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  • 1. Arabic Tutor Volume 4 A Translation of popularly known as
  • 2. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Copyright © 2007 Madrasah In’āmiyyah All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Page 2
  • 3. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( ). Arabic is more meritorious than other languages. It is the language of the people of Jannah. Whoever learns it or teaches it to others will be rewarded. It is mentioned in a hadīth that you should love the Arabs for three reasons, namely: • because Nabī was an Arab, • the Qur’ān is in Arabic and • the language of the people of Jannah in Jannah is Arabic. (Ad-Durrul Mukhtār) Page 3
  • 4. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Title Arabic Tutor - Volume Four Author Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān ( ) Translated by Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad First Edition Dhul Qa’dah 1428 A.H. Nov 2007 Published by Madrasah In’āmiyyah P.O. Box 39 Camperdown 3720 South Africa Tel +27 031 785 1519 Fax +27 031 785 1091 email alinaam@alinaam.org Page 4
  • 5. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Contents The first forty three lessons were completed in Volumes One, Two and Three. Volume Four begins with Lesson 44. Transliteration ......................................................... 15 Preface ...................................................................... 18 Indications ............................................................... 25 Introduction............................................................. 27 Lesson 44 .................................................................. 28 The Numerals ...................................................... 28 Exercise No. 64 ................................................ 38 Exercise No. 65 ................................................ 39 Exercise No. 66 ................................................ 39 Lesson 45 .................................................................. 40 Miscellaneous Rules Regarding Numerals..... 40 Vocabulary List No. 42................................... 49 Exercise No. 67 ................................................ 50 Exercise No. 68 ................................................ 53 Exercise No. 69 ................................................ 54 Exercise No. 70 ................................................ 55 Lesson 46 .................................................................. 57 The Ordinal Numbers ........................................ 57 Vocabulary List No. 43................................... 67 Exercise No. 71 ................................................ 68 Exercise No. 72 ................................................ 70 Page 5
  • 6. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 73 ................................................ 72 Lesson 47 .................................................................. 74 The Date ............................................................... 74 Vocabulary List No. 44................................... 82 Exercise No. 74 ................................................ 85 Exercise No. 75 ................................................ 90 Lesson 48 .................................................................. 94 Telling the Time .................................................. 94 The Times of the Day and Night ...................... 96 Expressing Age ................................................... 98 Vocabulary List No. 45................................... 98 Exercise No. 76 .............................................. 101 Exercise No. 77 .............................................. 103 Exercise No. 78 .............................................. 105 Lesson 49 ................................................................ 109 The Particles....................................................... 109 Lesson 50 ................................................................ 131 The Non–Causative Particles .......................... 131 Lesson 51 ................................................................ 150 Continuation of Lesson 50............................... 150 Lesson 52 ................................................................ 161 The Remaining Particles .................................. 161 The Definte Article ....................................... 161 .................................. 164 ..................................... 166 Exercise No. 79 .............................................. 168 Page 6
  • 7. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Test No. 18 ..................................................... 171 Lesson 53 ................................................................ 173 Sentences ............................................................ 173 The Definitions of ( ), ( ) and ( ) ......................................................................... 173 The Types of Sentences ................................ 175 Exercise No. 80 .............................................. 178 Exercise No. 81 .............................................. 181 Lesson 54 ................................................................ 183 Declension.......................................................... 183 ( ) ........................ 189 Test No. 18 B.................................................. 191 Lesson 55 ................................................................ 193 The Declension of a Verb................................. 193 The Occasions of ( ) of a Verb .............. 194 Vocabulary List No. 46................................. 199 Exercise No. 82 .............................................. 200 Exercise No. 83 .............................................. 202 Lesson 56 ................................................................ 204 The Jussive Case................................................ 204 Exercise No. 84 .............................................. 211 Vocabulary List No. 47................................. 214 Exercise No. 85 .............................................. 215 Exercise No. 86 .............................................. 217 Lesson 57 ................................................................ 218 The Declension of a Noun ............................... 218 Page 7
  • 8. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( )..................................... 221 The Old Method of Explaining ( ) ......................................................................... 228 Vocabulary List No. 48................................. 233 Exercise No. 87 .............................................. 235 Lesson 58 ................................................................ 239 The Cases of the Noun ..................................... 239 The Nominative Case....................................... 240 The ( ) and ( ) ........................... 240 Vocabulary List No. 49................................. 249 Exercise No. 88 .............................................. 251 Exercise No. 89 .............................................. 253 Exercise No. 90 .............................................. 254 Test No. 19 ..................................................... 255 Lesson 59 ................................................................ 257 The Subject and Predicate................................ 257 The Occasions Where the Predicate has to Precede the Subject ....................................... 261 Exercise No. 91 .............................................. 264 Vocabulary List No. 50................................. 265 Exercise No. 92 .............................................. 267 Test No. 20 ..................................................... 270 Lesson 60 ................................................................ 272 The Accusative Case......................................... 272 The Object ...................................................... 272 Page 8
  • 9. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) .................................................... 278 Exercise 93...................................................... 281 Vocabulary List No. 51................................. 283 Exercise No. 94 .............................................. 284 Exercise No. 95 .............................................. 286 Exercise No. 96 .............................................. 287 Exercise No. 97 .............................................. 288 Lesson 61 ................................................................ 290 ( ).................................................... 290 The Object of Cause.......................................... 295 Vocabulary List No. 52................................. 297 Exercise No. 98 .............................................. 300 Exercise No. 99 .............................................. 301 Test No. 21 ..................................................... 304 Lesson 62 ................................................................ 306 The Adverb ........................................................ 306 The ( ) ................................................... 323 Vocabulary List No. 53................................. 326 Exercise No. 100 ............................................ 328 Exercise No. 101 ............................................ 330 Exercise No. 102 ............................................ 331 Test No. 22 ..................................................... 334 Lesson 63 ................................................................ 336 The Condition.................................................... 336 Exercise No. 103 ............................................ 341 Vocabulary List 54 ........................................ 342 Page 9
  • 10. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 104 ............................................ 343 Exercise No. 105 ............................................ 344 Exercise No. 106 ............................................ 346 Lesson 64 ................................................................ 347 Specification....................................................... 347 Allusion to Numbers........................................ 352 Exercise No. 107 ............................................ 355 Exercise No. 108 ............................................ 356 Exercise No. 109 ............................................ 357 Exercise No. 110 ............................................ 358 Exercise No. 111 ............................................ 360 Exercise No. 112 ............................................ 361 Exercise No. 113 ............................................ 361 Exercise No. 114 ............................................ 362 Exercise No. 115 ............................................ 363 Lesson 65 ................................................................ 364 The Exception .................................................... 364 Vocabulary List No. 55................................. 369 Exercise No. 116 ............................................ 370 Exercise No. 117 ............................................ 372 Exercise No. 118 ............................................ 372 Exercise No. 119 ............................................ 373 Exercise No. 120 ............................................ 375 Exercise No. 121 ............................................ 376 Lesson 66 ................................................................ 377 The Vocative ...................................................... 377 Abbreviated Vocative................................... 381 Page 10
  • 11. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lamenting ...................................................... 382 The Appositive of the Vocative .................. 382 Vocabulary List No. 56................................. 384 Exercise No. 122 ............................................ 386 Exercise No. 123 ............................................ 388 Exercise No. 124 ............................................ 389 Lesson 67 ................................................................ 391 The Genetive...................................................... 391 The Types of ( )....................................... 391 Vocabulary List No. 57................................. 396 Exercise No. 125 ............................................ 399 Exercise No. 126 ............................................ 401 Exercise No. 127 ............................................ 402 Exercise No. 128 ............................................ 403 Exercise No. 129 ............................................ 404 Lesson 68 ................................................................ 405 Apposition ......................................................... 405 The Adjective................................................. 406 Vocabulary List No. 58................................. 414 Exercise No. 130 ............................................ 417 Exercise No. 131 ............................................ 418 Exercise No. 132 ............................................ 418 Exercise No. 133 ............................................ 419 Exercise No. 134 ............................................ 420 Exercise No. 135 ............................................ 420 Exercise No. 136 ............................................ 420 Exercise No. 137 ............................................ 422 Page 11
  • 12. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 138 ............................................ 423 Lesson 69 ................................................................ 425 Emphasis ............................................................ 425 Exercise No. 139 ............................................ 431 Exercise No. 140 ............................................ 433 Exercise No. 141 ............................................ 434 Exercise No. 142 ............................................ 435 Exercise No. 143 ............................................ 436 Exercise No. 144 ............................................ 436 Lesson 70 ................................................................ 439 ( ) ................................................................... 439 Exercise No. 145 ............................................ 444 Exercise No. 146 ............................................ 446 Exercise No. 147 ............................................ 446 Exercise No. 148 ............................................ 447 Exercise No. 149 ............................................ 448 Lesson 71 ................................................................ 449 ( ) .............................................................. 449 Exercise No. 150 ............................................ 454 Exercise No. 151 ............................................ 454 Exercise No. 152 ............................................ 455 Exercise No. 153 ............................................ 456 Exercise No. 154 ............................................ 456 Lesson 72 ................................................................ 457 The Verbal Noun .............................................. 457 ( ).................................................... 462 Page 12
  • 13. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) ................................ 464 ( )................................... 465 The Effect of the ( )................................ 466 Vocabulary List No. 59................................. 467 Exercise No. 155 ............................................ 469 Exercise No. 156 ............................................ 470 Lesson 73 ................................................................ 472 ( )........................................................... 472 ( )...................................................... 475 ( ) ................................................... 476 ( ).................................................... 479 ( ).................................................... 482 ( ) ............................ 483 Vocabulary List No. 60................................. 486 Exercise No. 157 ............................................ 489 Exercise No. 158 ............................................ 490 Lesson 74 ................................................................ 492 The Dual, Plural and Diminutive ................... 492 The Dual............................................................. 492 The Plural........................................................... 493 The Sound Masculine Plural ....................... 494 The Sound Feminine Plural......................... 494 Page 13
  • 14. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Broken Plural ......................................... 496 The Diminutive ............................................. 500 Vocabulary List No. 61................................. 502 Exercise No. 159 ............................................ 504 Exercise No. 160 ............................................ 506 Lesson 75 ................................................................ 509 The ( ) ................................................. 509 The Specialities of Some Verbs ....................... 514 Vocabulary List No. 62................................. 516 Exercise No. 161 ............................................ 519 Some Specialities of Poetry…………………. 521 Page 14
  • 15. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Transliteration The following method of transliteration of the Arabic letters has been used in this book: ā b t th j h kh d dh r z s sh s Page 15
  • 16. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four d t z à, í, ú gh f q k l m n ū h ī, y Page 16
  • 17. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Some Arabic phrases used in the book are as follows: ( (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon him - used for Nabî (Àlaihis salām) Salutations upon him – used for all prophets (Radiallāhu ‘anhu) May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the Sahâbah (Jalla Jalāluhū) The Sublime – used for Allâh (Àzza wa jall) Allāh is full of glory and sublimity ) (Rahimahullāh) May Allâh have mercy on him – used for deceased saints and scholars Page 17
  • 18. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . Preface How can I be grateful and why should I not be grateful to Allāh who granted me the ability to compile four volumes of this book. He decreed that it be so and it has occurred, otherwise I was not in a position to write such a book by means of which the Qur’ān could be reached, and the difficult rules of Arabic could be made brief and simplified, in such a manner that has pleasantly astounded students and teachers. It has made the boring subject of Grammar and Morphology into an interesting and conclusive one. This book has removed the fear and apprehension from the hearts of the students of Page 18
  • 19. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Arabic, which was caused by the prevailing books and methods of instruction. It has handed over the key of the garden of Arabic literature to the students of the language. In fact, it has even opened the door for them and told them to enter this pleasant garden, where they could enjoy the flowers and fruits. In short, it has presented the verse of the Qur’ān, “We have made the Qur’ān easy for remembrance. Is there anyone who will heed?” This has been merely due to His grace and bounty. “It is the grace of Allāh and He grants it to whoever He wants. Allāh is the One of great bounty.” “This is the interpretation of the dream I saw before this. My Lord has made it come true.” All praises are due to Him. The reason why this book has become so beneficial and interesting is that it does not only contain boring rules of Grammar and Morphology. It is a treasure-house of thousands of Arabic words, general examples, Qur’ānic verses, poetry, dialogues, letters and exercises of translating into Arabic. This has made the book Page 19
  • 20. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four become an extremely interesting collection of Arabic literature. This aspect is not found in any other book. This is the reason why a person does not become tired by studying this book as he would by merely memorizing paradigms and learning Grammar rules. One learns the rules as well as the language simultaneously, that is, the effort is minimal and the benefit is enormous. I apologize to all the students and seekers of Arabic who were distressed in waiting for the fourth volume for such a long period. I supplicate to Allāh to grant them an excellent compensation for this agony. The first reason for the delay was my old-age and lengthy illness. The second major reason was my extreme desire to make the subject as simple and beneficial as possible. Due to this enthusiasm, I would make a plan one day and change it the next, in order to make an improvement. I did not care about my personal loss in this engrossment. If I had any concern for my personal self, I would have merely divided the first two volumes which were well accepted and very beneficial, into four parts and published them in four volumes within a span of three months. These would have been Page 20
  • 21. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four printed in the thousands and this would have been probably the better route to take. However, since more effective plans were swimming around in my mind, I made a firm resolution that no matter how much delay there is and how much harm is caused, the work must be done in the best possible manner. I cannot decide whether this attitude of mine was correct or not but I was compelled to act according to my resolve. Till now, my heart’s desire has not been fulfilled but under these unsuitable conditions, my mind has become exhausted to work any more. Consequently, the effects of exhaustion are visible in the latter few lessons. Furthermore, there were many other pressing needs. The size of the book had also increased and become bulky. I therefore felt it appropriate to publish whatever work had been accomplished. I even postponed my plan of writing a brief resume on the subjects of rhyme and eloquence at the end of the fourth volume. If Allāh grants me the ability, I will obtain the good fortune of publishing the remaining subjects in a fifth volume. He is the only one that grants the ability and assistance. Nevertheless, I am grateful to Allāh that now this Page 21
  • 22. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four book, in four volumes, is worthy of being used in high schools from class four till matric. The teachers can practically learn Arabic. I have firm conviction that by the time the students reach matric, they would be able to understand the Qur’ān, the Ahādīth and the easy books of Arabic. They will also have the ability to translate, to converse and write simple letters. This is such a precious treasure, that no matter how much one appreciates it, the appreciation would not be sufficient. Furthermore, the experienced teachers realize that when the students understand Arabic Grammar, it creates a special strength in their English. By understanding the Qur’ān, their mental faculties are vastly broadened. Such students are the ones who can serve the nation correctly. The nation is in dire need of such students. The spirit of reformation can also be infused in our Arabic seminaries (madāris). Education can be made easy, interesting and effective. It is a great boon that those responsible for the madāris are also beginning to perceive this need. It will not be surprising if they find the ruby they are Page 22
  • 23. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four searching for in this book. By means of this book, the desire to understand the Qur’ān and learn Arabic can also be created in girls. The previous edition of this book has been taught for many years in the famous Madrasatul Banāt of Jālandhar and which has now relocated to Lahore. The new edition has been made part of the syllabus. This book can aid tremendously in the propagation of Arabic in India and Pakistan1, on condition the principals of the madāris, the members of the text book committees, the department of education and the ministry of education fulfil their obligation and make this book reach the hand of every student. All praises are due to Allāh that the department of Education of Sindh has included this book in their syllabus, thereby proving their recognition of knowledge. In the famous Dārul Úlūm of India in Dhabel, due to the recommendation of The author has mentioned these two countries because the original book was written in Urdu. As for the English translation, it can be used world-wide without any limitation to any particular country ( ). (Translator) 1 Page 23
  • 24. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Àllāmah Shabbīr Ahmad Úthmānī ( ), this book has been included in the syllabus. It has been widely accepted in Bihar, Punjab, U.P., Delhi etc. All praises are due to Allāh. My beloved students should not look at the size of this volume and become perturbed. On the contrary, it contains the same rules which you have already understood. However, special emphasis has been placed on having a command of the language, which is your actual and pleasing aim. The method of explanation in this volume has been simplified to such an extent that those issues which seem unsolveable in other books, seem very ordinary and every seeker of Arabic, who has a little understanding, can understand them without the aid of a teacher. The key to the four volumes has been prepared for those wanting to learn Arabic by themselves. We advise the students of colleges and high schools to study this book during their vacations. It will not be surprising if you grasp the ability to understand the Qur’ān within a year. This will add a precious literary gem to your mental Page 24
  • 25. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four faculties. I am indebted to the Úlamā, reviewers and the lovers of the best language, through whose unseen and sincere efforts, this book has reached the corners of India and Pakistan without any advertising. May Allāh reward them in abundance. I have hope that the saints will grant me counsel and inform me of my errors so that these may be corrected in future. The servant of the best language (Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān ( ) 15 Sha’bān 1367 A.H. Indications 1) The inverted comma ( ) is used to indicate the plural of a noun. 2) The alphabets ( ), ( ), ( ), ( indicate the category ( ( ), ( ) and ( ) ) of the triliteral verbs ). The categories of the verbs of ( indicated by numbers. The ) are numbers are Page 25
  • 26. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four mentioned in Lesson 25. A verb that is ( is indicated by a ( ) and a verb that is ( ) ) is indicated by a ( ). 3) When any particle ( ) is mentioned after a verb, it refers to the meaning of the verb when used with that particular particle. Guidelines were provided in Volumes One and Three. Read these once more. No guidelines have been mentioned in Volume Four. However, the “Indications” have been repeated. Page 26
  • 27. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Introduction You have learnt most of the essential rules of Grammar and Morphology in the previous three volumes. A few new rules as well as an explanation of previously-mentioned rules will be done in this volume. The beginning lessons of this volume explain the concept of numbers in great detail, because there is a great need for them in usage and all the prevailing text books do not contain these details. Firstly, remember that the existing forms of the Arabic numbers are called ( ). They are written as follows: 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 You will be surprised to note that the original forms of the Arabic numbers were the same as the English numbers, viz. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0. The Europeans obtained these forms from the Muslims of Spain. They called them Arabic numerals ( ). The Arabs of the West still maintain these forms. Page 27
  • 28. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 44 The Numerals ( ) 1. The numerals are as follows: (a) from one (1) to ten (10) First learn the numbers only, then the examples. Note 1: When speaking, pause ( singular words, e.g. pronounce ( ) at the end of ) as ( ). In compounds, pause at the last word, e.g. ( ). See Lesson 1, Note 5 in Volume 1. Page 28
  • 29. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Feminine Examples Feminine Masculine Numerals Examples 2 Masculine Numerals .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 3 .7 .8 .9 .10 2 3 Page 29
  • 30. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 2: The alif of ( ) and ( ) is hamzatul wasl. See Terminology in Volume One. Note 3: From the numbers ( ) till ( ), the feminine is used for the masculine number and vice versa. In the examples, the numeral ( ) is read like a ( while the ( and ( ) without ( ) – object being counted) is plural ). (b) from 11 (11) till 19 (19) Note 4: In a compound numeral, ( place of ( ) and ( ) in place of ( remember that the ( singular and ( ) is used in ). Also ) from 11 till 19 is ). Page 30
  • 31. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Examples: Feminine Masculine 11 4 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Note 5: The above-mentioned numerals are called ( ). All the remaining numerals are declinable ( ). Only the ( ) are indeclinable ( ). A fathah is read on both the 4 Page 31
  • 32. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four words constituting the compound. However, the ) and ( words ( are read as ( ) and ( ( ( ) are ( ). In ( ), they ) while in ), they are read as ( ) and ), e.g. ), ( ( ), ( ). Only the first part is ( ) in these examples. The second part remains indeclinable ( ). (c) from 20 (20) to 99 (99) Note 6: The tens from ( ) till ( ) are called ( ). They are used for both genders. Their ( ) is similar to that of ( that is, in ( while in ( and ( ), ), they are read as ( ) ), they are read as ( ) ) etc. See Lesson 10 in Volume One. The Page 32
  • 33. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) is singular and ( ). Examples: Feminine Masculine Page 33
  • 34. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (d) from 100 (100) to ten million (10000000) Note 7: The ( ) of ( - 100) and ( - 1000) and of their dual and plural forms is singular and ( ). No change occurs in them due to masculine or feminine words. Both these words are used like the ( deleted from the dual ( ) without ( ). The ( ) is ). Examples: Page 34
  • 35. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Feminine Masculine Number ( ) ( 100 ) 200 300 400 500 800 (900) 1000 ( ) ( 2000 ) 3000 4000 Page 35
  • 36. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (10000) 11000 12000 13000 (99000) 100000 1000000 ( ) 1000000 0 Page 36
