫عَّة [‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫ا َ ْ َف] ‪Table 9: Various Conjugations of Derivatives of‬‬ ‫ألجو‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫‪on middle letter‬‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫األمر‬ ‫النصب‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫ماضي جمهول مضارع جمهول‬ ‫و‬ ‫قامَ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَ ُو ُ‬ ‫ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫لَنْ يَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫لَمْ يَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫قِيمَ‬ ‫ي م‬ ‫ُقا ُ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫زَادَ‬ ‫د‬ ‫يَزِي ُ‬ ‫زِدْ‬ ‫د‬ ‫لَنْ يَزِي ُ‬ ‫لَمْ يَزِدْ‬ ‫زِيْد‬ ‫ي د‬ ‫ُزا ُ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫خَافَ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫يَخا ُ‬ ‫خَفْ‬ ‫لَنْ يَخَافَ‬ ‫لَمْ يَخَفْ‬ ‫خِيفَ‬ ‫ي ف‬ ‫ُخا ُ‬ ‫ْف‬ ‫]حَر ُ‬ ‫عَّة [‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫مَصْدَر‬ ‫اِسْ ُ الْفاعِل اِسْ ُ الْمَفعول‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫قال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قائِ ٌ‬ ‫قل‬ ‫مَ ُو ٌ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قَوْ ٌ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫زَادَ‬ ‫د‬ ‫زائِ ٌ‬ ‫د‬ ‫مَزي ٌ‬ ‫د‬ ‫زَيْ ٌ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫[الفع ُ‬ ‫ا َ ْ َف {و}] ‪Table 10: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs‬‬ ‫ألجو‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫املاضى‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَ ُو ُ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫تَ ُو ُ‬ ‫يَ ُومانِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُومانِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُو ُونَ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَ ُمْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫قامَ‬ ‫قامَتْ‬ ‫قاما‬ ‫قامَتا‬ ‫قا ُوا‬ ‫م‬ ‫قمْنَ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫قم‬ ‫تَ ُو ُ‬ ‫تَ ُومانِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُو ُونَ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫ُمْتَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُمُْما‬ ‫قت‬ ‫قمُْتمْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَ ُومِنيَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُومانِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُمْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُمْتِ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُمُْما‬ ‫قت‬ ‫ُ ُن‬ ‫قمْت َّ‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫قم‬ ‫أَُو ُ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫نَ ُو ُ‬ ‫قم‬ ‫نَ ُو ُ‬ ‫قت‬ ‫ُمْ ُ‬ ‫ُمْنا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫قمْنا‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫فِعْل األَمْر‬ ‫ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫] قا َ [‬ ‫ل‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫ا ُضارِع‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫43‬
  • 35. ‫]الفعل‬ ‫املعت ّ[ ‪Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫‪] in Jazm and Naṣb‬الفع ُ‬ ‫‪Jazm‬‬ ‫ا َ ْ َف [ ‪Table 11: Conjugations of‬‬ ‫ألجو‬ ‫‪Naṣb‬‬ ‫] قا َ [‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫يَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَ ُومِي‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُمْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُومِي‬ ‫ق‬ ‫أَُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫نَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫نَ ُمْ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫أَُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫يَ ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَ ُمْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫يَ ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫يَقمْنَ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫تَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَ ُو ُوا‬ ‫قم‬ ‫تَ ُوما‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَقمْنَ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫نَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫نَ ُومَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫] الفع ُ ا َج َف {و}[ ‪(9) Qur’ānic Examples of‬‬ ‫ل أل ْو‬ ‫﴿...سَنَكُْ ُ مَا قَاُواْ وَقَتْلَ ُ ُ ٱألَنبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍ وَنَ ُو ُ ُو ُواْ عَذَابَ ٱلْحَرِيقِ‬ ‫ّ قلذق‬ ‫هم‬ ‫تب ل‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪i‬‬ ‫‪“...We will record what they said and their killing of the prophets without right and will say, "Taste‬‬ ‫]فعل أمر][فعل‬ ‫مضارع [ )181:3( .”‪the punishment of the Burning Fire‬‬ ‫﴿...فَإِن ُبُْمْ فَ ُوَ خَيْ ٌ َّ ُمْ ۚ وَإِن تَوَّيُْمْ فَٱعْلَ ُوا أَّ ُمْ غَيْ ُ ُعْجِ ِي َّهِ‬ ‫م َنك ر م ز ٱلل‬ ‫َل ت‬ ‫ت ت ه ر لك‬ ‫...﴾‬ ‫.‪ii‬‬ ‫‪“...So if you repent, that is best for you; but if you turn away - then know that you will not cause failure‬‬ ‫]فعل‬ ‫ما ٍ [ )3:9( .”. ..‪to Allah‬‬ ‫ض‬ ‫﴿ إِّي جَزَيُْ ُ ُ ٱ لْيَوْمَ بِمَا صَبَ ُوا أَّ ُمْ ُ ُ ٱلْفَائِ ُونَ‬ ‫ر َنه ﻫم ز‬ ‫تهم‬ ‫نِ‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫‪“ Indeed, I have rewarded them this Day for their patient endurance that they are the attainers [of‬‬ ‫]اسم فاعل [ )111:32( .”]‪success‬‬ ‫53‬ ‫.‪iii‬‬
  • 36. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫[الفع ُ األَجْوَف‬ ‫ل‬ ‫{ي}] ‪Table 12: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs‬‬ ‫املاضى‬ ‫ا ُضارِع‬ ‫مل‬ ‫]سا َ [‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫ري‬ ‫يَس ُ‬ ‫ري‬ ‫تَس ُ‬ ‫يَسريانِ‬ ‫تَسريانِ‬ ‫يَس ُونَ‬ ‫ري‬ ‫يَسِرْنَ‬ ‫سارَ‬ ‫سارَتْ‬ ‫سارا‬ ‫سارَتَا‬ ‫سا ُوا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫سِرْنَ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ري‬ ‫تَس ُ‬ ‫تَسريانِ‬ ‫تَس ُونَ‬ ‫ري‬ ‫سِرْتَ‬ ‫سِرُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫سِرُْتمْ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَسريينَ‬ ‫تَسريانِ‬ ‫تَسِرْنَ‬ ‫سِرْتِ‬ ‫سِرُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫سِرْت َّ‬ ‫ا ُتَكِّم‬ ‫مل َل‬ ‫ري‬ ‫أَس ُ‬ ‫ري‬ ‫نَس ُ‬ ‫ري‬ ‫نَس ُ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫سِرْ ُ‬ ‫سِرْنا‬ ‫سِرْنا‬ ‫األَمْر‬ ‫سِرْ‬ ‫سِريا‬ ‫سِ ُوا‬ ‫ري‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫الفع ُ ا َج َف }ي{ :‪(10) Qur’ānic Examples‬‬ ‫ل أل ْو‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫إَّ ُمْ يَكِي ُونَ كَيْدًا‬ ‫ِنه د‬ ‫۝‬ ‫وأَكِي ُ كَيْدًا‬ ‫َ د‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪i‬‬ ‫)61-51:68 ( .”‪“As for them, they are but plotting a plot, And I too am planning a plot‬‬ ‫]مصدر] [ فعل‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫مضارع] [مصدر] [ فعل مضارع [‬ ‫وَإِذَا سَمِ ُوا مَا ُنزِلَ إِلَى َّ ُولِ تَرىٰ أَعُْنَ ُمْ تَفِي ُ مِنَ َّمْعِ م َّا عَرَ ُوا مِنَ ٱلْحَ ّ ۚ يَ ُوُونَ رَّنَا‬ ‫قِ ق ل َب‬ ‫ٱلرس َ ي ه ض ٱلد ِم ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫آمَّا فَاكُْبْنَا مَعَ ٱ َّاﻫِدِينَ‬ ‫لش‬ ‫َن ت‬ ‫.‪ii‬‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫‪“And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with‬‬ ‫‪tears because of what they have recognized of the truth. They say, "Our Lord, we have believed, so‬‬ ‫] فعل مضارع [ )38:5 ( .” ‪register us among the witnesses‬‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫قُلْ سِريُوا فِي ٱلْأَرْضِ فَٱنظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ ٱلْمُجْرِمِنيَ‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪iii‬‬ ‫] فعل أمر [ )96:72 ( .”"‪“Say, "Travel through the land and see how was the end of the criminals‬‬ ‫﴿ يَوْمَ نَ ُو ُ لِجَهَّمَ ﻫَلِ ٱمْتَلَأْتِ وَتَ ُو ُ ﻫَلْ مِنْ مَزِيدٍ‬ ‫قل‬ ‫ق ل َن‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.” ",‪“On the Day We will say to Hell, "Have you been filled?" and it will say, "Are there some more‬‬ ‫]اسم‬ ‫63‬ ‫مفعول [ )03:05 (‬ ‫.‪iv‬‬
  • 37. Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ Table 13: Conjugations of Past/Present Tense Verbs {١} ‫ا َ ْ َف‬ ‫ألجو‬ ‫املاضى‬ ‫ا ُضارِع‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ‫الفع‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ [ َ ‫] نا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُو ُوا‬ ‫نم‬ َ‫نِمْن‬ ‫ناما‬ ‫نامَتا‬ َ‫نام‬ ْ‫نامَت‬ َ‫يَنا ُون‬ ‫م‬ َ‫يَنِمْن‬ ِ‫يَنامان‬ ِ‫تَنامَان‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫يَنا‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫تَنا‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ْ‫نِمُْتم‬ ‫نِمُْما‬ ‫ت‬ َ‫نِمْت‬ َ‫تَنا ُون‬ ‫م‬ ِ‫تَنامَان‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫تَنا‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ُن‬ َّ ‫نِمْت‬ ‫نِمُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ِ‫نِمْت‬ َ‫تَنِمْن‬ ِ‫تَنامَان‬ َ‫تَنامِني‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫نِمْنا‬ ‫نِمْنا‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ْ‫نِم‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫نَنا‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫نَنا‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫أَنا‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫نَا ُوا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ناما‬ ْ‫نَم‬ ‫األَمْر‬ (11) Qur’ānic Examples: {١} ‫الفع ُ ا َج َف‬ ‫ل أل ْو‬ i. ﴾ َ‫﴿ لَئِن بَسَطتَ إِل َّ يَدَكَ لِتَقُْلَنِي مَا أَنَاْ بِبَاسطٍ يَديَ إِلَيْكَ لِأَقُْلَكَ ۚ إِّي أَخَا ُ َّهَ ر َّ ٱلْعَالَمِني‬ ‫ف ٱلل َب‬ ِ‫ن‬ ‫ت‬ ِ ِ ‫ت‬ ‫َي‬ “If you should raise your hand against me to kill me I shall not raise my hand against you to kill you. Indeed, I fear Allah, Lord of the worlds”. (5:28) [ ‫]فعل مضارع‬ ii. ﴾ َ‫﴿ فَطَافَ عَلَيْهَا طَائِ ٌ مِنْ رِّكَ وَ ُمْ نَائِ ُون‬ ‫ف َب ﻫ م‬ “So there came upon the garden an affliction from your Lord while they were asleep”. ( 68:19) [ ‫]اسم فاعل‬ iii. ﴾ ٍ‫﴿...قَاُواْ الَ َتخَفْ إَّا ُرْسِلْنَا إِلَى قَوْمِ ُوط‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ِن أ‬ ‫ل‬ “…They said, "Fear not. We have been sent to the people of Lūt”. ( 11:70) [ ‫جمزوم‬ iv. ﴾ ‫]فعل مضارع‬ َ‫﴿ فَفَرَرْ ُ مِن ُمْ ل َّا خِفُْ ُمْ فَوَﻫَبَ لِي رَّي ُكْمًا وَجَعَلَنِي مِنَ ٱلْ ُرْسَلِني‬ ‫م‬ ‫بِ ح‬ ‫ت ك َم تك‬ “So I fled from you when I feared you. Then my Lord granted me wisdom and Prophethood and appointed me from the messengers ”. ( 26:21) [ ٍ ‫ما‬ ‫ض‬ ‫]فعل‬ C. Irregular Verbs [‫]ال ِعْل الَّا ِص‬ ‫ف نق‬ (1) Similar to [‫ ]ََْ ْ َف‬verbs, the last vowel Alif can be a ‫,ا , و‬ ‫الأجو‬ (2) This Alif is known as [ ‫.]َل ُ اْ َ ْصو َة‬ ‫اِف لمق ر‬ or ‫.ي‬ (3) One important rule to note is when the verb is in the Command State or in Jazm. The last letter is dropped, and remaining vowel at the end is a sign of the omitted letter. 37
  • 38. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫]اَلْفعل‬ ‫]دَعا‬ ‫[‬ ‫َّا ِص[ ‪Table 14: Conjugation of Various Derivatives of‬‬ ‫الن ق‬ ‫ماضي‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫جمهول‬ ‫جمهول‬ ‫ُدْعَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫الفعل األمر‬ ‫النصب‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫‪Ḍammah‬‬ ‫دَعا‬ ‫يَدْ ُوْ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ُدْ ُ‬ ‫لَنْ يَدْ ُوَ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫لَمْ يَدْ ُ‬ ‫ُعِيَ‬ ‫د‬ ‫‪Kasrah‬‬ ‫رَمَي‬ ‫يَرْمِيْ‬ ‫اِرْمِ‬ ‫لَنْ يَرْمَى‬ ‫لَمْ يَرْمِ‬ ‫ُمِيَ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ُيرْمَى‬ ‫‪Fatḥah‬‬ ‫لَقِيَ‬ ‫يَلْقَي‬ ‫ِالْقَ‬ ‫لَنْ يَلْقَى‬ ‫لَمْ يَلْقَ‬ ‫ُقِيَ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ُلْقَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫‪Vowel in‬‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫اسم الفاعل اسم الْمفعول مَصْدَر‬ ‫‪Ḍammah in‬‬ ‫دَعَا‬ ‫دَاعٍ‬ ‫ُو‬ ‫مَدْع ٌّ‬ ‫د ء‬ ‫ُعَا ٌ‬ ‫‪Kasrah in‬‬ ‫رَضِيَ‬ ‫راضٍ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫مَرْضِ ٌ‬ ‫رِضْوان‬ ‫‪Fatḥah in‬‬ ‫ﻫَدَى‬ ‫ﻫَادٍ‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫مَهْد ٌّ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ﻫَدْ ٌ‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]اَلْفِعْ ُ‬ ‫]اَلْفِعْ ُ َّاقِص‬ ‫ل الن‬ ‫{و}[ ‪Table 15: Conjugation of‬‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫املاضى‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫يَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫يَرْ ُوَانِ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫يَرْ ُونَ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫رَجا‬ ‫رَجَوَا‬ ‫رَجَوْا‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫تَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُوَانِ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫يَرْ ُونَ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫رَجَتْ‬ ‫رَجَتا‬ ‫رَجَوْنَ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْجنيَ‬ ‫تَرْ ُوَانِ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُوَانِ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُونَ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُونَ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫رَجَوْتَ‬ ‫رَجَوْتِ‬ ‫رَجَوُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫رَجَوُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫رَجَوُْم‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫رَجَوْت َّ‬ ‫ا ُتَكِّم‬ ‫مل َل‬ ‫أَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫نَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫نَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ت‬ ‫رَجَوْ ُ‬ ‫رَجَوْنا‬ ‫رَجَوْنا‬ ‫الفعل األمر‬ ‫اج‬ ‫ُرْ ُ‬ ‫ُرْجا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ُرْ ُوا‬ ‫اج‬ ‫] َجا [‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ا ُضارِع‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫َّا ِص {و}[ : ‪Complete Verb Conjugation‬‬ ‫الن ق‬ ‫)4(‬ ‫83‬
  • 39. Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ Table 16: Conjugation of [‫َّا ِص‬ ‫الن ق‬ Naṣb ‫جَمع‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫]اَلْفِع‬ ‫]الفعل‬ in Jazm and Naṣb ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫يَرْ ُوا‬ ‫ج‬ َ‫يَرْ ُون‬ ‫ج‬ ‫يَرْ ُوَا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُوَا‬ ‫ج‬ َ‫يَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ َ‫تَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫يَرْ ُوا‬ ‫ج‬ َ‫يَرْ ُون‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُوا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُوَا‬ ‫ج‬ َ‫تَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُون‬ َ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُوَا‬ ‫ج‬ َ‫نَرْجو‬ ُ َ‫نَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ Jazm ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ [ ‫] َجا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫يَرْ ُوَا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُوَا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ج‬ ُ ْ‫يَر‬ ‫ج‬ ُ ْ‫تَر‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫تَرْ ُوا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُوَا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ج‬ ُ ْ‫تَر‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَرْجِي‬ ‫تَرْ ُون‬ َ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْ ُوَا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫تَرْجِي‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ َ‫أَرْ ُو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ج‬ ُ ْ‫نَر‬ ‫ج‬ ُ ْ‫نَر‬ ‫ج‬ ُ ْ‫أَر‬ ‫ا ُتَكِّم‬ ‫مل َل‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ (5) Qur’ānic Examples of [{‫]َلْفعل َّا ِص} و‬ ‫ا الن ق‬ i. ﴾... ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫﴿ َّا كَانَ عَلَى َّبِ ّ مِنْ حَرَجٍ فِيمَا فَرَضَ َّ ُ لَ ُ سَّةَ َّهِ فِي َّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِن قَب‬ ‫ٱل‬ ‫ٱلله ه ُن ٱلل‬ ِ‫الن ي‬ ‫م‬ “There is not to be upon the Prophet any discomfort concerning that which Allah has imposed upon him. [This is] the established way of Allah with those [prophets] who have passed on before...”. (33:38) [ ٍ ‫ما‬ ‫ض‬ ii. ﴾ ‫] فعل‬ َ‫﴿ ٱلذِينَ ُنفِ ُونَ فِي ٱلس َّاءِ وَٱلض َّاءِ وَٱلْكَاظِمِنيَ ٱلْغَْيظَ وَٱلْعَافِنيَ عَنِ َّاسِ ۚ و َّ ُ ُح ُّ ٱلْ ُحْسِنِني‬ ‫َٱلله ي ِب م‬ ‫ٱلن‬ ‫َّر‬ ‫َّر‬ ‫َّ ي ق‬ “Who spend [in the cause of Allah] during ease and hardship and who restrain anger and who pardon the people - and Allah loves the doers of good”. ( 3:134) [ ‫]اسم فاعل‬ iii. ‫﴿... رَّنَا وَلَا ُحَ ّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ ۚ وَٱعْ ُ عَّا وَٱغْفِرْ لَنَا وَٱرْحَمْنَآ‬ ‫ف َن‬ ِ‫ت م‬ ‫َب‬ ﴾... “…Our Lord, and burden us not with that which we have no ability to bear. And pardon us; and forgive us; and have mercy upon us ….”. ( 2:286) [ ‫] فعل أمر‬ iv. ۚ ‫﴿ وَرَبَطْنَا عَلَى ُُوبِهِمْ إِذْ قَا ُوا فَقَاُوا رُّنَا ر ُّ َّمَاوَات وَٱلْأَرْضِ لَن َّدْ ُوَاْ مِن ُونِهِ إِلَهًا‬ ‫د‬ ‫نع‬ ِ ‫م ل َب َب ٱلس‬ ‫قل‬ ﴾ ‫َّلقَدْ ُلْنَا إِذًا شَطَطًا‬ ‫ق‬ “And We made firm their hearts when they stood up and said, "Our Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth. Never will we invoke besides Him any deity. We would have certainly spoken, then, an excessive transgression”. (18:14) [ ‫] فعل مضارع منصوب‬ 39
  • 40. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫﴿ وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَّي فَإِّي قَرِي ٌ ۚ ُجِي ُ دَعْوَةَ َّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ ۚ‬ ‫ٱلد‬ ‫نِ نِ ب أ ب‬ ‫فَلْيَسْتَجِيُوا لِي وَلُْؤْمُِوا بِي لَعَّ ُمْ يَرْ ُ ُونَ‬ ‫َله شد‬ ‫ي ن‬ ‫ب‬ ‫.‪v‬‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫‪“And when My servants ask you, concerning Me - indeed I am near. I respond to the invocation of the‬‬ ‫.”‪supplicant when he calls upon Me. So let them respond to Me and believe in Me that they may be guided‬‬ ‫] فعل ما ٍ][اسم فاعل][مصدر[ )681:2(‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]اَلْفِعْ ُ‬ ‫]اَلْفِعْ ُ َّاقِص‬ ‫ل الن‬ ‫{ي} [ ‪Table 17: Conjugation of‬‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫يَجْزِي‬ ‫يَجْزِيانِ‬ ‫يَجْ ُونَ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫جَزَي‬ ‫جَزيا‬ ‫جَزَوْا‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫تَجْزِي‬ ‫تَجْزِيانِ‬ ‫يَجْزيْنَ‬ ‫جَزَتْ‬ ‫جَزَتا‬ ‫جَزَيْنَ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَجْزي‬ ‫تَجْزِينَ‬ ‫تَجْزِيانِ‬ ‫تَجْزِيانِ‬ ‫تَجْزونَ‬ ‫تَجْزِيْنَ‬ ‫جَزَيْتَ‬ ‫جَزَيْتِ‬ ‫جَزَيُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫جَزَيُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫جَزَيُْتمْ‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫جَزَيْت َّ‬ ‫ا ُتَكِّم‬ ‫مل َل‬ ‫أَجْزِي‬ ‫نَجْزِي‬ ‫نَجْزي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫جَزَيْ ُ‬ ‫جَزَيْنا‬ ‫جَزَيْنا‬ ‫فعل األمر‬ ‫اِجْزِ‬ ‫اِجْزيا‬ ‫اِجْ ُوا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫] َ َى [‬ ‫جر‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫املضارِع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫َّا ِص {ي} [ :‪Complete Verb Conjugation‬‬ ‫الن ق‬ ‫)6(‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]اَلْفِعْ ُ‬ ‫َّا ِص {ي}[ ‪(7) Qur’ānic Examples of‬‬ ‫الن ق‬ ‫﴿ َّثَ ُ ٱلْجَّةِ َّتِي ُعِدَ ٱلْمَّ ُونَ ۚ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَا ُ ۚ ُ ُُهَا دَائِ ٌ وَظُّهَا ۚ‬ ‫ر أكل م ِل‬ ‫ُتق‬ ‫م ل َن ٱل و‬ ‫لن ر‬ ‫تِلْكَ ُقْبَى ٱَّذِينَ ٱَّقَوا ۚ َّ ُقْبَى ٱلْكَافِرِينَ ٱ َّا ُ‬ ‫وع‬ ‫ع ل ت‬ ‫.‪i‬‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪“The example of Paradise, which the righteous have been promised, is [that] beneath it rivers flow‬‬ ‫‪Its fruit is lasting, and its shade. That is the consequence for the righteous, and the consequence for‬‬ ‫] فعل مضارع [ )53:31( .”‪the disbelievers is the Fire‬‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫قَاُواْ جَزَآ ُ ُ مَن ُجِدَ فِي رَحْلِهِ فَ ُوَ جَزَا ُ ُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَجْ ِي َّالِمِنيَ‬ ‫ز ٱلظ‬ ‫ؤه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ؤه و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫‪“They said, "Its recompense is that he in whose bag it is found - he will be its recompense. Thus do we‬‬ ‫]مصدر] [مصدر] [ فعل مضارع [ )57:21( .”"‪recompense the wrongdoers‬‬ ‫04‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪ii‬‬