  • 37. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 8: Nowadays, the word ( ten million, e.g. ( ). Note 8: The words ( like a ( ) ) is also used for ), ( ) and ( together with ) are used the ( ). ) has been elided from the Consequently, the ( singular form as is the ( ) from the dual form. See Lessons 7 and 11. Note 10: The ( to as the ( ) of a numeral is also referred ) or ( ). By examining all the examples of the numerals, you will notice that the ( ) is always indefinite ( ). However, the definite article ( ) is attached to the ( is a plural ( particle ( ) or a collective noun ( ( ). The ) has to be used in this case, e.g. instead of saying ( ( ) when it ), you can say ). Similarly, one can say, - twenty one women) and Page 37
  • 38. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( - a hundred camels and a thousand sheep). Exercise No. 64 Fill in a suitable ( ) next to the following numbers. ( 2) ( 4) ( 2) ( 6) ( 5) ( 8) ( 7) (10) ( 9) (12) (11) (14) (13) (16) (15) (18) (17) (20) (22) ( 1) (19) (21) Page 38
  • 39. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (24) (23) (25) Exercise No. 65 Translate the following phrases into Arabic. (1) one boy (2) two boys (3) two girls (4) three boys (5) four girls (6) five bulls (7) nine cows (8) ten women (9) ten men (10) twenty rupees (11) twenty five guineas (12) forty five books (13) fifty hens (14) seventy two roosters (15) one hundred dogs (16) two hundred horses (17) three hundred she camels (18) five hundred male camels (19) one thousand aeroplanes (20) one hundred thousand soldiers Exercise No. 66 (A) Write the following numbers in Arabic. 7, 15, 18, 29, 75, 62, 43, 88, 100, 300, 800, 2 000, 200, 100 000, 1 000, 1 200, 1 000 000. Page 39
  • 40. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (B) Assume the ( ) is masculine and then write the above-mentioned numbers in Arabic. Page 40
  • 41. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 45 Miscellaneous Rules Regarding Numerals 1. We hope you have understood the following rules after studying all the numbers, examples and notes of the previous lesson. (a) The numerals have four groups: 1. ( ) – singular words. These are from one to ten and the words ( ) and ( ) are also part of this group. In this way, twelve words constitute this category. 2. ( ) – compounds. These are from 11 to 19. 3. ( ) – the tens. These are the tens from 20 to 90. 4. ( ) – those having the conjunction ( ) between them. These are from 21 to 99. (b) the gender of the numerals: 1. The numbers ( ) and ( conform in gender to the ( ) always ), whether Page 41
  • 42. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four they are singular words, compounds or used with a conjunction. The examples were mentioned in the previous lesson. 2. From 3 to 9, the numerals will always differ in gender from the ( ), whether they are singular words, compounds or used with a conjunction. Observe the previous examples carefully. 3. When the word ( ) is singular, it will have the opposite gender to the ( ), otherwise it will correspond to it, e.g. ( ), ( ( ), ), ( ). 4. There is no differentiation in gender in the tens ( ( ). The same applies to ( ) and ). See the examples in the previous lesson and notes 6 and 7. (c) The declinable ( ) and indeclinable ( ) numerals5 Besides the compound numerals ( 5 ), all See Lesson 10.10 and Lesson 57. Page 42
  • 43. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four the other numerals are ( ). Their ends will change according to the case. Only the numbers from ( ) till ( ) are ( ). A fathah will be read on both parts of the compound. From these numbers (11-19), ( ) and ( ) are ( ). See Lesson 44 note 5. (d) The ( ) of the ( ) and its number: 1. When a noun is ( when it is ( ( ), it indicates one and ), it indicates two, e.g. ) – one man, ( ) – two men. Therefore there is no need to add any number to these words. However, sometimes ( ) and ( adjectives, e.g. ( ( girl, ( and ( 2. The ( ) are used like ) – one man, ) – two men, ( ) – one ) – two girls. The ( ) correspond in ( ) of the numbers ( ) ) and gender. ) till ( ) Page 43
  • 44. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four is ( ) and plural. See the examples and note 3. If the word ( the ( ( ) is used in place of ), it will remain singular, e.g. ), ( ). See the examples of the previous lesson and note 7. Note 1: The sound masculine plural ( - See lesson 5.3.) is not normally used in place of the ( cannot say ( ). For example, you ). On such an occasion, the definite article will be prefixed to the plural and used with ( 3. The ( ( ), e.g. ( ) ) of the numbers ( ) till ) will be singular and ( ). The tens also are included in this rule. See the examples and notes 4 and 6. 4. The ( ) of ( ) and ( ) and their dual and plural forms will be singular and ( ). See the examples and note 7. Page 44
  • 45. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The sound feminine plural of ( used, namely ( ) is most often ). Sometimes the sound masculine plural is used, that is, ( The plural of ( ) is ( ) or ( ). ) as already mentioned. It has another plural ( ) which means “thousands”. This does not refer to any particular number, e.g. ( ) – I have thousands of books. Note 2: Learn the following table to remember the ( ) of numerals: 3 - 10 11 - 19 20-99 100, 1000 Note 3: Sometimes the numerals and their ( ) are used contrary to the rule, e.g. Page 45
  • 46. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) “They remained in their cave for 300 years and 9 more, i.e. for 309 years.” The word ( ) has not been used as a ( this sentence. Its ( ) in ), instead of being singular, has been used in the plural form. The ( ( ) of ) has not been mentioned. The original ). Regard this sentence was ( example as an exception to the rule. Note 4: The definite article ( ) can be prefixed to a numeral in order to make it specific or definite, e.g. ( ) – The thirty men for whom we were waiting, came. If the numeral is a singular ( should be prefixed to the ( ( ( ), the ( ) ), e.g. ) – Give me the five books. ) – I saw the six thousand soldiers. Page 46
  • 47. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four If the numeral is not ( ), the ( ) should be prefixed to the numeral itself, e.g. ( ) – The five Muslims came. If the numeral is a compound ( ), the ( ) should be prefixed to the first part of the compound and if it is ( ), then to both parts, e.g. ( )–I sold the fifteen books and the forty four sheep. 2. If the ( ) occurs after several numerals, it will take the effect of the last number, e.g. ( ) – one thousand three hundred and sixty four years. The word ( ( ) was affected by the final number ). Accordingly it is ( ). In this example, first the larger number is mentioned followed by the smaller ones in stages. You can also say it vice versa, e.g. ( ) Page 47
  • 48. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The word ( the word ( ) in this example is ( ) due to ). Note 5: If the context permits, it is permissible to omit the ( ) and mention the number only, e.g. ( ) – I bought the horse for a hundred, that is, a hundred rupees. 3. The use of the words ( 1. The word ( ), ( ) and ( ) ) denotes an unspecified number from 3 till 9, e.g. ( ) – a few women and a few men, that is, between 3 and 10. The word ( ( ) or ) denotes any number between two tens, e.g. ( ) – I have twenty and some silver coins, that is, less than 30. Similarly, ( ) – twenty and some guineas. 2. There is no masculine and feminine form of Page 48
  • 49. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ). However, the word ( ) has a gender. For the masculine form, ( used while ( ) is ) is used for the feminine form. See the above examples. 3. The word ( ) is only used after a ten, hundred or a thousand. However, the word ( ) can be used alone as well, e.g. ( ) – I have seventy and some silver coins, or I have some silver coins. 4. The word ( while ( ) is used after a numeral ) is used before a number. However, if its ( ) is separate, it can succeed the numeral as well, e.g. ( ) - We have fifty and some silver coins and a few pounds. 5. The word ( ) has not been used in the Qur’ān. Page 49
  • 50. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Vocabulary List No. 42 Word ( ) Meaning to burst, for a spring to burst forth to lash to equate ( )( ) ( ) to be rare to come, to be imported anna (Indian currency) gathering to participate, to subscribe notice, advert para (coin) cow garden, orchard lash guinea, pound price Page 50
  • 51. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Turkish cap, fez number, amount money subscription fee piaster livestock, cattle magazine, journal area, surface extent Exercise No. 67 Translate the following sentences into English. ( 1) . ( 2) . " " ( 3) Page 51
  • 52. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . . " ( 4) " . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) 6 . . ( 9) . 6 See Note 3, Lesson 34 in Volume 3. Page 52
  • 53. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (10) . (11) " " . (12) . (13) . (5495) (14) . (15) . Page 53
  • 54. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (16) . Exercise No. 68 Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. . . (1) (2) . (3) . (4) (5) . . (6) (7) . . (8) (9) . . (10) Page 54
  • 55. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (11) . Exercise No. 69 Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (1) How many cattle do you have? We have 200 cows, fifty plus camels and 25 goats. (2) Sir, for how much are you selling this book? Its price is ten rupees. (3) It is not cheap but is expensive. I will only give nine rupees, not more. Brother, it is not expensive. Okay, take it and hand over the money. May you be blessed. (4) For how much did you buy this book? I bought it for twelve rupees and eight annas. (5) What is the subscription for the magazine, “Al-Furqān”? I think its subscription is nine rupees annually, not more. (6) How much is that house being sold for? It will be sold for 15 450 rupees. (7) What is the area of this house? Page 55
  • 56. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Its area is approximately 500 square ( ) cubits. (8) Do you know the number of Muslims in the world? The number of Muslims is approximately 700 million.7 From them, 100 million are in India. (9) How many boys are there in your madrasah? There are more than 400 students in our madrasah. Exercise No. 70 Observe the analysis of the following sentence. This was probably the Muslim population at the time when this book was written, viz. around 1327 A.H. 7 Page 56
  • 57. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four = Page 57
  • 58. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 46 The Ordinal Numbers ( ) 1. In the previous lesson you have learnt the numerals. Now study the ordinals carefully. (a) from 1 to 10 Examples: (the first lesson) – .1 (the second lesson) .2 (the third lesson) .3 (the fourth lesson) .4 (the fifth lesson) .5 (the sixth lesson) .6 (the seventh lesson) .7 (the eighth lesson) .8 (the ninth lesson) .9 (the tenth lesson) .10 Page 58
  • 59. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (the first story) .1 (the second story) .2 (the third story) .3 (the fourth story) .4 (the fifth story) .5 (the sixth story) .6 (the seventh story) .7 (the eighth story) .8 (the ninth story) .9 (the tenth story) Note 1: All these words are ( ( .10 ). However the ) cannot appear on the word ( it is ( ) because ). See Lesson 10.8. Note 2: The plurals of the ordinal numbers are ( ) – sound. ... Page 59
  • 60. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 3: The word ( opposition to ( ) or ( ) is also used in ), e.g. ( ). Note 4: Sometimes the word ( ) refers to the beginning of something. Then its plural will be ( ). Similarly, the plural of ( the plural of ( ( ) is ( ) is ( ) and ), e.g. ) – the initial days of Ramadān. The plural of ( ) is ( ) and ( ). (b) from 11 to 19 (the eleventh lesson) – .11 (the twelfth lesson) .12 (the eleventh story) .11 (the twelfth story) Similarly till ( ) and ( .12 ). Page 60
  • 61. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 5: In the above-mentioned examples, both the numbers are indeclinable on a fathah ( ) like ( ). However, some philologers are of the view that the first part is ( this is the general Accordingly, the ( practice ) and nowadays. ) of the ( ) will be applied to it, e.g. ( ), ( ), ). ( (c) All the tens from ( and ( ) till ( ) and ( ) ) are used in their normal forms for the ordinal numbers. However, the definite article is generally prefixed to them, e.g. ( ) – the twentieth, ( twenty first, ( ( ) – the ) – the thirty first, ) – the hundredth. 2. The ordinal numbers generally occur as adjectives in a sentence and are used with a ( ), e.g. Page 61
  • 62. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – the first book, ( ) – the twenty first lesson. Sometimes they are ( ( ), e.g. ) – the fourth among them, ( )– the fifth girl. 3. In ordinal numbers, when the ( ) – singular numbers and the ( ) – tens are used with ( and ( ) is prefixed before the last ), the word ( ) number, e.g. ( ) – the one thousand three hundred and forty second year. Instead of ( ), one can also say ( ). Note 6: The smallest number was mentioned first in this example followed by the larger numbers in stages. This order cannot be changed. 4. For the fractions ( ), the word ( used for half while the scales of ( ) is ) or ( ) are Page 62
  • 63. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four used for the remainder, e.g. ⅓ - ( plural is ( ). The plural is ( ). The ). ¼-( ) or ( ) or ( ). ⅕-( ) or ( ). The plural is ( ⅙-( ) or ( ). The plural is ( This continues till ( ⅔( ), ¾ ( ) or ( ). ). ), plural ( ), ⅝ ( ). ). Note 7: If you want to form a fraction above ( ), construct it from the original number thus: four elevenths ( ), ). eleven twentieths ( The particle ( ( ) can be used in place of ( ), e.g. ) - eleven twentieths. When whole numbers and fractions are mentioned together, they will be separated by a ( ), e.g. four and three fifths ( ), five and fifteen over forty ( ). Page 63
  • 64. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 8: Sometimes a quarter is written as ( ), half is written as (<) and three quarter is written as (≤), e.g. 2¼ is written as (2 ), 2½ is written as (2<), 2¾ is written as (2≤). These signs are written slightly thinner than the numbers and are separated from them. 5. The distributive adjectives, 2 by 2, 3 by 3, etc. ) and ( are expressed by the forms ( ( ), e.g. ) – The riders came in twos, threes and fours. These words occur as the ( ) in a sentence and are therefore ( ). See 10.2. This can also be expressed by repeating the ), e.g. number in the accusative case ( ( ) Note 8. The phrase ( ) and ( used for 1 by 1. Instead the words ( ( ) is seldom ), ( ) or ) are most often used, e.g. Page 64
  • 65. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – They came one by one. 6. The numerical adjectives expressing the composition of anything are used on the scale of ( ), e.g. Meaning Feminine Masculine twofold, biliteral threefold, triliteral fourfold, quadriliteral fivefold sixfold sevenfold eightfold ninefold tenfold This scale cannot be used for compound numbers or one with conjunctions ( ). To express Page 65
  • 66. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four something made of eleven parts, one will say ( ( ) for the masculine and ) for the feminine. In this way, you can use any other number. 7. The numerical adverbs “the first time”, “the second time”, etc. may be expressed by the use of the noun ( ) as the ( number as an adjective ( Examples: ( ) and the ordinal ). ) – the first time, ( ) – I recited the Qur’ān the first time. ( ) – I visited you a second time. Similarly, ( ( ) – the tenth time, ) – the eleventh time, ( )– the hundredth time. The numerical adverbs may also be expressed by saying ( ) – firstly, ( However, after ( ) – secondly etc. ), the above-mentioned method has to be used. Page 66
  • 67. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 9: The phrase ( thus: ( ( ) can also be expressed ) while ( ) or ( ) can be expressed as ). 8. The numerical adverbs, “once”, “twice”, may be expressed by using the noun ( ( ), e.g. ( ) or ( ) in ) – once, ( )– twice. For more times, the cardinal number is used with the noun ( ) as in ( ) – three times, ( ) eleven times, etc. 9. The plural of ( ) which is ( ( ) is used in ) to express the phrase, “several times” or “many times”, e.g. ( ) – I saw him many times. For this meaning, ( ) can also be used. See 13.7. Example: ( ) – How many times I saw him. 10. To express the phrase, “several” or “many”, Page 67
  • 68. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) is used, e.g. ( ) – Several boys are playing in the garden. Vocabulary List No. 43 Word ) ( Meaning middle Cape Colony large group of people to climb a wall wall part pair, spouse railway line ( ) to travel capital train, caravan of camels Page 68
  • 69. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four continent castle, fort table to pass to ennoble to be honoured ( ) to like, to be good to strengthen, to reinforce ( ) to marry cave Exercise No. 71 Translate the following sentences into English. (1) . (2) . Page 69
  • 70. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) (4) . (5) . (Puna) . . (6) (7) (8) . . (9) (10) Page 70
  • 71. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (11) . . (12) (13) . (14) . (15) . (16) . Exercise No. 72 Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. (1) . Page 71
  • 72. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (2) (3) . (4) . . (5) . (6) (7) . (8) . . (9) (10) . (11) . Page 72
  • 73. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 73 Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (1) The explanation of the ( ) was written in the forty second lesson of this book. (2) The second sūrah of the Qur’ān is Sūrah AlBaqarah. (3) I will go to the madrasah after the fourth hour. (4) Yesterday I read the first, second and third stories of the book, “A Thousand and One Nights” and tomorrow I will read the fifth and sixth stories. (5) You take three quarters from this cloth and I will take one quarter. (6) The wealth which my father left has been distributed. My mother received one eighth while I received seven eighths. (7) The soldiers climbed the wall of the fort one by one. (8) We entered the madrasah in fours and fives and left in twos and threes. (9) I embarked on the train at Bombay in the first hour and I reached Nasik in the fourth hour. (10) There is a distance of approximately four hours between Bombay and Nasik. Page 73
  • 74. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (11) This is the first time I saw this city. (12) I read this book several times and found it to be very beneficial. (13) Today we came to Bombay for business the tenth time and every time we stayed for a year and a few months. (14) My paternal grandfather performed hajj five times and he passed away the sixth time in Makkah. May Allāh forgive him. (15) We toured many cities but have not seen a city like Bombay. Page 74
  • 75. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 47 The Date 1. In order to show the date, one needs to know the names of the days and the months. a) The days of the week ( Friday – ( ): ) Saturday – ( ) Sunday – ( ) Monday – ( ) Tuesday – ( ) Wednesday – ( ) Thursday – ( ) Note 1: The word ( ) is used most often while ( ) is seldom used. Sometimes both these words are elided, e.g. ( ), etc. b) The Islamic months or lunar months Page 75
  • 76. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 (11 (12 Note 2: The months having the definite article ( ) are triptotes ( months are diptotes ( ). The remainder of the ). See 10.7. Page 76
  • 77. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Some of the months are described by specific adjectives, e.g. (the sacred Muharram) – (Safar, the month of goodness) – (the unique Rajab) – (the the honoured Rajab)) – (the sacred Rajab) – (the venerated Sha’bān) – (the revered Ramadān) – (the sacred Dhul Qa’dah) – (the sacred Dhul Hijjah) – Note 3: The four months: Muharram, Rajab, Dhul Qa’dah and Dhul Hijjah are the sacred months of reverence, peace and safety. The Islamic year is called ( of emigration or ( ) – the year ) – the lunar year. The alphabet ( ) is used to denote this. Page 77
  • 78. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 4: There are other words also which are used for the word, “year”: ( ), ( ). ) and ( The Hijrah calendar began from 16 July 621 C.E. This is the date on which Rasūlullāh emigrated from Makkah to Madīnah. c) The months of the Gregorian or Solar Calendar Egyptian Syrian Page 78
  • 79. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 5: All the English names are diptotes ( ). The Syrian names that are single words are sometimes used as ( sometimes as ( are ( ) and ). The compound names ). The Christian year is referred to as ( the solar year or ( )– ) – the year of the Christian era, that is, the year of the birth of Ísā . The alphabets ( ( ( ( ) are used to indicate B.C. - before the advent of Ísā ) while ) or only ( ) is used to indicate A.D. - the era after Ísā ). The alphabet ( ) is used in India to indicate the Christian calendar. Page 79
  • 80. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 2. Use the ordinal number in the following manner to indicate the date: • make it ( ) to the word ( ) or to the )– name of the month, e.g. ( the eighth of Ramadān or ( ), • prefix the definite article to it and make it the adjective of the word ( ) or ( ), e.g. ( ) or ( ). For the year, write the number with the word ( ) or without it, e.g. 1944 ( )– 1 January 1944. When you want to say, “on a certain date”, prefix the particle ( ) or read the ordinal number in ( ), e.g. ( 1914 1939 ) – The First World War Page 80
  • 81. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four began on 4 August 1914 C.E. and the Second World War began at the end of September 1939 C.E. Together with the date, the day and the time can be also mentioned, e.g. ( 1916 ) – Rashīd was born after Àsr just before Maghrib on Friday 15 January 1916 C.E. (1925 )– Sa’īd passed away on the morning of the 20 March 1925. Note 6: The deceased is referred to as ( say ( ). To ) is incorrect. The predecessors had a different style of writing the date, e.g. no.1 ( ) which literally means, “Husain Ibn Àlī was born when five nights had passed in the month of Sha’bān in the year 4 A.H. This means he was born on the fifth. Page 81
  • 82. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Here the word ( ) refers to ( ) – five nights. It is for this reason that it is used in the feminine form. The verb ( verb of ( form, ( ) is a perfect tense ). Sometimes the singular feminine ), is used because ( ) is the plural of an unintelligent being. e.g. no.2. ( ) – Úthmān was martyred on Friday 18 Dhul Hijjah 35 A.H. e.g. no.3. ( ) – Abū Bakr passed away on Tuesday when 8 nights remained of Jumādal Uhkrā 13 A.H., that is, on the 21st or 22nd. In this example, the date has been specified with the amount of nights remaining. Page 82
  • 83. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Vocabulary List No. 44 Word Meaning (7) to trust (2) to discharge (6) to finish (6) to collapse ( ) to insert, to follow a school of thought ( ) to stab ( ) to appear, to overpower ( ) to make a firm resolve (3) to emigrate spring young lady, miss (6) relaxation, joy preparation splendour to make noble Page 83
  • 84. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four small garden gathering sir, Mr. advanced wedding, marriage politics the last day of the month peel, skin The Year of the Elephant- the year when Abraha attacked the Ka’bah inhabited knot, nikāh ( ) highest the first day of the month white forelock of a horse, the first part of anything one who strictly differentiates between right and wrong delighted, gratified Page 84
  • 85. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four prized, daughter Russia Belgium France Italy Poland Greece Germany Hungary fire-worshipper combatant, fighter dated mark behaviour report from clear Page 85
  • 86. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four impossible, preposterous compared to lengthy attached discipline not to speak of, let alone regretful, unfortunately to be silent about therefore repute, fame concern, interest to be important Exercise No. 74 Observe carefully how the dates have been written in the following sentences and translate them into English. Page 86
  • 87. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (1) ( ( ( . ) 570 ) 621 ) 11 Page 87
  • 88. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) ) 1361 ( ( ) ) 1362 .( (3) 10 1363 1944 . 1362 ) 43 (4) ( . Page 88
  • 89. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (5) . (6) 24 . (7) ( ) 1308 Page 89
  • 90. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (8) . 1913 ( ) (9) ( ) 21 ( ) 21 .( ) (10) 1944 1939 (4000000) . Page 90
  • 91. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (11) Translate the following wedding invitation. " " 1363 Exercise No. 75 (A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (1) I wrote a letter to you dated the 20th Muharram Al-Harām 1363 A.H. I hope you have received it. (2) We received your letter dated Sunday 3 Safar Al-Muzaffar 1363 A.H., corresponding to the 30th January 1944. (3) The author of Tafsīr Tabsīrur-Rahmān is Page 91
  • 92. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Hadrat Makhdūm Àlī Faqīh Mahāimī who passed away on 8 Jumādal Ukhrā 835 A.H. (4) My elder brother entered the Indian army on 10 January 1940 C.E. and he was despatched to the war in Africa. Then when the English conquered Africa, he returned safely on 15 June 1943 C.E. All thanks to Allāh. (5) If Allāh wills, I will come to you on the first. (6) Translate the following invitation to a wedding. Wedding Invitation With the grace of Allāh, we convey the glad tidings to you that our younger brother, Jalīl, has been engaged to marry Miss Zahrā, the daughter of Sayyid Badrān Al-Madanī. The nikāh will take place on 21 Sha’bān Al-Mu’azzam 1365 A.H. at Beg Muhammad Garden, situated on Muhammad Àlī Road. We hope that you will attend and complete our joy. Salāms Yours sincerely Page 92
  • 93. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Khalīl (B) ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) (C) Translate the following letter into English. Page 93
  • 94. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Page 94
  • 95. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 48 Telling the Time 1. To express the statement, “What is the time”, one should say, ( ) or ( reply, the word ( ) is the ( number will form the ( ( ). In the ) while the ), as mentioned below. ) – Please tell me what is the time now? ( ) – It is precisely one o’clock. ( ) – It is a quarter past one. ( ) – It is one forty five or quarter to two. ( ( ) – It is ten past one. ) – It is half past one. ( ) – It is twenty past one. Note 1: the word ( ) means “watch”, “one Page 95
  • 96. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four hour” and “a moment”, e.g. ( ) – Wait for a little while. This word has been used for Qiyāmah as well in the Qur’ān, e.g. ( ) – Qiyāmah has approached. The word ( - plural while the word ( ) is used for “minute” - plural or ) is used for “second”. The hand of the watch is called ( ( ) or ). 2. There are different ways of saying, “What time did you go to the madrasah or any other place, or what time are you going or will go”? For example, if it is said, ( ) or ( ), the response will be ) or ( ( ) or ( )– I went, am going or will go to the madrasah at half past ten. Page 96
  • 97. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Times of the Day and Night 3. When indicating the time of the day, night or other times, the words will be read with a ( e.g. ( ( ), ) – I fasted during the day. ) – I broke my fast at night. Similarly, one may say, ( ), etc. The particle ( ) can be prefixed to these words as: ( ). The words ( ) or ( ) are most often prefixed to the words ( ( ) and ( ), e.g. ) – Your brother came to me at the time of Zuhr. For the word “yesterday”, ( used, while ( ) or ( ) or ( ) is ) is the day before yesterday. “Tomorrow” is ( ) and the Page 97
  • 98. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four “day after tomorrow” is ( ), e.g. ( ) – I came to you yesterday and the day before yesterday and if Allāh wills, I will come to you tomorrow and the day after tomorrow. ) is ( Note 2: The word ( ) – indeclinable on a kasrah. It is always read with one kasrah. 4. Sometimes the word ( words ( ) and ( ) is prefixed to the ), e.g. ) – One day ( or one night I met your father in the musjid. The phrases ( ) and ( ) are also used. Note 3: The words used to express time are called ( ). When they are read ( sentence, they are referred to as ( ) in a ). This was discussed in Lesson 43. The details will follow in Lesson 62. Page 98
  • 99. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Expressing Age 5. 5. To say, “What is your age?”, say, ( ) or ( ). The response should be, ( ) or ( )-I am fifteen years old. Sometimes the word ( ) is elided, e.g. ( ) – He is 20 years old; ) – She is fifty years old. ( Vocabulary List No. 45 Word Meaning (1) to act well ( ) ( ) strength, maturity, that is between 18 to 30 years (1) to make flow, to continue (4) to have supper, dinner Page 99
  • 100. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four () ( ) ( ) (4) to have breakfast or lunch (4) to be long, to lie down (4) to walk together (2) to establish, to prove protection coming and going (in everything) (2) to make equal, proper, to make, to do ( ) childhood ( ) to live morning never, beware (2) to create, to make airport to apologise humility Page 100
  • 101. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) to submit, to propose as soon as ( ) to pry open to smell fold, depth reproach sparkle, twinkle within text ( ) to frighten, to startle terror, fright place, situation dreadful, awful lachrymal canal (source of tears) to anger, to exasperate affectionate, loving ( ) to blame, to censure Page 101
  • 102. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to clothe, to dress, to drape robe, cloak disgrace, shame slip, lapse here I am Exercise No. 76 Translate the following sentences into English. ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . Page 102
  • 103. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ! ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) . ( 9) ! . ! (10) ! (11) . . (12) . Page 103
  • 104. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (13) . (14) . . . ! (15) ! (16) . . ! Exercise No. 77 Translate the following sentences into English. (1) Page 104
  • 105. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (2) ) . 50 56 6 5 ( (3) . (4) . (5) . Page 105
  • 106. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (6) . (7) . (8) . (9) . (10) . Exercise No. 78 (A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (1) Come Hamīd, where are you going? I am going to the madrasah. (2) Do you have a watch? Yes, I have a watch. Page 106