  • 41. ‫]الفعل‬ ‫املعت ّ[ ‪Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫﴿ فَل َّا أَجنَا ُمْ إِذَا ُمْ يَبْ ُونَ فِي ٱلْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ ٱلْحَ ّ ۚ يَا أُّهَا َّا ُ إَّمَا بَغُْ ُمْ عَلَىٰ أَن ُسِ ُم ۚ‬ ‫ف ك‬ ‫َي ٱلن س ِن يك‬ ‫قِ‬ ‫َم ﻫ ﻫ غ‬ ‫.‪iii‬‬ ‫َّتَاعَ ٱلْحَيَاةِ ٱ ُّنْيَ‬ ‫لد‬ ‫م‬ ‫...﴾‬ ‫,‪“But when He saves them, at once they commit injustice upon the earth without right. Oh mankind‬‬ ‫)32:01 ( .”... .‪your injustice is only against yourselves, [being merely] the enjoyment of worldly life‬‬ ‫] فعل مضارع [‬ ‫﴿...وَلَا تَنسَ نَصِيبَكَ مِنَ ُّنْيَا ۚ وَأَحْسِن كَمَا أَحْسَنَ َّ ُ إِلَيْكَ ۚ وَلَا تَبْغِ ٱلْفَسَادَ فِي ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ‬ ‫ٱلله‬ ‫ٱلد‬ ‫إ َّ ٱ َّهَ لَا ُح ُّ ٱلْ ُفْسِدِينَ‬ ‫ِن لل ي ِب م‬ ‫.‪iv‬‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫‪“…And Do not forget your share of the world. And do good as Allah has done good to you. And desire not‬‬ ‫] فعل مضارع جمزوم [ )77:82( . ” ‪corruption in the land. Indeed, Allah does not like corrupters‬‬ ‫]اَلْفعل َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫]اَلْفعل َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫{ا}[ ‪(8) Complete Verb Conjugation of‬‬ ‫{ا}[ ‪Table 18: Conjugation of‬‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫املضارِع‬ ‫] َ َى [‬ ‫طغ‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫يَطْغَى‬ ‫يَطْغَيانِ‬ ‫يَطْغَوْنَ‬ ‫طَغَى‬ ‫طَغَيا‬ ‫طَغَوا‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫تَطْغَى‬ ‫تَطْغَيانِ‬ ‫يَطْغَيْنَ‬ ‫طَغَتْ‬ ‫طَغَتا‬ ‫طَغَيْنَ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَطْغَى‬ ‫تَطْغَيْنَ‬ ‫تَطْغَيانِ‬ ‫تَطْغَيانِ‬ ‫تَطْغَوْنَ‬ ‫تَطْغَيْنَ‬ ‫طَغَيْتَ‬ ‫طَغَيْتِ‬ ‫طَغَيُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫طَغَيُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫طَغَيُْتمْ‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫طَغَيْت َّ‬ ‫ا َُتكِّم‬ ‫مل َل‬ ‫أَطْغَى‬ ‫نَطْغَى‬ ‫نَطْغَى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫طَغَيْ ُ‬ ‫طَغَيْنا‬ ‫طَغَيْنا‬ ‫فعل األمر‬ ‫اِطْغَ‬ ‫اِطْغَيا‬ ‫اِطْغَوْا‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫]َلْفعل َّا ِص {ا}[ ‪(9) Qur’ānic Examples of‬‬ ‫ا الن ق‬ ‫﴿ تِلْكَ ُ ُو ُ َّهِ ۚ وَمَن ُطِعِ َّهَ وَرَ ُولَ ُ ُدْخِلْ ُ جَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱْل أَنْهَا ُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ي ٱلل س ه ي ه َن‬ ‫حد د ٱلل‬ ‫َ َِٰ َ ٱ ْ َ ْ ُ ٱ ْ َ ِي ُ ﴾‬ ‫وذلك لفوز لعظ م‬ ‫.‪i‬‬ ‫‪“These are the limits of Allah, and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted by Him‬‬ ‫.”‪to Gardens under which rivers flow, abiding eternally therein; and that is the great attainment‬‬ ‫] فعل مضارع جمزوم [ )31:4(‬ ‫﴿ يَحْلِ ُون لَ ُمْ لِتَرْضَوْا عَنْ ُمْ فَإِن تَرْضَوْا عَنْ ُمْ ۚ فَإِن تَرْضَوْا عَنْ ُمْ فَإ َّ َّهَ لَا يَرْضَىٰ عَنِ ٱلْقَوْمِ ٱلْفَاسِقِنيَ‬ ‫ه ِن ٱلل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ف َ ك‬ ‫‪“They will swear unto you, that you may be pleased with them but if you are pleased with them, Allah‬‬ ‫]فعل مضارع جمزوم] [فعل مضارع جمزوم] [فعل مضارع منصوب [ )69:9( .”‪is not pleased with those who disobey‬‬ ‫14‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪ii‬‬
  • 42. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic ‫﴿ وَلَا تَنسَ نَصِيبَكَ مِنَ ُّنْيَا ۚ وَأَحْسِن كَمَا أَحْسَنَ َّ ُ إِلَيْكَ ۚ وَلَا تَبْغِ ٱلْفَسَادَ فِي ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ إ َّ َّهَ لَا‬ ‫ِن ٱلل‬ ‫ٱلله‬ ‫ٱلد‬ iii. ﴾ َ‫ُح ُّ ٱلْ ُفْسِدِين‬ ‫ي ِب م‬ “…And Do not forget your share of the world. And do good as Allah has done good to you. And desire not corruption in the land. Indeed, Allah does not like corrupters”. ( 28:77) [ ‫جمزوم‬ iv. ﴾ ‫]فعل مضارع‬ ً‫﴿ ٱرْجِعِي إِلَى رَّكِ رَاضِيَةً َّرْضَّة‬ ‫م ِي‬ ِ‫ب‬ “Return to your Lord, well-pleased and pleasing [to Him]”. ( 89:28) [ ‫مفعول] [اسم فاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬ II. Verbs with Two Vowelled letters: [‫] لفِي ُ الْمَقْ ُون[ & ] لَفِي ُ املَفْ ُوق‬ ‫ف ر‬ ‫ف ر‬ ‫مل ل‬ ّ َ‫ا ُعْت‬ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫املِثال‬ ‫األجْ َف‬ ‫و‬ ‫لَفِي ُ الْمَقْ ُون‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ف‬ ‫لَفِي ُ الْمَفْروق‬ ‫ف‬ A. Verbs with Two Separate Vowelled letters ]‫]َ ِي ُ ا َفْ ُوق‬ ‫لف ف مل ر‬ (1) This verb group is really a combination of [‫ ]ا ِ ثال‬and [‫. ]ا َّاِص‬ ‫مل‬ ‫َلن ق‬ (2) In the Command State in single form, there is only one letter. This happens as both vowel letters are chopped off during conjugation. Recall that the vowel letter [‫ ]حرف عَّة‬is taken off from the verb in the other ‫ِل‬ Irregular Verbs that contain a single vowel letter. For example, the Command from conjugated from verbs [ ‫ ] ََي‬and [ ‫ ] ََي‬is respectively [ ِ ] and [ ِ ] . ‫وق‬ ‫وف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ف‬ . 42
  • 43. ‫]الفعل‬ ‫ف‬ ‫]وقَى[ :}لَفِي ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫املعت ّ[ ‪Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا َ ْ ُوق{ ‪Table 19: Verb Conjugation of Various Derivatives of‬‬ ‫ملفر‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫الفع ُ الْأَمر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫النصب‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫وَقَي‬ ‫يَقِي‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ماضي جمهول مضارع جمهول‬ ‫لَنْ يَقِيَ‬ ‫لَمْ يَقِ‬ ‫ُقِيَ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ُوقَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫اسم الفاعل‬ ‫اس ُ الْمَفعول‬ ‫م‬ ‫مَصْدَر‬ ‫وَقَي‬ ‫واقٍ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫مَوْقِ ٌ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وِقايَ ٌ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫]لَفِي ُ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫]لَفِي ُ‬ ‫ا َف ُوق[ : ‪(3) Complete Verb Conjugation‬‬ ‫مل ْر‬ ‫ا َ ْ ُوق[ ‪Table 20: Verb Conjugation of‬‬ ‫ملفر‬ ‫الفِع ُ الضارِع‬ ‫ْل‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫يَقِي‬ ‫يَقِيانِ‬ ‫يَ ُوْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫وَقَى‬ ‫وَقَيا‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫تَقِي‬ ‫تَقِيانِ‬ ‫يَقِيْنَ‬ ‫وَقَتْ‬ ‫وَقَتا‬ ‫وَقَيْنَ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَقِي‬ ‫تَقِنيَ‬ ‫تَقِيانِ‬ ‫تَقِيانِ‬ ‫تَ ُوْنَ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫تَقِيْنَ‬ ‫وَقَيْتَ‬ ‫وَقَيْتِ‬ ‫وَقَيُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وَقَيُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وَقَيُْتمْ‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫وَقَيْت َّ‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫أَقِي‬ ‫نَقِي‬ ‫نَقِي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وَقَيْ ُ‬ ‫وَقَيْنَا‬ ‫وَقَيْنا‬ ‫فعل األمر‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫قِيا‬ ‫ُوْا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫] َ َى [‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫الفِع ُ املاضى‬ ‫ْل‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫وَقَوْا‬ ‫ا َ ْ ُوق[ ‪(4) Qur’ānic Examples of‬‬ ‫ملفر‬ ‫ف‬ ‫]لَفِي ُ‬ ‫﴿...وَ ْ ُوا ِ َ ْ ِي ُو ِ ب َ ْ ِ ُ ْ َ إَّا َ َٱ ْ َُو ِ ﴾‬ ‫َأوف بعهد أ ف ِعهدكم وِي ي ف رﻫب ن‬ ‫.‪i‬‬ ‫‪“…and fulfill My covenant [upon you] that I will fulfill your covenant [from Me], and be afraid of only‬‬ ‫] فعل أمر [ ] فعل مضارع جمزوم [ )04:2( .”‪Me‬‬ ‫﴿ وَإِذَا أَرَادَ َّ ُ بِقَوْمٍ ُوءًا فَلَا مَر َّ لَ ُ ۚ وَمَا لَ ُم مِنْ ُونِهِ مِنْ وَالٍ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ه‬ ‫َد ه‬ ‫س‬ ‫ٱلله‬ ‫‪“...And when Allah intends for a people ill, there is no repelling it. And there is not for them besides‬‬ ‫]اسم فاعل [ )11:31( .”‪Him any protector‬‬ ‫34‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫.‪ii‬‬
  • 44. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic iii. ﴾ َ‫﴿...وَمَنْ ُوقَ ش َّ نَفْسِهِ فَ ُولَٰئِكَ ُ ُ ٱلْ ُفْلِ ُون‬ ‫ﻫم م ح‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي ُح‬ “…And whoever is protected from the stinginess of his soul - it is those who will be the successful”. (59:9) [ ‫]فعل مضارع جمهول‬ B. Verbs with Two Adjacent Vowelled letters: [‫]َ ِي ُ ا َقْ ُون‬ ‫لف ف مل ر‬ Table 21: Conjugation of Various Derivatives of [‫ا َ ْ ُون‬ ‫ملقر‬ ‫ماضي جمهول مضارع جمهول‬ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫]لَفِي‬ ‫اجلزم‬ ‫النصب‬ ‫الفع ُ الْأَمر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫املضارع‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫ُورَي‬ ‫ي‬ َ‫ُوِي‬ ‫ر‬ ِ‫لَمْ يَر‬ ‫لَنْ يَرَي‬ ‫ر‬ َ ‫يَرَي‬ ‫رَوَي‬ ‫ُكْوَى‬ ‫ي‬ َ‫ُوِى‬ ‫ك‬ ِ‫لَمْ يَكْو‬ َ‫لَنْ يَكْوِى‬ ِ‫اِكْو‬ ‫يَكْوِى‬ ‫كَوَى‬ ‫مَصْدَر‬ ‫اسم الْمَفعول‬ ‫اسم الفاعل‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫َي‬ ٌّ ‫ك‬ ‫ِي‬ ٌّ ِ‫مَكْو‬ ٍ‫كاو‬ ‫كَوَى‬ Qur’ānic Examples of [ ‫ا َق ُون‬ ‫مل ر‬ i. ﴾ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫]لَفِي‬ َ‫﴿...وَمَا ُنْتَ ثَاوِيًا فِي أَﻫْلِ مَدْيَنَ تَْتُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِنَا وَلَٰكَّا كَّا ُرْسِلِني‬ ‫ِن ُن م‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ “…And you were not a resident among the people of Madyan, reciting to them Our verses, but We were senders [of this message]”. (28:45) [ ‫]اسم فاعل‬ ii. ۚ ‫قَالَ َّذِينَ ح َّ عَلَيْهِ ُ ٱلْقَوْ ُ رَّنَا ﻫَ ُلَاءِ َّذِينَ أَغْوَيْنَا أَغْوَيْنَا ُمْ كَمَا غَوَيْنَا‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫َق م ل َب ؤ ٱل‬ ‫ٱل‬ ﴾ ﴿ َ‫تَب َّأْنَا إِلَيْكَ ۚ مَا كَاُوا إَّانَا يَعُْ ُون‬ ‫ن ِي بد‬ ‫َر‬ “Those upon whom the word will have come into effect will say, "Our Lord, these are the ones we led to error. We led them to error just as we were in error. We declare our disassociation [from them] to You. They did not used to worship us"”. (28:63) [ ٍ ‫] فعل ما‬ ‫ض‬ iii. ۚ ْ‫﴿ يَوْمَ ُحْمَى عَلَيْهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَّمَ فَُكْوَى بِهَا جِبَا ُ ُمْ وَ ُنوُ ُمْ وَ ُ ُو ُ ُم‬ ‫ﻫه ج به ظه رﻫ‬ ‫َن ت‬ ‫ي‬ ﴾ َ‫ﻫَٰذَا مَا كَنَزُْمْ لِأَن ُسِ ُمْ فَ ُو ُواْ مَا ُنُمْ تَكْنِ ُون‬ ‫كت ز‬ ‫ت ف ك ذق‬ “The Day when it will be heated in the fire of Hell and branded therewith will be their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs, [it will be said], "This is what you hoarded for yourselves, so taste what you used to hoard"”. (9:35) [ ‫] فعل مضارع جمهول‬ 44
  • 45. ‫]الفعل‬ ‫املعت ّ[ ‪Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]املهْ ُوز َ الّا ِص[ ‪III. Verb Conjugation of Irregular Verb Combination‬‬ ‫م و نق‬ ‫]املهْ ُوز وَ‬ ‫م‬ ‫]أتَي‬ ‫[‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫الّا ِص[ ‪Table 22: Conjugation of Other Irregular Verbs‬‬ ‫نق‬ ‫الفِع ُ الضارِع‬ ‫ْل‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫الفِع ُ املاضى‬ ‫ْل‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫يَأْتِي‬ ‫تَأْتِي‬ ‫يَأْتِيانِ‬ ‫تَأْتِيانِ‬ ‫يَأُْونَ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫يَأْتِيْنَ‬ ‫أَتَى‬ ‫أَتَتْ‬ ‫أَتَيا‬ ‫أَتَيْتا‬ ‫أَتَوْا‬ ‫أَتَيْنَ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَأْتِي‬ ‫تَأْتِيانِ‬ ‫تَأُْونَ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أَتَيْتَ‬ ‫أَتَيُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أَتَيُْتمْ‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫تَأْتِنيَ‬ ‫تَأْتِيانِ‬ ‫تَأْتِيْنَ‬ ‫أَتَيْتِ‬ ‫أَتَيُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫أَتَيْت َّ‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫آتِي‬ ‫نَأْتِى‬ ‫نَأْتِي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أَتَيْ ُ‬ ‫أَتَيْنا‬ ‫أَتَيْنا‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ الْأََمر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اِئْتِ‬ ‫اِئْتِيا‬ ‫اِئُْوا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫]املهْ ُوز وَ‬ ‫م‬ ‫الّا ِص [ ‪Qur’ānic Examples of‬‬ ‫نق‬ ‫﴿ وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ َّذِينَ ُوُْواْ ٱ لْكِتَابَ بِ ُ ّ آيَةٍ َّا تَبِ ُواْ قِبْلَتَكَ ۚ وَمَا أَنتَ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَتَ ُمْ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫كلِ م ع‬ ‫ٱل أ ت‬ ‫... ﴾‬ ‫.‪i‬‬ ‫‪“And if you brought to those who were given the Scripture every sign, they would not follow your‬‬ ‫] فعل ما ٍ [ )541:2( .”..‪Qibla. Nor will you be a follower of their Qibla‬‬ ‫ض‬ ‫﴿ وَقَالَ َّذِينَ كَفَ ُوا لَا تَأْتِينَا َّاعَ ُ ۚ ُلْ بَلَى وَرَّي لَتَأْتِيَّ ُمْ عَالِمِ‬ ‫َنك‬ ‫بِ‬ ‫الس ة ق‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا ْ َ ْ ِ... ﴾‬ ‫لغيب‬ ‫.‪ii‬‬ ‫‪“But those who disbelieve say, "The Hour will not come to us." Say, "Yes, by my Lord, it will surely‬‬ ‫] فعل مضارع] [ فعل مضارع [ )3:43( .”…‪come to you. [Allah is] the Knower of the unseen‬‬ ‫﴿...وَالَ يَأْبَ كَاتِ ٌ أَنْ يَكُْبَ كَمَا عَّمَ ُ ٱلله‬ ‫َل ه ّ ُ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬ ‫...﴾‬ ‫] فعل مضارع جمزوم [ )282:2( .”.… ‪“…Let no scribe refuse to write as Allah has taught him‬‬ ‫54‬ ‫.‪iii‬‬
  • 46. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Table 23 A: Summary of [ِ ‫] ِعْل ُّالثي َلْ ُج َّ ِ الْ َ ِ َا‬ ‫ا م َرد غريس مل‬ ‫ف الث‬ ‫املاضي‬ Verb type ‫املضارع‬ ‫الفعل األمر‬ ‫اَلْمَهْ ُوز‬ ‫م‬ Hamza on ‫ ف‬letter َ‫أَكَل‬ ‫كل‬ ُ ُ ْ‫يَأ‬ ْ‫ُلْ/ُؤْ ُل‬ ‫ك اك‬ Verb with Hamza Hamza on ‫ ع‬letter َ‫سَأَل‬ ‫ل‬ ُ َ‫يَسْأ‬ ْ‫اِسْأَلْ/سَل‬ Hamza on ‫ ل‬letter َ‫قَرَأ‬ ‫أ‬ َُ‫يَقْر‬ ْ‫إِقْرَأ‬ Ḍammah on ‫ ف‬in present tense Verb with Shadda on its last two Kasrah on ‫ ف‬in present letters ‫َد‬ َّ ‫م‬ ‫ُد‬ ُّ ‫يَم‬ ‫ُد‬ َّ ‫ م‬or ْ‫ُمْ ُد‬ ‫اد‬ ‫َل‬ َّ ‫ذ‬ ‫ِل‬ ُّ ‫يَذ‬ ‫ِل‬ َّ ‫ ذ‬or ْ‫اِذْلِل‬ Fatḥah on ‫ ف‬in present ‫َس‬ َّ ‫م‬ ‫َس‬ ُّ ‫يَم‬ ‫َس‬ َّ ‫ م‬or ْ‫اِمْسَس‬ ‫اَلْ ُضَاعَف‬ ‫م‬ ‫ل م ل‬ ّ َ‫:الفِعْ ُ الْ ُعْت‬ Verb with a vowel letter (weak letter) ‫ ع‬in present َ‫وَزَن‬ ‫ن‬ ُ ِ‫يَز‬ ْ‫زِن‬ Fatḥah on ‫ ع‬in present َ‫وَضَع‬ ‫ع‬ ُ َ‫يَض‬ ْ‫ضَع‬ letter Kasrah on ‫ ع‬in present َ‫وَرِث‬ ‫ث‬ ُ ِ‫يَر‬ ْ‫رث‬ ِ ‫اَلْأَجْوَف‬ ‫ ع‬letter has ‫و‬ َ‫قام‬ ‫قم‬ ُ ‫يَ ُو‬ ْ‫ُم‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ ع‬letter has ‫ي‬ َ‫باع‬ ‫ع‬ ُ ‫يَبِي‬ ْ‫بِع‬ letter ‫ ع‬letter has ‫ا‬ َ‫شاء‬ ‫ء‬ ُ ‫يَشا‬ ْ‫شَئ‬ ‫ا َّاقِص‬ ‫َلن‬ ‫ ع‬letter takes Ḍammah ‫دَعا‬ ْ‫يَدْ ُو‬ ‫ع‬ ‫أع‬ ُ ْ‫ُد‬ ‫ ع‬letter takes Kasrah ‫رَمَي‬ ْ‫يَرْمِي‬ ِ‫إِرْم‬ letter ‫ ع‬letter takes Fatḥah َ‫لَقِي‬ ‫يَلْقَي‬ َ‫ِالْق‬ ‫لَفِي ُ املَفْ ُوق‬ ‫ف ر‬ Two Vowel letters separated ‫وَقَي‬ ‫يَقِي‬ ‫ق‬ ِ ‫لَفِي ُ املَقْ ُون‬ ‫ف ر‬ Two vowel letters adjacent ‫رَوَي‬ ‫يَرَي‬ ‫ر‬ َ ‫اَلْمِثال‬ Verb with ّ ‫ُ ْت‬ ‫معَل‬ letter on its ‫ف‬ Verb with ّ ‫ُ ْت‬ ‫معَل‬ letter on its ‫ع‬ Verbs with ّ ‫ُ ْت‬ ‫معَل‬ letter on its ‫ف‬ Kasrah on 46
  • 47. Lesson 3: Irregular Verbs [ّ ‫املعت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ Table 23B: Present Tense Verbs and Their Different Inflections ‫اجلزم‬ ‫النصب‬ ‫الرفع‬ Sukūn Fatḥah Ḍammah Omission of the Nūn Omission of the Nūn Preservation of the Nūn ‫اَلْحَذْ ُ ُّون‬ ‫ف الن‬ ‫ي‬ ّ ِ‫مَبْن‬ Omission of Weak Letter ‫اَلْحَذْ ُ ُّون‬ ‫ف الن‬ ‫ا َُّو ُ ُّون‬ ‫َلثب ت الن‬ ‫ي‬ ّ ِ‫مَبْن‬ ‫ي‬ ّ ِ‫مَبْن‬ Fatḥah Ḍammah 47 Last Letter(s) of Verb ‫َّحي ُ اآلخِر‬ ‫الص ح‬ Single tense Verbs ending with sound last root letter ‫األَفْعا ُ الْخَمْسَة‬ ‫ل‬ The 5 Conjugated Verbs conjugated on patterns of [ ِ ْ َ[ ,]‫] ُم], [مها], [َ ُْما], [َ ُْم‬ ‫أنت أنت أنت‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ُو ُ اإلِناث‬ ‫نن‬ The Feminine Nun on patterns of [َّ ‫ ]ﻫ‬and [َّ ‫]َ ْ ت‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫أنُن‬ ‫الْ ُعِِْت ُّ اآلخِر‬ ‫م َل‬ Verbs ending with a weak [ ّ َْ ُ ] root letter ‫معتل‬
  • 48. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 48
  • 49. Lesson 4: Irregular Verbs [‫] فعل الثالثي املزيد فيي إىل غري سامل‬ Lesson 4: Irregular Verbs in Families II to X ٍ‫ِعْ ُ ُّالِي ا َ ِي َ ِي ِ إىل َِر سَالِم‬ ‫ف ل الث ث ملز د ف ه غي‬ I. Irregular Verbs of the Higher Families ‫ُّالثي املزِيد‬ ‫الث‬ ‫ال ّالِم‬ ‫س‬ ‫املَهْ ُوز‬ ‫م‬ ‫غَيْ ُ سالِم‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ُضا َف‬ ‫م ع‬ ‫مل َل‬ ّ ‫ا ُعْت‬ ‫املِثال‬ ‫لَفِي ُ الْمَفْروق‬ ‫ف‬ A. Introduction ‫الْأَجوَف‬ ْ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫لَفِي ُ الْمَقْ ُون‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ف‬ Irregular verbs are frequently found in higher families (II – X). It is important for the student to gain the ability to recognize all verbs, their specific family, tense, and conjugation. In order to be able to do this for Irregular verbs, the student needs to have thorough familiarity with normal [‫ ]ساِم‬verbs of Families I and ‫ل‬ higher. When this is accomplished, then analyzing Irregular verbs becomes much easier and complexities are avoided. This is because the Irregular Verbs follow all the rules of [ ‫ ]ساِم‬verbs except when there is ‫ل‬ dilemma in its morphology and/or phonation. For a complete study on the conjugation of Irregular verbs on the pattern of Families II and greater, please refer to texts dedicated specifically to Ṣarf. Here, we are focusing on Irregular verbs found in the Qur’ān. 49
  • 50. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫‪B. Examples of Irregular Verbs in Families II to X‬‬ ‫‪Verb Family‬‬ ‫الفعل ال ّالِم‬ ‫س‬ ‫‪II‬‬ ‫ف َّلَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫ح َّلَ/ وَّى / ن َّي/ زَّنَ‬ ‫َو َل َج َي‬ ‫‪III‬‬ ‫فاعَلَ‬ ‫حاوَلَ/ نادَي/ واثَقَ‬ ‫‪IV‬‬ ‫َأفْعَلَ‬ ‫َم‬ ‫آمَنَ /آتَى /أَغْنَى/ َألْقَى /أَض َّ/ أَرَادَ/ أَت َّ‬ ‫َل‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫تَف َّلَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫تَبَّنَ / تَوَّى/ تَوَّى / تَو َّلَ‬ ‫َك‬ ‫َف َل‬ ‫َي‬ ‫‪VI‬‬ ‫تَفاعَلَ‬ ‫تَساأَلَ / تَواثَقَ/ تَعافَى‬ ‫‪VII‬‬ ‫اِنْفَعَلَ‬ ‫اِنْقادَ / اِنْقاضَ‬ ‫‪VIII‬‬ ‫ِافْتَعَلَ‬ ‫اَّقَى / اَّخَذَ / اِنْتَهَى/اَّحَدَ‬ ‫ِت‬ ‫ِت‬ ‫ِت‬ ‫‪IX‬‬ ‫َل‬ ‫ِافْع َّ‬ ‫َد‬ ‫اِسْو َّ‬ ‫‪X‬‬ ‫اِسْتَفْعَلَ‬ ‫اِسْتَهْزأَ / اِسْتَحْيا/ اِسْتَطاعَ /اسْتَقَامَ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪Table 24: Examples of Some Irregular‬‬ ‫‪Verbs of higher families‬‬ ‫]با ُ "ف َّ َ" َيْ ُ ساِم[ ‪II. Family II‬‬ ‫ب َعل غ ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫]با ُ‬ ‫‪Irregular‬‬ ‫‪Verb‬‬ ‫‪Family II‬‬ ‫ف َّ َ[ ‪Table 25: Irregular Family II Verbs‬‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫الفعل‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫األَمْ ُ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫املَصْدَ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫الفَاعِلِ‬ ‫املَفْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫الفعل السامل‬ ‫ف َّلَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫ف ِّلَ‬ ‫ُع‬ ‫ي َعل‬ ‫ُف ِّ ُ‬ ‫ي َعل‬ ‫ُف َّ ُ‬ ‫ف ِّلْ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تَفْعِيْ ٌ‬ ‫م َعل‬ ‫ُف ِّ ٌ‬ ‫م ٍَعل‬ ‫ُفَ َّ ٌ‬ ‫املَهْ ُوْ ُ َّام‬ ‫م ز ال‬ ‫نَّأَ‬ ‫َب‬ ‫نِّأَ‬ ‫ُب‬ ‫يَبئ‬ ‫ُنِّ ُ‬ ‫يَبئ‬ ‫ُنَّ ُ‬ ‫نِّئْ‬ ‫َب‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫تَنْبِي ٌ‬ ‫مَبئ‬ ‫ُنِّ ٌ‬ ‫مَبأ‬ ‫ُنٌَّ‬ ‫الفعل النّقص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل َّا‬ ‫َق‬ ‫ل ِّيَ‬ ‫ُق‬ ‫ُل َّى‬ ‫يَق‬ ‫ُل ِّي‬ ‫يَق‬ ‫َق‬ ‫ل َّ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫َتلْقِيَ ٌ‬ ‫مَق‬ ‫ُل ٍّ‬ ‫ُل ًّى‬ ‫مَق‬ ‫05‬