  • 107. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) What is the time now? According to my watch, it is quarter past ten. (4) What time does the madrasah open? ( - is opened) Brother, the madrasah opens at half past ten. (5) What time does it close? ( - is closed) The madrasah closes at 12.40. (6) What time did you come out of the house? I came out at 9.45. (7) Do you know how many minutes there are in one hour? Yes, one hour has sixty minutes. (8) How do you recognize the hour and minutes in a watch? I understand the minutes from the large hand and the hour from the small hand. (9) When do you have supper? We have supper after Maghrib at eight o’clock. (10) When do you sleep? I sleep after Íshā at nine o’clock. (11) Where did your father go the day before yesterday and when will he return? He went to Hyderabad and will return tomorrow or the day after tomorrow, if Allāh wills. (12) Do you know what is your age? Yes, I know my age is ten years and three months. Page 107
  • 108. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (13) How old is your small brother? He is presently eight years and six months old. (14) Congratulations! You seem to be a very clever boy. May Allāh make it so. Now I seek your permission. (15) Good, in the protection of Allāh. May you also be in His protection. (B) Translate the following letter into English. 1364 Page 108
  • 109. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . . Page 109
  • 110. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 49 The Particles ( ) 1. The particle is such a weak word that it cannot convey its own meaning without the assistance of a noun or verb. However, after the support of a noun or verb, it becomes so strong that it causes changes in the meanings of many verbs. It is also so essential that without it, the noun and the verb remain scattered around. Hence there is a dire need to focus special attention to it. 2. The particles which have a meaning are referred to as ( ) while the alphabets like ( ), etc. are referred to as ( - the foundational particles). Only the former will be discussed in this lesson. 3. All the ( ) are indeclinable ( ). They are not more than 80 in number. 4. Some of the ( ) cause a change in the Page 110
  • 111. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) of nouns and verbs. They are called the ( ). Those ( ) that do not cause any change are called ( ). 5. The ( ) comprise the following categories: (a) ( ) or ( ) These are 17 particles that render ( ) to a noun. They are as follows: [1] ( ) – in, at, because, with, oath etc. It is used for several meanings, e.g. ( ( ) – We wrote with the pen. ) – The book was printed in Egypt. ( ( ) – I believed in Allāh. ) – Allāh caught them because Page 111
  • 112. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four of their oppression. ( ) – By Allāh (oath). It can also be extra ( ), that is, having no particular meaning, e.g. ( ) – Is Allāh not sufficient for His slave? It is used to render an intransitive verb transitive, e.g. ( ) – Hāmid took my book. The meaning of ( ) is “he went”. By using the particle ( ), the meaning of “taking away” is created. [2] ( ) – is used for an oath and it is specific with the word “Allāh”, e.g. ( )– By Allāh, Allāh has preferred you over us. [3] ( ) – “like” - is used for a comparison, e.g. ( ) – Knowledge is like light. Page 112
  • 113. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [4] ( ) or ( ) – for, towards, time, to, possession. Examples: ( ) – for Allāh. ( ) I turned my face towards the One who created the skies and the earth. ) – Stand for the teacher when he ( comes. ( ) – I said to Zaid. ( ) - This book belongs to Khālid. The ( ) is ( ( ) when prefixed to a pronoun ), e.g. ( ), ( ). [5] ( ) is used for taking an oath, e.g. ( ( ), ( ), ). Sometimes the ( ) is used in the meaning of ( ), that is, “many” or “some”. Such a ( ) is called ( ( ), e.g. ) – There Page 113
  • 114. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four are many cities where there is no one who can console except for gazelles and breeding camels. Note 1: The particle of conjunction, ( ), meaning “and”, is used very frequently but it is from the ( ). [6] ( ) – some, many. It is generally succeeded by a word that is ( ) – an indefinite noun that is described by an adjective, e.g. ( ) – I have met many a noble person. Sometimes the succeeding word is ( ), that is, not having an adjective, e.g. ( ) – Some gestures are more eloquent than written words. [7] & [8] ( ) and ( ) – since. These two words are used to indicate a span of time, e.g. ( ) – I did not see him since Friday. Page 114
  • 115. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [9] ( ) – from, of, some, among, due to, e.g. ( ) – I travelled from Bombay till Calcutta. ( ) – Take whatever you want from the box. ( ) – Some of you are disbelievers and some of you are believers. ) – They were drowned due to ( their sins. The particle ( ( ) after ( ) is also ( ) and ( ). It is most often ), e.g. ( )– We do not have any intercessor. ( [10] ( ) – Do you have a helper? ) – in, regarding, about, due to, e.g. ( ) – The book is in the drawer. ( ) – Zaid spoke about his brother. ( ) – A woman entered the fire due to a cat. Page 115
  • 116. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [11] ( ) – from, on behalf of, e.g. ( ) – I went out of the town. ( ) – I gave him the silver coins on behalf of Zaid. ( ) – The hadīth was narrated from Anas [12] ( . ) – on, in spite of, e.g. ) – Sit on the chair. ( ( )– Undoubtedly your Lord forgives the people in spite of their oppression. [13] ( ) – till, towards, e.g. ( ) – I travelled from India to Makkah. ( [14] ( ( ) – I turned towards the Ka’bah. ) – till, until, even, e.g. ) – until the rise of true dawn. Page 116
  • 117. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – The pilgrims came, even those who walked. Note 2: The second and third meanings are used more often when the particle ( ) is prefixed to a verb. Then it will not be a ( ) but will render ( ) to ( ( ), e.g. ) – Wait here until I perform salāh. [15] [16] & [17] ( ), ( ) and ( ) – All three words mean, “besides” or “except”. They are used for ( ( ). See 43.8. Examples: ) – The people came besides Zaid. ( ) - The people came except Zaid. ( ) - The people came save Zaid. (b) ( ) – The particles which resemble the verb. They are : ( ). Page 117
  • 118. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four These 6 words are also referred to as ( ) – Inna and its sisters. See Lesson 37. They are called ( ) because they resemble the verb in certain aspects. They are triliteral ( ) or quadrilateral ( ) like the verbs. The final letter has a fathah as in the verbs. The words ( ) and ( ) resemble ( ) and ( ) in totality while ( ) resembles ( ). It was mentioned in Lessons 25 and 37 that these words appear before a ( ( ) to the ( ) and render ). [1] ( ) is always used at the beginning of a statement, e.g. ( ) – Indeed your Lord is most forgiving and most merciful. However, after the verb ( ) or any of its derivatives, it appears in the middle of the statement as well, e.g. ( ) – He (Mūsā ) said, “He (Allāh) says that the cow should be Page 118
  • 119. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four yellow.” It must be remembered that ( ) is never used after ( ). After the words ( ) and ( ), ( ) is generally used but ( ) is used in specific cases, e.g. ( ) Allāh knows that you, (O Messenger), are His prophet and Allāh bears testimony that the hypocrites are liars. Note 3: No change occurs in the meaning of a ) due to the insertion of ( ). Only some ( emphasis is created in the sentence. Accordingly, ( ) and ( ) mean the same thing. [2] The particle ( ) cannot appear at the beginning of a sentence. It only comes in the middle, e.g. ( = ) – I heard that Zaid is brave, that is, I heard of the bravery of Zaid. This shows that ( ) changes a Page 119
  • 120. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ( ) to the meaning of a verbal noun ). Such a verbal noun is called ( In the analysis, this ( ) of the ). In some sentences, it will be the verb ( ( ) is the ( ). = ), e.g. ( ) – Your bravery has pleased me. The word ( ) is the ( ) in this sentence. Note 4: Here is an interesting grammatical riddle for you to solve. The sentence is: You will find several apparent errors in this sentence. Firstly, the sentence begins with ( ). Secondly, the noun after ( ) should have been ( ( ) but here it has ( ) has ( ) instead of ( ). Thirdly, the word ). Solution The particle ( ) here is not a ( ) but a verb Page 120
  • 121. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four like ( ). Originally it was ( groan. The word ( ( ) is the ( ). In the word ( while ( ). Therefore it is ), the ( ) is a ( - antelope) is ( therefore means, antelope.” ), meaning to “Zaid ) ). The sentence groaned like an Sometimes the particles ( ) and ( ) are rendered ( ) and read as ( ) and ( ). In order to differentiate this ( ) from ( ) and ( ), a ( ) is prefixed to the ( Sometimes the ( ) renders ( ( ). ) to the ) and sometimes it has no effect, e.g. ( ) – Indeed Zaid is learned. However, ( ) does not have any effect on the succeeding word, e.g. ( ) – I knew that Zaid was learned. The particles ( ) and ( ) always appear before Page 121
  • 122. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four a noun. However when they become ( ), they can appear before a verb. The particle ( ) most often appears before ( ) and ( ) and their derived forms, e.g. ( ) – Undoubtedly it was a heavy thing. ( ) – Indeed we regard you as being from among the liars. ) has ( ) prefixed to it. Note that the ( ), the particle ( ) or ( After ( prefixed to ( ( ( ) is ) and ( ) is prefixed to ) in order to distinguish it from ), e.g. ( ) – He knew that some of you will be ill. ( ) – so that he knows that they conveyed the message of their Lord. Page 122
  • 123. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( )8 Know for knowledge benefits a person that whatever has been decreed will appear. [3] ( ) – “as if” - is used for a comparison, e.g. ( ) As if this dog is a lion. Note 5: The word ( ( ) can also be made ). It most often appears before a ( ) – a verb made negative by the particle ( ), e.g. ( ) – As if no one saw him. [4] ( ) – “perhaps” - is used for expressing hope ( ), e.g. ( ) – Perhaps or I hope that your son is pious. 8 In this verse, the sentence ( parenthetical clause. The ( in it. The sentence ( alif in ( ) is ( ) of ( ) is a ( ) – a ) is a pronoun ( ) concealed ) forms the ( ) of ( ). The ). This is permitted in poetry. Page 123
  • 124. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [5] ( ) – “would that, I wish that”. It is used to express a desire or wish, e.g. ( ) Listen, I wish that youth could return one day so that I could inform it of what old-age has done. [6] ( ) “but” – is used for ( ), that is, to remove the surmise that was created by the first statement in the listener’s mind, e.g. ( ) – The pilgrims came but your father did not come. By saying, ( ) - the pilgrims came, the listener surmised that his father also came. By saying ( ) – but…, that conjecture was removed. Note 6: The word ( ( ) or ). Then it can appear before a verb also and it becomes ( ( ) can also be ( ), e.g. ) – Listen, they are the mischief makers but they do not even perceive it. Page 124
  • 125. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ), ( ) (c) The Particles of Negation ( and ( ) The particles ( ) and ( ) sometimes, like ( ), render ( ), ) to the ( e.g. ( ) and ( ) to the ( ) – This is not a human. ( ) – There is no man more virtuous than you. But most often, both these particles are ( ). Sometimes a ( ) is suffixed to the particle ( ) to become ( ). It has the same function as ( ), ) – This is not the time for e.g. ( escape. The original sentence was ), where ( ( and ( ) the ( ) which is ( ) is the ( ) ). Note 7: It was mentioned in Lesson 20, Page 125
  • 126. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four paragraphs 3 and 4 that the particles ( ), ( ) and ( ) also create the meaning of negation. But they are specific with ( ). In the next lesson you will learn that ( ) is sometimes also a particle of negation. Note 8: The particle ( ) always remains one of negation. However, the particle ( ) is most often regarded as a noun. Then it can fall into several categories: 1. ( ) – what thing. See Lesson 13. 2. ( 3. ( ) – whatever. See Lesson 42. ) – as long as. See Lesson 37. There is also a ( among the ( ) which is counted ). See the next lesson, paragraph 5. (e) ( ) – the particle that negates a whole category or species. It appears before an indefinite noun and renders ( ) to it, Page 126
  • 127. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four e.g. ( ) – There is no man in the house. ( ) There is absolutely no benefit in a miser’s wealth for himself. ( ) – There is no power or might except with Allāh. (e) ( ) – the vocative particles. They are ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). If a noun succeeding these particles is ( ), meaning ( ), a ( ) is read on the final letter, e.g. ( ), ( ). If the succeeding noun is ( ), it will be ( ), e.g. ( ). Sometimes a non-specified person is called out. Then too, the ( – the word referring to the person who is called out) will be ( ( ), e.g. if a blind man calls out, - O man, hold my hand.) The particle ( ) is very commonly used. It can be Page 127
  • 128. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four used for ( ) and ( ), that is, whether the person you are calling out to is near or far. The particles ( ) and ( ) while ( ) are for ( ) and ( ) are for ( ), e.g. O the two mountains of Na’mān, leave the eastern morning breeze for Allāh’s sake so that it can reach me. O our neighbour, we are staying here. Note 9: It would have been appropriate to mention the particles of response after the vocative particles. However, since they fall in the category of ( ), they will be mentioned in the next lesson under this category. (g) ( render ( ) – the particles which ) to ( ). Page 128
  • 129. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four These are ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( particles appear before ( ( ). These ) and render ) to it, e.g. ) – I think you will ( go to Lahore tomorrow. ( ) – We will not be patient with one (type of) food. ( ) – I learnt the Qur’ān in order to practise on it. ( ) – Then, you will be successful. These particles were mentioned in Lesson 20, paragraph 4. More details will follow in the section of ( ). Note 10: The particle ( ) is called ( because it changes the ( ) ) to the meaning of the verbal noun, e.g. ( means ( ) ) – I love your reading. Page 129
  • 130. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (g) ( ) – the particles which render ( These are ( ), ( ) to ( ), ( ). ), ( These particles appear before ( render ( ( ( ( ( ) to it, e.g. ( ) and ( ). ) and ) – He did not go. ) – He did not go as yet. ) – He should go. ) – You do not go. ) – If you go, I will go. These particles were mentioned in Lesson 20. They will be discussed again under ( Note 11: The particle ( ) is a ( ). ) – a particle of condition. It appears before two sentences where the first one is called the ( and the second one is called the ( ) ). If ( ) is prefixed to it, it means, “even though”. In this case, there will not be a need for two sentences after it. One sentence will precede it, e.g. Page 130
  • 131. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – I will go to the madrasah even though you do not go. For this meaning, the particle ( ) can also be used, but it is specific for the past tense, e.g. ( ) - I will go to the madrasah even though you did not go. Note 12: The above-mentioned seven categories are ( ). The ( ) will be mentioned in the next lesson. Page 131
  • 132. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 50 The Non–Causative Particles ( ) Note 1: Among the ( causative ( ), some are ) whereby they have an effect in one case while in another case, they are noncausative. 1. The ( ) are ten: Note 2: The meaning of ( When a ( ) is ‘to incline’. ) appears between two words or sentences, it inclines the succeeding word to the preceding one. It renders both the words or sentences into the same case ( ). The preceding word is called ( succeeding word is called ( ) and the ). Page 132
  • 133. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [1] ( ) – “and”. It is used to combine two things under one command, e.g. ( ) – Zaid and Àmr came. This example shows that Zaid and Àmr are both included in the act of coming. [2] ( ) – “then”. It is used for combination and sequence, e.g. ( ) – Hamīd came and Rashīd came with. ( ) – “because”. This indicates the cause. It is called ( ) and it is most often used with ( ), e.g. ( ) – Read the Qur’ān because it will be of benefit to you. [3] ( ) – “then”. It is used for combination and sequence with a delay, e.g. ( ) – Qāsim went, then Hāshim. This will be said when there is the slightest delay between the going of Qāsim and Page 133
  • 134. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Hāshim. [4] ( ) – “or”. It is used for showing one of two things, e.g. ( ) – Take this or that. [5] ( ) – “or”. This is similar to ( ) but it is used in a question, e.g. ( ) – Is this your brother or that? On such an occasion, ( ) cannot be used. [6] ( ) – “either”. It is also used in the meaning of ( ) but it is always repeated and it introduces the details that are to follow, e.g. ( ) – The fruit is either sweet or bitter. [7] ( ) – “but”. It is used for ( ). See Lesson 49. Example: ( ) – The students attended but Yūsuf did not attend. Page 134
  • 135. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 3: The particle ( is ( ) is ( ) while ( ) ). [8] ( ) – “not”, e.g. ( ) – Honour the pious, not the impious. [9] ( ) – “nay, rather”. It is used for ( ), that is, to abandon one statement and focus towards another, e.g. ( ) - Hāmid did not go, rather Khālid went. [10] ( ) – “until, even”. It is used to indicate the end limit, e.g. ( ) – The caravan came, even those who walked. Note 4: The particle ( One is a ( ) is used in many ways. ) and this is the one used most often. The second one is ( ) as a conjunction. The third one appears before a Page 135
  • 136. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) and renders ( ) to it. It was discussed in Lesson 20. It will be further discussed under ( 2. ). ( ) – the particles of interrogation. They are ( ) and ( ). The particle ( ) is frequently used by appearing before nouns, verbs and particles. The particle ( ) does not appear before particles. Examples: ( ), ( ), ( ) – Did you see Zaid? ( ) – Is Zaid present? ( ) – Did you see Zaid? 3. ( ) – the particles of response. They are eight: (1) ( ) – “yes”. This word is used to indicate an Page 136
  • 137. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four agreement with the statement in the question, whether the statement is positive or negative, e.g. If in response to the question, ( ) – “Did Zaid come to you?”, one replies, ( ), it will mean, “Yes, Zaid came. If the question is, ( ) – “Did Zaid not come to you?” and one replies, ( ), it will mean, “No, Zaid did not come.” (2) ( ) – “yes, why not”. Its function is to change a negative statement to a positive one, e.g. ( ) – Am I not your Lord?” The response to this question is, ( ), “Why not, you are certainly our Lord.” (3) ( ) – “yes”. This word is always used with an oath, e.g. ( ) – “Yes, I take an oath in the name of my Sustainer.” The phrase, ( used very often. In today’s ) is colloquial language, this has been abridged to ( ). (4) [5], [6] & [7] ( ) – All four words have the same meaning as ( ). Page 137
  • 138. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Examples: They say, “Describe this woman because you are well acquainted with her attributes.” Yes, I am well aware of her attributes. They said, “You have threaded the gems.” I said, “Yes.” “Are you admitting yourself into the mouth of death?” I replied, “Yes.” They are saying, “Old-age has come over you and you have become senile. I replied, “Yes.” (5) ( ) – “no”. It is used when you intend to reply in the negative to a question, e.g. If you reply to the question, ( ) – Did Zaid come?, Page 138
  • 139. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four by saying ( ), you are implying that Zaid did not come. 4. The Particles of Negation ( ) They are ( ), ( ) and ( ), all meaning, “no, not”. The particles ( ) and ( ) can appear before a noun, verb or particle, e.g. ( ) – Neither is Zaid standing nor is Àmr sitting. ( ) – I neither ate nor drank. ( ) – There is neither blame on him nor on you. However, the particle ( ) generally appears before a noun, e.g. ( ) – This is nothing but a noble angel. The particle ( ) appears before the ( ( 9 ) of ) which distinguishes it from ( )9 See Lesson 49 (b). Page 139
  • 140. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four and ( )10. Note 5: Sometimes the particles ( ) and ( ) are causative ( ). See Lesson 49 (c). Note 6: The Arabs most often, in place of ( say ( ), ) which is the abbreviated form of ). They simply mean “no” by this ( statement, e.g. ( ) – I do not have a book. Similarly, in place of ( ( ), they say, ) – There is no problem. ) – The particles of the verbal 5. ( noun. These are ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). The first three particles create the meaning of the verbal noun in a verb while the particle ( ) does so in a ( ). In such an instance, the verb or the ( ), coupled with these particles, is called a 10 See Lesson 20.3. Page 140
  • 141. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – an interpreted verbal noun, and like a singular noun, it forms either the ( ( ) or ( ), ( ), ), e.g. = ( ) – Your truthfulness makes me happy. = ( ) – I love your success. = ( ) – I awoke before his coming and I slept after his going. = ( ) – I received the news of your success. ) is the ( In the first example, the ( in the second, it is the ( ( 6. ), in the third, it is the ) and in the fourth, it forms a ( and becomes the ( ( ), ) ). ) – the particles for encouragement and spurring on. They are ( ), Page 141
  • 142. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). They all mean, “is (or does) not, why not”. All five particles are always used with a verb, e.g. ( ( ) – Are you not teaching? ) – Are you not teaching? ( ) – Are you not teaching your son? ( ) – O my Lord, why did You not give me respite for a short while so that I could give charity? ) – Why do you not bring the ( angels to us? Note 7: After the ( ), a sentence of response most often appears. The particle ( precedes it and the ( with a ( ( ) is pronounced ) as mentioned in the example above, ). This verb ( from the category ( into the ( ) ), that is, ( ) was originally ( ) ). The ( ) is assimilated ) is applied. See Lesson 29, Rule 6. Page 142
  • 143. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 7. ( ) – the particles of condition. They are ( - if), ( – had it not been) and ( - had it not been). Two sentences appear after these particles. The first one is called ( second one is the ( ( ) while the ). A ( ) is prefixed to the ), e.g. ( ) – Had you wanted, you could have taken a payment. ( ) – Had Allāh not prevented some from others, the world would have been corrupted. ) ( Had it not been for the spying of the tale bearers, I would have had hope in you being pleased after your anger. Note 8: If ( ) is prefixed to ( ), its meaning changes to “although”, e.g. ( ) – Seek knowledge even if it be in China. There is no statement of response after ( ), but a sentence precedes it. Page 143
  • 144. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 9: It was mentioned above that ( ( ) are also from the ( ) and ). In such a case, no ( ) is prefixed to its response. On the contrary, a ( ) is prefixed to it. See Note 7. 8. ( ) – “never”, “certainly”. This is a particle of reproach or rejection, e.g. ( ) – Never, you will soon come to know of the reality. Sometimes it has the meaning of ( ) – undoubtedly, ) e.g. ( – Undoubtedly, man is rebellious. 9. ( ) – particles of close proximity. These are ( ) and ( meaning of ( ). They change the ) to the near future, e.g. ( ) – I will read now. ( ) – I will read soon. The particle ( ) is used for a time that is closer. Page 144
  • 145. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 10. ( ) – the particles of emphasis. The ( ) were discussed in lesson 20 (b), e.g. ( ) and ( ) – I will certainly write. The ( ( ) is only used with ( ). However, the ( ( ),( ( ), ( ) and ) can appear before ) and a ( ), e.g. ) – If he strove, he would have succeeded. ( ) – By Allāh, I will certainly go to Lahore tomorrow. ( ) – Undoubtedly, it (the Qur’ān) is a decisive statement. ( ) – A messenger certainly came to you. 11. ( ) – the particles of warning. These are ( ) , ( ) and ( ). All three of them mean, “beware, listen, behold”, e.g. Page 145
  • 146. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – Beware, the help of Allāh is near. ( ) – Listen, by Allāh, I will certainly reproach him. ( ) – Behold, your enemy is at the door. Note 10: The particle ( ) is also a particle of encouragement. In such an instance, it is always followed by a verb. See paragraph 6 of this lesson. 12. ( ) – the explanation. The particles ( two particles of ) and ( ) are used for explanation and clarification, e.g. ( ) – Hasan, that is, your brother came. ( ) – We called him, that is, (We said), “O Ibrāhīm.” 13. ( ) – extra letters. Although the following particles have a meaning, sometimes they are extra, that is, their meanings are not Page 146
  • 147. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four taken into consideration. They are inserted in the sentence to beautify it. They are the following particles: The particle ( ) is extra after ( ), e.g. I did not praise Muhammad with my poetry, but rather I have praised my poetry with Muhammad . The particle ( ) is extra after ( ( ), e.g. ) – Then when the giver of glad tidings came. The particle ( ) is extra after ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) when the latter four words are used for a condition. It is also extra after some of the Page 147
  • 148. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) like ( ( ), e.g. ) – Be patient whenever you are afflicted by any difficulty. ( ) – When you travel, I will travel. ( ) – Wherever you turn, there is the Being of Allāh. ( ) – Whoever comes to you, honour him. ( ) – If guidance comes to you from me… ( ) – You are gentle to them due to the mercy of Allāh. ( ) –They will regret in a short while. Note 11: The particle ( ) is regarded as extra in the last seven examples, but if one has to examine it in depth, there is some meaning attached to it in each example. In some places it creates stress and emphasis in the preceding words and in some places it creates an increase, e.g. the word ( ) Page 148
  • 149. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four means “when” while ( The word ( ) means “whenever”. ) means “where” while ( ) means “wherever”. The particle ( ) is extra after ( sometimes before ( ( ) and ), e.g. ) – O Iblīs, what has prevented you from prostrating. ( ) – I take an oath by this city. Note 12: The meaning of the particle ( ) has not been applied in both examples. The particle ( ) is extra after ( ) and ( ), e.g. ( ) – There is no village except that a warner has passed in it. ( ) – How many a small group has overpowered many (large) groups with the command of Allāh. Page 149
  • 150. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The particle ( ) is extra when attached to the ( ) of ( ) and ( ( ), e.g. ) – Zaid is not a liar. The particle ( ) is extra in the sentence ( ) - He came after you. Here there was no need for the ( ) because ( say, “( ) itself is transitive. One can )”. Note 13: There are some extra particles among the ( ) as well. If they are extra, they still are causative ( ) and their effect will be visible. Note 14: Some particles will be discussed later in the appropriate sections. Page 150
  • 151. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 51 Continuation of Lesson 50 Some of the particles having different names with differing meanings, which have been mentioned in the different lessons, will be discussed in detail now. 1. The particle ( ) is of four types: ( ), ( ), ( [1] ( ) and ( ). ) means “if’. It is from amongst the causative particles ( ( ) to ( ). It renders ), e.g. ( ) – If you sit, I will sit. See Lesson 20.3. This is the one that is used the most. [2] ( ( ) means “no”. It is non-causative ), e.g. ( ) – I am merely a warner. The particle ( ) normally appears in its ( [3] ( ) as is apparent from the example. ) is originally ( ). A ( ) is Page 151
  • 152. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four normally attached to its ( ). Sometimes it is causative and sometimes not, e.g. ( ) or ( ). See Lesson 49, (b). [4] ( ) does not display any meaning. Sometimes it is extra after ( ), e.g. ( ) – I did not read. See Lesson 50.13. It is seldom used. 2. The particle ( ) is also of four types: ( ( ) or ( ), ( ), ( ) and ) to ( ) ). [1] ( ) renders ( while changing the meaning of the verb to that of the verbal noun, e.g. ( = ) – Your fasting is better for you. See Lessons 20 and 49. [2] ( ( ) is originally ( ), e.g. ) – I knew that you will Page 152
  • 153. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four succeed. See Lesson 49, (b). ) means “that is” and it is non- [3] ( causative ( ), e.g. ( )–I called him, that is, I said, “O Yūsuf”. See Lesson 50.16. [4] ( ) does not display any meaning. It is most often extra after ( ( ), e.g. ) – When your brother came. See Lesson 50.13. 3. The particle ( ) is firstly divided into two types: 1.( ) and 2. ( The first one, ( ( ), is of four types: ), ( ), ( The second one, ( ), ( ( [1] ( ( ). ) and ( ). ), is of three types: ) and ( ) renders ( ). ) to the ( ), e.g. ) – This is not a human. See Lesson Page 153
  • 154. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 49, (c). ) is the one that is used most [2] ( frequently, e.g. ( ) – Zaid is not standing. See Lesson 50.4 [3] ( ) creates the meaning of the verbal noun in the verb, e.g. ( ) – I perform salāh before sunrise. See Lesson 50.5. [4] ( ) does not display any meaning, e.g. ( ) – We will be successful in a very short while. See Lesson 50.13. ), e.g. ( [5] ( ) – What do you have? [6] ( ), e.g. ( ) – Show me what you have? [7] ( ), e.g. ( ) – I will stand as long as the teacher stands. Here the particle ( ) means “as long as”. It is called ( ) because it denotes time. See 37.6. 4. The particle ( ) – “no, not, do not” is always Page 154
  • 155. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four used for negation. There are several types of ( ) which you have learnt about in the different lessons: [1] ( ) is non-causative ( ). This is the one that is commonly used. It can be prefixed to a noun, verb or particle. [2] ( ) is causative ( ( ), e.g. ( ). It renders ( ) to ) – Do not go. See Lesson 20 and 49. ) is causative ( [3] ( renders ( ) to the ( ( ). Like ( ), it ), e.g. ) – There is no man more virtuous than you. See Lesson 49, (c). [4] ( ( ) is causative ( ) to the ( ), e.g. ( ). It renders ) – There is no person from the category of men in the house. See Lesson 49 (d). [5] ( ( ) is non-causative ( ), e.g. ) – I saw Zaid, not Àmr. Here the particle ( ) is a conjunction. Page 155
  • 156. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Accordingly, the succeeding word has the same ( ) as the preceding one. [6] ( – the particle of response) is non-causative ( [7] ( ). See Lesson 50.3. ) does not display any meaning. See Lesson 50.13. 5. There are two types of the particle ( ): ( ) and ( [1] ( ). ), e.g. ( )– If the people are just, the judge can relax. See Lesson 50.7. [2] ( ), e.g. ( = ) – I desire your success. See Lesson 50.7. Note 1: By prefixing ( ) to the particle ( ), it changes the meaning to, “although”, e.g. ( ) – The generous person is Allāh’s friend, even though he may be a Page 156
  • 157. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four transgressor. 5. ( ) and ( ( ) are of two types: ( ). [1] ( ), e.g. ( ) and ) – Why don’t you walk with us, that is, it will be better if you come with us. See Lesson 50.6. [2] ( ), e.g. ( )– Had it not been for the Qur’ān, the world would have remained in darkness. See Lesson 50.6. 6. The particle ( ), either ( ) or ( ) is of four types: ( ), ( ), ( The first three types of ( ) are ( ( ) is ( [1] ( ) and ( ). )11 while ). ) renders ( ) to a noun. It is very frequently used. See Lesson 49 (a). 11 ( However, if the ( ), e.g. ( ) is preceded by ( ) or ( ), it becomes ). See Lesson 20 Note 4. Page 157
  • 158. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [2] ( ) renders ( ( ) to ( ), e.g. ) He should read and write. See Lesson 49(g). [3] ( ) means “so that, in order to”. It renders ( ( ) to ( ), e.g. ) I embraced Islam in order to succeed. See Lesson 20.4. [4] ( ) can precede a noun as well as a verb or particle, e.g. ( ) – Indeed Zaid is standing. ( ) – Indeed We have made the Qur’ān easy. ( ) – I will certainly write a letter. See Lesson 50.10 7. There are six types of ( ): ( ( ), ( [1] ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ), ). ) meaning “and” is very frequently used. It is non-causative ( ). Page 158
  • 159. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [2] ( ) is causative ( ). It renders ( to a noun, e.g. ( ) ) – By the oath of the fig and the olive. See Lesson 49 (a)5. [3] ( ) is causative ( a noun, e.g. ( ). It renders ( ) to ) – I travelled to many cities. See Lesson 49 (a). [4] ( ) is non-causative ( ( ), e.g. ) – Zaid came riding. See Lesson 43.11. ) means ( ) – with. It is causative [5] ( ( ) and it renders ( ) to a noun, e.g. ) – I travelled along the ( new street. See Lesson 43.7. [6] ( ) is used for beginning a new ) statement, e.g. ( – so that We explain to you and We maintain whatever We want in the womb. The ( not ( ) in this example otherwise ( would also have been ( ) like ( ) is ) ). This is now the beginning of a new Page 159
  • 160. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four statement, having nothing to do with the ) is non- previous sentence. The ( causative ( ). 8. There are three types of ( ): ( ). ), ( [1] ( ) and ( ) means “until”, e.g. ) – I ate the fish until ( its head, that is, I did not eat the head. [2] ( ) means “so that, in order to”, e.g. ( ) – I learnt so that I can understand the Qur’ān. See Lesson 20. [3] ( ) means “till, to the extent” and is )– non-causative, e.g. ( I ate the fish to the extent of the head, that is, I ate the head as well. The particle ( ( the ( ) is a ) in this example. Accordingly, ) preceding it has also been applied Page 160
  • 161. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to the succeeding word. See Lesson 50.1. Remember the difference between ( and ( ) ). Page 161
  • 162. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 52 The Remaining Particles The following particles will be discussed in this lesson: – ( ), ( ( ) and ) The Definte Article 1. The definite article ( ) is of three types: (1) ( ), (2) ( 2. The ( ) and (3) ( ) is also called ( ). ). It serves the function of changing an indefinite word into a definite one. 3. With regards to the meaning, the ( ) is of four types: [1] ( ) – the word to which the ( ) is prefixed is known to both the speaker Page 162
  • 163. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four and the listener, e.g. ( ) – the leader came. This will be said when the speaker and the listener both know the leader being spoken about. This is normally when the person in question has already been mentioned previously. [2] ( ) – the word to which the ( ) is prefixed is known only to the speaker, e.g. ( ) – the leader came. This will be said only when the speaker knows the leader, not the listener. [3] ( the ( ) – the species of the word to which ) is prefixed is intended, e.g. ( ) – The category of men is better than the category of women. The speaker does not intend any individuals in his statement. [4] ( ) – when the speaker refers to all the individuals encompassed by the word to which the ( ( ) is prefixed, e.g. )– Indeed all of man is at a loss except those Page 163
  • 164. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four who believe and do good actions. This ( ) is normally translated as “all” or “every”. Note 1: The difference between ( ( ) and ) is that in the ( ), the individuals are not taken into consideration, but in ( ), they are considered. Hence it is permissible to make an exception ( ) of some individuals. 4. The ( ) prefixed to the ( ( ) and the ) is generally ( ). See Lesson 42.6. 5. The ( ) prefixed to the ( ) is ( ) because the proper noun is already definite. However, the ( ) cannot be prefixed to every ( ). It only applies where the people of the language (the Arabs) have used it, e.g. one can say ( ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ) because the Arabs have been heard to say these words in this manner. One does not say Page 164
  • 165. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) or ( ). The ( ) is prefixed to the names of most countries, e.g. ( ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ), ( ), ( ), ) etc. However, it is seldom prefixed to the names of cities, e.g. ( ( ), ( ) etc. The name ( ), ) has ( ) prefixed to it because any city can be referred to as ( ). The name ( - Cairo) also has ( ) prefixed to it. 6. Both these hamzas are extra and they appear at the beginning of a word. The ( ) is not pronounced when joined to a preceding word. However, it is still written. The ( ) is always pronounced. Note that an alif that is ( ) is also a hamzah. The ( ) appears in the following instances: Page 165
  • 166. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [1] the hamzah of ( ). [2] in the words ( ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ), etc. [3] in the ( ), ( ) and ( ) of the following seven categories of ( ): See Lesson 35. This hamzah also appears in the ), namely, ( two categories of ( and ( ) ). See Lesson 25.3. [4] in the ( ) of ( ). Besides the above-mentioned places, wherever else a hamzah appears, it will be a ( ), e.g. the hamzah of the perfect tense ( ) and the imperative ( the elative ( ( 12 13 ) of ( ), the hamzah of )12, the hamzah of )13 and the the hamzah of the See Lesson 24. See Lesson 23.2. Page 166
  • 167. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) of all verbs. Note 2: Sometimes the learned also err in the pronunciation of ( ). One should therefore practise it thoroughly, that is, when joined to the preceding word, the hamzah is not pronounced, e.g. ( ( = ) should be pronounced as ) while ( pronounced as ( 7. The ( ) should be = ). ) is most often a pronoun attached to the end of the ( word-forms of ( ( ( ), ( ), ( ), e.g. ( ) and ( ) and ( ) ), ( ), ). However, the ) of the singular feminine word-form is not a pronoun but merely a sign that the verb is feminine. See Lesson 41, Note 4. Page 167
  • 168. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The ( ) is used like a particle to indicate the feminine gender, e.g. ( ( - feminine); ( - masculine) and - masculine) and ( - feminine). Sometimes it is used to differentiate between the - generic noun) and the singular form, ( e.g. the word ( called ( ) is ( ). Such a ( ) is called ( Sometimes it is used for ( form, e.g. ( ) while one tree is ). ) - the intensive ) – very learned, ( ) – having deep understanding. These words are used for both the genders. Such a ( ) is called ( Sometimes it is attached to a ( ). )– a final plural after which there is no plural. See Lesson 57.3. Examples: ( ( ) - plural of ( ) - plural of ( ); ). Page 168
  • 169. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Sometimes it is suffixed to the plural of a relative ), e.g. ( adjective ( ( ); ( )- plural of ( ) - plural of ). Sometimes it replaces a letter, e.g. ( was originally ( elided ( ). ) which ). The ( ) has replaced the Similarly, in ( ), which was ), the ( ) has replaced the ( ). originally ( Note 3: The ( ) and the ( ) become similar in shape in the middle of a word, e.g. ( - ),( - ) etc. Exercise No. 79 Note 4: Look for the ( ( ) and the ) in the following passage and pronounce them correctly. Page 169
  • 170. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 15 14 16 19 18 22 17 21 20 : 24 23 25 lofty extremely 16 The definite article on this word is ( 14 15 ) because he was mentioned previously. Therefore the listener will know who is being spoken about. 17 Plural of ( ) – affair, matter. close examination, scrutiny increase 20 joy, delight 21 pleased 22 This is a ( ). See Lesson 43. 18 19 time to make happy 25 to advance 23 24 Page 170
  • 171. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 26 27 30 . 26 27 29 28 31 decoration, embellishment plural of ( ) - vice to loathe, detest to be mutually jealous of 30 to give a derisive or insulting name 31 outrage, transgression 28 29 Page 171
  • 172. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Test No. 18 [1] Approximately how many ( ) are there in the Arabic language? [2] How many groups of ( ) are there? What is the name of each group? [3] How many ( ) are there and what are they? [4] Which ( ) render ( ) to a noun and which ones to a verb? [5] What ( ) are ( ), ( ) and ( ) and what is the difference in their usage? [6] How many types of ( ) are there? Explain with examples. [7] Which ( ) render ( ) to a verb? [8] How many meanings does the particle ( ) have? What is the name of each one and what function does it serve? [9] How many types of ( ) are there? What is the work of each type? [10] For which meanings is ( ) used and what Page 172
  • 173. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four are its names? ) are sometimes ( [11] Which ( sometimes ( ) and )? [12] What is the difference in usage between ( ) and ( )? [13] What are the extra ( ) and when is each particle extra? [14] When a particle is extra, is it ( ( ) or )? [15] How many types of ( ) are there? [16] Explain the types of ( ) with examples. [17] Explain the types of ( ( ) and ). Page 173
  • 174. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 53 Sentences The Definitions of ( ), ( ) and ( ) 1. The relationship between two or more words whereby they form a sentence is called ( ). That part of the sentence about which something ) while whatever is said is said, is called ( is called ( ), e.g. ( ) is a ( ). There is a concealed relationship between ( and ( ) which bonds the two words together. This bond is the ( ( ). In this sentence, regarding ), information has been provided that he is ( ). Therefore ( ( ) is the ( ) is the ( ) and ). Similarly, ( ( ) ), the word ( ) is a ( ). Regarding ) has provided some Page 174
  • 175. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four information about him. Therefore, the first part of ) and this sentence, which is the verb, is the ( the second part is the ( ). 2. From these examples, you can deduce that in a ( ), the ( ( ), it is the ( is the ( ( ) is the ( ), while in a ). In a ( ) and in a ( ) is neither a ( ), the ( ), it is the ( ) ). The ) nor a ( ) in a sentence. 3. From the examples, you will realize that a noun can be a ( ) and a ( example, the word ( ). In the above ) is a noun and ( ) is also a noun. The verb can only be a ( ). It cannot be a ( ( ) nor a ( ). A ( ) can neither be a ). Page 175
  • 176. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Types of Sentences 4. It was mentioned in Lesson 6 of Volume One that sentences are of two types: ( ) in which the first part is a noun and ( ) in which the first part is a verb. This distribution was with regards to the sequence of words. With regards to the meaning, sentences are also of two types: ( testified ), the meaning of which can be to be true or false, e.g. ( ) – The madrasah is open or ( ) – The madrasah was opened. The first sentence is a ( second, a ( ) and the ). It can be understood from both the sentences that the madrash has been opened. This is information which can be regarded as true or false. ( ), the meaning of which cannot Page 176
  • 177. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four be testified to be true or false, e.g. ( ) – Read, O boy. ( ) – Do not sit, O girl. There is no information been imparted in these sentences. On the contrary, there is an order to do some act or to refrain from something. Such a statement cannot be testified to be true or false because this can only be done with information. 5. There are 11 types of ( [1] ( ): ) – the imperative, e.g. ( ) – Perform salāh. [2] ( ) – prohibition, e.g. ( ) – Do not ascribe partners to Allāh. [3] ( ( [4] ( ) – interrogation, e.g. ) – Are you Yūsuf? ) – wish, e.g. ( ) – I wish youth could return. [5] ( ) - hope, e.g. ( ) – Perhaps Allāh may create something thereafter. Page 177
  • 178. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [6] ( ) - vocative, e.g. ( ) – O students, you will succeed if you strive. [7] ( ) - request, that is, when you gently request for something, e.g. ( ) – Why don’t you alight by us so that we can attain benefit from you. [8] ( ) - oath, e.g. ( ) – By Allāh, I will plan against your idols. [9] ( ) - surprise, e.g. ( ) – How beautiful is Fātimah. [10] ( ) - contract, e.g. ( – I bought, ( you to so and so, ( [11] ( ) – I sold, ( ) ) – I have married ) – I accepted. ) - condition, e.g. ( ) – If you study, you will progress. A supplicatory sentence ( ( ), e.g. ( ) is also a ) – May peace be upon you. Page 178
  • 179. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 80 Observe the analysis of the following sentences: . ( 1) Do not forget the favour among yourselves. This is a ( ) because it contains a prohibition. = Page 179
  • 180. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 2) Are you Yūsuf? This is a ( ) because of the interrogatory particle ( ). A particle has no 32 = ( 3) He said, “I am Yūsuf.” This is a ( 32 The discussion of ( ). ) will follow in Lesson 69. Page 180
  • 181. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) = = = Remember that the ( ( ) of ( ) ) is called ( ) and it is normally a sentence. Page 181
  • 182. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 81 Look for the ( ) and ( ) in the following letter. Page 182
  • 183. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ! . . Note : All the ( ) are marked in bold. Page 183
  • 184. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 54 Declension ( ) Note 1: The declension of the noun was discussed in Lessons 10 and 11 of Volume One while the declension of the verb was discussed in Lesson 20 of Volume Two. It seems appropriate to discuss this topic in greater detail here. 1. Declension ( ) refers to the different signs used to distinguish the different cases of a declinable word ( ). See Lesson 10.10. ) is the final letter Note 2: The place of the ( of the word. The ( ) and ( ) of the alphabets in the beginning or middle of a word are not to be termed the ( ) although this practice is prevalent. 2. There are two types of ( ( ) and ( ): ). Page 184
  • 185. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [1] The ( ) are: This is the ( ) of a noun. The ( is ( ), ( ) and ( ) of a verb ). Note 3: Tanwīn is specific with an ( ). Neither does it appear on a verb nor on a particle. When an ( ) has ( ) or it is ( ) or ( ), it does not have tanwīn. The ( ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) are also ), but these names are used more often for words that are ( also used for the ( ). Similarly, these names are ) and ( ) of the alphabets in the beginning or middle of a word, Page 185
  • 186. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four e.g. the ( ) of ( The ( ) is ( ) is ( ) and not ( ( ) will be termed ( [2] The ( ) and not ( ). ). However, the ). ) are as follows: for nouns: for verbs: elision of elision of elision of elision of Note 4: The method of pronouncing ( and ( ), ( ) ) etc. is that an alif should be Page 186
  • 187. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four temporarily inserted with every harakah, e.g. ( ) becomes ( ), ( becomes ( (a) The ( words ( ) becomes ( ) and ( ) ). See Lesson 5, Note 1. ) of ( ), ( ) and ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) is applied to the ), ( ) and ( ) when these words are related to any other word besides the pronoun of the singular first person ), e.g. ( ( ( ) and ( ) in ( ) in ( ), ( ) in ). However, when these words, with the exception of ( ), are related to the singular first person pronoun ( ), they will have no ( ), having the same form in all three cases, e.g. See Lesson 11.2. Note 5: The word ( ) can only be ( towards a visible noun ( ) ). It is rarely Page 187
  • 188. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) towards a pronoun. Note 6: The ( ) of the word ( ) is elided at the time of suffixing this ( ( ) and ( ), ). The word ( ) can also have ) attached to it, e.g ( ( ( ), e.g. it is said ( ), ( ) and ). Note 7: The ( ) of the above-mentioned six words only applies when they are not in the diminutive form ( ). Accordingly, they are referred to as ( are ( ). When they ) – in the diminutive, their ( same as a normal noun, e.g. ( ), ( ) is the ), ( )– small brother, etc. The diminutive will be discussed in Lesson 74.6. (b) The ( and ( ) of the dual form ( ), e.g. ( ) and ( ) is ( ) ). Page 188
  • 189. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (c) The ( ) of the sound masculine plural ( ( ) is ( ) and ( (d) The ( ) and ( ) , e.g. ). ) of the dual form ( ) of ( ) ) of the masculine plural of ( ) is ( ), e.g. ( (e) The ( ) and ( ). and the singular feminine second person is ( ), e.g. ( )( ) and ( ). Note 8: The ( ) and ( ) only appear in the words of ( ) in ( ). In ( ), the ( ) is elided, e.g. ( ), ( Similarly, ( ) and ( ). ) etc. See the paradigms of Lesson 20. Note 9: The ( ) of ( ) and ( ) is a sign of Page 189
  • 190. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ). Therefore it is called ( ). Note 10: The alif of ( ) and the ( ) of ( noun is a sign of ( ). Therefore, changes take place in them. Examine the examples of ( ) in a ) and ( ) above. However, they are not part of the ( ) in a verb but are pronouns. No change can occur in them. Similarly, the ( ) of ( ( ) is not a ( ) and ) but is a pronoun. Therefore, no change ever occurs in it. It remains constant in the ( ), ( ) and ( ) ( 3. Wherever the ( ) can be pronounced without any difficulty, there the ( attached to the word. Such ( ( ). ) is clearly ) is called ). However, where the ( ) is Page 190
  • 191. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four difficult or heavy to pronounce, there the ( is not read, e.g. the words ( ( ) and ( ) ) are ) because they have an ( ) suffixed to them. See Lesson 38, Note 1. The ( ) of these words is not read in all three cases, e.g. ( ), ( ) and ( ) – He brought Mūsā. The ( ) is implied in such words, according to the context. Such implied ( ( ) is referred to as ). See Lesson 10.8 and Lesson 38, Note 1. The words ( ( is ( ) or ( ) in ( ) and ( ) are ). See Lesson 10.9. The ( ) ). Page 191
  • 192. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The ( ) in ( ) only is ( ), e.g. Test No. 18 B (1) Define what is ( (2) Where does the ( ). ) occur? (3) Can the harakāt of the beginning and middle letters of a word be called ( (4) How many types of ( )? ) are there? (5) What are the names of the harakāt of ( )? (6) What is the name of the ( ) of a noun and a verb? Page 192
  • 193. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (7) Explain the ( they are ( ) of ( ). When ), what are their ( )? (8) The letters ( ) and ( ) are the ( ) of which words? (9) What is the sign of ( ) of ( ) and (10) What kind of ( ) is there in ( ) and ); ( ( ( ) and ( )? )? (11) How many types of ( ) are there? (12) What names are given to nouns like ( and ( ) and what is their ( ) ) in all three cases? (13) What are nouns like ( ), ( ) and ( ) called and what is their ( ) in all three cases? Page 193
  • 194. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 55 The Declension of a Verb ( Note 1: The ( ) ) of a verb is discussed first, because the discussion of the ( ) of a noun is lengthy. ) and the 1. The perfect tense ( imperative ( ) are indeclinable ( imperfect ( The ( ( ), when it is devoid of ), is declinable ( ( ) of ( ( ). ) is ( ), ( ) and ). In five word-forms, namely, ( ( ). Only the ), the ( ), the ( ) with ( ) and the ( ) is with ) with ). From the remaining word-forms, the two feminine plurals, namely ( ) and ( ), are Page 194
  • 195. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four indeclinable ( ). The ( ) of the remaining seven word-forms is by means of the ( The ( ) and ( ) is by eliding the ( ) is originally ( The ( ). ). ). Due to some temporary cause, it becomes either ( ( ) or ). The Occasions of ( ) of a Verb 2. When any of the ( ), namely, ), precede the ( ( latter becomes ( ), the ). You have learnt in Lesson 49 that the particle ( ) creates the meaning of the ( the ( - verbal noun) in ), e.g. ( ) – Your fasting is better for you. Note 2: The particle ( ) is most often translated Page 195
  • 196. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four as “to”, e.g. ( ) – I came to see you. The particle ( ) creates the meaning of negative emphasis, e.g. ( ) – We will never worship anyone besides Allāh. The particle ( ) indicates the cause of the action, e.g. ( ) - I embraced Islam in order to succeed. ) also written as ( ) comes in The particle ( response to a sentence. It appears before the ), e.g. if someone says, ( ( - I embraced Islām), another person responds by saying, ( - then you will succeed). 3. In the following five instances, the particle ( ) is ( ) – implied, that is, it is not mentioned in words but is understood to be there. Due to this implied ( ), the ( accusative case ( ) will change to the ). Page 196
  • 197. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 1. ( ) – the ( ) that occurs after ( ), e.g. ( ) – Allāh will not punish them while you are among them. Here the verb ( the meaning of ( 2. ( ) is in ). ), e.g. ( )–I will never leave this land until my father permits me. 3. ( ) when it means ( ( ) or ( ), e.g. ) – I will certainly adhere to you until you give me my right. In this instance, ( ( 4. ( ) means ). ) – that is, the ( meaning of ( ) which has the ), e.g. ( ) – I came to you so that I can speak to you. In this sentence, ( 5. ( ) means ( ). ), when it is in response to: (1) the imperative ( ), e.g. ( ) – Learn so that you succeed. Page 197
  • 198. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) the prohibition ( ( ), e.g. ) – Do not be hasty otherwise you will regret. Note 3: If after the imperative ( prohibition ( ( ), ( ) or the ) does not precede the ), a jazm will read on it, e.g. ) – Learn, you will succeed; ( ( ) - Do not be hasty (otherwise) you will regret. (3) the interrogation ( ( ), e.g. ) – Where is your house so that I can visit you. (4) desire or wish ( ), e.g. ( ) – I wish I had wealth so that I could spend it in the path of Allāh. (5) a request ( ), e.g. ( ) – Why don’t you come Page 198
  • 199. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to our gathering so that you can be honoured. ), e.g. (6) negative statement ( ( ) – He did not come to us so that we could give him the book. 6. After ( ) when it appears in the following instances: ( ) – You embrace Islam and you will simultaneously succeed. ( ) - Do not prevent (another) from an (evil) trait when you yourself perpetrate it. Note 4: If the particle ( ) appears after the verb ( ) or any of its derivatives, it will be regarded as the abbreviated form ( render ( ( ) to ( ) of ( ). It will ), e.g. ) – He knew that there will be people among you who are ill. See Lesson 49. Page 199
  • 200. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Vocabulary List No. 46 Word Meaning to exercise ( ) to grieve (1) to make someone succeed ( ) to give charity (10) to regard as easy (1) to misguide, to mislead (1) to break, infringe, violate (4) to appear, to become clear (3) to persevere, to persist (4) to be wellmannered, to be cultured ( ( ) to be generous ) to fail thread Page 200
  • 201. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) to go near physical exercise ( ) ( to be abstinent ) to become a chief, to govern feeble, faint ( ) to disobey ( ) to string (pearls) Exercise No. 82 (A) Examine the imperfect verbs ( ) in the following examples and say whether they are ( ) or ( ). If they are , state the reason. . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) Page 201
  • 202. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 5) . . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) . ( 9) . (10) . (11) (12) . (13) . (14) . . (15) (16) Page 202
  • 203. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān into English. . . ( 1) ( 2) . . ( 3) ( 4) . . ( 5) ( 6) . Exercise No. 83 Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (1) O our Lord, we seek refuge in You from disobeying You. (2) Do not waste your time so that you do not fail in your aim. Page 203
  • 204. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) Are you being lazy, then you will remain ignorant. (4) Strive until you achieve your aim. (5) Trade in order to obtain benefit. (6) We will continue striving for the freedom of our homeland until ( ) we reach our ambition. (7) Neither was the lazy trader going to make a profit nor was the diligent one to suffer a loss. (8) Unite in order to be independent. (9) I wish I was young so that I could stand in the row of the mujāhidīn. (10) You will never be freed from the control of the westerners until you learn the modern sciences like them and you become selfless for your nation. (11) Why do you not ponder over the glorious Qur’ān so that the door of guidance is opened for you. (12) Do not follow your desires lest they mislead you from the path of Allāh. Page 204
  • 205. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 56 The Jussive Case ( ) 1. You read about the particles ( ) that render jazm to the imperfect in Lessons 20 and 49. Now remember that there are some nouns as well that render ( ) to the ( ). Like ( ), they appear before two sentences, namely the ( and ( ) ). Accordingly, they are called ( ) or ( ) – words that render a response. Meaning Word who what, whatever how, wherever when whenever Page 205
  • 206. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four wherever whenever whatever wherever which (masculine) which (feminine) Note 1: From the above-mentioned words, ( ( ), ( ), ( words: ( ), ( ), ( ) as well as ( ), ), the following ) and ( ) are ( ) – interrogative pronouns. See Lesson 13. The words ( ), ( ) and ( ) are ( ) – relative pronouns. See Lesson 42. In these two instances, these words do not have any effect, e.g. ( ( ) – Who is reading? ) – This is the one who is teaching me. 2. The above-mentioned ( to two verbs like ( ) render jazm ) when both the verbs Page 206
  • 207. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four are ( ). Examples: Whoever does any evil, will be punished for it. Whatever good action you do, Allāh knows it. Whatever you give, you will be given a recompense. Whenever you two strive, you will succeed. Wherever you are, death will afflict you. As you are, so will be your companions. Whichever sūrah you read, you will benefit from it. ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) Note 2: In the above-mentioned examples, the first verb or sentence is called the ( ) while the Page 207
  • 208. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four second one is called the ( ( ). The ( ) together constitute a ( ) and ). From the above list of words, ( ) is used for intelligent beings and it is the most frequently one. The words, ( ) and ( intelligent beings. ( while ( ( ) and ( ) are used for non- ) and ( ) denote time ) denote place. The word ) can denote time as well as place. ( ) and ( ) have the capability of any of the above meanings. Note 3: Sometimes the word ( denote the meaning of ( ( ) and ( ) is used to ), e.g. ) – He said, "How will or when will Allāh bring this back to life?" 4. When a ( the imperative ( ( ), e.g. ( ) occurs in the response of ), it will be in the jussive case ) – Be silent, you will be safe. Page 208
  • 209. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four This jazm will apply when the meaning of ( - if) can be created at the beginning of the sentence. Consequently, in the above example, one can say ( ) - If you remain silent, you will be safe. 5. It is compulsory to prefix the particle ( the response ( ) of a condition ( )33 to ), when the second sentence does not have the capability of being a response. This will apply when it is a: ) 1) ( 2) ( ) 3) ( ) 4) When ( ) is prefixed to the verb 5) ( ) 6) ( ) 7) ( ) or ( 8) ( 33 ) ) – that is, such a verb in which all Such a particle is called ( ). Page 209
  • 210. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four the paradigms are not used, e.g. ( ( ), ), etc. Examples: Analysis The response contains a ( ). The response contains the imperative ( ). The response contains ( ). The response contains ( ). The response contains ( ). The response contains ( ). Sentence ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) Page 210
  • 211. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 7) The response contains a ( ). The following verse alludes to this: 34 ) will be prefixed to the That is, the particle ( second sentence, if the first sentence is a ( ), ( ) – that is ( contains a ( ( ), ( ) or ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) or ). 6. It is permissible to prefix the particle ( to do so if the response is a ( beyond the examples. 34 ), or it circle To prefix the particle ( of the ) or not ) and it is above-mentioned ) to a verb is called ( ). Page 211
  • 212. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Examples: ) – If there are a ( thousand mujāhids among you, they overpower two thousand (disbelievers). ( will ) – Whoever returns towards sin, Allāh will take retribution from him. Note 4: You have read in Lesson 33 that the final alphabet of a ( ), that is ( elided in the jussive case ( ( ) becomes ( ), ( ( ) becomes ( ), is ), e.g. the verb ) becomes ( ) and ). Exercise No. 84 Analyse the following sentences as the one below has been done. Page 212
  • 213. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) Page 213
  • 214. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four = " " = = = = = = . The verb ( ) is the ( ( 1) ) from ( ) meaning "to be sociable and affable". 35 35 . The particle ( ) in this sentence is ( the verb. It is ( preceded ( ( 2) ) and renders jazm to ) because it is the ( ) of ( ). It has ) the verb. Page 214
  • 215. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Vocabulary List No. 47 Word () Meaning (1) to attain, to do properly, to hit the mark, to reach to think ( ) to be hidden (1) to hide, conceal characteristic ( ) (3) to be sociable, affable remembrance, advice ( ) to bewitch, to charm evil pertinent, relevant, correct (3) to cooperate, to go along with (2) to bite firmly model, example ( ) to be kind, friendly ( ) to be fine, delicate, elegant, Page 215