  • 51. Lesson 4: Irregular Verbs [‫] فعل الثالثي املزيد فيي إىل غري سامل‬ Qur’ānic Examples of Irregular Family II Verbs [َ َّ ‫]ف‬ ‫َعل‬ 1. ﴾ ُ ‫ٱ ْ َ ِي ُ ٱ ْ َ ِي‬ ‫لعز ز لحك م‬ َ‫ُوَ َّذِي ُصَ ّ ُ ُمْ فِي ٱلْأَرْحَامِ كَيْفَ يَشَا ُ ۚ لَا إِلَـهَ إ َّ ُو‬ ‫ِال ﻫ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ﻫ ٱل ي وِر ك‬ ﴿ “It is He who forms you in the wombs however He wills. There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise”. ( 3:6) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع األجْ َف‬ ‫و‬ 2. ۚ ‫﴿ وَإِن جَاﻫَدَاكَ عَلَى أَن ُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْ ٌ فَلَا ُطِعْ ُمَا ۚ وَصَاحِبْ ُمَا فِي ٱ ُّنْيَا مَعْ ُوفًا‬ ‫لد ر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫م ت ه‬ ‫ت‬ ﴾ َ‫و َّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِل َّ ۚ ث َّ إِل َّ مَرْجِ ُ ُمْ فَ ُنَُّ ُم بِمَا ُنُمْ تَعْمَُون‬ ‫كت ل‬ ‫َي ُم َي عك أ بِئك‬ ‫َٱت‬ “But if they endeavor to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in the world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of those who turn back to Me. Then to Me will be your return, and I will inform you about what you used to do”. (31:15 ) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع املهموز‬ 3. ﴾ ٍ ‫َ ِي‬ ‫عظ م‬ ٍ‫يَق ِل ذ َظ‬ ّ ‫﴿ وَمَا ُل َّا ﻫَا إَّا َّذِينَ صَبَ ُوا وَمَا ُل َّاﻫَا إَّا ُو ح‬ ‫ر‬ ‫يَق ِل ال‬ “But none is granted it except those who are patient, and none is granted it except one having a great portion [of good]”. ( 41:35) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع َّا ِص‬ ‫الن ق‬ III. Verb Family III: [‫]با ُ " َا َ َ" َيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ب ف عل غ ر ل‬ Table 26: Irregular Family III Verbs : [َ َ ‫َا‬ ‫ف عل‬ ‫م‬ ُ ْ‫اِس‬ ِ‫املَفْ ُوْل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫م‬ ُ ْ‫اِس‬ ِ‫الفَاعِل‬ ‫الفعل‬ ‫ر‬ ُ ْ‫األَم‬ ‫مل ع‬ ُ ِ‫ا ُضَار‬ ِ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫م ل‬ ٌ َ‫ُفَاع‬ ‫ل م ل‬ ٌ ِ‫ُفَاعَلَ ٌ / فِعَا ٌ ُفَاع‬ ‫م ة‬ ْ‫فَاعِل‬ ‫ُراعًى‬ ‫م‬ ٍ‫ُراع‬ ‫م‬ ‫ء‬ ٌ ‫رِعا‬ ------- ٌّ ‫م‬ ‫ُحاج‬ ‫حاج‬ ٌّ ‫ر‬ ُ َ‫املَصْد‬ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫]با‬ ‫مل ع‬ ُ ِ‫ا ُضَار‬ ِ‫لِلْمَعُْوْم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ِ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ِ‫لِلْمَعُْوْم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي ل‬ ُ َ‫ُفَاع‬ ‫ي ل‬ ُ ِ‫ُفَاع‬ َ‫ُوْعِل‬ ‫ف‬ َ‫فَاعَل‬ ‫الفعل السامل‬ ٍ‫راع‬ ‫ُراعَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ُراعي‬ ‫ي‬ َ‫ُوْعِي‬ ‫ر‬ ‫رَاعَي‬ ‫َّقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫حاج‬ ِّ ‫ُحاج‬ ُّ ‫ي‬ ‫ُحاج‬ ُّ ‫ي‬ ‫ُوج‬ َّ ‫ح‬ ‫حاج‬ َّ ‫املضا َف‬ ‫ع‬ Irregular Verb Family III Qur’ānic Examples of Irregular Family III Verbs [‫] َا َل‬ َ ‫فع‬ 1. ۚ ‫﴿ وح َّ ُ قَوْ ُ ُ ۚ قَالَ َأُح ُّوّي فِي ٱلّهِ وَقَدْ ﻫَدَانِ ۚ وَلَا أَخَا ُ مَا ُشْرِ ُونَ بِهِ إ َّ أَن يَشَاءَ رَّي شَيْئًا‬ ِ‫ب‬ ‫ِال‬ ‫ف ت ك‬ ‫ل‬ ِ‫ت َاج ن‬ ‫َ َآجه مه‬ ﴾ َ‫وَسِعَ رَّي ك َّ شَيْءٍَ عِلْمًا أَفَالَ تَتَذ َّ ُون‬ ‫َكر‬ ‫بِ ُل‬ “And his people argued with him. He said, "Do you argue with me concerning Allah while He has guided me? And I fear not what you associate with Him unless my Lord should will something. My Lord encompas ses all things in knowledge; then will you not remember?” (6:80) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع املضاعف] [الفعل املاضي املضاعف‬ 51
  • 52. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫﴿ وَٱذْ ُ ُواْ نِعْمَةَ ٱلّهِ عَلَيْ ُمْ وَمِيثَاقَ ُ َّ ِي وَاثَقَ ُم بِهِ إِذْ ُلُْمْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا‬ ‫قت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه ٱلذ‬ ‫ل ك‬ ‫كر‬ ‫و َّ ُواْ ٱلّهَ إ َّ ٱلّهَ عَلِي ٌ بِذَاتِ ُّ ُورِ‬ ‫ٱلصد‬ ‫َٱتق ل ِن ل م‬ ‫.2‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫‪“And remember the favor of Allah upon you and His covenant with which He bound you when you said, "We‬‬ ‫)7:5( .”‪hear and we obey"; and fear Allah. Indeed, Allah is Knowing of that within the breasts‬‬ ‫]الفعل املاضي املثال [‬ ‫﴿...و َّذِينَ لَا ُؤْمُِونَ فِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْ ٌ وَ ُوَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَمًى ۚ ُولَٰئِكَ ُنَادَوْنَ مِن َّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر ﻫ‬ ‫ي ن‬ ‫َٱل‬ ‫﴾ .3‬ ‫‪“...And those who do not believe - in their ears is deafness, and it is upon them blindness. Those are being‬‬ ‫]الفعل املضارع الّاقص [ )44:14( .”‪called from a distant place‬‬ ‫ن‬ ‫﴿ رَّنَا إَّنَا سَمِعْنَا ُنَادِيًا ُنَا ِي لِلْإِميَانِ أَنْ آمُِواْ بِرَّ ُمْ فَآمَّا ۚ‬ ‫ن بِك َن‬ ‫م يد‬ ‫َّب ِن‬ ‫رَّنَا فَٱغْفِرْ لَنَا ُُوَبنَا وَكَ ّرْ عَّا سَّئَاتِنَا وَتَو َّنَا مَعَ ٱلْأَبْرَارِ‬ ‫َف‬ ‫فِ َن يِ‬ ‫ذن‬ ‫َب‬ ‫.4‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫‪“Our Lord, indeed we have heard a caller calling to faith, [saying], 'Believe in your Lord,' and we have‬‬ ‫‪believed. Our Lord, so forgive us our sins and remove from us our misdeeds and cause us to die with the‬‬ ‫]الفعل املضارع الّاقص] [اسم فاعل على الباب الناقص [ )391:3( .”‪righteous‬‬ ‫ن‬ ‫[با ُ "أفْ َ َ" َيْ ُ ساِم] :‪IV. Verb Family IV‬‬ ‫ب َ عل غ ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫]با ُ‬ ‫أ ْ َ َ[ ‪Table 27: Irregular Family IV Verbs‬‬ ‫َفعل‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫الفعل‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫األَمْ ُ‬ ‫الفعل السامل أَفْعَلَ‬ ‫ُفْعِلَ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي ل‬ ‫ُفْعِ ُ‬ ‫ي ل‬ ‫ُفْعَ ُ‬ ‫أَفْعِلْ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫إِفْعَا ٌ‬ ‫اَلْأَجْوَف‬ ‫أَرادَ‬ ‫ُرِيدَ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي د‬ ‫ُري ُ‬ ‫ي د‬ ‫ُرا ُ‬ ‫يَرِدْ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫إِرادٌَ‬ ‫م د‬ ‫ُري ٌ‬ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫أَنْسَى‬ ‫ُنْسِيَ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ُنْسِى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ُنْسَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أَنْسِ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫إِنْسا ٌ‬ ‫ُنْسٍ‬ ‫م‬ ‫منْسًى‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫أَيْقَنَ‬ ‫ُوْقِنَ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي ن‬ ‫ُوْقِ ُ‬ ‫ي ن‬ ‫ُوْقَ ُ‬ ‫أَْيقِنْ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫إِيْقَا ٌ‬ ‫م ن‬ ‫ُوْقِ ٌ‬ ‫م ن‬ ‫ُوْقَ ٌ‬ ‫أَوْقَدَ‬ ‫ُوْقِدَ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي د‬ ‫ُوْقِ ُ‬ ‫ي د‬ ‫ُوْقَ ُ‬ ‫أَوْقِدْ‬ ‫د‬ ‫إِيْقا ٌ‬ ‫م د‬ ‫ُوْقِ ٌ‬ ‫ُ د‬ ‫موْقَ ٌ‬ ‫املَهْمُوْزُ الفاء آذَنَ‬ ‫ُؤْذِنَ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي ن‬ ‫ُؤْذِ ُ‬ ‫ي ن‬ ‫ُؤْذَ ُ‬ ‫آذِنْ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫إِيْذَا ٌ‬ ‫م ن‬ ‫ُؤْذِ ٌ‬ ‫ُ ن‬ ‫مؤْذَ ٌ‬ ‫‪Irregular‬‬ ‫‪Verb‬‬ ‫‪Family‬‬ ‫‪IV‬‬ ‫املِثَال ي‬ ‫" "‬ ‫املِثال و‬ ‫" "‬ ‫25‬ ‫ر‬ ‫املَصْدَ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫الفَاعِلِ‬ ‫املَفْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫م ل‬ ‫ُفْعِ ٌ‬ ‫م ل‬ ‫ُفْعَ ٌ‬ ‫م د‬ ‫ُرا ٌ‬
  • 53. ‫] فعل الثالثي املزيد فيي إىل غري سامل[ ‪Lesson 4: Irregular Verbs‬‬ ‫]أ ْ َل[ ‪Qur’ānic Examples of Irregular Family IV Verbs‬‬ ‫َفع َ‬ ‫﴿ ف ُو ُوا فَلَن َّزِيدَ ُمْ إَّا عَذَابًا‬ ‫ن ك ِل‬ ‫َذ ق‬ ‫﴾ .1‬ ‫]الفعل األمر األجوف [ )03:87( .”‪“So taste [the penalty], and never will We increase you except in torment‬‬ ‫﴿ مَنْ خَشِيَ َّحْمَن بِٱلْغَيْبِ وَجَاءَ بِقَلْبٍ ُّنِيبٍ ۝ ٱدْ ُُوﻫَا بِسَلَامٍ ذَلِكَ يَوْ ُ ٱلْ ُُودِ‬ ‫م خل‬ ‫خل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ٱلر‬ ‫﴾ .2‬ ‫‪“Who feared the Most Merciful unseen and came with a penitent heart. Enter it in peace. This is the Day of‬‬ ‫]اسم فاعل على الباب األجوف [ )43-33:05( .”‪Eternity‬‬ ‫﴿...وَإ َّ َّيَاطِنيَ لَُو ُونَ إِلَى أَوْلِيَآئِهِمْ لُِجَادُِو ُمْ ۚ وَإِنْ أَطَعُْ ُو ُمْ‬ ‫تم ﻫ‬ ‫ي لك‬ ‫يح‬ ‫ِن ٱلش‬ ‫إَّ ُ ْ َ ُ ْ ِ ُو َ ﴾ .3‬ ‫ِنكم لمشرك ن‬ ‫‪“And indeed do the devils inspire their allies to dispute with you. And if you were to obey them, indeed, you‬‬ ‫]الفعل املضارع املثال [ )121:6( .”‪would be associators‬‬ ‫﴿ وَٱلْأَرْضَ مَدَدْنَاﻫَا وَأَلْقَيْنَا فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن ُ ّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ‬ ‫كلِ‬ ‫﴾ .4‬ ‫‪“And the earth - We spread it out and cast therein firmly set mountains and made grow therein of every‬‬ ‫]الفعل املاضي الّاقص [ )7:05( .”‪beautiful kind‬‬ ‫ن‬ ‫﴿...ُدَّ ُ ٱلْأَمْرَ ُفَ ّ ُ ٱلْآيَاتِ لَعَّ ُم بِلِقَاءِ رَّ ُمْ ُوقُِونَ‬ ‫بِك ت ن‬ ‫َلك‬ ‫ي صِل‬ ‫ي بِر‬ ‫﴾ .5‬ ‫.”‪“..He arranges [each] matter; He details the signs that you may, of the meeting with your Lord, be certain‬‬ ‫]الفعل املضارع املثال [ )2:31(‬ ‫﴿ فَإِن تَوَّوْا فَ ُلْ آذَنُ ُمْ عَلَى سَوَاءٍَ ۚ وَإِنْ أَدْ ِي أَقَرِي ٌ أَم بَعِي ٌ َّا ُوعَ ُونَ‬ ‫دم ت د‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ر‬ ‫َل ق تك‬ ‫﴾ .6‬ ‫‪“But if they turn away, then say, "I have announced to you equally. And I know not whether that which you‬‬ ‫]الفعل املاضي املثال [ )901:12( .”‪are promised is near or far‬‬ ‫]با ُ "َف َّ َ" َيْ ُ ساِم[ :‪V. Verb Family V‬‬ ‫ب ت َعل غ ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫]با ُ‬ ‫َف َّ َ[ ‪Table 28: Irregular Family V Verbs‬‬ ‫ت َعل‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫الفعل‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫األَمْ ُ‬ ‫تَف َّلَ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫ُف ِّلَ‬ ‫ت ُع‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫يَتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫ي َعل‬ ‫ُتَف َّ ُ‬ ‫تَف َّلْ‬ ‫َع‬ ‫َعل‬ ‫تَف ُّ ٌ‬ ‫األجْ َف‬ ‫و‬ ‫تَخ َّفَ‬ ‫َو‬ ‫ُخ ِّفَ‬ ‫ت ُو‬ ‫َوف‬ ‫يَتَخ َّ ُ‬ ‫ي َوف‬ ‫ُتَخ َّ ُ‬ ‫تَخ َّفْ‬ ‫َو‬ ‫َوف‬ ‫تَخ ُّ ٌ‬ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫تَص َّى‬ ‫َد‬ ‫ُص ِّيَ‬ ‫ت ُد‬ ‫يَتَص َّى‬ ‫َد‬ ‫ُتَّ ُى‬ ‫يَلق‬ ‫َد‬ ‫تَص َّ‬ ‫د‬ ‫تَصَ ٌ‬ ‫‪Irregular‬‬ ‫‪Verb‬‬ ‫‪Family V‬‬ ‫الفعل السامل‬ ‫35‬ ‫ر‬ ‫املَصْدَ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫الفَاعِلِ‬ ‫املَفْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫م َعل‬ ‫ُتَف ِّ ٌ‬ ‫م َعل‬ ‫ُتَف َّ ٌ‬ ‫م وف م َوف‬ ‫ُتَخَ ِّ ٌ ُتَخ َّ ٌ‬ ‫م َد‬ ‫ُتَص ٍّ‬ ‫متَص ًّى‬ ‫ُ َد‬
  • 54. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Qur’ānic Examples of Irregular Family V Verbs [َ َّ ‫]َف‬ ‫ت َعل‬ 1. ﴾ َ ‫ََخَّ ُو‬ ‫يت َير ن‬ ‫﴿ وَفَاكِهَةٍ مِ َّا‬ ‫ّم‬ “And fruit of what they may choose”. (56:20) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع األجْ َف‬ ‫و‬ 2. ﴾ ‫َِ َ َ ْ ًا‬ ‫ذلك أمر‬ َ‫﴿...وَتِلْكَ ُ ُو ُ َّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَع َّ ُ ُودَ َّهِ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَ ُ ۚ لَا تَدْ ِي لَع َّ َّهَ ُحْدِ ُ بَعْد‬ ‫ر َل ٱلل ي ث‬ ‫ه‬ ‫َد حد ٱلل‬ ‫حد د ٱلل‬ “And those are the limits of Allah. And whoever transgresses the limits of Allah has certainly wronged himself. You know not; perhaps Allah will bring about after that a [different] matter”. (65:1) [ ‫]الفعل املاضي الّاقص] [الفعل املضارع املضاعف اجملزوم‬ ‫ن‬ 3. ﴾ َ ‫ََر َّ ُو‬ ‫يت َدد ن‬ ْ‫﴿ إَّمَا يَسْتَأْذُِكَ َّذِينَ الَ ُؤْمُِونَ بِٱلّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْآخِرِ وَٱرْتَابَتْ ُُوُ ُمْ فَ ُمْ فِي رَيْبِهِم‬ ‫قل به ه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي ن‬ ‫ن ٱل‬ ‫ِن‬ “Only those would ask permission of you who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day and whose hearts have doubted, and they, in their doubt, are hesitating ”. (9:45) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع املضاعف‬ 4. ﴾ ‫َو ِن َبك ؤ ف ر م‬ ٌ ‫﴿ أَوْ يَأْ ُذَ ُمْ عَلَى تَخ ُّفٍ فَإ َّ رَّ ُمْ لَر ُو ٌ َّحِي‬ ‫خﻫ‬ “Or that He would not seize them gradually [in a state of dread]? But indeed, your Lord is Kind and Merciful”. (16:47) [ ‫] مصدر على الباب األجوف‬ . VI. Verb Family VI: [‫[با ُ "َفا َ َ" َيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ب ت عل غ ر ل‬ Table 29: Irregular Family V Verbs [َ َ ‫َ َا‬ ‫تف عل‬ ‫م‬ ُ ْ‫اِس‬ ‫م‬ ُ ْ‫اِس‬ ِ‫املَفْ ُوْل‬ ‫ع‬ ِ‫الفَاعِل‬ ‫ُ ل‬ ٌ َ‫متَفَاع‬ ‫ُتَفَاعِل‬ ٌ ‫م‬ ‫ُتَواصٍ متَواصًى‬ ُ ‫م‬ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫]با‬ ‫ر‬ ُ ْ‫األَم‬ ‫مل ع‬ ُ ِ‫ا ُضَار‬ ِ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫مل ع‬ ُ ِ‫ا ُضَار‬ ِ‫لِلْمَعُْوْم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ِ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْل‬ ‫ه‬ ِ‫لِلْمَعُْوْم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫عل‬ ٌ ُ ‫تَفَا‬ ْ‫تَفَاعَل‬ ‫ي ل‬ ُ َ‫ُتَفَاع‬ ‫ل‬ ُ َ‫يَتَفَاع‬ َ‫ُ ُوْعِل‬ ‫تف‬ َ‫الفعل السامل تَفَاعَل‬ ‫تَواص‬ ٍ ِ‫تَواص‬ ‫ُتَواصَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫تع‬ ‫ُ ُوْصِيَ يَتَواصَى‬ ‫ر‬ ُ َ‫املَصْد‬ ‫الفعل‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫تَواصَى‬ Irregular Verb Family VI ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ Qur’ānic Examples of Irregular Family VI Verbs [‫]َفا َل‬ َ‫ت ع‬ 1. ۚ َ‫﴿ ...وتَعَاوَُواْ عَلَى ٱلْبِ ّ و َّقْوَى ۚ وَلَا تَعَاوَُواْ عَلَى ٱلْإِثْمِ وَٱلْ ُدْ َانِ ۚ و َّ ُوا َّه‬ ‫َٱتق ٱلل‬ ‫عو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫رِ َٱلت‬ ‫َ ن‬ ﴾ ِ ‫إ َّ ٱلّ َ َ ِي ُ ٱل ِقا‬ ‫ِن له شد د ع ب‬ “And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty”. (5:2) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع األجوف اجملزوم] [الفعل األمر األجوف‬ 2. ﴾ َ‫﴿ َأتَوَاصَوْا بِهِ ۚ بَلْ ُمْ قَوْ ٌ طَا ُون‬ ‫ﻫ م غ‬ “Have they (people of the past) transmitted it to them? Rather, they are a transgressing people”. (51:53) [ ‫]الفعل املاضي لفيف املفروق‬ 3. ﴾...ِ َّ‫ٱ ْج‬ ‫ل َنة‬ ِ‫ُوْلَئِكَ َّذِينَ نَتَقَّ ُ عَنْ ُمْ أَحْسَنَ مَا عَمُِوا وَنَتَجَاوَ ُ عَن سَّئَاتِهِمْ فِي أَصْحَاب‬ ِ‫ي‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ل‬ ‫َبل ه‬ ‫ٱل‬ ‫أ‬ ﴿ “Those are the ones from whom We will accept the best of what they did and overlook their misdeeds, {they are] among the companions of Paradise...”. (46:16) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع األجوف‬ 54
  • 55. Lesson 4: Irregular Verbs [‫] فعل الثالثي املزيد فيي إىل غري سامل‬ VII. Verb Family VII: [‫]با ُ "ِنْ َ َ َ" َيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ب ا فعل غ ر ل‬ Table 30: Irregular Family VII Verbs [َ َ َ ْ ِ ُ ‫]با‬ ‫ب انفعل‬ ‫َر‬ ُ ْ‫األم‬ ‫مل ع‬ ُ ِ‫ا ُضَار‬ ِ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫مل ع‬ ُ ِ‫ا ُضَار‬ ِ‫لِلْمَعُْوْم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ٌ ‫اِنْفِعَا‬ ْ‫اِنْفَعِل‬ ‫ي ل‬ ُ َ‫ُنْفَع‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ِ‫يَنْفَع‬ َ‫ُنْ ُعِل‬ ‫اف‬ َ‫الفعل السامل اِنْفَعَل‬ ‫م ر‬ ٌ ‫ُنْها‬ ‫ر‬ ٌ ‫اِنْهِيَا‬ ْ‫اِنْهَر‬ ‫ي ر‬ ُ ‫ُنْها‬ ‫ر‬ ُ ‫يَنْها‬ َ‫ُنْهار‬ ‫ا‬ َ‫اِنْهار‬ ‫اَلْأَجْوَف‬ ٍ‫ُنْطَو‬ ‫م‬ ‫ء‬ ٌ ‫اِنْطِوَا‬ ِ‫اِنْطَو‬ ‫ُنْطَوَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫يَنْطَوِي‬ َ‫ُنْ ُوِي‬ ‫اط‬ ‫اِنْطَوَى‬ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫م‬ ُ ْ‫اِس‬ ‫م‬ ُ ْ‫اِس‬ ِ‫املَفْ ُوْل‬ ‫ع‬ ِ‫الفَاعِل‬ ‫م ل‬ ٌ َ‫ُنْفَع‬ ‫م ل‬ ٌ ِ‫ُنْفَع‬ ‫م ر‬ ٌ ‫ُنْها‬ ‫ُنْطَوًى‬ ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ ُ َ‫املَصْد‬ ‫الفعل‬ Qur’ānic Examples of Irregular Family VII Verbs [ 1. ﴾ ‫ا َا ِي املَاضِي‬ ‫مل ض‬ ِ‫ِلْ َعُْوْ ِ لِلْمَجْ ُوْل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫لم ل م‬ Irregular Verb Family VII ‫]اِنْفَعَل‬ َ ‫﴿ تَكَا ُ َّمَاوَا ُ يَتَف َّرْنَ مِنْ ُ وَتَنْش ُّ الْأَرْ ُ وَتَخ ُّ ٱ لْجِبَا ُ ﻫ ًّا‬ ‫ل َد‬ ‫د ٱلس ت َط ه َق ض ِر‬ “The heavens almost rupture therefrom and the earth splits open and the mountains collapse in devastation”. (19:90) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع املضاعف‬ VIII. Verb Family VIII ]‫[با ُ "افَْ َ َ" َيْ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ب ِ تعل غ ر ل‬ It is important to keep in mind, the rules of Ṣarf here since there can be changes in morphology of the letters, and in some cases drop of letters. Qur’ānic Examples of Irregular Family VIII Verbs [‫]ا َْ َل‬ َ ‫ِفتع‬ 1. َ‫﴿ ُلْ مَن يَرْ ُ ُ ُم ّنَ َّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أ َّن يَمْلِ ُ َّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَن ُيخْرِ ُ الْح َّ مِنَ الْمَّتِ وَُخْرِ ُ الْمَّت‬ ِ‫يِ ي ج ي‬ ‫ج َي‬ ‫َم ك الس‬ ‫زقك مِ الس‬ ‫ق‬ ﴾ َ‫مِنَ الْحَ ّ وَمَن ُدَّ ُ الْأَمْر ۚ فَسَيَ ُوُونَ َّ ُ ۚ فَ ُلْ أَفَلَا تَّ ُون‬ ‫َتق‬ ‫ق ل الله ق‬ َ ‫ي بِر‬ ِ‫ي‬ “Say, "Who provides for you from the heaven and the earth? Or who controls hearing and sight and who brings the living out of the dead and brings the dead out of the living and who arranges [every] matter?" They will say, "Allah" so say, "Then will you not fear Him?"”. (10:31) [ ‫]الفعل املاضي لفيف املفروق‬ ﴾ ‫﴿ وَلَقَدْ رَآه نَزْلَةً ُخْ َى ۝ عِندَ سِدْرَةِ ٱلْ ُنْتَهَى‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ ر‬ ُ “And he certainly saw him in another descent. At the Lote Tree of the Utmost Boundary ”. (53:13-14) [ ‫على الباب الّاقص‬ ‫ن‬ 2. ‫]اسم املفعول‬ ‫﴿ يَا أُّهَا َّذِينَ آمَُوا مَن يَرْت َّ مِن ُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي َّ ُ بِقَوْمٍ ُحُّ ُمْ وَُحُّونَ ُ أَذَّةٍ عَلَى الْ ُؤْمِنِنيَ أَع َّةٍ عَلَى‬ ‫ِز‬ ‫م‬ ‫ي ِبه ي ِب ه ِل‬ ‫الله‬ ‫َد ك‬ ‫ن‬ ‫َي ال‬ ﴾ .....ۚ ٍ‫الْكَافِرِينَ ُجَاﻫِ ُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ َّهِ وَلَا يَخَا ُونَ لَوْمَةَ لَائِم‬ ‫ف‬ ‫الل‬ ‫ي د‬ “Oh you who have believed, whoever of you should revert from his religion – Allah will bring forth [in place of them] a people He will love and who will love Him, humble toward the believers, powerful against the disbelievers; they strive in the cause of Allah and do not fear the blame of a critic.….”. (5:54 ) [ ‫]الفعل املضارع املضاعف اجملزوم‬ 55