  • 216. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four graceful foot sole, padded foot (of animals) canine tooth, tusk, fang ( ) to trample to respect, to revere Exercise No. 85 Note 5: Determine the reason and the sign of the jazm of ( ) in the following sentences. Some sentences have the particle ( ) prefixed to them. What is the reason for this? .( ) (1) .( .( ) . . (2) ) (3) (4) (5) Page 216
  • 217. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (6) . .( . (7) ) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) . Note 6: The verbs at the end of the latter four stanzas are ( ), but due to the scale of the Page 217
  • 218. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four poetry, a long kasrah is read on these words. The word ( ) has two kasrahs. It will also be read with a long kasrah. These factors are permissible in poetry. Exercise No. 86 Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. . ( 1) ( 2) . ( 3) . . ( 4) ( 5) . . . . ( 6) ( 7) Page 218
  • 219. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 57 The Declension of a Noun ( 1. With regards to ( ) ), nouns are of three types: (1) ( ) – Indeclinable Nouns whose final radicals remain unchanged in the different cases and they are not affected by any ( (2) ( ), e.g. ) triptotes36 – those nouns whose ends change due to a change in case and which accept ( ), ( ) and ( ) with tanwīn, e.g. This is a class of nouns that is fully declined. The Arabs call declension ( ). 36 Page 219
  • 220. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) ( which do ) diptotes37 – nouns not accept tanwīn nominative case ( and in the ), a dammah is used, while a fathah without tanwīn is used in the accusative and genitive cases ( ), e.g. 2. The indeclinable nouns ( ) are very few. They are as follows: Pronouns ( ). These are discussed in These are certain classes of nouns that are not fully declined. European grammarians sometimes refer to them as diptotes. (A New Arabic Grammar by Haywood and Nahmad, p. 34, 1970, Lund Humphries) 37 Page 220
  • 221. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lessons 6, 11, 14, 15, 17 and 41. ). See Lesson Indicative Pronouns ( 12. Interrogative Pronouns ( ). See Lesson 13. Relative Pronouns ( ). See Lesson 42. Conditional Nouns ( ). See Lesson 56. Compound Numbers ( ( - 11) till ( - 19). See Lesson 44. ), e.g. ( Vague Nouns ( ( ), ( ) – that is, from ), ( ), ). See Lesson 64. Nouns of Sound ( ), e.g. ( sound of a crow), ( - the - the sound used to make a camel sit), etc. ( ) – these are words which are not verbs but have the meaning of verbs, e.g. ( - to be far). See Lesson 75. The scale of ( ) if it is used to denote the name of a female, or it is an adjective or it Page 221
  • 222. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four denotes the meaning of the imperative ( ( - name of woman), ( woman), ( ), e.g. - a transgressing - meaning “beware”). Note 1: The dual forms of the ( ) are declinable, e.g. ( ( ( ) and ), ( ), ( ( ) and ( ), ( ), ). ) 3. These are the types of ( ) and the method of recognizing them: (1) A proper noun ( ) will be ( ) when: a) it is feminine and it has more than three alphabets or its middle alphabet is ( having a harakah, e.g. ( ( ), ( )– ) and ). b) it is non-Arabic and it has more than three alphabets, e.g. ( ), ( ). The name Page 222
  • 223. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) is fully declinable ( be ( ( ). It will also ) if its middle radical is ), e.g. ( feminine, e.g. ( ) – name of a fort or it is ) – Egypt. However, there is a difference of opinion with regard to the word ( ). According to some scholars, it is masculine while others are of the view that it is feminine. c) where two words are joined in such a manner that they have become one word, e.g. ( )38 – name of a city. Such a compound is called ( ( ) or ). d) such a noun which has an extra alif and nūn at the end, ( ). e) it has the same scale as a verb, e.g. ( ( ). f) a proper noun on the scale of ( 38 ), ), e.g. The word ( ) is the name of an idol while ( ) is the name of a king. Page 223
  • 224. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ), ( ). Very few words are used on this scale. Note 2: The plural of some adjectival nouns ( ) also appears on the scale of ( they are ( ( ), e.g. ( - other). ( ) and ) is the plural of ) is the plural of ( – all together). However, the scale of ( ) used as the feminine plural of the elative ( ), is ( ), e.g. ( ), the plural of ( the plural of ( ) and ( ), ). See 14.3. (2) An adjective ( ) will be ( ) when: it is on the scale of ( ), on condition that its feminine form is not on the scale of ( ), e.g. ( - intoxicated), ( - thirsty). The feminine forms are ( ) and ( ) is ( ) respectively. The word ( ) because its feminine form is Page 224
  • 225. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ). it is on the scale of ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ), etc. it is such a numeral whose meaning has repetition, e.g. ( ) – one by one, ( )– one by one. Each of these words contain the meaning of ( in twos, ( ) – one by one. ( )– ) – in twos. This continues in a similar manner till ( ) and ( ) – in tens. See 46.5. (3) When an extra ( ) appears at the end of any noun or adjective, it is also ( whether the word is singular, e.g. ( a woman), ( ), - name of - a beautiful woman), ( - red) etc. or whether it is plural, e.g. ( - scholars), ( - messengers), etc. Note 3: The word ( ( ) is ( ) which is the plural of ) because its hamzah is not extra Page 225
  • 226. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four and is changed from a ( ). The word ( originally ( ) was ). However, the word ( ), the plural of ( ), although having an original hamzah, is used as ( ), e.g. ( ). (4) the plurals which appear on the following scales are ( Plural Scale ): Example Singular Meaning silver coin gold coin elder lie musjid lamp statute circle, calamity Page 226
  • 227. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four If a round tā ( ) is suffixed to these scales, the word becomes ( ( - plural of ), e.g. ( - teachers), ). All the above-mentioned scales are called ( - the final plurals) because a further broken plural cannot be constructed from them, although a sound plural may be formed, e.g. ( - elders). However, this is very rare. 4. You have already learnt that in the genitive case ( ), a noun that is ( ) cannot take the kasrah. It accepts only the fathah. However, when the definite article is prefixed to such a noun or it is ( ), it accepts the kasrah in the genitive case ( ), e.g. Translation: There is a place for the wealthy, the poor, the white and the black in the madrasahs and musjids of Egypt. Page 227
  • 228. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The words in bold are ( ( ) but they are ). Similarly, if any proper noun is regarded as indefinite, tanwin and kasrah can be read on it, e.g. ( 5. The ( of a ( ) – I saw an Uthmān. ) of the dual and sound plural forms ) is the same as ( ) words, e.g. Note 4: We have explained the section of ( ) in an innovative and simplified manner. In the ancient books of Arabic Grammar, it is expounded in another style which is slightly more difficult to grasp. Then too, we will clarify the old method and explain it here so that you do not incur any difficulty when you study other books of Grammar. Page 228
  • 229. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Old Method of Explaining ( ) When any two of the following causes are found in a noun, it will be ( ). These aspects or causes are: Causes ( ) Meaning proper noun or adjective feminine scale of the verb changed from original extra alif and nūn non-Arabic combination of two words to form one extra alif succeeded by hamzah the final plural scale Page 229
  • 230. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (i) Firstly understand that ( ) refers to a word that has changed from its original form into a new form. It is of two types: ( ( ) and ). If there is an indication or proof that a word has changed from its original form to adopt the new ) or ( one, it is called ( word ( ), e.g. the ) – three three. One cause is ( while the other is ( ). The meaning of this word indicates that it was originally ( and then it changed to ( said to have ( ) ) ). Accordingly, it is ). Words which do not have an indication or proof of change of form are said to have ( ), e.g. ( ) ), ( ), etc. These words are ( because they do not contain any other cause except ( ). It is therefore assumed that these words were originally ( ) and ( ) and have Page 230
  • 231. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four now taken the form of ( called ( ) and ( ). This is ). (ii) The cause, ( ), cannot combine with ( ). If any adjective is made into a proper noun, its adjectival quality ( word ( ) is originally an adjective because it is ). When someone is given the name an ( of ( ) no more remains, e.g. the ), it only remains a proper noun. Consequently, it will not be ( ). (iii) An Arabic adjective cannot be ( it be ( ) nor can ). (iv) The ( ) and ( ) are such causes that take the place of two causes. They are individually sufficient to render a word ( scholars), ( ), e.g. ( - mosques), ( - desert), ( - - candles). Page 231
  • 232. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four If any cause from no. 3 till no.8 combines with ( ) in any word, it will be ( ( ) has ( ) and ( ( ) has ( ) and ( ( ) has ( ) and ( ( ) has ( ) has ( ) has ( ); ); ) and ( ( ); ) and ( ( ), e.g. ); ) and ( ); ). If any cause from no.3 till no.6 combines with ( ) in any word, it will be ( However, the ( )39 will not be considered ) and in this case. Only the ( ( ( ( ). ) will be considered, e.g. ) and ( ) has ( ) have ( ) and ( ) and ( ); ); It was mentioned in Lesson 4 of Volume One that there are three signs for a word to be feminine, namely, ( ) – ( ), ( 39 ) and ( ). Page 232
  • 233. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ( ) or ( ) has ( ) has ( ) and ( ) and ( ); ). Examples of nouns that are ( ): Examples Causes Page 233
  • 234. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ) ( ) ( Vocabulary List No. 48 Word Meaning ever ( ) (1) to expose, reveal jug, pitcher () (7) satisfaction, pleasure orange (4) to be created, formed ( ) (4) to adorn oneself, to don jewellery effort, eagerness ( ) to be great, exalted most exalted favour, beautiful Page 234
  • 235. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four clothing (2) to make eternal, eternalize, immortalize pillar, member of a family or group to be bad, evil, foul, to hurt severe, strong ( ) ( ) ( ) character, nature, good qualities to please, to be to someone’s liking to go about, to circumambulate to seclude oneself concern, attention bow rainbow glass cup no wonder, it is small wonder Page 235
  • 236. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four glory, splendour extreme, limit, duration spring to appear, to fulfil indigo violet Exercise No. 87 ) in the following (A) Which words are ( sentences: : ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) Page 236
  • 237. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: . ( 1) ( 2) . . . ( 3) . . ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6) . . Page 237
  • 238. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (C) Examine the following letter carefully and translate it into English. . .( ). . . . . ! . . . . Page 238
  • 239. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . Page 239
  • 240. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 58 The Cases of the Noun 1. You have learnt in Volume 1, Lesson 10 and in several other places, the different occasions where a noun is rendered ( ), ( ) and ( ). This will now be discussed in certain detail in this lesson and in the following lessons. 2. As a reminder, we will first note the different cases of a noun: ( 3) (2) ( 1) ( 4) ( 3) (2) ( 5) Nominative ( 1) ( 4) ( 6) ( 9) (8) (11) ( 7) (10) Accusative (12) Page 240
  • 241. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) ( 1) Genitive The first category, namely ( referred to as the ( ) is ), the second one, namely ( ) is called ( while the third one, namely ( termed as ( ) ), is ). Each one will be now discussed in detail. The Nominative Case ( The ( ) and ( 3. The position of the ( ) ) ) and ( Arabic is after the verb, e.g. ( ( ) in ), ). 4. If the ( ) and ( they will be referred to as the ( ) precede the verb, ) in the analysis Page 241
  • 242. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four of the sentence, while the remainder of the sentence will be the predicate ( ). In this way, there will actually be two sentences, a smaller one included in the main sentence. The analysis of the sentence, ( ) will be as follows: =( ) ( 5. If the ( ) ) succeeds the verb, the latter will always be singular, even if the ( ) is dual or plural, e.g. Plural Such a ( Dual ) is called ( Singular ). See Lesson 18.1. Page 242
  • 243. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 6. You have learnt in Lesson 18 that when the ) is a broken plural ( ( ), whether it is masculine or feminine, the verb can be either masculine or feminine. One can say ( or ( ( ) ). Similarly, one can either say ) or ( ). One can use a masculine or feminine verb for the sound feminine plural ( ) but only a masculine verb can be used for the sound masculine plural ( ). Therefore one ) and not can only say ( ( ). However, the sound plural of the word ( ), namely ( its broken plural ( ) or ( ) is treated like ). Hence, one can use the singular feminine verb for it as well, e.g. ( )40. Note 1: You have learnt that the word ( 40 The nūn of the word ( ) has been elided due to being ( ) was ). Page 243
  • 244. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four originally ( ( ). Therefore its sound plural is ) which was abbreviated to ( 7. If the ( ) is a pronoun ( for the verb and the ( ). ), it is necessary ) to correspond in gender, e.g. ( ), ( ). Such a ( ) is called a ( If the ( ) is the plural of an untelligent being ( ). ), its pronoun is normally singular feminine and sometimes plural feminine, e.g. ( ) – I bought the dogs and they guarded my house. If the plural of an intelligent being replaced the word ( ), the masculine plural would be used, e.g. ( ) – I hired the youth and they guarded my house. 8. The position of the ( ) is immediately after the verb without any separation. This is followed Page 244
  • 245. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four by the object ( ). However, it is not necessary to maintain this sequence. A separating word can intervene between the verb and the ( ( ). Sometimes the ( the ( ). However, the ( the verb. If the ( ) cannot precede ) but will now be called ). Where is it necessary to make the ( 9. It is necessary to make the ( ) precede the ) in the following instances: (a) when both the ( outward ( ( ) precede ) or succeed it? the ( ( ), ) appears before the verb, it will not be called the ( the ( ) precedes ) and even the verb, e.g. ( ( ), e.g. ) and the ( ) lack ), both have the ability of being the ) or the ( ) and there is no way to distinguish between them, e.g. ( )– Yahyā honoured Īsā. If the word ‘Īsā’ has to Page 245
  • 246. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four precede the ( ), it will be regarded as the ( ) and what the speaker meant will not be achieved. However, in examples such as ( - Yahyā ate a guava), it is permissible to make the ( ) succeed the ( ) because a guava is not something that can eat Yahyā. (b) when the ( ) occurs after ( ) or any word with a similar meaning, e.g. ( – Zaid did not honour anyone besides Ālī). If one has to make the ( ) precede the word ( ) by saying, ( ) – No one honoured Ālī besides Zaid, the meaning will change. The word ( ) creates limitation, e.g. ( – Zaid only honoured Ālī). This sentence has the same meaning as the first one. It is necessary to make the ( ) precede the ( ) otherwise the meaning will change. 10. In the following instances, it is necessary to Page 246
  • 247. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four make the ( ) succeed the ( (a) when the ( to the ( ): ) has a pronoun referring ) attached to it, e.g. ( – Khālid’s nation honoured him). In this example, the word ( pronoun ( ) is the ( ). Attached to it is a ) which reverts to the ( Khālid. If one has to say ( ), namely ), it will necessitate uttering a pronoun before mentioning the person or thing which it refers to ( ). This is generally regarded as defective in Arabic. Note 2: You have learnt above that the sequence in a sentence is first the verb, followed by the ( ) and then the ( precedes the ( ( ). Even if the ( ) ), in status it will succeed the ). In the above-mentioned example, if the word ( ) precedes the ( ), the pronoun ( ) refers to such a noun which comes later in words and in status. This is not permissible. However, if a pronoun referring to the ( ) is attached to the Page 247
  • 248. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ), ( ) will be permissible, e.g. ( – Khālid honoured his nation), because although the word Khālid succeeds the pronoun in words, it precedes it in status due to it being the ( ). (b) when the ( ) occurs after the word ( ), e.g. ( – No one honoured Ālī besides Zaid). If one has to make the ( ) precede the word ( ) in this case, the meaning will be distorted. (c) if the ( ) is attached to the verb, one will be compelled to make the ( ) succeed it, e.g. ( – Zaid hit you). The pronoun ( ) is the ( ) in this example and it is attached to the verb. 11. You have learnt in Lesson 17 that some verbs have two or three objects. However, the ( ) of the passive verb, which is ( ), Page 248
  • 249. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four remains one. The remaining objects will remain ( ) as normal, e.g. ( – Zaid regarded Hāmid to be wealthy). In the passive tense, this will be changed to ( – Hāmid was thought to be wealthy). Note 3: You have learnt the method of changing ( ) into ( ) in Lessons 14, 15 and 25. When the need arises, form the ( ) accordingly. ) and some derived 12. The verbal noun ( nouns ( ) and ( ). See Lesson 22. These words also render ( ) to the ( ) also have a ( ) and ( ) to the ( ( ), e.g. – The one whose horse surpassed the horse of Zaid came). In this example, the first ( ) is the ( while the second one is the ( article ( ) in this case is an ( ) of ( ) ). The definite ). Therefore Page 249
  • 250. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four the meaning of ( 42.6. The ( ) is ( ) and ( ). See Lesson ) will be discussed in detail in the forthcoming lessons. Vocabulary List No. 49 Word () Meaning (7) to put to the test, to afflict (10) to drain off, to extract () ( ) ( ) (1) to distract, to divert attention to pull, to render a kasrah to any noun to brood, to incubate (an egg), to raise (a child) to seduce, to entice to tempt someone to commit evil ( ) ( – ) to sever relations, to traverse to reproach (2) to tear, to rip apart to attack, to jump Page 250
  • 251. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) to demolish Bedouin dung egg church suddenly hide, skin time, sometimes group magician field, courtyard fat candle, lamp healthy monastery bird Page 251
  • 252. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four fortune teller, diviner mouse chick prey youth clothing to attack suddenly shoe, sandal hair of camel, etc. fuel Exercise No. 88 Note 4: Recognize the ( ) and ( ) in the following sentences. Ponder over the occasions where the verb and the ( ) correspond and where they do not correspond. Page 252
  • 253. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Also note where the ( ) necessarily precedes or succeeds the object. (1 . . (2 (3 . (4 . . (5 . (6 (7 . Page 253
  • 254. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . Exercise No. 89 Translate the following verses of the holy Qur’ān: . (1 . (2 (3 . (4 . (5 . (6 . . (7 Page 254
  • 255. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (8 (9 . . (10 Exercise No. 90 Translate the following sentences into Arabic: It is said that the lion has been given so much strength that it can kill a large ox with one strike. Most of the time ( ), it comes out of its den at night to hunt. It attacks its prey suddenly just as ( ) a cat jumps onto a mouse. Its two eyes have been made in such a way that it can see at night just as it can see during the day. All the animals fear it. Therefore it is called the king of the animals. May Allāh save us from its evil. Page 255
  • 256. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Test No. 19 1) What is the original position of the ( ( ), and the ( 2) If the ( ) or the ( ), )? ) precede the verb, what are they termed as? 3) Do the analysis of these two sentences: ( ) and ( 4) If the ( ). ) or ( ) are ( ), what changes occur in the verb by the changing of the ( ). If the ( ) is ( ), what changes occur? 5) What word-form of the verb is used with the masculine sound plural ( feminine sound plural ( ) and the )? 6) Where is it necessary to make the ( precede the ( ) and succeed it? 7) If a transitive verb ( three objects ( the doer ( ) ) has two or ), how many representatives of ) will be rendered ( ) when Page 256
  • 257. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four the passive tense ( ) is used? 8) Change the active tense verbs ( the passive tense ( sentences, delete the ( the ( ) to ) in the following ) and make the ( ) ): . (1 (2 . (3 . . (4 . . (5 (6 Page 257
  • 258. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 59 The Subject and Predicate ( ) 1. You have already learnt that the first part of a ( ) is called the ( - subject) and the second part is called the ( - predicate). Both are in the nominative case ( ). See Lesson 6. Note 1: However, if there appears any factor ( ) in the ( the ( ) that renders ( ) or the ( ), then ( ) to either ) will be rendered to it, e.g. ( ( 2. The ( ) – Indeed the earth is round. ) – Khālid was brave. ) can be singular41 ( incomplete compound ( ) as well as an ), e.g. Singular in this context means not being a compound, whether it is singular ( ), dual ( ) or plural ( ). 41 Page 258
  • 259. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) or ( cannot be a sentence ( ( ) or ( ). However, it ) or a ( ). 3. A singular noun ( compound ), an incomplete ) ( compound ( or a ( ), that is and a ), namely a ( complete – sentence) ) can occur in the predicate ( ). Observe the following examples: Sentence Analysis Both the ( ( ) and the ) are ( The ( ). ) is a ( The ( ( ). ) is a ). Page 259
  • 260. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Sentence Analysis The ( ) is a ( The ( ) is a ( The ( ). ). ) is a verb thereby constituting a ( ). The ( ) is a ( The ( ) is a ( The ( ) is made up of ( 4. If the ( ( ( ). ). ), whether ( ), it requires a ( ) or ) that refers to the ). Look at the sixth example. The verb ( has a ( ( ) is a ( ). ) which is ( ) refers to the ( verb together with its ( ) ) concealed in it and this ). It is also the ( ). The ) constitutes a Page 260
  • 261. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ( ). This in turn forms the ( ), which is ( ) in this case. 5. Similarly, the sentence ( which refers to the ( compound ( and a ( word ( ), namely ( ) of ( ) ). The ) which is made up of a ( ) is the ( major ( 6. One ( ) has a ( ) constitutes the ( forms the ( ) of the ) ) while the ). This minor ( ) ) which is the ( ) of the ). ) can have several predicates ( ( ). In this example, the word ( ) is the ( remaining four nouns form the ( Sometimes there are several ( a sentence. The ( ), e.g. ). The ). ) in sequence in ) of each one follows in sequence, e.g. Page 261
  • 262. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – Hāmid is sitting, Khālid is standing and Sālih is riding. Such a sequence is called ( ). The Occasions Where the Predicate has to Precede the Subject 7. Originally, the ( ) precedes the ( ). However, it is necessary to make the ( ) precede the ( ) in the following instances: (a) when the ( ) is an ( ( ( ), e.g. ( ), ). In these examples, the words ( ) and ) are the ( ) because they contain the adverbial meaning ( cannot be the ( ). Consequently, they ). They cannot succeed any words because the ( ) always appear at the beginning of a sentence, whether they are the ( ) or the ( ). Note 2: The words ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and Page 262
  • 263. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) are adverbs and will consequently always be the ( ( ). The remaining ( ), ( ) etc. will always be the ( ) like ). (b) if there is such a pronoun ( ) which refers to the ( the ( ( ( ( ), e.g - The owner of the house is in it). The word ( ( ) attached to ) is the ( ) is the ( ) while ) because the ( ) attached to it and this ( ). If the ( ) refers to the ) has to be brought at the beginning, it will lead to ( (c) when the ( is ( ) or ( cloth); ( The words ( ) has a ). ) is indefinite ( ) and the ( ), e.g. ( ) – I have a - There is a man in the house). ) and ( ) are ( ) respectively in both these sentences. (d) when the ( ) is limited to the ( ), that is, Page 263
  • 264. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four when the ( ) occurs after the word ( ), e.g. ( - No one is at a loss except for the lazy one). The ( ) is ( ). If you bring it to the beginning, the meaning will be distorted. Note 3: The method of recognizing the ( the ( ) is that the ( some information ) is the one about which is information itself is the ( ( ) and ) cannot become the ( imparted while the ). The verb and the ). Page 264
  • 265. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 91 Examine the analysis of the following sentences: (1) ( ) = = (2) –( ) ( ) = Page 265
  • 266. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) = Vocabulary List No. 50 Word Meaning (1) enrage utensil (1) to hum, to buzz complete month, full moon idleness, inactivity exemplary beauty, name of the daughter of Egyptian poetess, Āishah Taymūrīyah Page 266
  • 267. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) to move (4) to conceal, go into hijāb (4) to don the niqāb, to cover the face (2) calm, tranquillity, peace eyelid generous fragrance ( ) to cover, to conceal shine, brilliance, splendour rising toil, hard work, trouble regret, grief, sorrow speech rebellious musk creation devoid Page 267
  • 268. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four shame, disgrace Exercise No. 92 (A) Note 4: Recognize the ( ) and ( ) in the following sentences. What is the reason for the ( ) preceding the ( ) in some of the sentences. . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) . ( 9) (10) . (11) Page 268
  • 269. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (12) . (13) . (14) . (15) . (16) . (17) . (B) Recognize the ( ( ), ( (18) ), ( ) and ) in the following poems. (1) (2) Page 269
  • 270. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Page 270
  • 271. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Test No. 20 [1] What is the difference between the ( the ( ( ) and )? [2] What is the difference between the ) and the ( )? [3] How can you recognize the ( ) and the ( ) in a sentence? [4] In which instances does the ( precede the ( [5] If the ( ) have to )? ) is a visible noun ( ), what changes occur in the verb due to the changes in the ( )? [6] Change the ( ( ) and the ( ) and the ( ) to a ( ) to a ) and a ( ) in the following sentences. . . . ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) . ( 4) Page 271
  • 272. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 5) . ( 6) . [7] Change the ( ( 7) ) in the following sentences to the plural form and make the necessary changes in the ( ) in order to conform to the ( ): ( 1) ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) [8] Construct five sentences in which the ( sentence ( a ( ) is a ), five sentences in which the ( ) is ) and five sentences in which it is necessary to make the ( ) precede the ( ). Page 272
  • 273. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 60 The Accusative Case ( ) The Object ( ) 1. The ( the ( ) which is generally referred to as ) is a noun on which the action of the doer occurs. 2. Most transitive verbs ( ( ) have one ), some have two while others have three. The following verbs have two objects: to know The verb ( to think to find to make to take ) has three objects. Examples: Page 273
  • 274. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Hāmid knew that Alī was learned. Hāmid informed Mahmūd that Alī was learned. 3. The ( ) causes no change in the verb, e.g. 4. The ( ) can be a visible noun ( ) as in the above example and it can be a pronoun ) , e.g. ( In this sentence, the first ( ( ) is a – attached pronoun) while the second and third objects are ( – detached pronouns). 5. You have learnt that the original position of the ( ) is after the ( ), although it permissible to make it precede the ( is ). However, when there is a confusion between the Page 274
  • 275. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) and the ( ) and there is no indication as to which one is which, the ( the ( ) should succeed ). See 58.10 6. It is compulsory to make the ( the ( ) precede ) in the following instances: (a) when there is such a pronoun ( attached to the ( ) which refers to the ( e.g. ( ) ), - The teacher’s student honoured him). (b) when the ( ) of the ( ) is - The leader attached to the verb, e.g. ( honoured me). (c) when the ( ) is limited, e.g. - From among the ( slaves of Allāh, only the learned ones fear Him). This meaning could also be expressed as follows: ( ). (d) when the ( ) is such a word that needs to be at the beginning of the sentence. Page 275
  • 276. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four These words are ( ), ( ( ), e.g. ( - Who did you see?) ( ) and - What do you intend?) ( - Whatever good you do, you will be rewarded for it). See 56.2. ( - How many books did you read?). ( - I have read many books.) In this sentence, the word ( ) is ( ). In this case, the ( ) has to precede the verb as well in order to be at the beginning of the sentence. 7. In the following three instances, only the ( ) is mentioned while the ( ) and the ( ) are implied: (i) ( ( ) means to warn or to caution, e.g. ) – Beware of laziness. This was Page 276
  • 277. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four originally ( a( ). The word ( ) and ( ) which is ) is implied here. The ( ) has to be repeated in this case. Similarly, one can say, ( ) – This literally means: “Keep yourself away from laziness and keep laziness away from you.” It was originally, ( ). Instead of the word ( ), the words ( ) or ( ) could be understood to be implied. (ii) ( ) means to spur on, to incite or to urge, e.g. ( ) - Adopt diligence. This sentence was originally ( ( ). Another example is, ) – Adhere to the ideal of manhood (valour) and courage. Here also, the verb with its ( ), namely ( ) is implied. (iii) ( ) means to specify or to intend someone Page 277
  • 278. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four in particular, e.g. ) – We, that is, the ( prophets, neither inherit from anyone nor does anyone inherit from us. The word ( specify) or ( ( ( - I mean) is implied. The word ) is the ( can say, ( - I ) of this verb. Similarly, one ) – We, the Arabs… or, ) – We, the Muslims… 8. The above-mentioned three places are according to the rule. Many examples can be made following the rule. Besides these, there are certain instances which are ( from the Arabs, where the ( omitted and only the ( ) – as heard ) and ( ) are ) is mentioned. When welcoming someone, the host says, ( of ( ) which is the abbreviated form ) - You have come to your own people, you have tread the soft and easy path and you have obtained an Page 278
  • 279. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four expansive place, that is, welcome to you. ), is the abbreviated form of ( ( ) – Leave the man in his condition. ( ), is the abbreviated form of ( ) – We seek Your forgiveness, O our Rabb. ) ( 9. In some sentences the ( ) is mentioned before the verb. In place of the ( ), a ( ) is mentioned after the verb which refers to the ( ), e.g. ( ) – I read the book. In such sentences, the preceding noun is called ( - independent of) because the verb has become independent of it due to having a ( Note 1: This rule is not about a ( preceding object. example, the ( ( In the ). )- a above-mentioned ) of the verb is the pronoun ) that is attached to it. It is for this reason Page 279
  • 280. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four that the cases of ( ) of this noun have changed. 10. The ( ) of a noun that is ( ) is of 3 types: (a) It is necessary to render ( ) to such a noun if it succeeds words that are always followed by a verb, like the ( ( ) and ), e.g. ( ) – If you obtain knowledge, it will benefit you. ( ) – Why don't you teach your son? (b) If the noun succeeds a ( namely ( ) or ( ), or a ( ( ), ), namely ) or ( ), it is better to read a ( ) on it, although it is not necessary to do so, e.g. ( ) – I neither met Zaid nor did I see Ámr. ( ) – Do you recognize the two men? Page 280
  • 281. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four It is permissible to read ( ) on the ( ) in the above-mentioned examples, but it is not better to do so. (c) when the noun succeeds ( ), which means suddenly, it is essential to read a ( ) on it, e.g. ( ) – I entered the house when suddenly (I found) my father rebuking the youth. ), Similarly, if it precedes the ( ( ), ( ( ), ( ), ( ( ) or the ) will be necessary, e.g. ) – If you serve knowledge, it will raise you. ) – The boy whom you saw is ( intelligent. (d) Besides the above-mentioned situations, both ( ) and ( ) are permissible, e.g. Page 281
  • 282. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – I read the beneficial books always. 11. When ( ( ) is read on a noun that is ), it is analyzed as the ( implied verb ( ) of an ) and the verb that succeeds this noun is regarded as the ( ) of the implied verb. If ( ) is read on this noun, it will analyzed as the subject ( ), while the remainder of the sentence will be the predicate ( ). You will understand this from the analysis of the following sentences. Exercise 93 Analyze the following sentences: ( 1) ( 2) In the first example, ( ) is compulsory while Page 282
  • 283. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) is compulsory in the second one. ( ) = = = . = = = Page 283
  • 284. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four = = = = Vocabulary List No. 51 Word Meaning (1) to advance, to face () (1) to light, to illuminate (1) to exceed the limit (2) to be deficient, to squander merchandise ( ) to draw, to attract hungry Page 284
  • 285. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four companion anthology of poetry, governmental office, account books customer, client, buyer very high naked ( ) ( – ) to overpower, to compel to don, to wear article or thing found claimant of prophethood, title of a famous poet ( – ) to erase storeroom, depot, shop ( ) to scold, to reproach Exercise No. 94 Determine where the ( ) is ( ) in the Page 285
  • 286. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four following examples and the reason for this. Also determine where this is permissible and where necessary. In which examples are both the ( and the ( ) elided? What is the ( ) ) that has been elided? . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . . ( 7) . . . ( 6) ( 8) ( 9) (10) (11) Page 286
  • 287. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 42 (12) . . (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) . ) (18) (19) . . . . .( Exercise No. 95 Hereunder follow some examples of ( ). Determine where ( ) is compulsory, where ( and ) is compulsory where both are permissible. ( 1) . 42 The hamzah is for ( ( 2) ). This is part of a verse of poetry. Page 287
  • 288. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 3) . . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) ( 9) : (10) Exercise No. 96 (1) Which book did you buy? (2) How many rupees did you give to the worker? (3) What did you see in Bombay and whom did you meet? (4) My father called my brother. (5) Whatever you do, you will receive its reward. Page 288
  • 289. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (6) Only knowledge makes a person successful. (7) Wherever you find Hāmid, send him to me. I want to give him an excellent watch. (8) Do not keep on reproaching the children and do not unncecessarily trouble the animals. Exercise No. 97 ) in the following passage and Insert the ( translate it. . . . . . . . . Page 289
  • 290. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 43 . . . . 43 bunch Page 290
  • 291. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 61 ( ) The General Object (1) Some examples: . ( 1) directly. Allāh addressed Mūsā . ( 2) The thief was severely beaten. . ( 3) I travelled like a courier (lit. the travelling of a courier). . ( 4) The clock struck twice. (2) In the above-mentioned examples, the words ( ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) are all ). You have learnt in Lesson 43 of Volume 3 that the ( ) is a verbal noun Page 291
  • 292. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) mentioned after its verb, either for emphasis ( ), to indicate the manner in which an action is done ( ) or to indicate the number ). It is ( of times the action is done ( ). 3. The first example indicates emphasis ( ) of the action, the second and third ones denote the manner in which the action was done ( ) while the fourth one shows the number of times the action was done ( ). 4. The manner in which the action is done ( can be denoted by a ( ( ) ) as in example 2 or by ) as in example 3. 5. When only emphasis ( ) is denoted, a synonym can be used, e.g. ) – The orator stood up. ( ( ) – I sat down. The words ( ) and ( ) are synonymous as Page 292
  • 293. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four are ( ) and ( ). 6. Sometimes the verbal noun ( ) occurs as the ( ). In this case, ( ) of an adjective ( ) is rendered to the ( the ( ) and this becomes ), e.g. ( ) – He delivered a most eloquent address. The word ( ) is the ( 7. The words ( with the( ), ( ). ), an adjective together ) – a word denoting a number, are all used as a ( ( ) of ( ) and are therefore ), e.g. ( ( ) – He inclined completely. ) – He was slightly affected. ( ) – Remember Allāh abundantly. ( ) – The thief was lashed ten times. Page 293
  • 294. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The word ( ( ) is the ( ) of ( ) because of being the ( is the ( of the ( ) and is therefore ( ) but it is ). The word ) instead ). You can understand the other examples in a similar manner. 8. There are many sentences in Arabic where only the ( ) is mentioned while the rest of the sentence is elided. Examples: ( ) – May it do you much good or I hope you enjoy it. ) – How strange or how ( astonishing! ( ( ) – I thank you. ) – May Allāh protect you. ( ) – Listen and obey. ( ) – also. Page 294
  • 295. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four A junior in response to the call of a senior says ). The word ( ( originally ( ) is thought to be ). The verb was elided while the word ( ) was made ( the second person pronoun. Due to ( ), the ) form drops off. The word nūn of the dual ( ( ) to ( ) – ) remains. Further decreasing of alphabets results in the word ( ). The meaning is, “I am at your service, not once, but numerous times.” In a similar manner, the word ( originally ( ) was ). The meaning is, “I am present to assist you two times, that is, several times.” This word was also changed from ( ) to ( Note: The ( ). ) is seldom used in Urdu and not used at all in English. Therefore there is no need to translate it when translating from Arabic to English. Page 295
  • 296. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Object of Cause ( 9. The ( ) ) or ( ) was explained in Lesson 43 of Volume 3. It is also a verbal noun ( ) that is used to indicate the reason for the action, e.g. ( ) – I stood up to honour the teacher. ( ) – I hit the boy to discipline him. The words ( ) and ( ) are the ( ) in these sentences. However, if a ( ) is attached to the ( will no longer be called the ( be referred to as ( ( ), it ) but will now ),e.g. ) – I hit the boy to discipline him. Page 296
  • 297. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Understand the differences in the following three examples well: The word ( sentence, ( ( ) is a ( ) in the first ) in the second sentence and ) in the third sentence. All three sentences are ( ). Page 297
  • 298. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Vocabulary List No. 52 Word Meaning fodder (7) to desire to catch, to arrest (7) to discover, to find out bankruptcy (4) to sip (2) smoking, to fumigate (2) encouragement (4) to do intentionally ( ) to trust, to rely on prize, award impatient fear ray company, partnership Page 298
  • 299. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four astute, clever, gentleman character, nature, habit companion, master pouring, casting gift, bond, relation nature (3) to punish time, period, era address, sign dense reed, tree with branches accounting department to plot, to conspire benefit, necessities rebellious pleasure possessing power, able Page 299
  • 300. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) to endure, to suffer grazing livestock (sheep, camel, cattle, goats) comfort, prosperity, life of ease punishment, warning ( ) to abandon, to leave experience faithful to accustom, to habituate ( ) to take refuge, to resort ( ) to allow, to permit purchase wealthy necessary work Page 300
  • 301. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 98 Look for the ( ) and the ( ) in the following sentences. ( 1) . . ( 2) ( 3) . . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) ( 7) . . ( 8) ( 9) . (10) Page 301
  • 302. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (11) . (12) . " . " " (13) " (14) . (15) . Exercise No. 99 (A) Underline the ( ) and the ( ) in the following verses of the holy Qur’ān. . . ( 1) . ( 2) Page 302
  • 303. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 3) . ( 4) . . . . . . . . . ( 5) (6) . ( 7) . . ( 8) (B) Translate the following letter written by a student to his elder sister. Page 303
  • 304. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . . . . . Note: The reply to this letter is at the end of the next lesson. Page 304
  • 305. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Test No. 21 1. How many types of ( 2. Define the ( ) are there? ). 3. What changes occur in the verb due to the ( ). 4. On which occasions is it essential to make the ( ) precede the ( )? 5. On which occasions is it essential to make the ( ) precede the ( )? )? 6. What is meant by ( 7. Explain the different cases of ( noun that is ( 8. Define the ( ) of the ). ). 9. Which words can take the place of the ( )? 10. Construct 12 sentences in which four have the ( ) for emphasis, four denote the type of action and four denote the number of the action. 11. Analyze the following sentences: Page 305
  • 306. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . • . • (12) Define the ( ). (13) Construct nine sentences using the following verbal nouns ( (4) ( 9) ) as ( (3) (8) ): (2) (7) ( 1) ( 6) ( 5) (14) Analyze the following sentences: ( 1) . ( 2) Page 306
  • 307. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 62 The Adverb ( 1. ( ) ) – I read the lesson in the morning in front of the teacher. You learnt in Lesson 43 that the ( ( ) or ) is a noun which denotes the time or place in which the action took place. In the above sentence, the word ( ) and ( ) are ( ) because the former denotes the time while the latter indicates the place of the action. You can also term the former ( ( ) and the latter ). 2. You have read most of the words of ( ) and ( ) in the previous lessons, scattered in different places and included secondarily. Hereunder follows a list of most of the ( ). Page 307
  • 308. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( Word ) Meaning second minute hour day week year century period, always time morning, early evening morning evening night day always Page 308
  • 309. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four If a ( ) does not precede the ( will always be ( ), it ). If the word is not ( ), it will always have tanwīn at the end, e.g. ( ) – Remember Allāh in the morning and evening. However, only those words of ( be ( ) that are unspecified ( ) will ). These words are as follows: ( Word ) Meaning above below in front in front behind behind before Page 309
  • 310. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four slightly before after slightly after opposite opposite, face to face with opposite, in front of facing, in front of with by at, by, in the presence of between, among in front of right, right hand side left, left hand side left, left hand side east west Page 310
  • 311. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four south north left hand, left side mile a measure of length (3 miles) 12 miles, mail Note 1: The words ( ) and ( ) are synonyms. The difference between the two is that the word ( ) is general for all things, real or abstract, whether present or absent while the word ( ) is only used for things that are present. For example, a person can say ( )– This statement is true in my view, but he cannot say ( ). Similarly, he can say ( ) even if the book is not with him but is at home or somewhere else. However, he can only say ( ) if the book is physically with him. The same difference Page 311
  • 312. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four applies to ( ) and ( Note 2: Pronouns ( words ( and ( ) and ( ). ) can be suffixed to the ) as they are suffixed to ( ) ). Attachment of the pronouns to the words ( and ( ) ) Third Person ( ) Masculine singular dual plural Feminine singular dual plural Page 312
  • 313. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Second Person ( ) Masculine singular dual plural Feminine singular dual plural First Person ( ) singular dual, plural See Lesson 11.4 of Volume 1. 3. From the above-mentioned ( ), besides the latter 10, all the others are used with ( ). Sometimes the words ( ), ( ), ( and the four directions are also used with ( ) ). Page 313
  • 314. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Examples: ) – on top of the mountain, ( ( ) – under the tree, ( ) – I sat on his left-hand side, ( ) – I ran a mile, not 3 miles. 4. The definite article ( ) and the ( ) can ). The particle ( be prefixed to the ( is most often prefixed to the words ( ( ) while the particle ( ) ) and ) is generally used with the remainder of the nouns. For the directions, the particle ( ) is used, e.g. ( ) – sitting to the right and to the left, ( ) – The rivers flow beneath it, ( ) – The ocean is to the west of India. 5. Those ( ) that are specific and indicate a particular place, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ), Page 314
  • 315. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ), ( ) etc. generally succeed the word ( ) and are therefore ( ( ), e.g. ) – I performed salāh in the musjid. 44 ( ) – I lived in Makkah. However, after the verbs ( ), ( ) and ( most of the above-mentioned ( ), ) are used without the particle ( ) and they are ( ), e.g. ( ) – I entered the musjid. ) – I alighted in a village. ( ( ) – I lived in Makkah. 6. Some of the ( ( ). They are: (a) The word ( 44 ) are indeclinable The word ( – ever) is used for the perfect ) is read with a fathah because it is ( ). See Lesson 57. Page 315
  • 316. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (past) tense while ( ) is used for the future tense. Both these words are ( are ( ) and they ), that is, the final alphabet always has a dammah, e.g. ( ) – I never drank wine nor will I ever drink it. (b) ( – where, wherever, since). It is a ) and it is also used for time. It is ( ( ). It is normally ( ) towards a sentence, e.g. . Then stream forth from where the people stream forth. (c) ( ) and ( ) are originally declinable ( but when the ( ( ( ) ) is elided, they become ), e.g. ) Page 316
  • 317. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four – To Allāh belongs the command before and after, that is, before everything and after everything. When the phrase ( the ( ) is ( ) – that is ) is elided, it becomes ( ) even though it is not a ( ( ), e.g. ) – I eat fruit and nothing else. Note 3: Sometimes the word ( ) has the meaning of “until now”, e.g. ( ) – Till now the matter has not been decided. (d) ( – here), ( time), ( ) or ( ) and ( – there, that way). These are indicative pronouns ( meaning of – there, at that adverbs ) having the included Accordingly, they are also called ( in them. ). Examples: ( ) - We will sit here. ( ) - Who is sitting there? Page 317
  • 318. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – At this point, Zakarīyā supplicated to his Lord. Note 4: The phrase ( ) is used in the meaning of “hence, therefore, for that reason,” e.g. ( ) – Wine destroys the intelligence. Therefore it has been prohibited in Islam. (e) The words ( how), ( - where), ( – when), and ( interrogation ( ( - from where, – when), are used for )45 as well as for a condition ).46 They also contain the meaning of adverbs in them, hence they are included among the ( ). The word ( ( ) and ( are ( 45 46 ) is a ( ), ( ) while ( ) is both a ) and ( ) ). Sometimes the particle ( ) is See Lesson 13. See Lesson 56. Page 318
  • 319. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four suffixed to ( ( ) and ( ) and ( ), thus forming the words ). Note 5: The words ( ) and ( ) have the same meaning. However, the difference between the two is that the word ( ) is used when one asks a question about something important, e.g. ( ) – When will the day of reckoning be? One cannot say ( ) – Where are you going? (f) The words ( – whenever), ( as, while, when, until), ( frequently), ( ( – as long – how long, often, – seldom, sometimes), are also ). Examples: ( ) - Whenever they kindle a fire, Allāh extinguishes it. ( ) – The youth stood while we completed our salāh. Page 319
  • 320. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) - How long have we been waiting for you. ( ) – We seldom saw him. (g) The words ( are ( – when) and ( – when) ). The word ( ) is generally used for the future tense even though it precedes the past tense, e.g. ( ) – When the sky will split asunder. The word ( ) is most often used for the past tense even though it precedes the ( ) - imperfect tense, e.g. ( ) – And when Ibrāhīm and Ismāīl foundations of the Ka’bah. Note 5: The ( were raising the ) is always succeeded by a verb while ( ) can be succeeded by a verb or a noun, e.g. ( ) – when both of them Page 320
  • 321. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four were in the cave. However, ( )47 is always succeeded by a noun, e.g. ( ) – I ascended the mountain and suddenly there was a lion sleeping in the cave. The word ( ) is sometimes used for ( ) – to provide the meaning of suddenly. It can be succeeded by a verb, e.g. ( ) – While I was sitting, Zaid suddenly appeared. Note 6: In the holy Qur’ān, wherever the word ( ) is used, the word ( ) or ( Hence the meaning of ( “Remember when Ibrāhīm ) is implied. ) is, was raising…” Note 7: The word ( ) also has the meaning of “therefore,” e.g. ( ) – I honoured him because he is a pious man. In this case, the word ( ) will be regarded among the particles ( 47 ). The ( ) that has the meaning of suddenly. Page 321
  • 322. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 7. When the words ( ) and ( ) are ( ) towards ( ), they become: ( ( )=( ) – on that day, then, at that time; )=( ) – at that time, then, that day. Similarly, one can say ( ) – at that time. In these words, there was a sentence after the particle ( ). The sentence was deleted and replaced by tanwīn. For example, the word ( was originally ( ) ) – the day on which such and such a thing occurred. Note 8: The words ( are written as ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) ) and ( ) respectively. 8. The following words take the place of the ( ) and are therefore ( 1. the ( 2. ( 3. ( ): ) – verbal noun, ) ) Page 322
  • 323. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 4. ( ) and 5. those words which indicate the whole ( or the part ( ) ). Examples: ( ) – I came at sunrise. = ( ) – How long did you stay? ( ) – I stayed for four days. ( ) – I stood on this side. ( ) – I walked the whole day and a quarter of the night. Note 9: In the second and fourth examples, the words ( they are ( ) and ( ) are ( ). The ( ) because ) cannot be written in words. Page 323
  • 324. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The ( The ( ( ) ) is a noun that appears after ) – a ( ) that denotes attachment.48 The noun appearing after such a ( ) is ( ), e.g. ( ) – I went along the street. ( ) – I travelled with your brother. ( ) – We greeted him together with his father. 10. Only in a sentence where the ( ) cannot be ( ), will ( ) be rendered to the noun succeeding the ( ). In the above-mentioned three examples, the ( ) cannot be ( ). In the first example, if ( ) is taken as ( ), the meaning will be, “I and the street went.” This will be a nonsensical statement. 48 See Lesson 43.7 and Lesson 51.7. Page 324
  • 325. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four In the second example, ( ) is not permissible because one cannot make ( ( ) on a ) without any separating word/s in between. However, if you say, ( ), the ( ) will be ( ) and ). not ( In the third example, ( on a ( the ( ) is only permissible ) if the ( ) is repeated on ), e.g. if you say, ( the ( ) will be ( ), ) and not ( ). This will be discussed in Lesson 71 in the section of ( ). In some sentences, both ( ) and ( ) are permissible, e.g. ( ) – The leader came and his army came. ( ) – The leader came with his army. Page 325
  • 326. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 11. Examine the analysis of the following sentence: ( ) I entered the madrasah with your brother on Wednesday. – Page 326
  • 327. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Vocabulary List No. 53 Word Meaning (7) to retreat, to renounce (one’s religion) (1) to breastfeed (1) to travel at night to make someone travel to take an oath, to make a vow (3) to bless strength, harm, hurt (4) to branch out, to ramify (2) to make beloved snake map, chart back, buttocks, behind breastfeeding Page 327
  • 328. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four net, snare, trap worker, employee, go (2) to perform, to carry out cricket the sanctified musjid (of Makkah) the musjid of Baitul Muqaddas purpose, aim, desire while fresh flower news of your good health to come small brother to be fully aware of, to be well informed (1) to disclose, to reveal dated Page 328
  • 329. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four cash (3) to reward Exercise No. 10049 (A) Look for the ( ) or ( ) in the following sentences. Examine where the ( ) and ( ) are ( ). ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . In the original Urdu book, this exercise has been erroneously numbered as 95. Accordingly, all the exercises from this one onwards, will differ from the original. For easy reference, look at the Lesson number and the exercises that follow it. Translator 49 Page 329
  • 330. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 4) . ( ). ( ( 5) ). ( 6) ( 7) . . ( 8) ( 9) (10) (11) (12) Page 330
  • 331. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (B) Translate the following verses of poetry. ( 1) 50 ( 2) Exercise No. 101 Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. . ( 1) ( 2) . . . 50 ( Due to ( ( 3) ( 4) ) at the end of the stanza, an alif is read on the word ). Page 331
  • 332. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . Exercise No. 102 (A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (1) When you want to recognize the four directions on a map, place the map in front. The side that is on top will be north, the one at the bottom will be south. The one on the right will be east and the one on the left will be west. (2) Calcutta is to the east, Karachi to the west, Mount Himalaya to the north and Ceylon to the south in the map of India. (3) To the north of my house is a market, a madrasah to the south, a road to the east and a garden to the west. (4) Our madrasah is approximately at a distance of 3 miles to the east. Page 332
  • 333. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (5) We are occupied in seeking knowledge the whole day and after Asr we go to play cricket. (6) Look at this picture. My brother is sitting at my right and my younger brother is standing on my left. My servant is standing behind me. (7) It is necessary for your health to exercise morning and evening. (8) My friends, enter the musjid and perform Ishā Salāh. Then go to your houses and do not go out of the house at night. (B) Translate the following letter which a sister wrote in response to her brother. . . . . . Page 333
  • 334. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . . Page 334
  • 335. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Test No. 22 (1) Define the ( ) and explain how many types there are. (2) How many types of nouns are ( which have the ability to be ( being adverbs ( ) ) because of )? (3) Which words can take the place of ( )? (4) Construct ten such sentences which contain the following words: . (5) Analyze the following sentences: . . (6) Define the ( ( 1) ( 2) ). (7) After the ( ), in which cases is it necessary to read ( ) on the succeeding word? (8) In the following sentences, where is it Page 335
  • 336. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four necessary to read ( ) after the ( ) and why? ( 1) . ( 2) ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6) (9) Analyze sentence number 1 and number 5 from the above-mentioned sentences. Page 336
  • 337. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 63 The Condition ( ) 1. Examine the following sentences: . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . The words ( etc. are ( ( 5) ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) because they occur as the ( ) ) in the sentence. You have learnt in Lesson 43.9 that the noun that describes the condition of the ( or ( ) ) or both is called the ( ) and it is A new fact here is that the word ( ) indicates ( ). Page 337
  • 338. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four the condition of the word ( ( ) while ( ( and ( ) which is a ) indicates the condition of ) which is ( ). This shows that a ( ) can also have a ( ) ). 2. The person or thing whose condition is being described is called ( ) or ( In the first example, the ( of the ( ). ) is the pronoun ), namely the ( ); in the second example, it is ( ); in the third example, it is ( ), in the fourth example, it is ( ) and in the fifth example, it is ( 3. In order to recognize the ( ). ) in the sentence, one should ask the question, “in what condition?” or “how?” The answer to these questions will provide the ( ) as you can see in the above examples. Page 338
  • 339. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 4. The ( ( ) is generally a derived noun ) and indefinite ( definite ( because of ( ( ). The ( ). Sometimes the ( ) is ( ) ), e.g. ) – I believed in Allāh alone. In this sentence, the word ( ) is the ( the word ( ). Therefore it is ( ( ) is ) has become ( 5. An ( ) of ). The word ) because of ( )51 can also be ( ). ) in the following cases: • when it indicates a resemblance, e.g. ( ) – Álī turned around and attacked like a lion. • when it indicates sequence, e.g. ( ) – Enter one person at a time. )– • it is a number, e.g. ( They came in twos, threes and fours. 51 A noun from which no other words are derived. Page 339
  • 340. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four • it indicates a price, e.g. ( ) – The oil was sold for one dirham per ritl (a weight). • it is a word being described ( ( ), e.g. ) – We revealed it as an Arabic Qur’ān. • it indicates a transaction between two parties, e.g. ( ) – I sold the wheat from hand to hand (in cash). 6. A sentence, whether ( also be the ( between the ( ) or ( ) can ). This requires a connector ( ) and the ( either be ( ) or a ( ). The ( ) ) can - third person pronoun) or both. Type Examples of Example of ( ) Example of Sentence Meaning Seek knowledge when you are a youth. Rashīd came Page 340
  • 341. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( laughing. ) Example of both Rashīd came laughing. See Lesson 43.11. Note 1: If you say ( ( ) being a ( adjective) of ( ( ), the word ), will form the ( ). It will not be the ( - ) because ) is indefinite and a sentence is also regarded as indefinite. In this case, the ( ) will not be definite. Therefore it is referred to as the ( ). However, although the analysis of the sentence changes, there is no significant difference in the meaning. 7. The ( ( ) can be numerous, e.g. ) – Mūsā returned to his nation in anger and regret. 8. If the context permits, the sentence preceding Page 341
  • 342. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four the ( ) can be elided, e.g. when a person is returning from a journey, it is said to him, ( ) – Go safely and return profitably. Exercise No. 103 Observe the analysis of the following sentences: (1) Page 342
  • 343. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) Vocabulary List 54 Word Meaning to harm, to hurt, to trouble (4) to smile (4) to be ready one who is in need of a bath (2) to shave Page 343
  • 344. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four unripe (2) to trim (the hair), to shorten having a saddle (2) to turn upside down Exercise No. 104 Determine the ( ) and the ( ) in the following sentences: . ( 1) . ( 2) . . ( 3) ( 4) . . ( 5) ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) Page 344
  • 345. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 9) . . (10) ) (11) .( : (12) Exercise No. 105 Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: ( 1) . . ( 2) Page 345
  • 346. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 3) . . ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) . . . ( 8) . . ( 9) (10) . . (11) (12) . Page 346