  • 56. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫]با ُ ا َْ َ َ[ ‪Table 31: Irregular Family VIII Verbs‬‬ ‫ب ِفتعل‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫األَمْ ُ‬ ‫الفعل السامل‬ ‫على بِناء اِفْتَعَلَ‬ ‫اِفْتَعَلَ‬ ‫ُفُْعِلَ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ل‬ ‫يَفْتَعِ ُ‬ ‫ي ل‬ ‫ُفْتَعَ ُ‬ ‫اِفْتَعِلْ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اِفْتِعَا ٌ‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ الذِي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫فَا ُ ُ طاء‬ ‫ءه‬ ‫ا َّلَعَ‬ ‫ِط‬ ‫ا ُّلِعَ‬ ‫ُط‬ ‫َط ع‬ ‫ي َّلِ ُ‬ ‫ُط ع‬ ‫ي َّلَ ُ‬ ‫ا َّلِعْ‬ ‫ِط‬ ‫ِط ع‬ ‫ا ِّال ٌ‬ ‫ُط ع‬ ‫م َّلِ ٌ‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ الذِي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ءه ل‬ ‫فا ُ ُ ذا ٌ‬ ‫ا َّكَرَ‬ ‫ِذ‬ ‫ا ُّكِرَ‬ ‫ُذ‬ ‫َذ ر‬ ‫ي َّكِ ُ‬ ‫ُذ ر‬ ‫ي َّكَ ُ‬ ‫ا َّكِرْ‬ ‫ِذ‬ ‫ِذ ر‬ ‫ا ِّكا ٌ‬ ‫ُذ ر‬ ‫م َّكِ ٌ‬ ‫اَلْفِعْ ُ الذِي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ءه د‬ ‫فَا ُ ُ صا ٌ‬ ‫ب م ب ُ ب‬ ‫اِضْطَرَبَ ُضْ ُرِبَ يَضْطَرِ ُ ُضْطَرَ ُ اِضْطَرِبْ اِضْطِرَا ٌ ُضْطَرِ ٌ مضْطَرَ ٌ‬ ‫ب ي ب‬ ‫ا ط‬ ‫الفِعْ ُ الذِي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ءه ء‬ ‫فَا ُ ُ ضَا ٌ‬ ‫مصْطَفَى‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫‪Irregular‬‬ ‫‪Verb‬‬ ‫‪Family‬‬ ‫‪VIII‬‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫اِصْطَفَي‬ ‫اَلْأَجْوَف اِرْتابَ‬ ‫ُصْ ُفِيَ‬ ‫ا ط‬ ‫يَصْطَفِي‬ ‫ُصْطَفَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫الفعل‬ ‫يَصْطَفِ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫املَصْدَ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫الفَاعِلِ‬ ‫املَفْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫م ل‬ ‫ُفْتَعِ ٌ‬ ‫م ل‬ ‫ُفْتَعَ ٌ‬ ‫م َّ ع‬ ‫ُطلَ ٌ‬ ‫م َّ ر‬ ‫ُذكَ ٌ‬ ‫اِصْطِفا ٌ ُصْطَفِي‬ ‫ء م‬ ‫ُرُْوِبَ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ب‬ ‫يَرْتا ُ‬ ‫ي ب‬ ‫ُرْتا ُ‬ ‫اِرْتَبْ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اِرْتِيا ٌ‬ ‫م ب‬ ‫ُرْتا ٌ‬ ‫م ب‬ ‫ُرْتا ٌ‬ ‫الْمِثال‬ ‫اَّ َ َ*‬ ‫ِتفق‬ ‫اُّفِقَ‬ ‫ُت‬ ‫َت ق‬ ‫يَّفِ ُ‬ ‫ُت ق‬ ‫يَّفَ ُ‬ ‫اَّفِقْ‬ ‫ِت‬ ‫ِت ق‬ ‫اِّفَا ٌ‬ ‫ُت ق‬ ‫مَّفِ ٌ‬ ‫ُت ق‬ ‫مَّفَ ٌ‬ ‫مز ء‬ ‫املَهْ ُوْ ُ الفا ُ‬ ‫اَّ َ َ*‬ ‫ِتخذ‬ ‫اُّخِذَ‬ ‫ُت‬ ‫َت ذ‬ ‫يَّخِ ُ‬ ‫ُت ذ‬ ‫يَّخَ ُ‬ ‫ِت ذ‬ ‫اَّخِ ُ‬ ‫ِت ذ‬ ‫اِّخَا ٌ‬ ‫ُت ذ‬ ‫مَّخِ ٌ‬ ‫ُت ذ‬ ‫مَّخَ ٌ‬ ‫َّاقِص‬ ‫الن‬ ‫اِنْتَهَي‬ ‫ُنُْهِيَ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫يَنْتَهِي‬ ‫ُنْتَهَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اِنْتَهِ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫اِنْتِها ٌ‬ ‫ُنْتَهٍ‬ ‫م‬ ‫منْتَهًى‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫1 ‪*See Lesson‬‬ ‫7# ‪Principle‬‬ ‫65‬
  • 57. ‫] فعل الثالثي املزيد فيي إىل غري سامل[ ‪Lesson 4: Irregular Verbs‬‬ ‫]با ُ "ِسَْفْ َ َ" َيْ ُ ساِم[ :‪IX. Verb Family X‬‬ ‫ب ا ت عل غ ر ل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫]با ُ‬ ‫ِ َْ ْ َ َ[ ‪Table 32: Irregular Family X Verbs‬‬ ‫استفعل‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫لِلْمَعُْوْمِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫َر‬ ‫األمْ ُ‬ ‫اِسْتَفْعَلَ‬ ‫ُسُْفْعِلَ‬ ‫ا ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫يَسْتَفْعِ ُ‬ ‫ي ل‬ ‫ُسْتَفْعَ ُ‬ ‫اِستَفْعِلْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اِسْتِفْعَا ٌ‬ ‫اَلْأَجْوَف اِسْتَقَامَ‬ ‫ُسُْقِيْمَ‬ ‫ا ت‬ ‫م‬ ‫يَسْتَقِيْ ُ‬ ‫ي م‬ ‫ُسْتَقَا ُ‬ ‫اِسْتَقِمْ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْتِقْوَا ٌ‬ ‫ُسْتَقِيْم‬ ‫م ٌ‬ ‫النَّاقِص اِسْتَغْنَي‬ ‫ُسُْغْنِيَ‬ ‫ا ت‬ ‫يَسْتَغْين‬ ‫ُسْتَغْنَى‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اِسْتَغْنِ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫اِسْتِغْنا ٌ‬ ‫ُسْتَغْنٍ‬ ‫م‬ ‫‪Irregular‬‬ ‫‪Verb‬‬ ‫‪Family X‬‬ ‫الفعل السامل‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫الفعل‬ ‫ر‬ ‫املَصْدَ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اِسْ ُ‬ ‫الفَاعِلِ‬ ‫املَفْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫م ل‬ ‫ُسْتَفْعِ ٌ‬ ‫ُ ل‬ ‫مسْتَفْعَ ٌ‬ ‫ُ م‬ ‫مسْتَقَا ٌ‬ ‫مسْتَغْنًى‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫]ِ َْ ْ َل[ ‪Qur’ānic Examples of Irregular Family X Verbs‬‬ ‫استفع َ‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫وَإِذْ ن َّيْنَا ُمْ ّنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَ ُو ُونَ ُمْ ُوْءَ ٱ لْعَذَابِ ُذَّ ُونَ أَبْنَاءَ ُمْ وَيَسْتَحُْونَ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ي بِح‬ ‫سم ك س‬ ‫َج ك مِ‬ ‫ِ َا َ ُ ْ... ﴾ .1‬ ‫نس ءكم‬ ‫‪“And remember when We saved your forefathers from the people of Pharaoh, who afflicted you with the‬‬ ‫]الفعل املضارع‬ ‫لفيف املقرون [ )94:2( .”...‪worst torment, slaughtering your sons and keeping your females alive‬‬ ‫﴿‬ ‫قَالَ إَّكَ لَن تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِيَ صَبْرًا‬ ‫ِن‬ ‫﴾ .2‬ ‫]الفعل املضارع األجوف املنصوب [ )282:2( .”‪“He said, "Indeed, with me you will never be able to have patience‬‬ ‫﴿ يَا حَسْرَةً عَلَى ٱلْعِبَادِ ۚ مَا يَأْتِيهِم ّن َّ ُولٍ إ َّ كَاُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِ ُون‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫مِ رس ِال ن‬ ‫﴾ .3‬ ‫‪“How regretful for the servants. There did not come to them any messenger except that they used to ridicule‬‬ ‫]الفعل املضارع املهموز [ )03:63( ”.‪him‬‬ ‫﴿ وَجَآ ُوا عَلَى قَمِيصِهِ بِدَمٍ كَذِبٍ ۚ قَالَ بَلْ س َّلَتْ لَ ُمْ أَن ُ ُ ُمْ أَمْرًا ۚ فَصَبْ ٌ جَمِي ٌ ۚ‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫َو ك فسك‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫وَٱلّ ُ ٱلْ ُسْتَعَا ُ عَلَى مَا تَصِ ُونَ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫له م ن‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫‪“And they brought upon his shirt false blood. [Ya’qūb] said, "Rather, your souls have enticed you to‬‬ ‫.”"‪something, so patience is most fitting. And Allah is the one sought for help against that which you describe‬‬ ‫]اسم املفعول على الباب األجوف [ )81:21(‬ ‫75‬ ‫.4‬
  • 58. ‫‪Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic‬‬ ‫]الْ ِعْ ُ ُّباعي ا ُج َّد[ ‪X. Quadrilateral Verbs: Verbs with Four-Letter Roots‬‬ ‫مل َر‬ ‫ف ل الر‬ ‫]الْ ِعْ ُ ُّباعي ا ُج َّد] ‪A. Introduction to Quadrilateral Verbs‬‬ ‫مل َر‬ ‫ف ل الر‬ ‫‪These verbs are sometimes found in Qur’ān, and are based on a four-Letter root. The conjugation patterns‬‬ ‫‪and derivation of “action” nouns from these verbs are similar to that of the three-letter verbs. The‬‬ ‫.‪differences in their conjugation are related to issues of Ṣarf‬‬ ‫]فَعْلَلَ[ ‪] on pattern‬الفعل ُّباعي‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ا ُضارِع‬ ‫مل‬ ‫ا ُج َّد[ ‪Table 33: Conjugation of‬‬ ‫مل َر‬ ‫املاضى‬ ‫] َ ْ َ َ[‬ ‫ب ع ثر‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫ُفْرَد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ُثَّى‬ ‫مَن‬ ‫جَمع‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُذ َّر‬ ‫مل َك‬ ‫بَعْثَرَ‬ ‫بَعْثَرَا‬ ‫بَعْثَ ُوا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ي ر‬ ‫ُبَعْثِ ُ‬ ‫ُبَعْثِرَانِ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ُيبَعْثِ ُونَ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫الغائِب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫بَعْثَرَتْ‬ ‫بَعْثَرَتا‬ ‫بَعْثَرْنَ‬ ‫ت ر‬ ‫ُبَعْثِ ُ‬ ‫ُبَعْثِرَانِ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ُبَعْثِرْنَ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب الْ ُذ َّر‬ ‫م َك‬ ‫مل‬ ‫بَعْثَرْتَ‬ ‫بَعْثَرُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫بَعْثَرُْم‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ت ر‬ ‫ُبَعْثِ ُ‬ ‫ُبَعْثِرَانِ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ُتبَعْثِ ُونَ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا ُخَاطَب ا ُؤَّث‬ ‫مل َن‬ ‫مل‬ ‫بَعْثَرْتِ‬ ‫بَعْثَرُْما‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ُن‬ ‫بَعْثَرْت َّ‬ ‫ُبَعْثِرينَ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ُبَعْثِرَانِ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ُبَعْثِرْنَ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫املتَكِّم‬ ‫ُ َل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫بَعْثَرْ ُ‬ ‫بَعْثَرْنا‬ ‫بَعْثَرْنا‬ ‫أ ر‬ ‫ُبَعْثِ ُ‬ ‫ن ر‬ ‫ُبَعْثِ ُ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ُنبَعْثِ ُ‬ ‫فِعْ ُ الْأََمر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫بَعْثِرْ‬ ‫بَعْثِرا‬ ‫بَعْثِ ُوا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫‪] and its Various Derivatives‬الفعل الرباعي‬ ‫دَحْرَجَ / زَجْرَفَ / بَعْثَرَ‬ ‫:‪Examples‬‬ ‫املزيد[ ‪Table 34: Conjugation of‬‬ ‫املَاضِي‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫مل ع‬ ‫ا ُضَارِ ُ‬ ‫لِلْمَجْ ُوْلِ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫ر‬ ‫األَمْ ُ‬ ‫ال النَهي‬ ‫ر‬ ‫املَصْدَ ُ‬ ‫ي ر‬ ‫ُبَعْثَ ُ‬ ‫بَعْثِرْ‬ ‫ُعْثِرَ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ي ر‬ ‫ُبَعْثَ ُ‬ ‫بَعْثِرْ‬ ‫ال ُبَعْثِرْ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ة‬ ‫بَعْثَرٌَ‬ ‫م ر‬ ‫ُبَعْثِ ٌ‬ ‫م ر‬ ‫ُبَعْثَ ٌ‬ ‫] فعل ُّباعي[ ‪Qur’ānic Example of Quadrilateral Verbs‬‬ ‫الر‬ ‫﴿ وَإِذَا الْ ُُو ُ ُعْثِرَتْ‬ ‫قب ر ب‬ ‫]الفعل املاضي‬ ‫﴾‬ ‫اجملهول [ )4:28( .”‪“And when the [contents of] graves are scattered‬‬ ‫85‬
  • 59. Lesson 4: Irregular Verbs [‫] فعل الثالثي املزيد فيي إىل غري سامل‬ B. Quadrilateral Verbs of Irregular Pattern [‫]الفعل ُّباعي غ ُ ساِم‬ ‫ري ل‬ ‫الر‬ This [ ‫ ]ا ُض َّف‬pattern is the most frequent type of Quadrilateral verbs found in the Qur’ān. The verb is on ‫مل َع‬ the pattern [ َ َ ْ َ ] . This verb pattern indicates an action that is being repeated, like the repetition of two ‫فعلل‬ letters. Examples include the following verbs: Qur’ānic Examples of [‫ُّباعي‬ ‫الر‬ 1. ﴾ َ‫. وَسْوَسَ / زَحْزَحَ / عَسْعَسَ / حَصْحَصَ / دَمْدَمَ / زَلْزَل‬ ‫]الفعل‬ ِ‫﴿... وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا ٱلْإِنسَانَ وَنَعْلَ ُ مَا ُوَسْوِ ُ بِهِ نَفْ ُ ُ ۚ وَنَحْ ُ أَقْرَ ُ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ حَبْلِ ٱلْوَرِيد‬ ‫ن ب‬ ‫سه‬ ‫م ت س‬ “And We have already created man and know what his soul whispers to him, and We are closer to him than [his] jugular vein”. (50:16) [ ‫َّف‬ ‫]الفعل املضارع ال ّباعي املضع‬ ‫ر‬ 2. ﴾ ‫ِ ْ َاَ َا‬ ‫زلز له‬ ‫ض‬ ُ ْ‫﴿ إِذَا ُلْزِلَتِ ٱلْأَر‬ ‫ز‬ “When the earth is shaken with its earthquake”. (99:1) [ ‫َّف‬ ‫على الباب الفعل ال ّباعي املضع‬ ‫ر‬ ‫]مصدر‬ C. Quadrilateral Verbs of Higher Families [‫]الفعل ُّباعي املزيد‬ ‫الر‬ Like three-letter root verbs, Quadrilateral verbs can have extra letters added to their four-letter stem to form higher families. Two of the higher families are shown below: 1. Pattern [ َّ ‫ ]ِ َْع‬such as the verb [ َّ ‫ ]ِ ْ َأ‬and the verb [ َّ ‫]ِ ْ َع‬ ‫افت َل‬ ‫اطمَن‬ ‫اقش َر‬ . 2. Pattern [ َ َْ َ َ] such as the verb [ َ َ ْ َ َ] (not found in the Qur’ān). Here, the letter [‫ ]ت‬is added to ‫تفعلل‬ ‫تدحرج‬ [ َ َ ْ َ ] to yield a higher family on the 4-letter root. ‫دحرج‬ Qur’ānic Example of [‫املزيد‬ ` ﴾ ‫]الفعل ُّباعي‬ ‫الر‬ ‫﴿ وَمَا جَعَلَ ُ ٱلّ ُ إ َّ ُشْرَى لَ ُمْ وَلِتَطْمَئ َّ ُُوُ ُم بِهِ ۚ وَمَا َّصْ ُ إ َّ مِنْ عِندِ ٱلّهِ ٱلْعَزِيزِ ٱلْحَكِيم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ٱلن ر ِال‬ ‫ِن قل بك‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه له ِال ب‬ “And Allah made it not except as good tidings for you and to reassure your hearts thereby. And victory is not except from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise”. (3:126) [ ‫] لفعل املضارع ال ّباعي املزيد املنصوب‬ ‫ر‬ 59
  • 60. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 60
  • 61. Lesson 5: Incomplete Verbs [‫النواسخ‬ ‫] أفعال الناقصة و‬ Lesson 5: Incomplete Verbs [‫ ]أَفْعا ُ َّاقصَة‬and [‫] َّواسِخ‬ ِ ‫ل الن‬ ‫الن‬ I. The Incomplete Verbs [‫]أفْعا ُ َّا ِ َة‬ ‫َ ل الن قص‬ A. Introduction Functionally and grammatically, the Incomplete Verbs are similar to Nominal Sentences. Please also note that the term [ ‫َّاِص‬ ‫الن ق‬ ‫ ]الفعل‬is not the same as the [‫ ] َّاقِص‬subset found in [ّ ‫.]الفعل املعت‬ ‫الن‬ ‫ل‬ entities despite the similar term [ ‫ ]الّاقص‬used in both. Sentences that involve [ ‫َّاِ َة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫الن قص‬ and do not have a [ ‫ ]فا ِل‬or a [ ِ ِ ‫ع‬ ‫به‬ ‫ ]مَفْعول‬grammatically. These are distinct ‫ل‬ ُ ‫ ]أَفْعا‬act like [‫]مجلة امسّة‬ ‫ي‬ Instead, the Doer [‫ ]فا ِل‬is replaced by the grammatical ‫ع‬ term [ ‫ ,]ِ ْم‬or Subject of the respective verb. This [‫ ]ِ ْم‬of the Incomplete Verb is by default Raf‛. The Direct ‫اس‬ ‫اس‬ Object [ ِ ِ ‫به‬ ‫]مفْعول‬ َ is replaced by the grammatical term [‫ ,] ََر‬or Predicate of the Incomplete Verb. This ‫خب‬ characteristically takes the I‛rāb of Naṣb. Structurally, these are verbs (‫ ,)أفعال‬but functionally they do not act as complete verbs. This is where the grammatical classification comes in versus the Ṣarf classification. Because these Incomplete Verbs take a Subject and Predicate, they are also termed in grammar, [‫ ] َّوا ِخ‬or ‫الن س‬ [ ‫اجلا ِد‬ ‫م‬ ‫.]الفِعل‬ Other agents like the particle [ َّ ‫ ]إ‬also cause a [ ‫ ]ِ ْم‬and a [‫ ] ََر‬to occur in their sentences, and ‫ِن‬ ‫اس‬ ‫خب‬ are from the [‫ . ] َّوا ِخ‬It is interesting to note that [َّ ‫ ] إ‬and its sisters also act like verbs. ‫الن س‬ ‫ِن‬ There are different types of [ ‫َّاِ َة‬ ‫الن قص‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ‫,]أَفْعا‬ which differ in their grammar function and in their verb conjugation. For example, [ َ ‫ ]كا‬is fully conjugated in past, present, and command tenses, and is acted upon ‫ن‬ by all verb particles. The incomplete verb [ َ ْ َ] , however is only conjugated in the past tense, and not in the ‫ل يس‬ present tense. The Verb [ َ ْ ِ] is only conjugated in the past tense third person form. These various ‫نعم‬ Incomplete Verbs are found scattered throughout the Qur’ān, and it is important to discuss them is some detail. 61
  • 62. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic B. Division and Classification of Incomplete Verbs [‫]أفْعا ُ َّا ِ َة‬ ‫َ ل الن قص‬ The Incomplete Verbs can be divided into several types of verbs based on functionality. These include the following: 1. The Verb [ ‫ ]كان‬and its Sisters 2. Negative Verbs [ َ ِ َ ‫ ,]َ ْ َ], [ ما زا َ], [ ما‬etc. ‫برح‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل يس‬ 3. The Verbs of Proximity [ ‫]أ ْعا ُ املقا ََة‬ ‫ف ل رب‬ 4. The Verbs of Praise and Blame [ ِ َّ َ ‫و الذم‬ ِ‫]أَفْعا ُ الْمَدْح‬ ‫ل‬ 5. The Verbs of Initiation [ ‫]أفعا ُ ُّروع‬ ‫ل الش‬ 6. Verbs of Surprise [ ‫]أفعا ُ ُّع ُّب‬ ‫ل الت َج‬ C. Categories of the Incomplete Verbs ‫أَفْعا ُ َّقِصَة‬ ‫ل الن‬ ‫أفعال الشروع‬ ‫أ‬ َ‫َا َ و‬ ‫كن‬ ِ‫َفْعال اْلمدْحِ وَ َّم‬ ‫الذ‬ َ ُ ‫أَخَواُها‬ ‫ت‬ َ‫حَ ُن‬ ‫س‬ َ‫طَفَق‬ َ‫بِئْس‬ َ‫كاَدَ و‬ َ ‫الفِع ُ ا ُقارَبَة‬ ‫ل مل‬ َ‫لَيْس‬ ‫أفعال‬ ‫الّعجب‬ ‫ت‬ َ‫نِعْم‬ َ‫أصْبَح‬ َ‫صار‬ ‫أمْسَى‬ َ‫كَان‬ َ‫جَعَل‬ 62 ‫َل‬ َّ ‫ظ‬ َ‫بات‬ َ‫كَاد‬ ‫عَسَى‬
  • 63. Lesson 5: Incomplete Verbs [‫النواسخ‬ ‫] أفعال الناقصة و‬ II. Kāna and its Sisters [‫]كان َ َ َواُها‬ ‫و أخ ت‬ A. The Grammar of Kāna and its Sisters Kāna and its Sisters are the most common of the Incomplete Verbs. In fact, Kāna is the most commonly mentioned verb in the Qur’ān after [ َ ‫ . ]قا‬Sentences that involve Kāna act like Nominal Sentences [‫امسّة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ and do not have a [ ‫ ]فا ِل‬or a [ِ ِ ‫ع‬ ‫به‬ ‫ ]مَفْعول‬grammatically. ‫]مجلة‬ Instead the Doer [‫ ]فا ِل‬is replaced by the grammatical ‫ع‬ term [ ‫( ]ِ ْم‬of Kāna or the respective incomplete verb), which is Raf‛. The Direct Object [ِ ِ ‫اس‬ ‫به‬ ‫ ]مَفْعول‬is replaced by the grammatical term [‫( ] ََر‬of Kāna or respective verb), and takes the I‛rāb of Naṣb. Irrespective of ‫خب‬ these grammatical terminology, Kāna is still a verb and its conjugation reflects that. For our purposes, we can consider Kāna a verb, in spite of its being incomplete, since it is conjugated in present, future tense, and command tense, and it can go into Naṣb and Jazm states by Particles. Specifically, Kāna is conjugated like a [ ‫ ]َْأ ْ َف‬verb in the past, present, future, and command tenses. Please refer to Table 9 for its full ‫ال جو‬ conjugation. Kāna and its Sisters carry the meaning of “is” in one way or another. Let us look at the following Qur’ānic examples of Kāna and its grammar: 1. ﴾... ً‫كَانَ َّا ُ أ َّةً وَاحِدَة‬ ‫ٱلن س ُم‬ ﴿ “Mankind was a single nation..”. (2:213). In this sentence with Kāna, the [ َ ‫كا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ ]اسم‬is [ُ ‫ ]الّا‬and is Raf‛. ‫نس‬ The word [ ً ‫ ] َا ِد‬serves to describe [ً َّ ‫ ]أ‬and acts as a [‫.] ِ َة‬ ‫وح ة‬ ‫ُمة‬ ‫صف‬ 2. ﴾ The [َ ‫َا‬ ‫كن‬ ‫ ]خَبَر‬is [ً‫ ]أ َّة‬and is in Naṣb. ‫ُم‬ ‫﴿ ... فَ ُولَٰئِكَ يَُو ُ َّ ُ عَلَيْهِمْ وكَانَ َّ ُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا‬ ‫َ ٱلله‬ ‫ت ب ٱلله‬ ‫أ‬ “It is those to whom Allah will turn in forgiveness, and Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.”8 (4:17) In this sentence with Kāna, the [ َ ‫كا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ ]اسم‬is [‫ ]لَفْ ُ اجلَاللَة‬while the [َ‫ ]خَبَر كَان‬is [‫ .]عَلِيمًا‬But what about ‫ظ‬ the word [ ‫ ? ] َ ِي ًا‬We see that [ ‫ ] َ ِي ًا‬is not a [‫ ] ِ َة‬as it may appear but it is actually a second ‫حك م‬ ‫حك م‬ ‫صف‬ [ َ ‫ . ] ََر َا‬This is because [ ‫ ] َِي ًا‬itself is an attribute and cannot be described by a [ ‫. ] ِ َة‬ ‫خب ك ن‬ ‫عل م‬ ‫صف‬ 3. ﴾ ‫ِن ق ل ه ك ك ن‬ ُ ‫﴿ إِذَا قَضَى أَمْرًا فَإَّمَا يَ ُو ُ لَ ُ ُنْ فَيَ ُو‬ “… when He determines a matter, He only says to it, "Be", and it is”. (19:35) When [َ ‫ ]كا‬is followed by any of the attributes of Allah , the meaning shifts to indicate that the particular attribute has always ‫ن‬ been there and will always be there. 8 63
  • 64. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic In this āyah, the [ َ ‫كا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ ]اسم‬is the implied pronoun [َ‫ ]أنْت‬while the [َ‫ ]خَبَر كَان‬is omitted. This is the command tense form. B. Past Continuous Tense [‫]الفعل املاضي ا ِسِْمْراري‬ ‫ال ت‬ The Verb Kāna has other functions beyond being an Incomplete Verb. It can be used with other words to elaborate on an action done in the past tense. When Kāna is used in the past tense form with a present tense verb following directly afterwards, it causes a subtle change in the meaning of the verb Kāna is associated with. It causes the respective action being stated as more “habitual” or “continuous”. Without Kāna, it would not be possible to describe how much of the action was done in the past, whether minimal or much. In the Past Continuous Tense, the past tense Kāna must match tenses (in terms of person) with the [ ‫ ]املضارع‬that is “continuous”. Let us look at the following examples below. In the right-hand column, we see that Kāna causes the action to become a habitual one versus the action done without it. Past tense Past Continuous Tense ُ ِ‫أَنْفَقَ َّ ُ ُ مِن مَال‬ ‫ه‬ ‫الرجل‬ ُ ِ‫كانَ ُنْفِ ُ َّ ُ ُ منِ مَال‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ي ق الرجل‬ The man spends from his wealth. The man had been spending from his wealth. ‫ز ت َق‬ َّ ‫اِسْتَهْ َأُمْ الْح‬ ‫َق‬ َّ ‫ُنُْمْ تَسْتَهْزُِونَ الْح‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫كت‬ You mocked the truth. You had been mocking the truth. َ‫قَرأَتِ فاطِمَ ُ الْ ُرْآن‬ ‫ة ق‬ َ َ‫كَانَتْ تَقْرُ فاطِمَ ُ الْ ُرْآن‬ ‫َأ ة ق‬ Fāṭimah read the Qur’ān Fāṭimah had been reading the Qur’ān. Examples from the Qur’ān 1. ﴾ َ ‫َ ْ َُو‬ ‫يعمل ن‬ ْ‫﴿... وَالَ ُسْأَُونَ ع َّا كَاُوا‬ ‫ت ل َم ن‬ “…And you will not be asked about what they used to do”. (2:141) 2. ﴾ َ‫﴿ فِي ُُوبِهِم َّرَ ٌ فَزَادَ ُ ُ الّ ُ مَرَضاً ۚ وَلَ ُمْ عَذَا ٌ أَلِي ٌ بِمَا كَاُوا يَكْذُِون‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ب م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫م ض ﻫم له‬ ‫قل‬ “In their hearts is disease, so Allah has increased their disease; and for them is a painful punishment becaus e they [habitually] used to lie”. (2:10) C. Far Past Tense [‫ ]الفعل املاضي الَ ِيد‬and Near Past Tense [‫]الفعل املاضي ال َريب‬ ‫بع‬ ‫ق‬ Kāna can also be used to indicate an action done a long time ago. In this case, the past tense Kāna is used with the past tense verb following it directly. Similar to the Past Continuous Tense, the conjugation of Kāna has to match in its tense with the verb being mentioned. To indicate if an action in the past tense done a short time ago, the particle [ْ َ] is used instead of Kāna. When [ ْ َ] is used, only the [ٍ ‫ما‬ ‫قد‬ ‫قد‬ ‫ض‬ 64 ‫ ]فعل‬is used. The