  • 347. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 106 Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (1) When children strive in their youth, they become leaders when they are adults. (2) Do not drink hot tea because it is harmful for the teeth. (3) I entered the madrasah while all the boys in my class were present. (4) My father and I came to the musjid when the khatīb (imām) was delivering the sermon on the mimbar (pulpit). (5) The hypocrite stands for salāh while he is lazy and showing off. (6) My brothers, do not ever leave the madrasah except when you are perfect in the knowledge of Dīn and in the subjects of Logic. (7) I turned each page of this book and I read each and every chapter. (8) O noble woman, why are you distressing me whereas you know that I intend good for you? (9) Allāh does not punish any slave when he seeks forgiveness. Page 347
  • 348. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 64 Specification ( ) Examine the following sentences: Translation (1) I purchased a ritl (a weight) of clarified butter. (2) Sadaqatul fitr is one sā (a weight) of barley. (3) I sold ten dhirā (an arm’s length) of silk. (4) I have twenty horses. (5) The date has a similar amount of butter. (6) There is not a cloud in the sky that is equivalent to a palm. Sentences ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) Page 348
  • 349. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (7) The utensil was full of milk. (8) The place was good with regards to its air. (9) The best of people are those with the best character. (10) I have more wealth than you. ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (10) 1. In the above-mentioned ten examples, the final word is called ( ) or ( ) in the terminology of Arabic Grammar. You have learnt in Lesson 43.12, that the noun which removes the vagueness in meaning from any word or sentence is called ( ). The noun from which the vagueness is removed is called ( ). 2. In the first group of examples (from 1 to 6), the ( ) refers to different amounts or measures of an item, e.g. ( ) ritl is a weight, ( kind of measure, ( ) sā is a ) dhirā is a measurement Page 349
  • 350. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four and ( ) is a number while ( ) and ( ) are not any specific weights but together with their ( ), they indicate an estimate. In short, all the above-mentioned nouns have some kind of vagueness in them which cannot be removed without a ( ). There is no vague noun in the second group of four examples. However, there is a vagueness in the sentences themselves, e.g. when you say, ( - the utensil was filled), this is a sentence which is vague because we do not know what the utensil was filled with. Was it filled with water, milk, honey or something else? When you say ( ), the commodity has been specified. 3. Sometimes the ( ) of something that is not a commodity, is also used if it has vagueness, e.g. ( ) – a ring of silver. 4. Remember that the ( ( ) will always be an ), that is, such a noun that either has Page 350
  • 351. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four tanwīn or the nūn of the dual or plural or it is ( ). A word having the definite article ( ) is not regarded as an ( 5. The ( ) is always ( However, if the particle ( ( ) – definite, e.g. ( 6. The ( always ( ). ) – indefinite. ) precedes it, it can be ) or ( ). ) of weights, measures and distance is ). Sometimes, due to ( prefixing the particle ( ) or ), it becomes ( ). Examine the undermentioned examples: Page 351
  • 352. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1) I drank a ritl of milk. ( 2) I bought a sack of wheat. ( 3) I have a feddan52 of land. 7. The ( ) of numbers has been explained in detail in Lessons 44 and 45. 8. The sign of recognizing a ( ) is that it will occur in answer to the question, “what thing?”, or “from what thing?”, or “regarding what?”, or “concerning what?” 52 A square measure equivalent to 4200.330 m2 in Egypt. Page 352
  • 353. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Allusion to Numbers ( ) 9. The following words are used to allude to unspecified numbers: Word Meaning how much, how many how much, how many so much, so many Accordingly, they are called ( indeclinable ( ). They are ). These words also have vagueness in their meanings and to remove this vagueness, a ( The ( ( ) is required. ) of ( ) is ( ) e.g. ( you read?) while the ( Sometimes it is singular ( ) and singular - How many books did ) of ( ) e.g. ( ) is ( ). - How many books I read.) and sometimes it is plural, e.g. ( - How many books I Page 353
  • 354. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four read.) See 13.6 and 13.7. If ( ) is in ( be in ( ), its ( ), e.g. ( ) will also ) – For how many dirhams did you purchase (it)? Due to the particle ( ) in this sentence, the ( ) is in ( One can also say ( The particle ( ( ). ). ) always precedes the ( ). Accordingly, it will always be ( ( ) of ), e.g. ) – There were many prophets with whom many saints fought battles. The ( ) of ( ( ( ( ) is ( ) and ( ), e.g. ) - I spent so many dirhams. ) - I have so many dinars. ) - I bought the book for so many rupees. Page 354
  • 355. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The word ( ) is most often repeated when used, e.g. ( ) - I spent so many dirhams. The words ( ) and ( ) are always used at the beginning of a sentence. This is not essential for the word ( ). Note 1: The word ( ) does not only denote allusion to numbers but it can also denote an allusion to some matter or speech, e.g. ( ) – Zaid did such and such thing or said such and such thing. ) are also For this purpose, the words ( used, e.g. ( ) – Zaid did such and such thing or said such and such thing. Note 2: The words ( ) and ( large amounts while the word ( ) denote ) denotes a small amount. Page 355
  • 356. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 107 Determine the different types of ( ) in the following sentences: . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6) . ( 7) . . 53 54 54 . 53 ( 8) ( 9) earthenware jug family Page 356
  • 357. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 55 . . (10) (11) 56 (12) . . (13) 57 . (14) (15) 58 Exercise No. 108 Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: . ( 1) to become clear, to regain consciousness to overflow 57 result 58 joy 55 56 Page 357
  • 358. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 2) ( 3) . ( 4) . . ( 5) . . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) . . ( 9) . (10) . Exercise No. 109 Translate the following sentences into Arabic. Page 358
  • 359. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (1) We bought one gram of gold for 100 dollars. (2) Nowadays one kilogram of good wheat is obtained for 15 rupees. (3) I drank two cups of coffee now. (4) Two kilograms of ghee (clarified butter) is enough for six kilograms of meat. (5) Mahmūd is younger than Khalid in age but he has more knowledge. (6) From all the animals, the camel is the most well known with regards to its size, obedience and contentment. (7) The mango is a very famous fruit in India and Pakistan for its taste, fragrance and colour. (8) When I heard about the success of your younger brother, my heart was filled with joy. (9) The one who has more knowledge and intelligence is greater. (10) This house is 20 metres in length and 15 metres in breadth. Exercise No. 110 Examine the analysis of the following sentences. . ( 2) . ( 1) Page 359
  • 360. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ) ( Page 360
  • 361. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 111 From now, the instructions for most exercises will be in Arabic. . (Complete the following sentences by placing suitable words of tamīz in the empty spaces.) . ( 1) . . 59 ( 2) ( 3) . ( 4) 61 ( 5) 60 . types giraffe 61 peacock 59 60 Page 361
  • 362. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 112 . Make each of the following words a tamīz in a suitable sentence. . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise No. 113 . (Change the tamīz in the following sentences from the present form to every other possible form. Take into consideration the change that this will cause in the mumayyaz.) . . .(linen) ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) Page 362
  • 363. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 4) . ( 5) (a weight) . ( 6) Exercise No. 114 . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . . . 62 62 ( 4) ( 5) reception hall. Page 363
  • 364. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 115 ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) . . ( 7) Page 364
  • 365. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 65 The Exception ( ) 1. You have read the explanation of ( ) in Volume 3, Lesson 43.8. Here additional information will be provided. 2. The meaning of ( ) is to exclude something from several things. In the terminology of Arabic Grammar, it refers to the exclusion of the words succeeding the particle of exception from the statement preceding it, whether positive or negative, that is, to indicate that the succeeding statement is different from the preceding one, e.g. ) – I ate the fruits except the ( grapes, that is, I did not eat the grapes. ( ) – I did not eat the fruits except the grapes, that is, I only ate the grapes. 3. There are two categories of ( 1) ( ): ) where the excluded word is Page 365
  • 366. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four from the same species as the ( ) – the word from which the exclusion is made, e.g. ( ) – The people came except Zaid. 2) ( ) where the excluded word is not from the same species as the ( e.g. ( ), ) – The horses came except the donkey. ) is used very seldom. Note 1: The ( 4. You have learnt that ( among the ( Its ( ) is counted ) but it is not always ( ). ) is of three types: 1) If the ( ) is mentioned and the sentence preceding ( ) is ( positive sentence not having ( ( ); or it is ( be rendered to the ( ), then ( ) – a ) or ) will ) as explained in the above examples. Page 366
  • 367. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 2) If the ( ) is mentioned and the sentence preceding ( ) is ( ) – a negative sentence, then ( ) can be rendered to the ( ) or the ( ) of the preceding words can be followed, e.g. ( - The flowers did not bloom except for one rose). ( - I did not greet those who returned from a journey except the first one). 3) If the ( ) is not mentioned and the sentence preceding ( ) is ( incomplete statement, the ( ( ) – an ) of the ) will be according to its position in the sentence. The particle ( ) will have no effect on the sentence, e.g. ) ( Such a ( ) is called ( 5. Besides ( ), the other words of ( ). ) are: Page 367
  • 368. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ). They all mean “except” or “besides”. 6. The words ( ) and ( ) are nouns. The word succeeding them is ( ) because of being ( The ( ( ). ) of the word ( ) itself is similar to ). It will therefore be of three types, e.g. . (1 . (2 (3 . . (4 . (5 . (6 . 7. The words ( ( ) and ( (7 ) are originally ) but they were found to be ( ) in Arabic sentences. Accordingly, the grammarians Page 368
  • 369. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four counted them amongst the ( word ( ). The ) is also counted as a ( ), while sometimes it is regarded as a ( ). The ( ) succeeding it could be read ( ( ). The words ( ) and ( remain as verbs. The ( will always be a ( ) or ) always ) succeeding them ) and hence ( ). Examine the following examples: 1. ( ) – I plucked the flowers except the rose. 2. ( ) – I visited the musjids of the city except one. 3. ( ) – I cut the trees except the date palm. 4. ( ) – I recited the book except one page. Page 369
  • 370. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Vocabulary List No. 55 Word Meaning (10) to seek medical advice, to consult (a doctor) to tire, to disable to correct, to make amends injured to surround to be empty, to be alone with someone to treat (a patient) illness evil, bad ( ) to accompany, to befriend misguidance ( )( ) to stray, to wander about love poetry, flirtation certainly Page 370
  • 371. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four shining star the sun and the moon to reject Exercise No. 116 Determine the ( ) and the ( ) in the following examples: ( 1) . . ( 2) ( 3) . . ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6) Page 371
  • 372. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 7) . . ( ( 8) ) ( 9) . . (10) . (11) : (12) . (13) . Page 372
  • 373. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 117 Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: ( 1) . . ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) . . . . . Exercise No. 118 Translate the following sentences into Arabic: (1) All the boys were successful except the lazy boy. (2) The Muslim women go out with hijāb except Khālidah. (3) I did not take anything from these fruits Page 373
  • 374. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four except one orange. (4) A Muslim does not fear anyone except Allāh. (5) I befriended everyone except the arrogant one. (6) We do not worship anyone besides Allāh. (7) All the boys are present in our school today except Mahmūd. (8) All the girls succeeded except one lazy girl who wasted her time in play and amusement. Exercise No. 119 (A) . Complete the following sentences by placing ( ) in the blanks, fill in the i’rāb and explain where two possibilities of i’rāb are permissible. ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) Page 374
  • 375. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) (B) . By using the word ( ), make an exception in the following sentences and fill in the i’rāb of the ( ) and the particle of ( word ( ), that is, the ). ( 9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) Page 375
  • 376. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (C) . (15) . . (16) (17) . . (18) (19) . (20) Exercise No. 120 . Page 376
  • 377. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 121 ( 1) . Construct 3 sentences in such a manner that the ( ) must have ( ). ( 2) . Construct 3 sentences with ( ) whereby two types of i’rāb are permissible. ( 3) . Construct 3 sentences using ( ) whereby the i’rāb of each one corresponds to its requirement in the sentence. Page 377
  • 378. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 66 The Vocative ( ) 1. You have learnt in brief about the vocative in Lesson 43.9 of Volume 3 that it also falls in the ). It will only be ( category of the ( ) in the following cases: (a) when it is ( ), whether it is singular, dual or plural, e.g. ( – O the citizen of India), ( – O the two citizens of Makkah), ( – O the citizens of Madīnah), (b) when it resembles a ( ( ), e.g. - O the one climbing the mountain), (c) it is ( ) - indefinite and unintended, e.g. ( - O man, hold my hand). Note 1: The word ( the meaning of ( ) is not a ( ) but it has ), therefore it is called Page 378
  • 379. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – resembling a mudāf. In the phrase, ( ) no specific person is intended as in the case of a blind person who calls out to someone without looking or pondering. 2. If the ( ( ) is ( ) - singular, that is, it is not ), it is regarded as ( ) in ( ), whether it is singular, dual or plural, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( Note 2: The word ( ) and ( ). ) has 3 meanings: (1) singular (2) not to be ( ) – a compound and (3) not to be ( ). In the context here, the third meaning is intended. In a phrase such as ( ), when it is ( ), the following factors have to be observed: 1. One can read fathah or dammah on the word ( ( ), but a fathah is better: ) or ( 2. Although the word ( ). ) is the adjective of Page 379
  • 380. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ), only a fathah can be read on it because it is ( ). 3. The hamzatul wasl in such examples is also elided in writing from the word ( 4. Sometimes the ( ). - vocative particle) is elided, e.g. After Elision Original Word 5. You have learnt in Lesson 11.5. (Volume 1) that when the ( ) has ( ) – the definite article, either the particle ( ) for masculine or ( ) for feminine is prefixed to it. Sometimes the indicative pronoun ( e.g. ( ) is prefixed to it, ) – O messenger, convey; Page 380
  • 381. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – O the peaceful soul; ( ) – O man, believe in Allāh. Sometimes, the particle ( ) is elided, e.g. ) ( However, although the word ( ) is definite, it is used simply as ( ) without the word ( being prefixed to it. The phrase ( used in place of ( 6. When the ( ) ) is generally ). ) is ( ) to ( - the first person pronoun), it can be read in several ways: The following forms are permitted for the words ( ) and ( ): 7. When the word ( ) is ( ) to the words Page 381
  • 382. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) or ( ( ), they can be read as ( ) or ). This is not permissible for any other word. 8.You have read in Lesson 43, Note 8, that the ( ) is succeeded by a sentence called the ( ). The ( ( ) together with the ) form a ( ). Look at Lesson 43, page 319 for an analysis of the sentences. Abbreviated Vocative ( ) 9. Sometimes the final alphabet of the ( ) is elided for the sake of making the word lighter in pronunciation, e.g. to say ( of ( ). Instead of ( ( ) or ( a( ) is called ( ) or ( ) instead ), one can say ). This is called ( ) and such ). Page 382
  • 383. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 3: It was mentioned in Lesson 49 (e) that the ) – the vocative particles ( ( ), ( are ( ), ( ), ) and ( ). From these, ( ) is used for near and far; ( ) and ( ) for near; and ( ) and ( ) for far. Lamenting ( ) 10. Lamenting or mourning over a deceased is called ( ( ). The one who is addressed is called ). The particle ( ) is used most often instead of ( ) before the ( ( ) are suffixed to the ( ( ) – O my mother, ( ). An alif and hā ), e.g. ) – O my daughter. The Appositive of the Vocative ( ) 11. If the ( ), which is ( ), is Page 383
  • 384. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four succeeded by an adjective, ) and without the ( ), it is • if it is ( necessary to read a ( ( ) on it, e.g. ), ( ). • if it has ( ), whether it is ( ) or ( is permissible to read it with a ( ( ), e.g. ( ), it ) or ) – O Rashīd, the one whose father is noble, ( ) - O the charming Rashīd. If any noun is ( ) on a ( the same i’rāb as the ( has ( ), ( ( ) or ( ), it will have ), but if the ( ) ) can be read on it, e.g. ) – O the bondsman and bondswoman of Allāh, ( ) – O mountains and birds, hymn the praises (of Allāh) with him. Page 384
  • 385. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Vocabulary List No. 56 Word () Meaning (1) to announce good news, glad tidings (1) to shine, the brightness of dawn (1) to pass a legal verdict prostitute, rebel (4) to flirt ( ) to make free from want, to become independent (4) to do in an affected manner, to do reluctantly good fortune, grandfather successor to go close to ( ) to observe, to graze obscenity, intercourse fat, obese spike (of grain), ear (of corn) Page 385
  • 386. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four clarity, purity darkness ( ) to present itself, to arise lean, emaciated Sūrah Fātihah sin, transgression beard an evil man take it easy, slowly to go far, distant one who is far ( – ) ( ) to be saved, to be delivered to snatch, to remove, to extract affection, love loving, affectionate Page 386
  • 387. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four dry Exercise No. 122 ) in the Find all the different types of ( following sentences, especially the nouns of ( ) and ( ). (1 . (2 . . (3 . (4 . (5 . (6 (7 . Page 387
  • 388. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (8 . (9 . (10 (11 . : (12 (13 (14 (15 Page 388
  • 389. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 123 Translate the following verses of the holy Qur’ān. (1 . (2 . (3 . . (4 . . (5 (6 . (7 . Page 389
  • 390. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (8 (9 . . (10 (11 . . (12 Exercise No. 124 Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (1) O Abdul Karīm, why are you not striving to succeed in the final examination. (2) O my paternal uncle’s son, wake up early every morning and come with me for salāh. (3) O the sons of Hājī Ismāīl, follow your pious father and become his true successors. (4) O youth, understand the Qur’ān and practice on its guidance. In it lies your success and the success of your nation. (5) O student, if you read this book and remember it, it will be sufficient for you for the Page 390
  • 391. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four knowledge of Morphology ( ( ) and Grammar ). (6) There is no book more beneficial than the holy Qur’ān. (7) I have neither any book nor any paper. (8) There is no means of salvation greater than the oneness of Allāh. Page 391
  • 392. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 67 The Genetive ( (1) ( ) ) (2) ( ) 1. A noun will be in ( ) in only two instances: 1) when it succeeds any of the ( ), e.g ) – a ring of silver. ( 2) when it is ( ), e.g. ( ) – a ring of silver. 2. The details of the ( in Lesson 49 while ( ) were mentioned ) was discussed in Lessons 7 and 11. More details are mentioned here. The Types of ( ) 3. There are two types of ( (1) ): and (2) Page 392
  • 393. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The ( ( ) occurs in a compound where the ) is one of the derived nouns ( like the ( ), ( ), ) and ( ), e.g. ( ) – one treading the path, ( )– ) – one whose one whose hand is cut, ( face is handsome. The ( ( ( ) occurs in a compound where the ) is a noun besides the ( ), e.g. ) – the light of the moon, ( )– the path of the one who treads it, ( )– Hasan’s face. In this example, the word ( ) is the name of a person. 4. In ( ), the ( ) is ( ) without the particle ( ). Therefore, the particle ( ) cannot be prefixed to the ( the ( ) is not ( ). However, in ( ), ). Accordingly, when the need arises, the particle ( ) can be prefixed to it Page 393
  • 394. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four when it is ( ) or ( ). It can also be prefixed to a singular word ( ) when the ( ) has the particle ( ) prefixed to it or it is ( ) to another word having ( ), e.g. ( ) – The one following the truth is assisted. ( ) – The one treading the wrong path is forsaken. ( ) – The two conquerors of Syria are Khālid Úbaydah . and Abū ( – ) – The citizens of Makkah and the pilgrims are all safe today in the era of King Ibn Sa’ūd – May Allāh assist him with his open help – as long as he follows the sunnah and safeguards the sanctity of the safe city. According to the above explanation, one can say ( ) but not ( ). If the ( ) is Page 394
  • 395. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ), then instead of ( ( ), one should say ), e.g. ( ) – Khālid, the helper of Zaid. In this case, the word ( infact is a ( ) is not a ( ) but ). The details of this follow in Lesson 70. Note 1: Revise the section on the ( ( ) of ) once more in Lesson 23. 5. If a singular word is ( ) to the first person pronoun ( ), a jazm and a fathah can be read on the ( ), e.g. ( ) or ( ). If such a word occurs at the end of a sentence, it is permissible to append a ( ) to it, e.g. ( ) – my book; ( ) – my reckoning. If an ( )63 or ( ) are ( ) to the first person pronoun ( ), a fathah will be read 63 See Lesson 10.8 and 10.9. of Volume One. Page 395
  • 396. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four on the ( ), e.g. ( ) – my staff; ( ) – my judge. The same applies to the dual ( masculine plural ( original word In all these examples, the ( to ( ) and sound ), e.g. changes to ) falls off due ). Page 396
  • 397. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Vocabulary List No. 57 Meaning Word to degrade, abuse to incinerate, burn to be or become poor to join, combine, interrelate to spread, to be glad, to be delighted to contract, to be depressed, to be dejected to withdraw, to segregate, to be isolated to devote, to apply oneself eagerly to search to enter a monastic life, to abandon secular pleasures steadfastness anxiety, uneasiness to be careful, to be wary Page 397
  • 398. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four talk, speech, thought, new ( ) to arrive, to untie (a knot) year close friend ( ) to imagine, to think disorder, imbalance one who abandons the world, monk hill mercy, help, leisure ( ) ( to pour out, to spill ) power, reign circuit to consult ( )( ) to mold, to create to make a picture Page 398
  • 399. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four consolation, solace ( ) to treat harshly life ( ) to be absent to be excessive, to demand a very high price ( )( ) ( ) to deceive, to betray to comprehend, to understand commander to talk nonsense to give someone something despised effort sunny day moonlit night a long period life, means of subsistence Page 399
  • 400. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) to incite to evil incitement to evil, satanic inspiration ( ) to postpone, to delay ( ) to marry ( ) to get up, to rise flower, blossom ( ) to direct, to steer direction, course, angle deep pit, gorge child Exercise No. 125 Determine the ( in the following ), ( sentences. attention to the types of ( ( ) and ( Pay ), the ( ) particular ) and ). Page 400
  • 401. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (1 . (2 . . . . (3 .( ) .( ) . (4 . .( . ) .( . ) Page 401
  • 402. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (5 . (6 . Exercise No. 126 Translate the following letter of Abū Bakr : . . . . . . . Page 402
  • 403. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Page 403
  • 404. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 127 Translate the following poetry of Tughrāī (514 A.H.): ( 231) Page 404
  • 405. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 128 Translate the following letter into English: . . . . – – . – – Page 405
  • 406. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 129 Translate the response to the above letter: – – . . . . . Page 406
  • 407. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 68 Apposition ( ) Note 1: You have learnt the cases of a noun: ( ( ) and ( ), ). Now the occasions where a noun follows its preceding noun in i’rāb will be indicated. 1. ( ) is the plural of ( ). A ( ) is a word that adopts the i’rāb of its preceding noun. The preceding noun is called the ( 2. There are four types of ( (a) ( ) or ( (b) ( ). ): ) (c) ( (d) ( ) ) ) Page 407
  • 408. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Adjective ( 3. A ( ) ) or ( ) is a ( being of the ( ( ) which describes the ) or something related to the ), e.g. ( ) – the noble man. ) – the man whose father is noble. ( In the first example, the word ( ) describes the man while in the second example, it describes the man’s father. However, when analyzing, it will be called a ( ) of ( ) in both cases. The first type of ( ) is called ( ), ). while the second type is called ( 4. The ( ( ), in ( ) corresponds to the ( ) in ) – being definite or indefinite, in gender and in number as you have learnt in Lessons 3, 4 and 5. However, the Page 408
  • 409. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ( ) only corresponds with the ( ) and ( ). The ( remains singular even if the ( dual or plural. Secondly, the ( ) in ) always - ) is ) corresponds in gender to the succeeding word and not the preceding word as you have learnt in Lesson 23.7. Hereunder follow more examples so that you can understand the rule more thoroughly. Page 409
  • 410. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Page 410
  • 411. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 5. You have learnt in the previous lessons that there is very little difference between a ( a ( ) and ). See Lesson 6, Note 1, in Volume One. Similarly, there is a resemblance between ( ( ) and ( ), ). Hereunder follow more examples so that you can distinguish between them easily. Page 411
  • 412. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Now ponder over the difference between each one. In the first example, ( constituting the ( ( ). ( ) and ( ) which is ( else except the ( ), after ) form the ) cannot be anything ). In the second example, the words, ( ( ) are ( ) and ). Hence they can only be Page 412
  • 413. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) and ( ). In the third example, ( ( ) of ( ) is ( ). Thereafter, ( Therefore it cannot be the ( be the ( the ( ), being the ) is ( ). ). However, it can ) because it indicates the condition of ). Consequently, it is ( ). Similarly, in the first example of line 2, ( ) together with its ( ) and can only be a ( ( ), forms a ( ) because a ( ). How can it be the ( the second example, ( ( ) can become its ( In the third example, ( ( ). Hence, ( only be the ( ) of a ( ) is ( ) is always )? Yes, in ). Therefore, ). ) is the ( ) and it is ) which is a ( ), can ) of the ( ). Page 413
  • 414. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four In the third and fourth lines, ( ( )64 and form the ( ) are ( the first case, a ( ) and ) in the second and ( ) in ) in the third. 6. Remember that an ( as a ( ( ). Only in a few instances is ( ), e.g. ( ( ) is generally used )a ) – Zayd, the son of Ámr; ) – Khalid, the Barmak; ( ) – this man; ( ) – this Zayd; ) – this son of the king; ( ( ) – these sons of ours. In these examples, the second word is technically the ( The ( 64 ) although it is an ( ) is regarded as a ( ). ). See Lesson See Lesson 8.23. Page 414
  • 415. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 2.12. The ( ( ) itself can be the ( ) or it can be the ( ) of its ( Examine the third example where ( ). It is the ( ( ) of the ( fourth example, the ( ( ) of an ) is the ). In the ) is the ( ) of ) – a proper noun. In the fifth and sixth examples, the ( the ( ) of the ( ) is ). Note 2: In the first example ( word ( ( ). ) is the ( ).., the ) while ( ) is the ). You will find two unique points in this phrase. The first is that the tanwīn of the word ( ) has been elided without any reason. In the second example, the hamzah of the word ( ) has not been written. The reason for this is that this phrase is used extensively and it was regarded as necessary to lighten the phrase ( ). Page 415
  • 416. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 3: You are reminded that a ( ( ) is regarded as a ( ( ) after ( ) after a ) and it is regarded as a ). Do not forget this point. Vocabulary List No. 58 Word Meaning to look surface, tanned skin to guide ) ( ( to crowd ) frame, tyre to extinguish, to stifle to please, to delight to pluck out, to exterminate Page 416
  • 417. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four steamship pond brave, fearless mat to scatter, to disarrange to moisten to prevent, to frustrate noise shoe, boot ) ( sympathizer, one who feels pity suburb, tribe, alive tourist ( ) to swim house, dwelling nation, tribe, masses to hunt Page 417
  • 418. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to be similar to noise, din, uproar to support, to sustain ( ) lush (garden), luxurious severe, bitterly cold dome to soil, to stain ( ) ( to loll one’s tongue with thirst or fatigue, to pant ) passer by flower vase ( ) raining ( ) refreshing, invigorating ( ) wealthy, prosperous ( ) having a saddle crowded place moderate ( ) to be far off, to leave, to depart, to emigrate, to immigrate Page 418