  • 65. Lesson 5: Incomplete Verbs [‫النواسخ‬ ‫] أفعال الناقصة و‬ particle [ ْ َ] can also be used for emphasis and/or certainty. In fact, the function of emphasis predominates ‫قد‬ when using [ ْ َ] in most cases. ‫قد‬ Past tense [ Near Past Tense ‫]قامَتِ َّلَاة‬ ‫الص‬ The standing of the prayer came. [ ‫]قَدْ قامَتِ َّلَاة‬ ‫الص‬ The standing of the prayer has just come. ﴾ ‫قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن ز َّاﻫَا‬ ‫َك‬ ﴿ “Indeed, He has succeeded who purifies it”. (91:9) Far Past Tense [ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫]عَاﻫَ ُوا َّهَ مِن قَب‬ ‫د ٱلل‬ They promised Allah before. ۚ َ‫﴿ وَلَقَدْ كَاُوا عَاﻫَ ُوا َّهَ مِن قَبْ ُ لَا ُوُّونَ ٱلْأَدْبَار‬ ‫ل ي َل‬ ‫د ٱلل‬ ‫ن‬ ﴾ ‫وَكَانَ عَهْ ُ َّهِ مَسْ ُولًا‬ ‫د ٱلل ؤ‬ “And they had promised Allah before not to turn their backs and flee. And ever is the promise to Allah questioned”. (33:15) D. Sisters of Kāna [َ ‫]َ َ َا ُ كا‬ ‫أخو ت ن‬ The Sisters of Kāna behave grammatically and functionally like Kāna. Each Sister of Kāna has a meaning similar to “is” or “to be”. Being from the Incomplete Verbs, each takes a Subject and Predicate. In the following examples shown in Table 35 and other tables in this lesson, the [ ‫ ]اسم‬of the respective Incomplete Verb is underlined in bold while the [‫ ] ََر‬of the verb is underlined with dashes. The Incomplete Verbs are ‫خب‬ highlighted. In the situation that there is no explicit Kāna Subject, then it is embedded within the verb itself as an implied pronoun. 65
  • 66. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Table 35: Sisters of Kāna [‫]َ َ َا ُ كان‬ َ ‫أخو ت‬ ‫الفعل النّقص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫مَعْنَى‬ َ‫صار‬ ‫أمْثال مِنَ ال ُرْآن‬ ‫ق‬ to become, to attain (a state) ﴾ ‫ٱلل ري أم ر‬ ُ ‫﴿ ...أَلَا إِلَى َّهِ تَصِ ُ ٱلْ ُ ُو‬ “…Unquestionably, to Allah do [all] matters evolve”. (42:53) َ‫﴿ ... وٱذْ ُ ُواْ نِعْمَتَ ٱ لّهِ عَلَيْ ُمْ إِذْ ُنُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَّفَ بَيْن‬ ‫َل‬ ‫ل ك كت‬ ‫َ كر‬ َ‫أَصْبَح‬ ‫أَمْسٰى‬ ‫أَضْحٰى‬ ‫َل‬ َّ ‫ظ‬ became, became in the morning ‫ُُوبِ ُمْ فَأَصْبَحُْم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫قل ك‬ ﴾... “…And remember the favor of Allah upon you - when you were enemies and He brought your hearts together and 9 you became, by His favor, brothers...” . (3:103) ﴾ happened, happened in the evening َ‫فَ ُبْحَانَ َّهِ حِنيَ ُمْ ُونَ وَحِنيَ ُصْبِ ُون‬ ‫ت ح‬ ‫تس‬ ‫ٱلل‬ ‫س‬ ﴿ “So exalted is Allah when you reach the evening and when you reach the morning”. (30:17) [ happened, happened at noon ‫]َأض ُوا عِبادَ ٱهلل صَالةَ ُّحٰى‬ ‫ٱلض‬ ِ ‫ْح‬ “Perform (do) at the noon-time, the noon prayer, 10 servants of God” . ﴾ to remain (in the day) َ‫قَاُوا نَعُْ ُ أَصْنَامًا فنَظ ُّ لَهَا عَاكِفِني‬ ‫َ َل‬ ‫ل بد‬ ﴿ “They said, "We worship idols and remain to them devoted"”. (26:71) َ‫بات‬ happened, happened in the night ﴾ ‫﴿ و َّذِينَ يَبِيُونَ لِرِّهِمْ س َّدًا وقِيَامًا‬ َ ‫ت َب ُج‬ ‫َٱل‬ “And those who spend the night to their Lord prostrating and standing [in prayer]”. (25:64) 9 In this āyah, the verb [َ‫ ]أصْبَح‬is used metaphorically as “being in the morning”. Here, the Qur’ān mentions that “you” were enemies, and because of His favor, you became brothers. It is similar to “becoming” like the morning which is bright, new, a nd fresh. This one example of the great eloquence of the Qur’ān, specifically in using one word over the other, to carry a much more eloquent and complete meaning. 10 Saying of Uʻmar ibn al-Khattāb from [‫.] كَنْ ُ الْعمال : ابن سعد و ابن أيب شيبه و ابن جرير‬ ‫ز‬ 66
  • 67. Lesson 5: Incomplete Verbs [‫النواسخ‬ ‫] أفعال الناقصة و‬ III. Laisa [َ ْ َ] and other Negative Incomplete Verbs ‫لي س‬ A. Laisa [َ‫]لَيْس‬ The Incomplete Verb [ َ ْ َ] is the most common negative verb in this class. It can be considered a sister ‫ل يس‬ of Kāna, but is often placed in a separate category since it functions in negation. Specifically, it actually is an opposite of Kāna in term of function. The difference is that it is only conjugated in the past tense [‫,]املاضي‬ while its meaning is in the present. The essential definition of Laisa is “is not”, not “was not”. For example, in the sentence [ ً‫ ,]َ ْ َ َ ْ ٌ عاِم‬the meaning is “Zaid is not knowledgeable”. In this sentence, the [َ ْ َ ‫ ]اسم‬is ‫ليس زيد ل ا‬ ‫ل يس‬ [ ‫ ]زيد‬while the [ َ ْ َ ‫ل يس‬ ‫ ]خرب‬is [‫.]عاملا‬ In Ḥadīth, we often find the following atypical pattern with Laisa: “ْ َ ‫من‬ ‫ .”.....لَيْسَ مَّا‬Here, the order of the ‫ِن‬ predicate and subject of Laisa are reversed. In example #4 below, the [َ ْ َ ‫ ]خرب‬is the Jarr Construction [‫]مَّا‬ ‫ل يس‬ ‫ِن‬ and precedes the Relative Pronoun Construction [..َ َِ ْ‫ , ] َ ْ َ ْ ُوِّ ْ ا‬the [َ ْ َ ‫. ]اسم‬ ‫من لم ي َقر لكبري‬ ‫ل يس‬ Qur’ānic and Ḥadīth Examples of Laisa 1. ﴾...ْ ُ َّّ ‫ربِكم‬ ‫﴿ ُلْ يَا أَﻫْلَ ٱلْكِتَابِ لَسُْمْ عَلَى شَيْءٍَ حَّى ُقِي ُواْ َّوْرَاةَ وَٱ لْإِجنِيلَ وَمَا ُنزِلَ إِلَيْ ُم ّن‬ ِ‫ك م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫َت ت م ٱلت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ق‬ “Say, "Oh People of the Scripture, you are [standing] on nothing until you uphold the Torah, the Gospel, and 11 what has been revealed to you from your Lord ". (5:68) 2. { ِ‫} لَيسَ شَي ٌ أَكْرَمَ عَلى اهللِ تَعاىل مِنَ ُّعاء‬ ‫الد‬ ‫ء‬ “There is nothing more beloved with Allah than Du’ā”. (Tirmidhi) 3. 12 {ِ‫}لَيْسَ َّدِي ُ ب ُّرْعَةِ إَّما َّدي ُ َّ ِي يَمْلِ ُ نَفْسَ ُ عِنْدَ الْغَضَب‬ ‫ك ه‬ ‫الش د ِالص ِن الش د الذ‬ “The strong person is not the wrestler, but indeed the strong person is the one 13 who controls himself in anger”. (Bukhāri) 4. {ِ‫}َليْسَ مَّا مَنْ لَمْ ُو ِّرْ الْكَبِريَ وَيَرْحَمْ َّغريَ وَيَأْ ُرْ بِالْمَعْ ُوفِ وَيَنْهَى عَنْ الْ ُنْكَر‬ ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ ‫الص ِ م‬ ‫ي َق‬ ‫ِن‬ “He is not from us who does not honor the elderly and is not merciful to the young, 14 and does not enjoin the good nor forbid the evil”. (Tirmidhi) Please note that whenever a Jarr Construction is a predicate [‫ ,]خَبَر‬it actually needs to be joined to an implied noun (termed [‫ ] كَائِن‬or [‫ )] مَوْ ُد‬to form a predicate. It cannot do that by itself. This is further discussed in Lesson 11. ‫ج‬ 11 12 13 Sunan At-Tirmidhi: Ḥadith #3370 from [‫ .]الدعوات عن رسول اهلل صلى اهلل عليه وسلم باب ما جاء يف فضل الدعاء‬Classified as Ḥasan by Sheikh Al-Albāni. Sāhih al-Bukhāri, Ḥadith #5763 from [‫.] كِتا ُ ا ألَدَب: باب احلذر من الغضب‬ ‫ب‬ Musnad Aḥmed, Ḥadith #2325 from [ِ‫ .]وَ مِنْ ُسْنَدِ بَنِي ﻫَاشِمٍ - ُسْنَ ُ عَبْدِ َّهِ بْنِ الْ عَّاسِ بْنِ عَبْدِ امل َّلِب‬Classified as Saḥīḥ according to Tirmidhi ‫ُط‬ ‫َب‬ ‫م د الل‬ ‫م‬ [‫.]قال الترمذي:"حديث حممد بن إسحاق عن عمرو بن شعيب ، حديث حسن صحيح‬ 14 67
  • 68. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic B. Additional Negative Incomplete Verbs Besides Laisa, there are other negative Incomplete Verbs. All the following verbs shown in Table 36 require a negative particle. These verbs are not so much negative in meaning but negative in the sense that they require a negative particle whether it is [‫ ]ما‬or another negative particle [ْ َ/ْ َ/‫.]ال‬ ‫لن لم‬ Table 36: Laisa and Negative Incomplete Verbs ‫الفعل النّقص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫مَعْنَى‬ َ‫ما زَال‬ to continue َ‫ما دام‬ as long as َ‫ما بَرِح‬ to continue ‫أمْثال مِنَ ال ُرْآن‬ ‫ق‬ َ‫﴿ ولَوْ شَاءَ رُّكَ لَجَعَلَ َّاسَ أ َّةً وَاحِدَةً ۚ وَالَ يَزَاُونَ ُخْتَلِفِني‬ ‫ل م‬ ‫ٱلن ُم‬ ‫َب‬ َ ﴾ “And if your Lord had willed, He could have made mankind one community; but they will not cease to differ.”. (11:118) ﴾ ‫﴿ قَاُوا يَا ُوسَىٰ إَّا لَنْ نَدْ ُلَهَا أَبَدًا مَا دَا ُوا فِيهَا‬ ‫م‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ِن‬ ‫ل م‬ “They said, "Oh Mūsa, indeed we will not enter it, ever, as long as they are within it.” (5:24) ۚ ‫﴿فَلَنْ أَبْرَحَ ٱلْأَرْضَ حَّىَ يَأْذَنَ لِي أَبِي أَوْ يَحْ ُمَ ٱلّ ُ لِي‬ ‫ك له‬ ‫َت‬ ﴾َ ِ ِ ‫َ ُ َ َْ ُ ٱْ َا‬ ‫وﻫو خير لح كمني‬ “…So I will never leave [this] land until my father permits me or Allah decides for me, and He is the best of judges”. (12:80) ‫ما فَتِئ‬ َ to never stop ﴾... ‫﴿ قَاُوا ت َّهِ تَفْتَُ تَذْ ُ ُ ُو ُفَ حَّىٰ تَ ُونَ حَرَضًا‬ ‫ل َٱلل أ كر ي س َت ك‬ “They said, "By Allah, you will not cease remembering Yūsuf 15 until you become fatally ill ..."”. (5:24) IV. Verbs of Proximity [‫]أفْعال الْ ُقا ََة‬ ‫م رب‬ َ The Verbs of Proximity [ ‫ ]َ ْعال اْ ُقا ََة‬carry the meaning of “almost” or “nearly”. They differ from Kāna in ‫أف لم رب‬ that they require a present tense verb.16 The verb Kāda [َ ‫ ] َا‬is the main verb in this category of the root ‫كد‬ letters [ ‫ . ]كود‬Do not confuse this with the verb [َ ‫ ] َا‬of root letters [‫ ]ك يد‬that means to “to plot”. When is ‫كد‬ used in the negative sense, its meaning changes to “barely” or “scarcely” as shown in the first example in Table 37. The other Verb of Proximity used in the Qur’ān is [ٰ‫ , ] َ َى‬which sometimes is categorized from the ‫عس‬ You will notice that in this case there is no negative particle preceding the verb [ُ َ‫ .]تَ فْت‬According to Lane’s Lexicon, “All the ‫أ‬ Grammarians and Scholars of the Qur’ān, for the oath that is not accompanied by affirmation denote negation.” (Book I, pg. 2327). 16 The [‫ ] فعل مضارع‬acts as the predicate for the Verb of Proximity. 15 68
  • 69. Lesson 5: Incomplete Verbs [‫النواسخ‬ Verbs of Hoping [ ‫ِّجاء‬ ‫الر‬ ‫.]أَفْعال‬ ‫] أفعال الناقصة و‬ Other verbs in this category occur outside the Qur’ān are [َ َ ْ َ] and [َ َ َ ], ‫أوشك‬ ‫كرب‬ which will not be discussed here. Table 37: Verbs of Proximity [ ‫ا ْ ُقا ََة‬ ‫لم رب‬ ‫الفعل النّقص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫مَعْنَى‬ ‫]كاد وَ َأفْعال‬ ‫أمْثال مِنَ ال ُرْآن‬ ‫ق‬ َ‫كاد‬ ﴾ َ‫﴿... فَذَبَ ُوﻫَا وَمَا كَا ُوا يَفْعَُون‬ ‫ل‬ ‫د‬ ‫ح‬ “...So they sacrificed it, though they were close to not doing it”. (2:71) ‫د ٱلس ت‬ ُ ‫﴿ وَقَاُوا َّخَذَ َّحْمَ ُ ولَدًا ۝ لَقَدْ جِئُْمْ شَيْئًا إ ًّا ۝ تَكَا ُ َّمَاوَا‬ ‫ِد‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫ل ٱت ٱلر ن‬ ﴾‫ََف َّ ْ َ ِْ ُ ََنش ُّ ٱَْ ْ ُ ََخ ُّ ٱْ َِا ُ ﻫ ًّا‬ ‫يت َطرن منه وت َق لأرض وت ِر لجب ل َد‬ “And they say, "The Most Merciful has taken a son. You have done an atrocious thing. The heavens almost rupture therefrom and the earth splits open and the mountains collapse in devastation”. (19:88-90) ٰ‫عَسَى‬ َ‫﴿... قَالَ عَسَىٰ رُّ ُمْ أَن ُهْلِكَ عَد َّ ُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفَ ُمْ فِي ٱلْأَرْضِ فَيَن ُر‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ُوك‬ ‫َبك ي‬ ﴾ َ‫كَيْفَ تَعْمَُون‬ ‫ل‬ “…He said, "Perhaps your Lord will destroy your enemy and grant you succession in the land and see how you will do"”. (7:129) V. Verbs of Initiation [‫]أفعال الشروع‬ These verbs take on the meaning of “initiating” or “beginning” a certain action. You will most like recognize these verbs, but when these verbs are associated with a Present Tense verb, then their grammar changes. These verbs are grammatically similar to [‫اْ ُقا ََة‬ ‫لم رب‬ ‫ ]أَفْعال‬in the way they are used. There are only few set verbs that can take this function and are the following: [ َ‫.]جَعَلَ / أَخَذَ /شَرَعَ / طَفَقَ / عَلَقَ /ﻫ َّ / بَدَأ‬ ‫َب‬ For example, the sentence “Zaid begins to drink the milk” is written as the following: [‫ََّن‬ ‫الب‬ Please note that from these, only the [َ َ َ ] is used in the Qur’ān as [‫ال ّروع‬ ‫طفق‬ ‫ش‬ 69 ‫.]الفعل‬ ‫د ب‬ ُ َ‫.]بَدَأَ زَيْ ٌ تَشْر‬
  • 70. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Qur’ānic Example: ِ‫فَد َّ ُمَا بِ ُ ُورٍ ۚ فَل َّا ذَاقَا َّجَرَةَ بَدَتْ لَ ُمَا سَوْءَاُ ُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ ٱلْجَّة‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ته‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ٱلش‬ ‫َم‬ ‫َالﻫ غر‬ ﴾... ﴿ “So he made them fall, through deception. And when they tasted of the tree, their private parts became apparent to them, and they began to fasten together over themselves from the leaves of Paradise”. (7:22) VI. Verbs of Praise and Blame [‫]أفْعال الْ َدْح و َّم‬ ِ ‫َ ُ م ِ َ الذ‬ These Incomplete Verbs occur only in the past tense, third person singular form. They signify the exclamation of the good or bad of something. Similar to the other Incomplete Verbs, these verbs take a Subject and Predicate.17 They include a limited number of verbs that include the following: [ َ‫ .]نِعْمَ/ ساءَ/ حَ ُنَ/ بِئْسَ/ كَُرَ/ ضَ ُفَ/ شَ ُفَ/ خَُثَ/ قَُح‬Please refer to the chart below. ‫ب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ب ع‬ ‫س‬ One important point to note is that these verbs possess the function of exclamation of praise or blame contextually. Sometimes, the verb functions like a regular verb, but this is rare in the Qur’ān.18 ‫]أَفْعال الْمَدْح‬ ِ ُ Meaning َ‫نِعْم‬ ‫]أَفْعال َّم‬ ِ ‫ُ الذ‬ Meaning to be good/excellent َ‫بِيْس‬ to be bad/evil َ‫حَ ُن‬ ‫س‬ to be good/excellent َ‫ساء‬ to be bad/evil َ‫شَ ُف‬ ‫ر‬ to be noble َ‫كَُر‬ ‫ب‬ to be hated َ‫ضَ ُف‬ ‫ع‬ to be weak َ‫قَُح‬ ‫ب‬ [ to be despised/ugly [ Please note that some grammarians analyze the grammar of [ِ‫ ]أَفْعال الْمَدْحِ وَ َّ م‬like a regular verb: It comes with a [‫ ]فاعل‬instead of a ‫الذ‬ ُ [‫ .]اسم فعل‬The predicate is termed [‫ ,] مَخ ُوص بِاملَدح أَوْ ب َّم‬relating to the thing being praised or blamed. Overall, this does not affect our ‫ِالذ‬ ‫ص‬ 17 studies here, and is an academic point. 18 Let us look at the following Qur’ānic āyah using the verb [َ َُ ]. ‫كبر‬ ﴾...ً‫﴿ ...يَا قَوْ مِ إِن كَانَ كَُرَ عَلَيْ ُم َّ قَا مِي وَتَذْ كِ ريِي بِآيَاتِ ٱلّهِ فَ عَلَى ٱلّهِ تَو َّلْ ُ فَ أَجْمِ ُواْ أَ مْرَ ُمْ وَ ُرَ كَاءَ ُمْ ث َّ الَ يَ ُنْ أَ مْ ُ ُمْ عَلَيْ ُمْ غ َّة‬ ‫ك ش ك ُم ك ر ك ك ُم‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ل َك ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ب ك م‬ “…"Oh my people, if my residence and my reminding of the signs of Allah has become burdensome upon you - then I have relied upon Allah. So resolve upon your plan and [call upon] your associates…” (10:71) Here, it is clear that [َ‫ ] كَُر‬functions like a regular verb (in a conditional statement) and does not function in exclamation. This is ‫ب‬ contrasted with the Qur’ānic āyah ﴾َ ‫“﴿ َُ َ َقًْا ِن َ َّ ِ َن َ ُوُوا َا َا َفْ َ ُو‬It is most hateful in the sight of Allah that you say what you do ‫كبر م ت ع د ٱلله أ تق ل م ل ت عل ن‬ not do.”. (61:3). Here, the verb [َ‫ ] كَُر‬is clearly functioning as a Verb of Blaming. ‫ب‬ 70
  • 71. Lesson 5: Incomplete Verbs [‫النواسخ‬ ‫] أفعال الناقصة و‬ Table 38: Verbs of Praise and Blame [‫َّم‬ ِ ‫الذ‬ ‫]َأفْعال الْمَدْح و‬ َ ِ ُ ‫أمْثال مِنَ ال ُرْآن‬ ‫ق‬ ‫الفعل النّقص‬ ‫ا‬ ۚ ْ‫قَاُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَُشْرُِواْ فِي ُُوبِهِ ُ ٱلْعِجْلَ بِ ُفْرِﻫِم‬ ‫ك‬ ‫قل م‬ ‫أ ب‬ ‫ل‬ َ‫بِئْس‬ ﴾ ... ﴿ َ‫ُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْ ُ ُ ُمْ بِهِ إِميَاُ ُمْ إِن ُنُمْ ُّؤْمِنِني‬ ‫كت م‬ ‫نك‬ ‫م رك‬ ‫ق‬ “They said, "We hear and disobey." And their hearts absorbed [the worship of] the calf because of their disbelief. Say, "How wretched is that which your faith enjoins upon you, if you should be believers"”. (2:93) ۚ ِ‫﴿... وَيَلْبَ ُونَ ثِيَابًا ُضْرًا ّن ُن ُسٍ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٍ مَّكِئِنيَ فِيهَا عَلَى ٱلْأَرَائِك‬ ‫ُّت‬ ‫خ مِ س د‬ ‫س‬ ‫نِعْمَ َّوَا ُ وَحَ ُنَتْ ُرْتَفَقًا‬ ‫ٱلث ب س م‬ َ‫نِعْم‬ ﴾ “…and they will wear green garments of fine silk and brocade, reclining therein on adorned couches. How excellent is the reward, and how good is the resting place...”. (18:31) َ‫كَُبر‬ ﴾ َ‫﴿كَُرَ مَقْتًا عِندَ َّهِ أَن تَ ُوُوا مَا لَا تَفْعَُون‬ ‫ل‬ ‫قل‬ ‫ٱلل‬ ‫ب‬ “It is most hateful in the sight of Allah that you say what you do not do”. (61:3) ‫۝‬ َ‫حَ ُن‬ ‫س‬ ‫ُوْلَئِكَ ُجْزَوْنَ ٱلْ ُرْفَةَ بِمَا صَبَ ُوا وَُل َّوْنَ فِيهَا تَحَّةً وَسَلَامًا‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫ر يَق‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ﴾ ﴿ ‫خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا حَ ُنَتْ ُسْتَق ًّا وَ ُقَامًا‬ ‫س م َر م‬ “Those will be awarded the Chamber for what they patiently endured, and they will be received therein with greetings and peace. Abiding eternally therein. How good is the settlement and residence!”(25:75-76) VII. Verbs of Wonder [‫]أفْعا ُ َّع ُّب‬ ‫ل الت َج‬ Similar to the Verbs of Praise and Blame, the [‫َّع ُّب‬ ‫الت َج‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ‫ ]أفْعا‬verbs also act in expressing exclamation, but in surprise and/or wonderment. These verbs are typically derived from the “normal” verbs (without function of exclamation). However, when they are found in a characteristic conjugation, then these verbs take on the meaning of wonder and exclamation. Typically, they are found in one of two patterns, [ُ ََ ْ َ ‫ ]ما‬and ‫أفعله‬ [ِ ِ ‫به‬ ْ‫.]أَفْعِل‬ The grammar of these verbs will not be discussed here since it is complex, and requires a lengthy and advanced grammatical discussion. 71
  • 72. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Qur’ānic Examples: 1. ﴾ ٍ ُِّ ‫مبني‬ ٍ‫﴿ أَسْمِعْ بِهِمْ وأَبْصِرْ يَوْمَ يَأُْونَنَا ۚ لَٰكِنِ َّالِ ُونَ ٱلْيَوْمَ فِي ضَالَل‬ ‫ٱلظ م‬ ‫ت‬ َ “How clearly they will hear and see on the Day they come to Us, but the wrongdoers today are in clear error”. (19:38) 2. ﴾ِ ‫َّا‬ ‫ٱلن ر‬ ‫﴿ُولَـٰئِكَ َّذِينَ اشْتَرَ ُاْ َّالَلَةَ بِٱلْ ُدَى وَٱلْعَذَابَ بِٱلْمَغْفِرَةِ ۚ فمَآ أَصْبَرَ ُمْ عَلَى‬ ‫ﻫ‬ َ ‫ه‬ ‫و ٱلض‬ ‫ٱل‬ ‫أ‬ “Those are the ones who have exchanged guidance for error and forgiveness for punishment. How patient they are in pursuit of the Fire!”(2:175) VIII. Inna and its Sisters [‫]إ َّ َ َ َواِها‬ ‫ِن و أخ ت‬ The particles termed Inna and its Sisters cause nouns to go into the Naṣb state. These particles of Naṣb that act on nouns were previously discussed in Volume 1. Specifically, they actually act on a Nominal Sentence. They cause the [ ‫ ] ُ َْ َأ‬to go into the Naṣb state, which becomes the [ ‫ ]ِ ْم‬of the particle, while the ‫مبتد‬ ‫اس‬ [ ‫ ] ََر‬remains in Raf‛. These particles are from the category of [ ‫ ]َ َا ِخ‬and actually function like verbs. For ‫خب‬ ‫نو س‬ example, the particle [ َّ ‫ ]إ‬imparts the meaning of “emphasis”. The particles [َّ ‫ ]َع‬and [َ ْ َ] function like ‫ِن‬ ‫ل َل‬ ‫ليت‬ [ ‫ِّجاء‬ ‫الر‬ ‫ ]أفْعال‬and cause a meaning related to hoping. Please note the particle [‫ ]إَّما‬is different from [َّ ‫ ]إ‬in that it neither affects I‛rāb nor is a Sister of [َّ ‫ .]إ‬It ‫ِن‬ ‫ِن‬ ‫ِن‬ conveys the meaning of “only”. It is similar to [ َّ ‫ ]إ‬however, in that it is found at the start of a sentence. For ‫ِن‬ example, in the famous Ḥadīth: }... ‫} إَّما األَعْمَا ُ بِالنَّاتِ َّما لك ِّ امْرِىءٍَ ما نَ َى‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل ِّي وإن ُل‬ ‫ِن‬ 19 Sometimes the particle [ َّ ‫ ]أ‬actually functions as a [‫َّأن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫الش‬ ‫ري‬ ُ ِ‫ ,]ضَم‬where it serves to cause a break in the sentence and introduce something. In this case, it takes the meaning of “that” versus emphasis. This is found sometimes in the Qur’ān and is used often in Arabic. Sometimes, pronouns can also take the function of [ ‫َّأن‬ ‫الش‬ ‫ري‬ ُ ِ‫.]ضَم‬ An example of [ ‫َّأن‬ ‫الش‬ ‫ري‬ ُ ِ‫ ]ضَم‬is seen in the āyah below in the form of [ُ َّ‫ ,]أ‬which is perhaps the ‫َنه‬ most common. ﴾ ‫﴿ ُلْ ُوحِيَ إِل َّ أَّ ُ ٱسْتَمَعَ نَفَ ٌ ّنَ ٱ لْجِ ّ فَقَاُوا إَّا سَمِعْنَا ُرْآنًا عَجَبًا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫نِ ل ِن‬ ِ‫ر م‬ ‫َي َنه‬ ‫ق أ‬ “Say, "It has been revealed to me that a group of the Jinn listened and said, "Indeed, we have heard an amazing Qur’ān"”. (72:1) 20 Narrated in Saḥīḥ Bukhāri and Muslim. “Indeed actions are only with intentions, and indeed every person will only have what he intends…” 20 In this example, the term [ُ َّ can also have a double meaning of Emphasis along with being [‫ ] َ ِ ُ َّ ْن‬as per Qur’ānic grammar ‫]أنه‬ ‫ضم ري الشأ‬ 19 analysis in the book [‫.]اإلعراب للمف ّل كتاب اهلل املرّل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ص‬ 72
  • 73. Lesson 5: Incomplete Verbs [‫النواسخ‬ ‫] أفعال الناقصة و‬ Table 39: Inna and its Sisters [‫] إ َّ َ َ َواُها‬ ‫ِن و أخ ت‬ ‫ِن‬ َّ ‫إ‬ Surely, Verily (used in the beginning) ‫َن‬ َّ ‫أ‬ Surely, Verily (used in the middle) ‫َن‬ َّ ‫كأ‬ As though (used to draw a parallel) َ‫لَيْت‬ If only, (used to wish for what could have been) ‫ِن‬ َّ ‫لَك‬ But, on the contrary, actually ‫َل‬ َّ ‫لَع‬ Perhaps, maybe, so as to Examples from the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth 1. ﴾ ‫﴿ وَيَوْمَ يَع ُّ َّالِ ُ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ يَ ُو ُ يَا لَيْتَنِي َّخَذْ ُ مَعَ َّ ُولِ سَبِيلًا‬ ‫ٱت ت ٱلرس‬ ‫قل‬ ‫َض ٱلظ م‬ “And the Day the wrongdoer will bite on his hands [in regret] he will say, "Oh, I wish I had taken with the Messenger a way”. (25:27) 2. ﴾ ‫ب‬ ٌ ‫﴿ َّ ُ َّذِي أَنزَلَ ٱلْكِتَابَ بِٱلْحَ ّ وَٱلْمِيزَانَ وَمَا ُدْرِيكَ لَع َّ َّاعَةَ قَرِي‬ ‫َل ٱلس‬ ‫ي‬ ِ‫ق‬ ‫ٱلله ٱل‬ “It is Allah who has sent down the Book in truth and [also] the balance. And what will make you perceive? Perhaps the Hour is near”. (42:17) 3. {ُ ‫ا ْما‬ ‫ل ل‬ ‫}إ َّ لِك ِّ أ َّةٍ فِتْنَةً وَ فِتْنَ ُ أ َّتِي‬ ‫ة ُم‬ ‫ِن ُل ُم‬ 21 “Indeed every nation has a test, and the test of my nation is wealth”. (Tirmidhi) 22 IX. Other Verb-like Entities: Warnings [‫]اإلنذا َات‬ ‫ر‬ In Arabic, warnings are typically conveyed by the use of certain particles to convey the meaning of a “command” verb with brevity, quickness, and emphasis. These particles are being mentioned here since they act like verbs. Furthermore, they are found in some important Ḥadīth. 21 In this case, you will notice that the particle [َّ ‫ ]إ‬is following directly by a Jarr Construction. This actually causes the [َّ ‫ ]اِسْم إ‬to ‫ِن‬ ‫ِن‬ “move” forward in the sentence, which in this case is [ً‫ .]فِتْنَ ة‬The Jarr Construction is a component of the [َّ ‫ ]خَبَر إ‬which is linked to ‫ِن‬ an implied noun. 22 Musnad Aḥmad in [َ ِّ‫ ] ُ َْ ُ َّا م‬Ḥadith # 17,017 and in Sunan Tirmidhi, where he classified the Ḥadith as Saḥīḥ. ‫مسند الش ِيني‬ 73
  • 74. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Table 40: Warnings [ ‫]اإلنذا َات‬ ‫ر‬ ‫اإلِنْذار‬ َ‫إَّاكَ و‬ ‫ِي‬ ِ‫عَلَيْكَ ب‬ َ‫مَكانَك‬ 23 24 ‫املعْىن‬ ‫أمْثال‬ ْ‫اِحْفَظْ وَ اِحْذَر‬ } ِ ‫{ إَّا ُمْ َ الظ َّ َإ َّ الظ َّ َكْ َ ُ الْ َدي‬ ‫ِي ك و َّن فِن َّن أ ذب ح ث‬ Guard and Beware of! “Guard and Beware (all you) of Suspicion, for verily suspicion is the most lying 23 speech”. (Bukhāri) Hold fast to! “Hold fast to My Sunnah and that of the Rightly Guided Successors.. ”. 24 (Abu Dawūd) ِ‫تَم َّكَ ب‬ ‫َس‬ ْ‫ُثُْت‬ ‫اب‬ Stay in your place! }َ ‫{... ََيْ ُمْ ِسَّيت َ سَّ ِ الْ ُلفا ِ الْ َهْ ِِ َ َّا ِ ِي‬ ‫عل ك ب ُن و ُنة خ ء م ديني الر شد ن‬ [ ‫ع َية‬ ُ َّ‫]ُثُْت أَوْ تَلْسَ ُ الْح‬ ‫اب‬ “Stay in your place or the snake will bite!” Saḥīḥ Bukhāri Ḥadith # 4849 in [‫.] كِتاب الّكاح‬ ‫ن‬ Sunan Abu Dāwūd Ḥadith #4607 in [‫ .] كِتاب ال ُّة‬Also in Ibn Mājah, Musnad Aḥmed, and Tirmidhi. ‫سن‬ 74
  • 75. Lesson 6: Negation and Exceptions [‫االستثناء‬ ‫]النافية و‬ Lesson 6: Negation and Exceptions [‫] َّفِيَة وَ االستِثْناء‬ ‫الن‬ I. Negation [‫]ا َّا َِة‬ ‫َلن في‬ We have already looked at negation briefly in the first Volume25 and when discussing certain particles of negation. Particles of negation are divided into those that can cause a change in I‛rāb, and thus have ]‫,62[ َ َل‬ ‫عم‬ and those that do not [ ٍ َِ ‫عا‬ ‫ملة‬ ‫ح ف ر‬ ُ ْ‫.] ُرو ٌ غَي‬ Particles of Exception [ ‫اال ِْ ْناء‬ ‫ستث‬ ‫حر ف‬ ُ ‫ ] ُ ُو‬are discussed in a separate section in this Lesson. The particles of negation that cause Jazm and Naṣb have already been studied in Volume 1, and do not need much discussion. The remaining particles will be elaborated on. This will include the different types of [ ‫ , ]ال‬all of which cause negation but have different grammatical functions. The algorithm below shows how these particles are distinguished. Particles of Negation ‫ُ ُوف‬ ‫حر‬ ‫ُ ُوف‬ ‫حر‬ ‫عامِلَة‬ ‫ُ ُوف‬ ‫حر‬ ‫جازِمَة‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ال َّة‬ ‫الناﻫي‬ ‫ل َّا‬ ‫َم‬ 25 26 ْ‫لَم‬ ‫ال ا لَّفِيَ ِل ْلجِنْس‬ ‫ْن‬ ‫غَ ُ عامِلَة‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ُ ُوف‬ ‫حر‬ ‫ناصِبَة‬ ‫ح‬ ْ‫لَن‬ ‫اَّا‬ ‫َل‬ ْ‫أَن‬ ‫ال العطف‬ Please refer to “Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic”, Volume 1 (Lesson 6, IV-A1). The term [‫ ]عَمَل‬refers to the ability of a word to cause a change the I‛rāb of another word. 75 ‫كَّا‬ ‫َل‬ ‫ما‬ ‫ال َّة‬ ‫النافي‬
  • 76. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Table 41: Particles of Negation ‫ال‬ no ‫ما‬ no ْ‫إِن‬ no ‫ك َّا‬ ‫َل‬ Never!/by no means! ْ‫لَن‬ will not ْ‫لَم‬ was not َ‫لَيْس‬ is not A. The Different types of Lā [‫]ال‬ 1. Lā of Simple Negation [‫]ال َّ ِي‬ ‫النف‬ The Lā of Simple negation is the most common type of Lā. It acts on both verbs and nouns but has no [ ‫ ] َ َل‬and thus no effect on I‛rāb. It even acts on particles [ ّ َ ‫ ] ُروف ا‬as well. Lā of simple ‫عم‬ ‫جلر‬ ‫ح‬ negation works with present tense verbs27, while the negative particle [‫ ]ما‬works with both past and present tenses. When the Lā is acting on a Noun, it is important to differentiate this from the Lā of categorical negation.28 Qur’ānic Examples: i. ﴾ َ‫﴿... فَمَنْ تَبِعَ ُدَايَ فلَا خَوْ ٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا ُمْ يَحْزَُون‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻫ َ ف‬ “We said, "Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance - there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve”. (2:38) ii. ﴾ ‫ِل ِي‬ َّ ‫﴿ وَمِنْ ُمْ ُمُّونَ لَا يَعْلَ ُونَ ٱلْكِتَابَ إَّا أَمَان‬ ‫م‬ ‫ه أ ِّي‬ “And among them are unlettered ones who do not know the Scripture except in wishful thinking, but they are only assuming”. (2:78) iii. ﴾ ِ‫﴿ إ َّ ٱلّهَ الَ يَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ شَيْ ٌ فِي ٱلْأَرْضِ وَالَ فِي َّمَاء‬ ‫ٱلس‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ِن ل‬ “Indeed, from Allah nothing is hidden in the earth nor in the heaven”. (3:5) 27 There are rare exceptions. In the Qur’ān, in the āyah (75:31),﴾ ٰ‫ ,﴿ َ َا ص َّ َ ََا ص َّى‬the Lā acts on a past tense verb. ‫فل َدق ول َل‬ The Lā of categorical negation is followed by an Ism with a single Fatḥa at its end. It is described in detail on the following page. 28 76
  • 77. Lesson 6: Negation and Exceptions [‫االستثناء‬ 2. Lā of complete/categorical negation [‫ل ْ ِ ْس‬ ‫ِلجن‬ ‫]النافية و‬ َ‫]لَا الَّفِي‬ ‫ْن‬ This Lā functions in categorical, or emphatic negation. Grammatically, it stresses the impossibility of something occurring. For example, in the sentence [ ِ ‫َّا‬ ‫الد ر‬ in the house”. In the sentence [ ‫َّار‬ ‫الد‬ ‫ ,]ال وَلَ ٌ يف‬the general meaning is “There is no boy ‫د‬ ‫ ,]ال وَلَدَ يف‬the meaning is similar with the added emphasis that “There is absolutely no boy in the house”. This Lā causes a change in I‛rāb, and causes the following noun to be in Naṣb but also causes it to be indefinite, and thus without a Sukūn. The normal Lā of negation of course has no effect on I‛rāb. Please note that the Lā of categorical negation only acts on nouns. The Lā of categorical negation takes both an [‫ ]ِ ْم‬and a [ ‫ . ] ََر‬Similar to Kāna, its Subject is Raf‛, and its Predicate Naṣb. ‫اس‬ ‫خب‬ Qur’ānic Examples: i. ﴾ ‫﴿ قَاُواْ ُبْحَانَكَ الَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إ َّ مَا عَّمْتَنَا إَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلْعَلِي ُ ٱلْحَكِيم‬ ُ ‫م‬ ‫ِال َل ِن‬ ‫ل س‬ “They said, "Exalted are You; we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise"”. (2:38) ii. ﴾ َ‫﴿... والَ ُبَ ّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ ٱلّهِ ولَقدْ جَاءَكَ مِن َّبَإِ ٱلْ ُرْسَلِني‬ ‫ن م‬ َ ‫ل‬ ِ‫َ م د‬ “And none can alter the words of Allah. And there has certainly come to you some information about the messengers”. (6:34) iii. ﴾ ‫ِل ﻫ ٱلر ن ٱلر م‬ ُ ‫﴿ وِإلَٰ ُ ُمْ ِإلَٰ ٌ وَاحِ ٌ لَا ِإلَٰهَ إَّا ُوَ َّحْمَٰ ُ َّحِي‬ ‫َ هك ه د‬ “Indeed, from Allah nothing is hidden in the earth nor in the heaven”. (2:163) 3. Lā of Joining [‫92]ال ا ْ َ ْف‬ ‫لعط‬ This type of Lā functions in negating along with connecting. Particles of connection function in transferring I‛rāb from the word prior to the particle to the word after the particle. This can be either a verb or a noun. Example: [ ً‫]نَصَرْ ُ زَيْداً ال ُمْرَا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ت‬ 4. Lā of prohibition [‫َّهي‬ ‫الن‬ “I helped Zaid not U‛mar.” ‫]ال‬ This Lā is a Ḥarf Jazm that has been studied in Volume 1. Please note that it can act on both second and third person. However, it is mainly used in forbidding the second person. 29 This Lā is actually from the Particles of Connection [‫ .] ُ ُوف الْعطف‬These are discussed in detail in Lesson 7. ‫حر‬ 77
  • 78. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Qur’ānic Examples: ﴾ i. ً‫والَ تَقْرَُواْ ٱل ّنَى ۚ إَّ ُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيال‬ ‫ِنه‬ ِ‫ب ز‬ َ ﴿ “And do not approach adultery. Indeed, it is ever an immorality and is evil as a way ”. (17:32) ﴾...ْ ُ ْ ّ ‫َ ْ ًا‬ ‫خير مِنهم‬ ii. ‫يَا أُّهَا َّذِينَ آمَُوا لَا يَسْخَرْ قَو ٌ ّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَ ُوُوا‬ ‫كن‬ ِ‫م م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫َي ٱل‬ ﴿ “Oh you who have believed, let not a people ridicule [another] people; perhaps they may be better than them...”. (49:11) 5. Lā as Particle of Response [‫اإلجياب‬ ‫]حرف‬ Lā can be used in response to a question with the meaning of “no”. This is similar functionally to the word [ ‫ ]َ َم‬or [ ْ ‫ , ]أ‬which mean “yes”. The same can be said of the negating particle [ ‫.]كَّا‬ ‫نع‬ ‫ي‬ ‫َل‬ B. The Mā of Negation [‫]ماء َّ ِي‬ ‫النف‬ Mā is a particle30 similar to Lā in that there are several different types, each of which have distinct grammatical functions. A good understanding of grammar is required to identify the specific type of Mā that is found in a respective sentence. The Mā of negation acts on doing negation without any change in I‛rāb.31 It is different from the Lā of negation in that it can act on Verbs in both the present and past tense. It also acts on nouns as well. When Mā is used for negation, it is stronger in negating something than the Lā of negation. The Mā of Negation is typically found at the beginning of the sentence. When the Mā of negation is used in a Nominal Sentence, it is often accompanied by the Ḥarf Jarr [ِ ]. In example #1, please ‫ب‬ note that the Mā of Negation needs to be differentiated from other types of Mā such as the relative pronoun. Qur’ānic Examples: 1. َ‫﴿ و َّبَ ُواْ مَا تَتُْواْ َّيَاطِ ُ عَلَى ُلْكِ ُلَيْمَانَ ۚ ومَا كَفَرَ ُلَيْمَا ُ وَلَـك َّ َّيَاطِنيَ كَفَ ُواْ ُعَّ ُونَ َّاس‬ ‫ر ي لِم ٱلن‬ ‫ِن ٱلش‬ ‫س ن‬ َ ‫م س‬ ‫ل ٱلش ني‬ ‫َٱت ع‬ ‫ٱل ّحْرَ وَمَا ُنزِلَ عَلَى ٱلْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ ﻫَا ُوتَ وَمَا ُوتَ ۚ وَمَا ُعَّمَانِ منْ أَحَدٍ حَّىٰ يَ ُولَا إَّمَا نَحْ ُ فِتْنَ ٌ فَلَا‬ ‫ن ة‬ ‫َت ق ِن‬ ِ ِ‫ي ل‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أ‬ ِ‫س‬ ۚ ِ‫تَكْ ُرْ ۚ فَيَتَعَّ ُونَ مِنْ ُمَا مَا ُفَ ّ ُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ ٱلْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ ومَا ُم بِضَآ ّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إ َّ بِإِذْنِ ٱلّه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ِال‬ ِ‫ر‬ ‫َ ﻫ‬ ‫ي رِق‬ ‫ه‬ ‫َلم‬ ‫ف‬ ِ‫وَيَتَعَّ ُونَ مَا يَض ُّ ُمْ وَالَ يَنفَ ُ ُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِ ُواْ لَمَنِ ٱشْتَرَا ُ مَا لَ ُ فِي ٱآلخِرَةِ مِنْ خَالَقٍ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِه‬ ‫ه ه‬ ‫م‬ ‫عه‬ ‫ُرﻫ‬ ‫َلم‬ ﴾ َ‫أَن ُسَ ُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَاُوا يَعْلَ ُون‬ ‫ن م‬ ‫ف ه‬ Some of the types of Mā are not considered particles but nouns as per grammarians. See Lesson 7 for a more detailed discussion on the types of Mā. 31 This Mā of negation is much more common than the Lā [‫ ] ما الّفي عاملة‬that causes a change in I‛rāb. It is seldom found in the ‫ن‬ 30 Qur’ān. It causes the [‫ ]خَبَر‬to be in Naṣb, whereas normally the [‫ ]خَبَر‬is Raf‛. In (58:2): ﴾..ْ‫ ,﴿ .. َّا ﻫ َّ أ َّ َاِ هم‬and in (12:31): ِ ‫م ُن ُم ه ت‬ ﴾ٌ ِ‫. ﴿... ُلْنَ حَاشَ لِّهِ مَا ﻫَـذَا بَشَرًا إِ نْ ﻫَـذَا إ َّ مَلَ ٌ كَر‬ ‫ِال ك مي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ق‬ 78
  • 79. Lesson 6: Negation and Exceptions [‫االستثناء‬ ‫]النافية و‬ “And they followed what the devils had recited during the reign of Sulaymān. It was not Sulaymān who disbelieved, but the devils disbelieved, teaching people magic and that which was revealed to the two angels at Babylon, Hārūt and Mārūt. But the two angels do not teach anyone unless they say, "We are a trial, so do not disbelieve" And [yet] they learn from them that by which they cause separation between a man and his wife. But they do not harm anyone through it except by permission of Allah. And the people learn what harms them and does not benefit them. But the Children of Israel certainly knew that whoever purchased the magic would not have in the Hereafter any share. And wretched is that for which they sold themselves, if they only knew”. (2:102) 2. َ‫﴿ وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ َّذِينَ ُوُْواْ ٱلْكِتَابَ بِ ُ ّ آيَةٍ َّا تَبِ ُواْ قِبْلَتَكَ ۚ ومَا أَنتَ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَتَ ُمْ ۚ ومَا بَعْ ُ ُم بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَة‬ ‫َ ضه‬ ‫ه‬ َ ‫كلِ م ع‬ ‫ٱل أ ت‬ ‫بَعْضٍ ۚ وَلَئِنِ ٱَّبَعْتَ أَﻫْوَاءَ ُم ّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ ٱلْعِلْمِ ۚ إَّكَ إِذاً َّمِنَ َّالِمِي‬ ‫ل ٱلظ‬ ‫ِن‬ ِ‫ﻫ م‬ ‫ت‬ ﴾ “And if you brought to those who were given the Scripture every sign, they would not follow your Qibla. Nor will you be a follower of their Qibla. Nor would they be followers of one another's Qibla. So if you were to follow their desires after what has come to you of knowledge, indeed, you would then be among the wrongdoers”. (2:145) 3. ﴾ ...ْ ُ َْ َ ‫بينهم‬ ‫﴿ إ َّ ٱل ّينَ عِندَ ٱلّهِ ٱلْإِسْلَا ُ ۚ ومَا ٱخْتَلَفَ َّذِينَ ُوُْواْ ٱلْكِتَابَ إ َّ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَ ُ ُ ٱلْعِلْ ُ بَغْيًا‬ ‫ﻫم م‬ ‫ِال‬ ‫ٱل أ ت‬ َ ‫م‬ ‫ل‬ ِ‫ِن د‬ “Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islām. And those who were given the Scripture did not differ except after knowledge had come to them out of jealous animosity between themselves”.(3:19) II. Exceptions [ُ ‫]الِْسِْثْنا‬ ‫َإ ت ء‬ There are a few specific particles that cause “exception” in Arabic. The most common of these particles is [ ‫ . ]إَّا‬The grammar of Exceptions can be a bit complicated but needs to be discussed. A statement that ‫ِل‬ involves an Exception is composed of three components, the particle of exception [‫اإل ِْ ْناء‬ ‫ستث‬ excepted [‫ , ] ُ َْ ْىن‬and the statement preceding the exception [ ‫ِ ْه‬ ‫مس ت ث‬ ‫من‬ A. Exceptions with [‫]إَّا‬ ‫ِل‬ The grammar of Exceptions depends mainly on [‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ ‫ ,]أَدَاة‬the thing ‫.] ُسْتثْىن‬ ‫م‬ ‫ ,] ُسْتثْىن‬the statement that precedes [‫ ,]إَّا‬from which ‫م‬ ‫ِل‬ an exception occurs. There are actually two types of [‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ ‫ ,] ُسْتثْىن‬which we will term here for simplicity as ‫م‬ “Positive Statements” and “Negative Statements”. Determining which type of [‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ ‫ ] ُسْتثْىن‬used can make the ‫م‬ grammar of Exceptions easier to understand since that can be rather complicated. A Positive Statement is a complete sentence in which there was some action done from where an exception occurred. On the other hand, a Negative Statement is one in which there was no action done from where an exception occurred. Let us look at some examples of positive and negative statements. 79
  • 80. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 1. Examples of [‫ ]إَّا‬with Positive Statements [ ‫] ُو َب‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫مج‬ i. {ٌ ِّ‫َُع‬ ‫مت َلم‬ ْ‫}أَلَا إ َّ ُّنْيَا مَلْ ُونَ ٌ ، مَلْ ُو ٌ مَا فِيهَا إَّا ذِكْ ُ َّهِ وَمَا وَالَا ُ وَعَالِ ٌ أَو‬ ‫ه م‬ ‫ِل ر الل‬ ‫ِن الد ع ة ع ن‬ “The world is cursed; cursed is what is in it except the remembrance of Allah, and that which resembles it, 32 a scholar or a student.” (Tirmidhi) ii. ﴾ ِ‫﴿... فَسَجَ ُوا إ َّ إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ ٱ لْجِ ّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَّه‬ ِ‫ب‬ ِ‫ن‬ ‫د ِال‬ “and they prostrated, except for Iblīs. He was of the jinn and departed from the command of his Lord”. (18:50) iii. ﴾ َ‫﴿...ك ُّ شَيْءٍَ ﻫَالِ ٌ إَّا وَجْهَ ُ لَ ُ الْ ُكْ ُ وَإِلَيْهِ ُرْجَ ُون‬ ‫ت ع‬ ‫ه ه ح م‬ ‫ك ِل‬ ‫ُل‬ “…Everything will be destroyed except His Face. His is the judgment, and to Him you will be returned”. (18:50) In all the above examples, there is an action being done mentioned before the [‫ .]إَّا‬Please note that there ‫ِل‬ does not need to be a Verb stated for an action to occur. Nouns such as the [‫الفا ِل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ ]اِسْم‬and the [‫]اسم املفعول‬ also refer to actions being done as in Examples (i) and (iii). These examples can be contrasted with “Negative Statements”, in which there is no “action” being performed (even though an action maybe stated). 2. [‫ ]إَّا‬with Negative Statements [ ‫] َري ُو َب‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫غ مج‬ In the Qur’ān, most exceptions involve the particle [ ‫ ,]إَّا‬and of those, most are part of Negative ‫ِل‬ Statements. The grammar analysis of Negative Statements is dependent upon whether the [‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ mentioned explicitly. In Negative Statements which contain an explicitly mentioned [ ‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ ‫ ] ُسْتثْىن‬is ‫م‬ ‫,] ُسْتثْىن‬ ‫م‬ the exception [ ‫ ] ُ ْت ْىن‬can be either Naṣb or be the I‛rāb of the word preceding the [‫ .]إَّا‬Examples of Negative ‫مس ث‬ ‫ِل‬ Statements with an explicit [‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ ‫] ُسْتثْىن‬ ‫م‬ are shown in (vi) and (vii) respectively. Here, the [‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ ‫ ] ُسْتثْىن‬is ‫م‬ underlined. Qur’ānic Examples of Negative Statements with an Explicit [‫] ُ ْت ْىن ِ ْه‬ ‫مس ث من‬ i. ‫﴿... لَا ُكَّ ُ نَفْ ٌ إَّا ُسْعَهَا‬ ‫ت َلف س ِل و‬ ﴾ .... “..No person is charged with more than his capacity..”(2:233) 33 32 33 Tirmidhi [‫ ,]جامع الّرمذي‬Ḥadith # 2256 found in [‫ .] كتاب ال ّﻫد‬Ḥadith is Saḥīḥ as authenticated by Sheikh al-Albāni. ‫ت‬ ‫ز‬ In this example, another correct grammatical possibility is the following sentence [‫ .]لَا ُكَّ ُ نَ فْ ٌ إَّا ُسْ ُهَا‬Here the exception [‫] ُسع‬ ‫ت َلف س ِل و ع‬ ‫و‬ takes the same I‛rāb as the [‫ ]نَ فْس‬as per the rules that were just covered. 80
  • 81. Lesson 6: Negation and Exceptions [‫االستثناء‬ ii. ﴾ ‫]النافية و‬ ‫﴿... بَلْ طَبَعَ َّ ُ عَلَيْهَا بِ ُفْرِﻫِمْ فَلَا ُؤْمُِونَ إَّا قَلِيلًا‬ ‫ي ن ِل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫الله‬ “….Rather, Allah has sealed them because of their disbelief, so they believe not, except for a few.”(4:155) 3. Negative Statements without an Explicit [‫] ُ ْت ْىن ِ ْه‬ ‫مس ث من‬ Negative Statements often will not contain an explicitly mentioned [‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ ‫ ,] ُسْتثْىن‬and these are perhaps the ‫م‬ most common types of Exceptions found in the Qur’ān. This specifically means that the group from which the exception is being made is not mentioned explicitly. For example, in the Negative Statement , the ﴾ ‫َِيًا‬ ‫قل ل‬ ‫لَا ُؤْمُِونَ إَّا‬ ‫ي ن ِل‬ ﴿, the group mentioned is [ ‫ , ]و‬or [ ‫ ] ُم‬mentioned within the verb conjugation. Specifically, ‫ﻫ‬ the group from which the exception is being done is “those who did not believe”, which is mentioned explicitly. This is contrasted by the following sentence, which does not contain a explicitly mentioned [ ‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ ‫ ] ما قامَ إَّا زَيْ ٌ[ :] ُسْتثْىن‬or “No one stood except Zaid”. ‫ِل د م‬ [ ً‫َ ْد‬ ‫زي ا‬ ‫ ,]ما قامَ طالِبونَ إَّا‬then the group being excluded is [َ‫.]طالِبون‬ ‫ِل‬ However, if we change this to the following You will notice that the I’rāb of the [‫] ُ ْت ْىن‬ ‫مس ث‬ which is [ ‫ ]زيد‬has also changed. In Negative Statements without an explicitly mentioned [ ‫ِ ْه‬ ‫من‬ ‫ ,] ُسْتثْىن‬the I‛rāb of the exception [‫ ] ُسْتثْىن‬will ‫م‬ ‫م‬ depend upon its position in the sentence as if [‫ ]إَّا‬is ignored or omitted. It can be Raf‛, Naṣb, or Jarr. To get ‫ِل‬ a better idea of how this works, let us look at the following sentences with and without [‫ .]إَّا‬By removing ‫ِل‬ the [ ‫ ]إَّا‬from the original sentence, we should be able to determine how the exception [‫ 43 ] ُ َْ ْىن‬would fit ‫ِل‬ ‫مس ت ث‬ grammatically in the sentence; either as a Doer, Direct Object, Jarr Construction, Subject, Predicate, etc. These points are rather complicated, but are included here since this third category of Exceptions using [ ‫]إَّا‬ ‫ِل‬ are mentioned frequently in the Qur’ān. 34 This Exception is actually termed [‫ ,] ُسْتثْىن ُ ف َّغ‬similar to the concept of the [‫ .]نائِب الفاعل‬The particle [‫ ]إَّا‬grammatically plays no ‫م َر‬ ‫م‬ ‫ِل‬ function here in this circumstance. In grammar, the group not mentioned explicitly is termed [‫.]نا ِص‬ ‫ق‬ 81
  • 82. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 4. Negative statements without an Explicit [‫] ُ ْت ْىن ِ ْه‬ ‫مس ث من‬ Sentence with Exception ‫ِل د‬ ٌ ْ‫ما قامَ إَّا زَي‬ ‫ما ضَرَبْ ُ إَّا زَِيْدًا‬ ‫ت ِل‬ ٍ‫ما ضَرَبْ ُ إَّا بِزَيْد‬ ‫ت ِل‬ Sentence Analysis without [ ‫] إَّا‬ ‫ِل‬ Function of [ ‫] ُ َْ ْ نٰى‬ ‫مس ت ث‬ ‫فاعِل‬ ‫د‬ ٌ ْ‫ما قامَ زَي‬ ‫ما ضَرَبْ ُ زَِيْدًا‬ ‫ت‬ ٍ‫ما ضَرَبْ ُ بِزَيْد‬ ‫ت‬ Doer (Raf‛) ‫مفعول به‬ direct object (Naṣb) ‫جار و اجملرور‬ Qur’ānic Example of Identical Grammar Structure َ‫﴿ َّا يَأْ ُُ ُ إَّا ٱلْخَاطُِون‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ل كله ِل‬ ﴾ (69:37) ﴾ َ‫﴿ وَمَا يَعُْ ُونَ إَّا َّه‬ ‫بد ِل ٱلل‬ (18:16) ‫﴿ فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوْا فَلَا ُدْوَانَ إَّا‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫ع‬ Jarr Construction (Jarr) ﴾ َ‫عَلَى َّالِمِني‬ ‫ٱلظ‬ (2:193) ‫د ِل ه‬ ٌ ‫ما زَيْ ٌ إَّا فَقِي‬ ‫د ه‬ ٌ ‫ما زَيْ ٌ فَقِي‬ ‫خَبَر‬ Predicate (Raf‛) ﴾ ‫م َمد ِال س ل‬ ٌ ‫﴿ وَمَا ُح َّ ٌ إ َّ رَ ُو‬ (3:144) Qur’ānic Examples of Negative Statements without an Explicit [‫] ُ ْت ْىن ِ ْه‬ ‫مس ث من‬ i. ﴾ ... ْ‫﴿ فَمَا آمَنَ لِ ُوسَىٰ إ َّ ُرَِّ ٌ ّن قَوْمِهِ عَلَى خَوفٍ ّن فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِمْ أَن يَفْتِنَ ُم‬ ‫ه‬ ِ‫ْ م‬ ِ‫ِال ذ ّية م‬ ‫م‬ “But no one believed Mūsa, except [some] youths among his people, for fear of Pharaoh and his establishment that they would persecute them....”. (10:83) [Exception is Doer] ii. ﴾ َ‫﴿...وَمَا يَمْ ُ ُونَ إَّا بِأَنْ ُسِهِمْ وَمَا يَشْ ُ ُون‬ ‫عر‬ ‫كر ِل ف‬ “…But they conspire not except against themselves, and they perceive [it] not..”(6:123) [Exception is Jarr Construction] iii. ﴾ ... ‫الرسل‬ ُ ُ ُّ ِ‫﴿ وَمَا ُح َّ ٌ إَّا رَ ُو ٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِه‬ ‫م َمد ِل س ل‬ “Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him...”(3:144) [Exception is Predicate] In example (i), the category of people who believed in Mūsa, has not been mentioned, and therefore the [ ‫ ] ُ ْت ْىن‬is in the I’rāb of Raf‛. This is because the sentence without Illa is the following: [ ‫ُ َِّة‬ ‫مس ث‬ ‫ذ ّي‬ ‫ر‬ ٰ‫.]مَا آمَن لِ ُوسَى‬ ‫َ م‬ Here, the only I’rāb which fits for the excepted noun [‫ ] ُ َِّة‬is Raf‛. This is because [‫ ] ُ َِّة‬functions as a Doer ‫ذ ّي‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ذ ّي‬ ‫ر‬ in this Verbal Sentence. In example (ii), the people or group who are being plotted against is not mentioned, and thus, the I’rāb is determined analyzing the respective sentence without the particle Illa. In example (iii), the sentence is incomplete or [‫ ] ناِص‬because [ٌ َّ ‫ ] َا ُح‬is not grammatically complete. Because ‫ق‬ ‫م م َمد‬ of this, the [ ‫ ] ُ ْت ْىن ِ ْه‬is considered as incomplete or “not mentioned”. Thus, the I’rāb of [ٌ َّ ‫ ] ُح‬is Raf‛, ‫مس ث م ن‬ ‫م َمد‬ because it is functioning as a Predicate in the sentence [ٌ ‫ ] َا ُح َّ ٌ َ ُو‬without Illa. ‫م م َمد رس ل‬ 82
  • 83. Lesson 6: Negation and Exceptions [‫االستثناء‬ ‫]النافية و‬ B. Additional Particle(s) of Exception Other exception particles that function in a similar capacity like [‫ ]إَّا‬are [ َ ْ َ ] along with [‫/ ُ َى‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫غ ير‬ ‫سو‬ ‫.]سِوَى/ سِواء‬ The difference between these Exception Particles and [‫ ]إَّا‬is that they act as Muḍāf and cause the Exception ‫ِل‬ [ ‫ ] ُ َْ ْىن‬to be Jarr. Thus, a discussion on “Positive” and “Negative” statements does not need to be discussed ‫مس ت ث‬ here. The only particle from these additional particles of Exception that is found in the Qur’ān is [َ ْ َ ]. It ‫غي ر‬ carries the meaning of “without”, “besides”, or “other than”. Please note that despite [َ ْ َ ] being termed a ‫غي ر‬ “particle”, it does get affected by Ḥarf at its ending vowel.35 It usually takes a single Fatḥah, but takes Kasrah when associated with a Ḥarf Jarr and occasionally is found with a Ḍammah. Since [ َ ْ َ ] is always a ‫غي ر‬ Muḍāf, it never carries Tanwīn. Qur’ānic Examples of [‫] َ ْر‬ ‫غي‬ i. ﴾ َ‫﴿ قَالَ أَغَيْرَ َّهِ أَبْغِي ُمْ إِلَٰهًا وَ ُوَ ف َّلَ ُمْ عَلَى ٱلْعَالَمِني‬ ‫ﻫ َض ك‬ ‫ٱلل ك‬ “He said, "Is it other than Allah that I should desire for you as a god while He has preferred you over the worlds?"” (7:140) ii. ﴾ ... ‫﴿ إَّا تَنفِ ُوا ُعَ ّبْ ُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَيَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَ ُمْ وَلَا تَض ُّو ُ شَيْئًا‬ ‫ُر ه‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ِل ر ي ذِ ك‬ “If you do not go forth, He will punish you with a painful punishment and will replace you with another people, and you will not harm Him at all….”. (9:39) iii. ﴾ ٰ‫﴿ وَٱضْ ُمْ يَدَكَ إِلَىٰ جَنَاحِكَ تَخْ ُجْ بَيْضَاءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ ُوءٍَ آيَةً ُخْرى‬ َ ‫أ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ر‬ ‫م‬ “And draw in your hand to your side; it will come out white without disease - another sign”. (20:22) 35 Since this “particle” [َ‫ ]غَيْر‬is affected by other true particles and other words with [‫ ,]عَمَل‬it is considered by grammarians to be a noun. [‫ ]غَيْر‬is typically included in the grammatical discussions on the topic of Exceptions, but it is a noun grammatically and different from [‫ .]إَّا‬Therefore, it can act like a direct object, predicate, etc. Furthermore, instead of the meaning “except”, it carries ‫ِل‬ the meaning of “rather than”,. “other than”, or “besides”. Other times, [‫ ]غَيْر‬acts like simple negation. Typically, when [‫ ]غَيْر‬function in exceptions, it is usually Naṣb and carries a Fatḥa. For further discussion on [‫ ,]غَيْر‬please refer to Lane's Lexicon: Vol. 6, page 99 (of 259). 83
  • 84. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic 84
  • 85. Lesson 7: Particles [‫ -]احلروف‬A Comprehensive Review Lesson 7: Particles [‫ -]احلروف‬A Comprehensive Review Particles Revisited In Volume 1, Lesson 4 discussed particles specifically those that caused a change in I‛rāb [ ٌ َِ ‫عا‬ ‫ملة‬ ‫ف‬ ٌ ‫ ]حرو‬in some detail. Since there are several particles that have important grammatical functions in Arabic, and in the Qur’ān, a further discussion is needed at this stage. In this lesson, we will discuss particles in more depth, since we now have a more firm grammatical footing. This lesson will detail those particles that cause a change in I‛rāb in addition to those that do not. Here, the several different particles have been categorized into several groups. Finally, the particles that have multiple different distinct grammatical roles are discussed at the end of this lesson. Division and Classification of Particles ‫احلروف‬ ‫ف ة‬ ٌ َ‫حرو ٌ عامِل‬ ‫َّة‬ ‫جار‬ ‫ف ر ة‬ ٌ َ‫حرو ٌ غَيْ ُ عامِل‬ ‫ناصِبَة‬ ‫جازِمَة‬ ‫َّفِي‬ ‫الن‬ ‫العَطْف‬ ‫َّوْكِيد‬ ‫الت‬ ‫اإلِجياب‬ ‫إ َّ و‬ ‫ِن‬ ‫أَخَواتِها‬ ‫اإلسْتِثْناء‬ ‫َّواصِب‬ ‫الن‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ال َّفي‬ ‫الن‬ ‫للْجِنْس‬ ِ‫الْمَصْدَر‬ ‫َّة‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ِّداء‬ ‫الن‬ ‫َّرْط‬ ‫الش‬ ‫َّنْبِيه‬ ‫الت‬ ‫َّفْصِيل‬ ‫الت‬ ‫اإلستدراك‬ ‫َّحْضيض‬ ‫الت‬ ‫اإلسْتِئنافَّة‬ ‫ِي‬ 85 ‫َّائِدَة‬ ‫الز‬ ‫اإلِسْتِفْها‬ ‫م‬ ‫اإلسْتِقْبال‬ ‫الواو‬ ‫احلال‬
  • 86. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic I. Particles the Affect I‛rāb [ٌ َ ِ ‫]حرو ٌ عا‬ ‫ف ملة‬ A. Ḥarf Jarr [‫]حروف َ َّة‬ ‫جار‬ We have already looked at these particles several times in Volume 1. These particles act on nouns and cause them to go into the Jarr state. The Jarr Construction plays an important in Nominal Sentences where it acts as a predicate. It also forms an Indirect Object in Verbal Sentences, and can change the original meaning of the verb it is associated with. It is important to note that one particle may carry more than one meaning. Being unaware of the different meaning(s) of the particle in question may distort the overall meaning of the sentence. Table 42A: Ḥarf Jarr [ ‫ج َّة‬ ‫َار‬ ‫ر‬ ّ َ‫حرف ج‬ ‫إِىل‬ meaning -to/towards; going towards the end - with (association/ being with) ‫ب‬ ِ Qur’ānic Example ﴾ َ‫﴿...و َّ ُ يَقْبِ ُ وَيَبْس ُ وإِلَيْه ُرْجَ ُون‬ ‫َٱلله ض ُط َ ِ ت ع‬ “…And it is Allah who withholds and grants abundance, and to Him you will be returned.”(2:245) ‫﴿ فَ ُلْنَا ٱضْرُِو ُ ِببَعْضِهَا‬ ‫به‬ ‫ق‬ ﴾... “So, We said, "Strike the slain man with part of it."...”(2:61) - taking (seeking help) - because of ‫]حروف‬ ﴾ َ‫﴿ ٱقْرَأْ بِٱسْمِ رَّكَ َّذِي خَلَق‬ ‫بِ ٱل‬ “Recite in the name of your Lord who created.”(96:1) [i.e. seeking help] ﴾ َ‫﴿...ذَلِكَ ِبمَا عَصَواْ َّكَاُواْ يَعْتَ ُون‬ ‫و ن د‬ “..that was because they disobeyed and were transgressing.”(2:61) ‫مِن‬ - from (the beginning of something) ِ‫﴿ ُلْ مَن ُنَ ّي ُم ّن ُُمَاتِ ٱلْبَ ّ وَٱلْبَحْر‬ ِ‫ر‬ ‫ي جِ ك مِ ظل‬ ‫ق‬ ﴾... “Say, "Who rescues you from the darknesses of the land and sea…”(60:63) - a part of - because of/reason for ﴾ ٍ‫﴿...وَمَا لَ ُم ّن ُونِ َّهِ مِن وَلِ ّ وَلَا نَصِري‬ ٍ‫ي‬ ‫ك مِ د ٱلل‬ “…and you have not besides Allah any protector or any helper.”(2:107) ْ‫﴿...يَحْسَُ ُ ُ ٱ لْجَاﻫِ ُ أَغْنِيَاءَ مِنَ َّع ُّفِ تَعْرِ ُ ُم بِسِيمَا ُم‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫فه‬ ‫ٱلت َف‬ ‫ل‬ ‫بهم‬ ﴾... “…An ignorant [person] would think them self-sufficient because of their restraint, but you will know them by their sign...(2:273). 86
  • 87. Lesson 7: Particles [‫ -]احلروف‬A Comprehensive Review Table 42B: Ḥarf Jarr [‫ج َّة‬ ‫َار‬ ‫فِي‬ ‫أ ة ة‬ ٌ َ‫﴿ لَقَدْ كَانَ لَ ُمْ فِيهِمْ ُسْوٌَ حَسَن‬ ‫ك‬ - in (as a ‫)ظرْف‬ َ - concerning/about ‫]حروف‬ ﴾... “There has certainly been for you in them an excellent pattern..”(60:6) ِ‫قَالَ أَُح ُّوّي فِي َّهِ وَقَدْ ﻫَدَان‬ ‫ٱلل‬ ِ‫ت َاج ن‬ ﴾... ﴿ “…He said, "Do you argue with me concerning Allah while He has guided me?...”(6:80) ‫ل‬ ِ ْ‫عَن‬ - for/to (specifically) owning/belonging to ً‫﴿ َّذِي جَعَلَ َل ُ ُ ٱلْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا و َّمَاءَ بِنَاء‬ ‫َٱلس‬ ‫كم‬ ‫ٱل‬ ﴾... “[He] who made for you the earth a bed and the sky a ceiling…”(2:22) ِ‫﴿ يَسْأَُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلْأَﻫَّة‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫ل‬ - about (regarding) ﴾... “They ask you about the new moons…”(2:189) - from (i.e. away from) ‫﴿ سَيَ ُو ُ ُّفَهَا ُ مِنَ َّاسِ مَا وَّا ُمْ عَنْ قِبْلَتِهِ ُ َّتِي كَاُوا عَلَيْهَا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م ٱل‬ ‫َل ﻫ‬ ‫ق ل ٱلس ء ٱلن‬ ﴾ .. “ The foolish among the people will say, "What has turned them away from their Qibla, which they used to face?...”(2:142) ‫عَلى‬ ‫ة‬ ٌَ‫﴿ خَتَمَ َّ ُ عَلَىٰ ُُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ وعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِﻫِمْ غِشَاو‬ َ ‫قل‬ ‫ٱلله‬ - upon/on ﴾... “Allah has set a seal upon their hearts and upon their hearing, and over their vision is a veil…”(2:7) - above (aboveness) - against ‫﴿...سَيَكْ ُ ُونَ بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ وَيَ ُوُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ ض ًّا‬ ‫ِد‬ ‫كن‬ ‫فر‬ ﴾ “…Those "gods" will deny their worship of them and will be against them opponents”(19:82) ‫حَّى‬ ‫َت‬ ‫ك‬ َ - until ﴾ ٍ‫﴿ وَفِي ثَ ُودَ إِذْ قِيلَ لَ ُمْ تَمَّ ُوا حَّىٰ حِني‬ ‫ه َتع َت‬ ‫م‬ “And in Thamūd, when it was said to them, "Enjoy yourselves for a time...”(51:43) like (similarity) ﴾ ‫﴿ مَثَ ُ َّذِين ُ ُّوا َّوْرَاةَ ث َّ لَمْ يَحْمُِوﻫَا كمَثَلِ ٱ لْحِمَارِ يَحْمِ ُ أَسْفَارًا‬ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ل‬ ‫ل ٱل َ حمِل ٱلت ُم‬ “The example of those who were entrusted with the Torah and then did not take it on is like that of a donkey who carries volumes [of books]” (62:5) ‫ت /و‬ َ َ ْ‫منْ ُ/ ُذ‬ ‫ُذم‬ since* ‫خَال/حاشا‬ except* ِ‫﴿ قَاُوا ت َّهِ لَقَدْ عَلِمُْم َّا جِئْنَا لُِفْسِدَ فِي ٱلْأَرْض‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ت م‬ ‫ل َٱلل‬ by (oath) ﴾ ... “They said, "By Allah, you have certainly known that we did not come to cause corruption in the land…”(12:73) [ ِ‫“ ]ما رَأَيُْ ُ ُنْ ُ ا َّباح‬I did not see him since the morning.” ‫ته م ذ لص‬ [ ٍ‫“ ] قَرَأَ ا ُعَّ ُونَ حاشا زَيْد‬The students read except Zaid.” ‫مل َلم‬ *These particles are not found in Qur’ān. 87
  • 88. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Miscellaneous Particles that act like Ḥarf Jarr Please note that nouns that typically function as Muḍāf act like Ḥarf Jarr. These include [‫املكان‬ [ ‫َّمان‬ ‫الز‬ ‫ ,] ُروف‬as well as Exceptions other than [‫.] َّا‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫إل‬ ‫,]ظروف‬ B. Ḥarf Naṣb [‫] ُروف ناصِبَة‬ ‫ح‬ These category of particles are separated into those that cause Naṣb on nouns and those that cause Naṣb on Verbs. We already discussed the Naṣb particles that are from Inna and its sisters. 1. Ḥarf Naṣb Affecting Nouns [‫َ َ َواِها‬ ‫و أخ ت‬ ‫ِن‬ َّ ‫]إ‬ See Lesson 5, Section VIII for a full discussion. 2. Other Ḥarf Naṣb Affecting Nouns [‫ ] َّا‬and [‫]ال َّفي للْ ِنْس‬ ‫إل‬ ‫ج‬ ‫الن‬ In the preceding lesson, we have already examined two agents cause Naṣb. The Exception particle [ ‫] َّا‬ ‫إل‬ causes Naṣb in Positive Statements, and sometimes in Negative statements. The Lā of categorical negation also causes Naṣb, while also causing its associated noun to become indefinite. Please refer to Lesson 6 regarding [ ‫ ] َّا‬and the Lā of categorical negation. ‫إل‬ 3. Ḥarf Naṣb Affecting Verbs [‫] َّوا ِب‬ ‫الن ص‬ The particles that specifically act on present tense verbs to cause the Naṣb state were already briefly discussed in Volume 1 (Lesson 10, IIIA). These verbs are the following: [‫حَّى‬ ‫َت‬ ‫.]أَنْ لَنْ لِأَنْ كَيْ إِذًا‬ Most of these particles like [ ْ ‫ ]أ‬and [ ِ ] function by forming an implied verbal noun.36 ‫َن‬ ‫ل‬ 36 This verbal noun is termed [‫ ] مَصْدَر مَ أ َّل‬in grammar. The particles that cause an implied verbal noun with the present tense verb ‫َو‬ [‫ ]فعل مضارع‬are the following:[ْ‫.]/أَنْ/لِ/ كَيْ/لِكَي‬ 88
  • 89. Lesson 7: Particles [‫ -]احلروف‬A Comprehensive Review Table 43A: Ḥarf Naṣb on Verbs [‫] َّوا ِب‬ ‫الن ص‬ ‫حروف نصب‬ ْ‫أَن‬ ‫اَّا‬ ‫َل‬ [‫]َنْ ال‬ ‫أ‬ ْ‫لِأَن‬ meaning “to” It forms a verbal noun with the verb. “that [something] 37 not” “so as not to” ْ‫لِكَي‬ ‫ل‬ ِ ْ‫كَي‬ ‫حَّى‬ ‫َت‬ ﴾... ‫﴿... أَُح ُّ أَحَ ُ ُمْ أَنْ يَأْ ُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ي ِب دك‬ “…. Does one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?...”(49:12) ‫ٱلل ِل َق‬ َّ ‫﴿حَقِي ٌ عَلَىٰ أَن َّا أَُولَ عَلَى َّهِ إَّا ٱلْح‬ ‫ل ق‬ ‫ق‬ ﴾... “Proper is it (for me) that I say not anything about Allah except the truth” (7:105) َ‫﴿ وَُمِر ُ لِأَنْ أَ ُونَ أ َّلَ ٱلْمُسْلِمِني‬ ‫ك َو‬ ‫أ ْت‬ “so that”38 [ْ‫] ِ َن‬ ‫لأ‬ ْ‫لَن‬ Qur’ānic Examples ﴾ “And I am commanded that I shall be the first of those who submit...” (39:12) “never” It negates and puts verbs into the future tense. “so that” “in order to” “to” These three particles actually have the same 39 meaning. “until” 40 “so that” ﴾ ‫﴿... ولَنْ ُشْرِكَ بِرِّنَا أَحَدًا‬ ‫َب‬ ‫َ ن‬ “….and we will never associate any one with our Lord...”(72: 2) ْ‫﴿ ُوَ َّذِي أَنزَلَ َّكِينَةَ فِي ُُوبِ ٱلْ ُؤْمِنِنيَ ِليَزْدَا ُوا إِميَانًا َّعَ إِميَانِهِم‬ ‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫م‬ ‫قل‬ ‫ٱلس‬ ‫ﻫ ٱل‬ ﴾... “It is He who sent down tranquility into the hearts of the believers that they would increase in faith along with their [present] faith…”(48:4) ﴾ ‫﴿وأَشْرِكْ ُ فِي أَمْرِي ۝كَيْ ُسَّحَكَ كَثِريًا‬ ِ‫ن ب‬ ‫َ ه‬ “And let him share my task, That we may exalt You much”(20:32-33) ‫﴿...م َّتْ ُ ُ ٱلْبَأْسَا ُ وَٱلض َّا ُ وَزلْزُوا حَّىٰ يَ ُولَ َّ ُو ُ و َّذِينَ آمَُوا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ء َّر ء ُ ِل َت ق ٱلرس ل َٱل‬ ‫َّس هم‬ ﴾...ِ َّ ‫َ َ ُ ََ ٰ َ ْ ُ ٱ‬ ‫معه متى نصر لله‬ “…They were touched by poverty and hardship and were shaken until [even] the messenger and those who believed with him said, "When is the help of Allah?" …”(2:214) 37 38 39 [ْ‫ ]أن‬is combined with [‫ ]ال‬to function in meaning of [‫ ]تَ عْليل‬similar to the Lā of [‫ ,]تَ عْليل‬which is discussed in footnote #38. Here the Lām of Ta‛līl [‫ ]الم َّ عْليل‬combines with [ْ‫ ]أَن‬to form the meaning of “so that” or “the reason for”. See footnote #38. ‫الت‬ The particles [ِ‫ ]ل‬and [ْ‫ ] كَي‬are considered to be [ْ‫ ]لِكَي‬or Lām of Kai. This Lām is also known as [‫ ,]لَا ُ َّ عْليل‬which has the meaning ‫م الت‬ of “so that”, or “the reason for”. For these two particles, the Lam of Kai is implied, and forms a [‫ ]مصدر مأ ّل‬as discussed in the ‫و‬ above footnote. 40 This particle functions in an action reaching a limit, or utmost boundary of something. It has the same meaning when it acts on a noun in Ḥarf Jarr. It fact, [‫ ]حَّى‬as a [‫ ]نَواصب‬is actually considered a Ḥarf Jarr according to grammarians in that it acts on a ‫َت‬ verb to yield an implied verbal noun, which is in the Jarr state. 89
  • 90. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Table 43B: Ḥarf Naṣb on Verbs [‫] َّواصِب‬ ‫الن‬ ‫ل‬ ِ [‫ُ ُود‬ ‫جح‬ ‫14]الم‬ ‫ف‬ َ [‫ََّ بَّة‬ ‫السبِي‬ ْ‫﴿...وَمَا كَانَ َّ ُ ِلُضِيعَ إِميَانَ ُم‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ٱلله ي‬ ﴾... Strong negation “therefore” (as a result) “so that” ‫ء‬ ُ ‫24]فا‬ “…And never would Allah have caused you to lose your faith...” (2:143) ﴾ ‫َي ه ه ه ر مي‬ ٌ ِ‫﴿ َّن ذَا َّذِي ُقْرِ ُ َّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا فُضَاعِفَ ُ لَ ُ وَلَ ُ أَجْ ٌ كَر‬ ‫م ٱل ي ض ٱلل‬ “Who is it that would loan Allah a goodly loan so He will multiply it for him and he will have a noble reward?” (57:11) ‫و‬ ‫و‬ َ [ ] of “withness” ْ‫إِذَن‬ meaning of responding in the future tense. [‫ا َعَّة‬ ‫مل ِي‬ [ َ‫]ال تَتَكَّمْ و أَتَكَّم‬ ‫َل َ َل‬ “Do not speak while I am speaking.” ‫و‬ ُ ‫34]وا‬ [ ‫أ ه‬ ُ َ‫]زَيْ ٌ ُوَ أَخِي ، إِذَنْ ُكْرِم‬ ‫دﻫ‬ [ْ َ ِ] not found in Qur’ān ‫إذن‬ C. Ḥarf Jazm [‫]حرف َزْم/ا َوا ِم‬ ‫ج جل ز‬ These particles cause the Jazm state on present tense verbs [ ‫مضارع‬ ‫.]فعل‬ Remember that they cause a Sukūn to be placed at the end of single tense [‫ ]ساِم‬verbs. In the plural form, the non-feminine Nūn is ‫ل‬ deleted. In case of a [ّ َْ ُ ] letter root, that letter is usually deleted. We have already covered Ḥarf Jazm ‫معتل‬ briefly in Volume 1 (Lesson 10, IIIC). Altogether, there are eighteen Ḥarf Jazm in the Arabic language. As we have already seen, these particles are commonly seen in conditional statements. Remember that both present tense verbs, the condition [ ‫ ] َّرط‬and the response statement [ ‫َّ ْط‬ ‫الش‬ ‫الشر‬ ‫ ]جَواب‬go into the Jazm state due to the effects of the specific Ḥarf ُ Jazm (preceding the condition). In conditional statements, we often see conditional Ḥarf Jazm particles acting with past tense verbs. When this occurs, the past tense verb actually takes on the meaning of the future tense since it is mentioning the action to be completed in the future. This is usually the case for Jazm 41 This Lām of Denial Works with a negated Kāna [َ‫ .] كان‬It is a powerful way of negating something, as exemplified in the āyah above. Please note if one would have mistaken this Lām in the āyah (2:143), for the Lām of Ta’līl, it would not really make sense . 42 Differentiate this [َ‫ ]ف‬from other types of [َ‫ .]ف‬This Fā causes Naṣb (and also serves to connect) while the other(s) only connect and 43 Please note that this [‫ ]و‬has a similar meaning as [‫ ,]واو احلال‬the difference being that this [‫ ]و‬denotes an action being doing with or alongside another action, whereas the Ḥāl denotes the condition or state of an action as it is being done; this difference in some cases may not make an overall difference in the meaning of the sentence. This is not found in the Qur’ān. 90
  • 91. Lesson 7: Particles [‫ -]احلروف‬A Comprehensive Review particles like [‫ ,]ِذا [ ,] َ ُْما‬and [ ‫ . ]أ ْنما‬In cases when the Response Particle is not a [‫اْ ُضا ِع‬ ‫إ حيث‬ ‫ي‬ ‫لم ر‬ [َ ] is typically used to mark the response statement [‫َّ ْط‬ ‫ف‬ ‫الشر‬ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫.]جَوا‬ The [‫َّ ْط‬ ‫الشر‬ ‫ل‬ ُ ْ‫ ,]اَلْفِع‬the particle ‫ب‬ ُ ‫ ]جَوا‬can be a past tense verb, noun phrase, or a command tense verb. Table 44A: Ḥarf Jazm ‫اجلَوازِم‬ meaning ْ‫لَم‬ past tense negation ْ‫َألَم‬ Interrogative past tense negation ‫ل َّا‬ ‫َم‬ Examples of Ḥarf Jazm ﴾ َ‫﴿...وَُعِّ ُ ُمْ مَا لَمْ تَ ُوُوا تَعْلَ ُون‬ ‫كن م‬ ‫ي َلمك‬ “…and He is teaching you that which you did not know.” (2:151) ﴾ ِ‫﴿...قَالَ أَلَمْ أَ ُلْ لَ ُمْ إِّي أَعْلَ ُ غَيْبَ َّمَاوَاتِ وَٱلْأَرْض‬ ‫ٱلس‬ ‫ق ك ِن م‬ “…He said, "Did I not tell you that I know the unseen of the heavens and the earth?...” (2:33) ۚ ‫﴿ َأُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ ال ّكْ ُ مِن بَيْنِنَا ۚ بَلْ ُمْ فِي شَ ّ ّن ذِكْرِي‬ ِ‫كٍ م‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ذِ ر‬ ‫أ‬ "not yet"/”had not” future tense negation ﴾ ِ‫بَل ل َّا يَ ُو ُوا عَذَاب‬ ‫َّم ذ ق‬ “…Has the message been revealed to him out of us?" Rather, they are in doubt about My message. Rather, they have not yet tasted My punishment. (38:8) ‫ل‬ ِ ‫ال‬ ْ‫إِن‬ ‫ما‬ ‫مهْما‬ ‫ي‬ ّ ‫َأ‬ Command [ ‫]الم يف الْأَمْرِ و ال ُعاء‬ ‫د‬ ﴾... ‫قه ي ِم ه ٱلله‬ ُ َّ ُ ‫﴿ ِلُنفِقْ ُو سَعَةٍ ّن سَعَتِهِ وَمَن ُدِرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْ ُ ُ فَلُْنفِقْ م َّا آتَا‬ ‫ق‬ ِ‫م‬ ‫ي ذ‬ “Let a man of wealth spend from his wealth, and he whose provision is restricted let him spend from what Allah has given him…” (65:7) ‫﴿... ولَا تَشْتَ ُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا‬ ‫ر‬ َ Forbidding [ ﴾... ‫]ال َّهي و ُّعاء‬ ‫الد‬ ‫الن‬ “…And do not exchange My signs for a small price…” (2:41) ْ‫﴿... وإِنْ َّأُْو ُمْ ُسَارَى ُفَا ُو ُمْ وَ ُوَ ُح َّ ٌ عَلَيْ ُم‬ ‫ت د ﻫ ﻫ م َرم ك‬ ‫َ يت ك أ‬ “if” [ ﴾... ‫]إِنْ َّرْطَّة‬ ‫الش ِي‬ “…And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their eviction was forbidden to you.…” (2:85) ‫﴿ مَا نَنْسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ ُنْسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا‬ ‫ن‬ “what” [ ‫]ما َّرطََّة‬ ‫الش ِي‬ ﴾... “We do not abrogate a verse or cause it to be forgotten except that We bring forth [one] better than it or similar to it.…” (2:106) ﴾ َ‫﴿ وَقَاُوا مَهْمَا تَأْتِنَا بِهِ مِنْ آيَةٍ لِتَسْحَرَنَا بِهَا فَمَا نَحْ ُ لَكَ بِ ُؤْمِنِني‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ل‬ “And they said, "No matter what sign you bring us with which to bewitch us, we will not be believers in you”. (7:132) 91
  • 92. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Table 44B: Ḥarf Jazm ْ‫﴿... ومَن يَرْتَدِدْ مِن ُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَيَ ُتْ وَ ُوَ كَافِ ٌ فَ ُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَت‬ ‫ر أ‬ ‫م ﻫ‬ ‫ك‬ َ “who” ْ‫مَن‬ ‫مَتَى‬ َ‫أَّان‬ ‫َي‬ ‫إِذْما‬ َ‫أَيْن‬ ‫أَّى/ حَيُْما‬ ‫ث‬ ‫َن‬ ‫أَيْنَما‬ [ ‫]من َّرطََّة‬ ‫َ ْ الش ِي‬ ِ‫أَعْمَاُ ُمْ فِي ٱ ُّنْيَا وَٱلْآخِرَة‬ ‫لد‬ ‫له‬ ﴾... “…And whoever of you reverts from his religion [to disbelief] and dies while he is a disbeliever - for those, their deeds have become worthless in this world and the Hereafter…” (2:217) “when” [ "whenever" [ [ ‫]ظَرْف الزمان َّر َّة‬ ‫الش ْطي‬ ‫]ظَرْ ُ َّمان َّر َّة‬ ‫ف الز الش ْطي‬ ْ‫“ ]مَتَى يَ ُلْ أَسْمَع‬When he talks I will listen” ‫ق‬ ٍ‫{ ٱ َّقِ َّه حَيُْمَا ُنْتَ، وَأَتْبِعْ السِّئَةَ الْحَسَنَةَ تَمْ ُهَا، وَخَالِقِ َّاسَ بِ ُُق‬ ‫الن خل‬ ‫ح‬ ‫َّي‬ ‫ت الل َ ث ك‬ }ٍ َ َ ‫حسن‬ “Fear Allah wherever you are. Follow up a bad deed with a good deed and it will blot it out. And deal with people in a good manner.” “where” [ ‫]ظَرْ ُ َّمان َّر َّة‬ ‫ف الز الش ْطي‬ Wherever [ ‫]ظَرْ ُ َّمان َّر َّة‬ ‫ف الز الش ْطي‬ ‫﴿...فٱسْتَبِ ُوا ٱ لْخَيْرَاتِ أَيْنَ مَا تَ ُوُوا يَأْتِ بِ ُ ُ ٱ َّ ُ جَمِيعًا‬ ‫كم لله‬ ‫كن‬ ‫َ ق‬ ﴾... “…So race to [all that is] good. Wherever you may be, Allah will bring you forth [for judgment] altogether..…” (2:148) ٍ‫{ ٱَّقِ َّهَ حَيُْمَا ُنْتَ، وَأَتْبِعْ السِّئَةَ الْحَسَنَةَ تَمْ ُهَا، وَخَالِقِ َّاسَ بِ ُُق‬ ‫الن خل‬ ‫ح‬ ‫َّي‬ ‫ت الل ث ك‬ }ٍ َ َ ‫حسن‬ “Fear Allah wherever you are. Follow up a bad deed with a good deed and it 44 will blot it out. And deal with people in a good manner.” II. Particles that do not Affect I‛rāb [ٌ َ ِ ‫]حرو ٌ َيْ ُ عا‬ ‫ف غ ر ملة‬ These particles that do not directly cause a change in I‛rāb encompass several different types of particles in terms of functionality. Please note that sometimes, these particles may have an indirect effect on I’rāb.45 Ḥadith found in Musnad of Imām Aḥmed; Ḥadith #20,883 in [ِ‫ .] ُسْنَ ُ الْ عَشَرَةِ الْ ُب َّرِينَ بِالْجَّة‬Ḥadith also related by Imām At-Tirmidhi ‫َن‬ ‫مَش‬ ‫م د‬ who classified it as Ḥasan-Saḥīḥ. 45 Please note that particles from [ٍ َِ ‫ ] ُرو ٌ َْ ُ عا‬such as [‫ ,]حروف العطف ], [حروف النداء ], [ الواو احلال‬and [‫ ]حروف َّفي‬indirectly do influence ‫ح ف غير ملة‬ ‫الن‬ 44 I‛rāb. Perhaps they could have been included in the category of those particles having [ ‫ ,]ع َل‬but they were not according to ‫َم‬ grammarians. Also, the particles of Negation such as [‫ ,] ال َّفي ], [ ما َّفي‬and [ْ‫ ]أِن‬which we stated as being without [‫ ,]عَمَل‬and having ‫الن‬ ‫الن‬ no effect on I‛rāb are actually considered by some grammarians to have [‫ .]عَمَل‬But this discussion is a complicated one, and it included for the reader in case they come across any discrepancies in the future relative to Arabic grammar. It is important that we keep our approach as simple as possible, particularly in these initial stages. 92
  • 93. Lesson 7: Particles [‫ -]احلروف‬A Comprehensive Review A. Particles of Negation Please refer to Lesson 6, where the Particles of Negation were reviewed. The Particles of Negation that do not affect I‛rāb are the following: [‫ ,]ال], [ما‬and [ْ ِ]. ‫إن‬ B. Connecting Particles [‫] ُ ُوف الْ َطْف‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حر‬ The Connecting Particles were briefly mentioned in Volume 1 (Lesson 6, IV-A3). Here, they are more thoroughly elaborated on. These particles termed [‫اْ َ ْف‬ ‫لعط‬ ‫ ] ُ ُوف‬connect two words or phrases together in ‫حر‬ a sentence. These particles are actually part of a broader category of grammatical unit called [‫ 64] َّواِع‬or ‫الت ب‬ “words that follow”. Specifically, these particles transfer I‛rāb of the first word onto the following word that the particle directly precedes. In another sense, we can say that the Connecting Particle transfers the “grammatical state” of the word(s) before it onto the word after it. Similar to English conjunctions, these particles allow for less redundancy in the language. In the Qur’ānic example in Table 45 (first row), we see that the words [ ِ ِ ‫ٱْ ُ َْ َ], [ٱْ َ َا‬ ‫لقربىٰ لمس كني‬ ‫ ,]ذِي‬and [ٰ‫ ]ٱلْيَتَامَى‬are acting grammatically on the state of the word [ِ‫]ٱلْوَالِدَيْن‬ that precedes the first Connector Wāw . Here, the case of all words are Jarr due to the Ḥarf Jarr that acts on [ ِ ‫. ]ٱْ َاِ َ ي‬ ‫لو لد ْن‬ The word that is associated with a Connecting Particle can be a noun or a verb. Grammatically, the word that causes I‛rāb [ ‫ ]عا ِل‬is the agent that causes I‛rāb on the word following the Connecting Particle, which ‫م‬ may be a verb, particle [‫عا ِل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ ,]حَرْف‬or subject [‫ ,] ُبْتَدَأ‬etc. ‫م‬ Thus, the Connecting Particle is not considered the [ ‫ , ]عا ِل‬per se. In the cases of Connecting Particles Fā, Wāw, and Lā, it is important to differentiate them ‫م‬ from other respective particles that virtually identical alphabetically, but completely different grammatically (Please see Table 51). The most common Connecting Particles are Wāw and Fā, which need to be distinguished from the identical appearing Resumption Particles Wāw and Fā. Resumption Particles that do not transfer I‛rāb are very common and can easy be confused as [‫َ ْف‬ ‫عط‬ ‫.]حَرْف‬ These particles are examined in the next section. 46 Other types of words in this category are Replacers [ ‫ ,]َب َل‬Describers [‫ ,]َعْت/ ِ َة‬and [‫ ;] َّ وْ ِيد‬these are discussed in Lesson 9. ‫د‬ ‫ن صف‬ ‫الت ك‬ 93
  • 94. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic C. Qur’ānic Examples of Connecting Particles [‫] ُ ُوف الْ َطْف‬ ‫ع‬ ‫حر‬ Table 45A: Connecting Particles [‫ا ْ َ ْف‬ ‫لعط‬ ‫حرف العَطْف‬ ‫] ُ ُوف‬ ‫حر‬ meaning Qur’ānic Examples "and" ‫﴿ وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعُْ ُونَ إَّا ٱ َّهَ وَبِٱ لْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا‬ ‫بد ِل لل‬ ِ‫وذِي ٱلْ ُرْبَىٰ وَٱ لْيَتَامَىٰ وَٱ لْمَسَاكِني‬ ‫ق‬ َ ﴾... “…And [recall] when We took the covenant from the Children of Israel, [enjoining upon them], "Do not worship except Allah; and to parents do good and to relatives, orphans, and the needy..…” (2:83) [ ِ ْ‫] َ ج ُور بالْ َا ُ ا َ ُوف َلى الواِ َي‬ ‫لد ن‬ ‫و و ملط ع‬ ‫م ْر‬ ‫﴿...أَمْ ُنُتمْ ُهَدَاءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْ ُوبَ ٱ لْمَوْ ُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعُْ ُونَ مِن َبعْ ِي‬ ‫د‬ ‫بد‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ك ش‬ َ‫قَاُوا نَعُْ ُ إِلَٰهَكَ وِإلَٰهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاﻫِيمَ وِإسْمَاعِيلَ وإِسْحَاق‬ َ َ َ ‫ل بد‬ ﴾... ‫و‬ “Or were you witnesses when death approached Ya’qūb, when he said to his sons, "What will you worship after me?" They said, "We will worship your God and the God of your fathers, Ibrāhīm and Ishmael and Isaac …” (2:133) [ َ َ َ‫]منْ ُوب بالْ َا ُ ا َ ُوف َلى إ‬ ‫و و ملط ع لهك‬ ‫َص‬ ‫ء َّر ء َز ل َت ق ٱلرس ل‬ ُ ‫﴿...م َّتْ ُ ُ ٱلْبَأْسَا ُ وَٱلض َّا ُ و ُلْزُِوا حَّىٰ يَ ُولَ َّ ُو‬ ‫َّس هم‬ ِ‫و َّذِينَ آمَُوا مَعَ ُ مَتَىٰ نَصْ ُ َّه‬ ‫ر ٱلل‬ ‫ن ه‬ ‫َٱل‬ ﴾... “…They were touched by poverty and hardship and were shaken until [even their] messenger and those who believed with him said, "When is the help of Allah?" …” (2:214) [ ُ ‫]مع ُوف بالْ َا ُ ا َ ُوف على الَأسا‬ ‫ب ء‬ ‫و و ملط‬ ‫َ ْر‬ [ ُ ‫على ال ّسو‬ ‫ر ل‬ ‫ف‬ "then/so" (immediately) ‫ُم‬ َّ ‫ث‬ "then" ( later) ْ‫أَو‬ 47 "or" (alternation/ doubt) ‫]مع ُوف بالْوَا ُ املَ ُوف‬ ‫و ط‬ ‫َ ْر‬ َ‫﴿... ذَٰلِكَ بِأَّ ُمْ آمَُوا ث َّ كَفَ ُوا ف ُبِعَ عَلَىٰ ُُوبِهِمْ ف ُمْ لَا يَفْقَ ُون‬ ‫ه‬ ‫َه‬ ‫قل‬ ‫َنه ن ُم ر َط‬ ﴾... “That is because they believe, then disbelieve, so a seal is set upon their 47 hearts so that they do not understand.” (63:3) ﴾ َ‫﴿ ُلْ أَنفِ ُوا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْﻫًا َّن ُتَقَّلَ مِن ُمْ إَّ ُمْ ُنُمْ قَوْمًا فَاسِقِني‬ ‫ل ي َب ك ِنك ك ت‬ ‫ق ق‬ “Say, "Spend willingly or unwillingly; never will it be accepted from you. Indeed, you have been a defiantly disobedient people.” (9:53) [ ً‫] منصوب ِ َوْ العطف على َوْع‬ ‫ط ا‬ ‫بأ‬ The highlighted Particles are Connecting Particles while the underlined [‫ ]ف‬is actually Ḥarf Naṣb [‫( ]فاء َّبَبَّة‬see Table 43). ‫الس ِي‬ 94
  • 95. Lesson 7: Particles [‫ -]احلروف‬A Comprehensive Review Table 45B: Connecting Particles [‫ا ْ َ ْف‬ ‫لعط‬ ‫] ُ ُوف‬ ‫حر‬ ِ‫﴿... َأمْ ُلِ ُوا مِنْ غَيْرِ شَيْءٍَ أَمْ ُ ُ ٱلْخَالِ ُونَ ۝ أَمْ خَلَ ُوا َّمَاوَات‬ ‫ق ٱلس‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ﻫم‬ ‫خق‬ ْ‫أَم‬ “or/rather” It is used as an interrogative and/or giving an option “But/rather” ْ‫بَل‬ Implies correcting a mistake, or abandoning ‫ال‬ ﴾ َ‫وَٱلْأَرْضَ ۚ بَل َّا ُوقُِونَ۝ أَمْ عِندَ ُمْ خَزَائِ ُ رَّكَ أَمْ ُ ُ ٱلْ ُصَيْطِ ُون‬ ‫ﻫم م ر‬ ِ‫ن ب‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ل ي ن‬ “Or were they created by nothing, or were they the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Rather, they are not certain. Or have they the depositories [containing the provision] of your Lord? Or are they the controllers?” (52:35-37) ﴾ َ‫﴿ وَلَا تَ ُوُوا لِمَن ُقْتَ ُ فِي سَبِيلِ َّهِ أَمْوَا ٌ ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَا ٌ وَلَٰكِن َّا تَشْ ُ ُون‬ ‫ل عر‬ ‫ء‬ ‫الل ت‬ ‫ي ل‬ ‫قل‬ Affirms the first word and negates the word after). “And do not say about those who are killed in the way of Allah, "They are dead." Rather, they are alive, but you perceive [it] not.” (2:154) [ ٌ ‫]مرفوع بَلْ العطف على أمْوا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ِب‬ “no/not” [ “Zaid came not Muḥammad.” [ ٌ ْ‫على َي‬ ‫زد‬ “but” ْ‫لَكِن‬ ‫د م َمد‬ ٌ َّ ‫]جاءَ زَيْ ٌ ال ُح‬ ] Affirms the second and comes only after a negation (opposite 48 of [ ‫. )]ال‬ ‫]مرفوع بِال العطف‬ َ‫[ما أَكَلْ ُ ا ُبْزَ لَكِنِ َّحْم‬ ‫الل‬ ‫ت خل‬ “I did not eat the bread but ate meat.” D. Resumption Particles [‫] ُ ُوف الْإسْتئْنافَّة‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫حر‬ Resumption particles include Wāw and Fā, and are very commonly found in the Qur’ān. A Resumption Particle functions in separating between sentences, or sentence units. In a way, it provides a way to shift to a different subject or discussion within an āyah or even a new āyah. Often, when the particle Wāw is used where there is a transition in an āyah, it is a Resumption Particle. Furthermore, another sign of the Resumption Particle is when there is no clear transfer of I‛rāb. These are subtle points, even though in most cases, not distinguishing a Resumption Particle from a Connecting Particle will not cause a drastic change in meaning. In example (i) on the Qur’ānic Examples below, the highlighted Wāw represents the Resumption Particle while the underlined Wāw is the connecting particle. Upon initial inspection of the āyah, it may appear that For the particle [ْ‫ ,]لَكِن‬three conditions are necessary for it to act as a Connecting Particle. It is [‫ ]حرف عطف‬if (1) preceded by a negative (2) it is not associated with a [‫ ]و‬and (3) it is not associated with a sentence (but a word). In the Qur’ān, it is not found as a 48 Connecting Particle bur acts instead as a Rebuttal Particle instead. The same can be said about the particle [ْ‫.]بَل‬ 95
  • 96. Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic all the Wāws are Connecting Particles, since there is a “connection” between all parts separated by it. However, the first Wāw acts as a Resumption Particle because there is a transition from the prior section due to the Particle [ ْ ِ]. The underlined Wāw is a Connector since [َ َْ َْ ‫ ]ٱ‬has the same place as [ٰ‫ . ]أَى‬Then, ‫إذ‬ ‫ستكبر‬ ‫ب‬ the the third Wāw is a Resumption Particle since there is another shift in the āyah, and the last section is not a Hāl. In example (ii), the first Fā is a Resumption Particle as it marks a transition, with the word “then”. The second Fā however is a Connector as [ ‫ ,]أ ْ َ َ ُ َا‬and is similar grammatically to [‫ .]أزَّ ُ َا‬In this āyah, the first ‫خرجهم‬ ‫َلهم‬ shaded Wāw marks another transition from the prior section, and is thus a Resumption Particle. The following Wāw is a Connector, that precedes [ٌّ ‫َد‬ ‫ع ُو‬ ٍ‫ ,] ٱﻫْبِ ُوا بَعْ ُ ُمْ لِبَعْض‬the Direct Object of [‫.]ُلْنَا‬ ‫ط ضك‬ ‫ق‬ The second Wāw is also a Connector that copies [ ٌّ ‫ ;] ُ َْق‬the word [ٌ ‫ ] ََا‬retains the same grammatical function as ‫مست َر‬ ‫مت ع‬ [ ‫ . ] ُ َْ َأ‬Without the Connection Particle, the meaning of [ ٌ ‫ ] َ ََا‬would be [ ٌ ‫ََا‬ ‫مبتد‬ ‫وم ت ع‬ ‫مت ع‬ 49 ِ‫.]لَ ُمْ فِي ٱلْأرْض‬ ‫ك‬ In this way, the Connecting Particle prevents the statement from become superfluous. Qur’ānic Examples: i. ﴾ َ‫و إِذْ ُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ ٱسْ ُ ُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَ ُوا إَّا إِبْلِيسَ أ