  • 419. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to fear calm, peaceful, tranquil neatness, attire, dress Exercise No. 130 Determine which phrase is ( ( ) and ) in the following paragraph: . . . , . . , . Page 419
  • 420. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 131 Determine which words are ( ), ( ) or ( ) in the following sentences: .1 . .2 . , , .3 . Exercise No. 132 ............. ( 1) ............. ............. ( 2) ( 3) Page 420
  • 421. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ............. ( 4) ............. ( 5) ............. ( 6) ............. ( 7) ............. ( 8) ............. ( 9) ............. (10) Exercise No. 133 .............(1) ............. ( 2) ............. (3) ............. ( 4) ............. ............. ( 5) ( 6) Page 421
  • 422. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 134 : , , . , , , , , Exercise No. 135 : Exercise No. 136 () : : ( ) ( 1) ( 2) Page 422
  • 423. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) : ( ) ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) : () ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) Page 423
  • 424. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four () : ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) (clear) Exercise No. 137 ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . Page 424
  • 425. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 4) . ( 5) . Exercise No. 138 Translate the following passage into Arabic. Try to use as many ( ) as possible. My Room I have a room. My room is not cramped65 but is spacious and beautiful. Its walls are coloured. Its ceiling is high. It has four windows that are 2m in length and 1.5m in breadth. Each window has clear pieces of glass in it so that when it is closed, it does not prevent the light from entering. My room has a broad door whose height is 3m. Both its doorframes66 are very beautiful. 65 66 Page 425
  • 426. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four My room has a very long table, the four sides of which are engraved67. I place my books on it by arranging them neatly. I sit at this table to study my books. There are two extremely beautifullymade and beautifully woven ( is a beautiful bed whose legs ( ) chairs. There – ) are engraved. There is a clean bed sheet on it which looks very pleasing. There is a large mirror on one side whose frame ( ) is gilded ( ). Besides the above-mentioned items, my room has a small round table which pleases the onlooker. There is a very beautiful vase in the middle of it, whose sides are golden. Every morning, the garderner ( ( - ) brings fragrant flowers ) and arranges ( or ) them. Therefore my room is, with the grace of Allah, like a room from among the rooms of Jannah. I live comfortably and sleep peacefully in it. All praises and gratitude are due to Allah. 67 Page 426
  • 427. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 69 Emphasis ( 1. The second kind of ( ) ) is ( ). Its purpose is to remove the doubt of the listener regarding the ( ). Read the following examples: .1 (1) The minister himself spoke to me. .2 (2) I met the minister himself. .3 (3) I wrote to the minister himself. .4 (4) The whole pond was filled. .5 (5) I read the entire book. .6 (6) I completed all the work. Page 427
  • 428. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four .7 (7) Both the brothers succeeded. .8 (8) Honour both the parents. .9 (9) We lived in both the houses. .10 (10) Both my sisters succeeded. .11 (11) I love both my sisters. .12 (12) I am pleased with both my sisters. .13 (13) I saw the crocodile, the crocodile. .14 (14) The crescent appeared, it appeared. .15 (15) I will not, I will not betray the pledge. .16 (16) You are blamed, you are blamed. Page 428
  • 429. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 2. Since you said, “The minister spoke to me,” the listener could have a doubt in your statement because it is no ordinary feat to speak to ministers. He may think that perhaps the minister’s deputy or his secretary spoke to you and you attributed it to the minister metaphorically. By saying ( ) – himself, you have removed the listener’s doubt and created emphasis in the statement. Hence, such words are referred to as ( ) and the word that is being ). emphasized is called the ( Note 1: In place of the word ( can also be used. In place of ( used. The words ( ) and ( ), the word ( ), ( ) ) can be ) are specific for the dual case. This is a total of six words. It is essential to have a ( – pronoun) with these words. The pronoun will correspond with the ( ). Examine the previous examples. 3. In the last four examples, the words have been repeated for the sake of emphasis. In the first Page 429
  • 430. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four example, the ( ( ) is repeated, in the second, the ), in the third, the ( ) and in the fourth, the entire sentence is repeated. 4. The emphasis derived by the repetition of words is called ( ) and the emphasis achieved by words that are different from the ( ) but conform in meaning to them, is called ( ). Hence the first 12 examples above are ( ( ) while the last four examples are ). 5. Like the ( ), the ( ) follows the ( ) in (i’rāb). 6. The emphasis of a ( with a ( are ( ) is done ), whether the pronouns ), ( ) or ( ). Observe the following examples: . ( 1) (1) I myself fulfilled the task. Page 430
  • 431. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 2) (2) No one saw you, you. . ( 3) . ( 4) (3) I greeted him, him. (4) I myself will saddle the horse. . ( 5) (5) You, you open the window. . ( 6) (6) Farīd himself read the book. The first three examples have ( ) while the second three have ( ). Observe the second example: the ( ) is a ( ) and in the third example, it is ( for emphasis, only a ( ), but ) has been used. This type of emphasis using pronouns is also ( ). 7. If you want to render the ( ) of a Page 431
  • 432. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) using the words ( you have to construct the ( ( ) or ( ), first ) with a ) as done above. Thereafter, the emphasis using ( ) or ( ) can be done. Observe the following examples: . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6) In these examples, the word ( in place of ( ) can also be used ). Note 2: If you want to emphasize the dual form with the words ( will be used, e.g. ( ) or ( ), their plural forms ) Page 432
  • 433. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four It is incorrect to say ( ). Page 433
  • 434. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 139 () . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) ( 4) . . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) (boat) . ( 9) (10) (console) . Page 434
  • 435. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four .(neglect) (11) (beware) . (12) (13) . (14) . (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: (1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . . ( 4) Page 435
  • 436. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 140 () ... ( 1) . ... . ( 2) ... . ( 3) ... ... . ... ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( ) . ... (1) . . ... (2) ... (3) . ... (4) . ... (5) Page 436
  • 437. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ... . ( 6) ... ( 7) . ... ( 8) ( ) ( ) ( ) Exercise No. 141 . ... ( 1) ... ( 2) . . ... ( 3) Page 437
  • 438. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ... ( 4) . ... ( 5) . ... ( 6) . ... ( 7) . ... ( 8) Exercise No. 142 . ... ( 1) ... ( 2) ... ( 3) . ... ( 4) . ... ( 5) . . . . ... ... ( 6) ( 7) Page 438
  • 439. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ... ( 8) Exercise No. 143 ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . Exercise No. 144 ( 1) : Page 439
  • 440. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 2) ( ) ( ) ( ) Note 3: Sentences are most often analyzed in this manner in Arabic. Page 440
  • 441. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Page 441
  • 442. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 70 ( 1. ( ) is a ( sentence. The ( ) ) which is intended in the ) or ( ) is merely mentioned as an introduction. There are 4 types of ( ): (1) (2) (3) (4) Examine the following examples carefully. (A) . . . ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) Page 442
  • 443. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (B) . ( 1) . ( 2) . 68 ( 3) (C) . 69 ( 1) . 70 ( 2) . ( 3) (D) . 68 69 70 ( 1) - sail The fragrance of the garden diffused. - recital Page 443
  • 444. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . . ( 2) 71 ( 3) 2. You will find a common factor in all the abovementioned examples where the first noun is not the intended aim, but in fact, the second one is. The second noun is called the ( ). In the first example, if one has to say only ( ), the aim of the speaker will not be understood. However, if one has to say ( ), the original aim is understood. By saying ( ), one benefit is obtained and that is, before understanding the original aim, the listener prepares for it. By pondering over the remaining examples, you will reach this conclusion. However, in ( the ( ), ) is not intentionally mentioned first, but is a slip of the tongue. In order to correct the mistake, the ( 71 ) is mentioned. – piastre - currency of Turkey Page 444
  • 445. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 3. Now examine the difference in the four types of examples. First ponder over the examples of ) and you will realize that the ( ( exactly to the ( ) refers ), that is, Alī refers to the same person indicated by Al-Imām. Similarly, Khalīl refers in total to the trader. The word ( ) refers to Husain. This is therefore a full representation by the ( is called ( ) of the ( ) or ( ). Hence it ). By pondering over the examples of ( you will realize that the ( ), not the ( ( In ( ( to the ( ( ) is part of the ( ) in total. In the first example, ) is a part of ( ( ), ). Accordingly, it is called ). ), the ( ) is neither part of the ) nor the total of it. It is something related ). In the sentence, ) – The garden was fragrant, the Page 445
  • 446. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four actual aim of the sentence is to indicate that the fragrance of the flowers of the garden spread around whereas this fragrance is neither part of the garden nor a whole of it. The fragrance is something related to the garden. The land of the garden is not something that emits a fragrance. As an introduction, the garden was mentioned. ) is called ( Such a ( ). By reading the examples of ( ), you will understand that the first word was mentioned by mistake. By mentioning the ( ), one rectifies the error, e.g. in the sentence ( word ( ) was mentioned by mistake. The aim was to say ( ( ). Hence, such a ( ) is called ). 4. The ( ( ), the ) and ( ) that refers to the ( ) require a ) as you can see in the previous examples. 5. The ( ) is sometimes ( ) and the ( ) Page 446
  • 447. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four is ( ) and sometimes vice versa. 6. If the ( ( ) is ( ) and the ( ) is required with the ( ), a ), e.g. = ( ) is ( ). See Lesson 20, Note 2. In this example, the first ( and the second one is the ( ( ) is the ( ) ) being ). Exercise No. 145 (1 . (2 . Page 447
  • 448. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (3 . (4 . (5 . (6 . (7 (B) Translate the following verses of the holy Qur’ān. . . . . (1 (2 (3 (4 . . (5 Page 448
  • 449. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 146 ....... (1 ....... (2 ..... (3 ...... (4 ..... (5 ..... (6 ...... (7 ..... (8 ..... (1 ..... (2 Exercise No. 147 . . ...... (3 ...... . (4 ....... (5 Page 449
  • 450. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ... ... . . (7 ... (8 ... . . (6 (9 ..... (10 Exercise No. 148 . 72 73 72 73 dates cheetah Page 450
  • 451. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 149 (1 . (2 –( –( –( ) ) ) Page 451
  • 452. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 71 ( ) 1. The fourth kind of ( ) is the ( preceded by any of the ( called the ( ) which is ). Its ( ) is ). Note 1: The ( ) were discussed in detail in Lesson 50.1. Revise it once more. 2. Like the other ( ( ) in ( 3. The ( ( the ( ) follows its ). ) of one ( ), one ( another ( ), ) can occur on another ) on another ( ) and one ( ) on ). Examples: (1) The apricots and the grapes ripened. Page 452
  • 453. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) I ate the apricots and the grapes. (3) These are apricot and grape trees. (4) The sky thundered and it gleamed with lightning. (5) The children are fearing the thunder and lightning of the sky. (6) If the sky thunders and gleams with lightning, you will never come out. In the first three examples, the ( ) of one ( on another is shown in all three cases ( and ( ) ), ( ) ). In the second three examples, the ( ) Page 453
  • 454. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four of one ( ) on another is shown in all three cases. The ( ) of one ( ) on another is shown in these three very examples because a ( with the ( ) constitutes a ( 4. If you want to render ( ( ). ) on a ), first emphasize ( ( ) together ) it with a ), e.g. ( ) – You and the ones with you succeeded. ( ) – O Adam, you and your wife live in Jannah. In the second example, the ( ( ( ) is a ) which is concealed in the verb ). Note 2: In such sentences, if one does not emphasize the ( regarded as ( ), the ( ) but will be ( ) will not be ). The Page 454
  • 455. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four noun succeeding it will have ( ( ), e.g. ) – You live with your wife in Jannah. 5. If you want to make ( ) on a ( ), it is generally regarded as essential to repeat the ( and not ) on the ( ( ), e.g. ( ) ). However, sometimes the repetition of the ( ) is overlooked in poetry. The following stanza of Sa’dī Shīrāzī is well known: He reached the heights with his perfection. He removed the darkness with his beauty. All his attributes are excellent. Send blessings upon him and his family. Note 3: After repeating a ( are further ( ) once, if there ), it will not be necessary to Page 455
  • 456. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four repeat the ( ) again, e.g. ( ) Note 4: If ( ) is made on an ( necessary to repeat the ( ), it is not ), e.g. ) ( 6. Most Grammarians have stipulated a fifth ( namely ( ), ). In this, the second word explains the first. The ( ) are not used for this purpose, e.g. ( ) Alī who is better known by the name of Zaynul Abidīn; ( ) – Al Kaleem who is Mūsā ( ( ).; ) – Abū Hafs who is Úmar ( ). In such examples, the second word is the ( ). However, according to some Grammarians, these can fall into the category of ( ). Page 456
  • 457. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 150 (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 Exercise No. 151 ... (1 ... (2 ... (3 Page 457
  • 458. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ... (4 ... ... ... ... ... ... (5 (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 Exercise No. 152 ... (1 ... (2 ... (3 ... (4 ... ... (5 (6 Page 458
  • 459. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ... (7 ... (8 Exercise No. 153 ... (1 ... (2 ... (3 ... (4 ... 59 ... (6 Exercise No. 154 " " " " Page 459
  • 460. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 72 The Verbal Noun ( ) Note 1: Most of the basic rules of Morphology and Grammar have been enumerated in the previous lessons. In the following lessons, some remaining essential and miscellaneous rules of Morphology will be explained. Note 2: In the terminology of Grammar, any effect of ( ) on the case of a noun or verb is called ( ). The words causing the effect are called ( ) and the words on which the effect occurs are called ( verb or ( the ( to the ( ). An ( ) is mostly a ). The derived nouns ( ) and ), like the verb, sometimes render ( ) and ( ) to the ( ). 1. The scales of the verbal nouns of ( not ( ) ) are ) that is, there is no fixed rule for them. Page 460
  • 461. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four They are based on ( ) – as heard from the people of the language. Nevertheless, by investigation it is known that with regards to the meaning, the scales do follow a pattern. The following occurs most often: (a) the ( ) of those verbs which indicate an occupation come on the scale of ( ( – to weave), ( agriculture), ( ), e.g. – to sew), ( – – medicine); or they indicate a position, e.g. ( successorship), ( – leadership), – ( deputyship), ( – to deliver a sermon) etc. (b) the scale of ( – ) indicates movement, e.g ( – to boil), ( around), ( – red), ( – to move – palpitation) etc. (c) the scale of ( ( – to flow), ( ) indicates colours, e.g. – blue), ( – green), etc. Page 461
  • 462. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 3: However, the verbs of these verbal nouns ( ) are not used from ( from ( ( ), namely the verb ( – to be red), ( ), e.g. – to be green). (d) the scale of ( ( ) but are used ) is used for illnesses, e.g. – headache), ( – colds), ( – dizziness), etc. Note 4: The above-mentioned three verbal nouns are made from the ( ) – the passive tense. ), The perfect (past) tense of these verbs is ( ( ) and ( ). The one who suffers from a headache is called ( cold is ( ), the one who has a ) and the one who is dizzy is ( (e) the scales ( ) and ( intensive form, e.g ( This is derived from ( ). ) are used for the – to indicate properly). ). Page 462
  • 463. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( – to move around thoroughly). This is derived from ( ( ). – to remember a lot). This is derived from ). ( If a verb does not indicate any of the abovementioned meanings, then most often the following will occur: (f) the scales ( ) or ( ) are used for those verbs whose ( - perfect tense) is on the scale of ( – to be easy, soft) – derived ), e.g. ( from ( ), ( from ( ). (g) the scale of ( verbs whose ( of ( ( ( – to be clever) – derived ), e.g. ( ) is used for those passive - perfect tense) is on the scale – to be happy) – derived from ), – to be thirsty) – derived from ( ), Page 463
  • 464. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four etc. ) is used for those passive (h) the scale of ( verbs whose ( of ( - perfect tense) is on the scale ), e.g. ( ( – to sit) – derived from ( – to wake up, to stand) – derived from ( ), etc. ) is used for those active verbs (i) the scale of ( whose ( ( ), - perfect tense) is on the scale of ) or ( ( ), e.g. ( – to wash) – derived from ), ( – to eat), ( – to command), ( ( – to understand), ( - to speak), – to listen), etc. (j) only three verbal nouns are used on the scale of ( ), e.g. ( accept), ( – to be clean), ( – to – to covet). Note 5: The total number of scales for the verbal Page 464
  • 465. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four nouns of ( which ( ) is approximately 32 among ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) are very common. ( ) ) of all the ( 2. The ( used on the scale of ( ( ), ( ) is generally ), e.g. ( ), ). Only seven verbal nouns come on the scale of ( ), namely: Meaning to return to be gentle to come to take a siesta to become old Page 465
  • 466. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to travel to return If a verb is ( always be ( – see 26.3), the scale will ), e.g. ( – derived from ) – to promise, ( – derived from ) – to fear. Sometimes a ( ) is suffixed to the scales of ( and ( ) ), e.g. Meaning to be merciful to ask to be close by to promise to advise Page 466
  • 467. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 6: You may remember that the scales ( ( ) and ( ) are used for ( ), ). See 22.4. Verbs that are not from ( ( ) have their ) on the scale of the ( ( ), ( ), e.g. ), ( ). ( ) 3. The verbal nouns of ( ( ) are ( ) and ), that is, they follow a rule. See 25 (a). Regarding them, remember the following: The ( the scale of ( of ( ) of ( ), although generally on ), sometimes comes on the scale ), e.g. from ( – to show) – ( ), from Page 467
  • 468. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( – to remind) – ( specifically used in ( ) most of the time and always in ( congratulate) – ( bequest) – ( correct), ( ), e.g. from ( ), from ( – to – to make a ). See Lesson 33, note 6. The scale ( For ( ). This scale is ) is not used in ( ), only ( ). See 26.3. ) is used, e.g. ( – to - to change). The ( ) of ( being ( ) and ( ) and ( ) are ( ), instead of ) and ( ). See Lesson 31, Note 5. ( 4. The ( ) ) of an intransitive verb always remains active ( ). Without changing the word-form of a transitive ( ), the active or Page 468
  • 469. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four passive meaning can be used according to the ) can refer to the killing of Zaid, need, e.g. ( that is, Zaid being the killer ( being killed ( ) or the victim of ). The meaning will be determined according to the context. It is mostly used in the active tense. Note 7: The active tense is also referred to as ) and the passive tense is referred to ( as ( ). The Effect of the ( 5. The ( ( ( ) ), like its verb, renders ( ) and ( ) to the ( ) to its ( ), e.g. ( ) to the the ). It is most often … - Rashīd’s recitation of the Qur’ān pleased me.) Sometimes it is ( be ( ) to the ( ), e.g. ( ). Then it will – The recitation of the Qur’ān pleased me.) There are Page 469
  • 470. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four very few examples where the ( to the ( ) renders ( ) ), e.g. ( – Today I saw Zaid hitting Ámr.) Vocabulary List No. 59 In the following list of words, similar to verbs, alphabets or numbers are inserted next to the ) to indicate the ( ( Word ( ) ). Meaning (1) to guide (1) to render deaf ( ) ) ( (1) to render blind (2) to clap hands (2) to estimate ( ) to gain power, to consolidate ( ) to enable, to strengthen Page 470
  • 471. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ) to give water to drink ( ( ) to build ( ) to open, to separate ( ) to become burdensome ( ) to become hungry ( ) to become dusty, to be poor ( ) relative (1) to bear, yield, produce (1) to remove ( ) to mention, remembrance ( ) to whistle song, hymn, anthem danger neck thorn bone Page 471
  • 472. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four national school guardian, protector ( ) to be blessed, right flank of army Exercise No. 155 . (1 . (2 . (3 . (4 (5 . (6 . (7 . Page 472
  • 473. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (8 . (9 . (10 Exercise No. 156 Translate the following verses of the Qu’rān. (1 Page 473
  • 474. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (2 (3 . . (4 . (5 (6 . . (7 . Page 474
  • 475. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 73 ( ) Note 1: Although the term ( indicates the ( ( ) generally ), but the ( ), ( ), ) and ( ) are also included in it. In ( ) and ( ( ), the scales of the ), ( the ( ), ( ) and some of ) were discussed from Lessons 22 till 25. The remaining ( ) and ( ) scales will be enumerated in this lesson. 1. The ( to the ( ), like its verb, also renders ( ) and ( ) to the ( ) ), if the following conditions are met: a) It must have ( ), b) It must occur after ( ), Page 475
  • 476. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four c) It must occur after ( d) It occurs as a ( ), ) in the sentence, e) It occurs as a ( ) in the sentence. Examples: =) (1 .( (2 . (3 . (4 . (5 . (6 . (7 Note 2: You have learnt in Lesson 42.6 and 52.4 that the ( ) prefixed to the ( ( the ( ) and the ) is generally in the meaning of ( ), ). Page 476
  • 477. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 2. In the above-mentioned five sentences, the first noun after the ( ) is the ( ) and the second noun is the ( ). In the sixth example, the pronouns of the dual and the plural which can be understood from the ( ) are the ( ). In the ) and the word ( final example, the ( ( ) is the ( ) has two objects ). 3. The ( ) is used most often with ( that is, it is ( ) to its ( ), ). This is particularly in the case when the action occurs in the past tense, e.g. ( ) – Zaid is the drinker of the coffee, that is, he is a habitual drinker of coffee. ( ) – All praises are due to Allāh, the originator of the skies and the earth. ( ) – Mahmūd is the killer of the lion. In these three examples, the action is understood to have occurred already. Page 477
  • 478. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ) of the ( 4. You know that the ( ( ) and ) is elided when it is ( However, a speciality of the ( even without ( ), the ( ). ) is that ) is sometimes elided. Examples: On the right side, the ( ) is ( on the left, it is not ( succeeding word is the ( ( ( ) because the ) and is therefore ). ) 5. In Lessons 22 and 25, from the ( ( ) while ), the scales of the ( ) and ) were Page 478
  • 479. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four enumerated. Revise those scales. ) does the work of the 6. The ( ( ), that is, it renders ( ( ) to the ) and if there are two ( renders ( ), it ) to the second one, e.g. ) – Zaid’s horse was surpassed. ( ( ) – Khālid’s two brothers were taught weaving. ( ) 7. The ( ) is a word that is derived from an intransitive verb to indicate the attribute of – good), ( some being, e.g. ( ( – easy), ( – happy), ( – lazy). Note 3: The difference between ( ( – beautiful), ) and ) is that the meaning of the verbal noun is temporary in the ( ) and permanent in Page 479
  • 480. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four the ( ), e.g. the word ( ) indicates the act of hitting, emanating from a doer and this attribute does not remain with him all the time. The word ( ) indicates that beauty is a permanent attribute of someone. It is not something that emanated temporarily from him. 8. The word-forms of ( ) come on different scales and they are all ( ) – as heard from the Arabs. Only a few are ( ) and these are as follows: (1) the words which indicate colours, defects and forms are on the scale of ( singular masculine and ( ) for the ) for the singular feminine. The plural of both is ( ) as you learnt in Lesson 23, e.g. ( ) – red. – Note 4: When the scale of ( ( used for ( ), it is called ( – ) is used for ) and when it is – the superlative), it is called Page 480
  • 481. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ). (2) The scale ( ) is used mostly to indicate the profession of someone, e.g. ( - carpenter), ( tailor), ( one who cups blood), ( - baker), ( ), e.g. – vegetables) the word ( greengrocer) is derived and from ( the word ( ), e.g. ( – ) to the ( ) – straight). 10. The ( ) also renders ( but it is used most often with ( ( – camel), ), the scale of the ) is used for the ( peaceful), ( ( – – camel driver) is derived. 9. For words other than ( ( – – cloth merchant), etc. Sometimes this scale is made from ( from ( – ), e.g. – his face is handsome). The word ) is the ( ) of ( ) and is therefore Page 481
  • 482. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ). In the phrase ( faced), the ( – handsome ) is ( ) to its ( ). (It would be preferable to revise Lesson 23 in Volume 2.) Besides these two forms, the ( ) is used in other ways which are rarely used. You may read about these in the detailed books of Grammar. ( 11. If the ( ) ) has an intensive meaning, it is referred to as ( learned), ( ), e.g. ( – very – most ignorant). Note 5: Although the ( ) also has an intensive meaning, the intensity is in comparison to something else. See Lesson 24. The ( ) is not compared to anything else. 12. All the scales of ( ) are ( ), the most Page 482
  • 483. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four common of which are: Scale Example Meaning shedder of blood very learned very big very truthful eternal very sacred one who changes a lot very quarrelsome very virtuous one who speaks a lot very amazing distinguisher one who finds faults very cautious very learned Page 483
  • 484. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four one with a big load 13. There is no difference in gender for the scales of ( ). Some word-forms which have a ( ) suffixed to them, are not feminine. This is the ( ) of ( ), e.g. ( the scale of ( – very learned). However, if ) is used for the ( ), a ( ) is used to denote the feminine form, e.g. ( very helpful man), ( – a very helpful woman). If the scale of ( ( = – a ) is used for the ), there will be no difference, e.g. ( – an injured man), ( – an injured woman). Yes, in some examples, the adjective corresponds to the ( ( If the scale ( ), e.g. – a beloved woman). ) is used for a ( ), a ( ) will be suffixed to it for the feminine form, e.g. ( – a male camel with a load), Page 484
  • 485. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( – a female camel with a load). However, if it has the meaning of a ( will be no difference, e.g. ( – an ascetic – an ascetic woman). man), ( ( ), there ) 14. You have studied the paradigm of ( ) and the method of its usage in Lesson 24 in detail. The word-form of ( for the ( the ( ) is generally used ). However, sometimes it is used for ), e.g. ( preoccupied), ( ) – very excused, ( – very – very famous), ( – very well-known). The ( ) also renders ( However, with regards to ( ) to the ( ). ), this effect of it is only found in one sentence, namely, Page 485
  • 486. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( )-I have not seen anyone in whose eye the collirium looks more beautiful than the eye of Zaid. The word ( ( ) has rendered ( ) to the word ) in this sentence. Many examples of this nature can be constructed. More details can be found in the elaborate and exhaustive books. ) ( ) suffixed to it 15. The noun which has a ( is called ( ( ) – Egyptian, ) – one connected to knowledge. Although the ( ( ), e.g. ( ) is generally an ), by suffixing a ( ) to it, an adjectival meaning is created in it. Hence, like an ( the ( ), it occurs as the adjective of a noun, or ) of a ( newspaper, ( ), e.g. ( ) – a daily ) – This man is an Page 486
  • 487. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Egyptian. 16. Keep the following factors in mind when constructing the ( ): (1) delete the ( ) from the end of a noun, e.g. from ( from ( ), the ( ) will be ( ), it will be ( ); ). (2) the extra alphabets within a word are elided, e.g. ( ) from the word ( (3) some nouns are ( ). ) – their final alphabets are elided. At the time of ( ), these alphabets revert to their original positions, e.g. from the word ( we attain ( ( ( ); from ( ) which was originally ), we obtain ( (4) the ( ) which was originally ( ), ). ) and the hamzah ( ) of ) when it is extra, will be changed to a Page 487
  • 488. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ), e.g. ( to ( ) changes to ( ), ( ), ( ) changes to ( ). If the hamzah of ( will remain, e.g. ( ) is original, it ) changes to ( (5) the plural of ( ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ). ) is most often ) – Egyptians. Sometimes the broken plural is used, e.g. ( of ( ) changes ) is the plural of ( ) is the plural ). 17. Remember the following ( ) in particular: Original Noun Meaning Umayyad Bedouin of Hadramout, a city of Yemen spiritual Page 488
  • 489. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four of the Lord Quraishite Nazarene natural of Rayy, a city of Persia Yemeni Vocabulary List No. 60 Word Meaning (1) to make dumb (1) to make someone speak the book revealed to Ísā time, season maternal, illiterate ( ) harm, misery explanation, exposition Page 489
  • 490. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to repent complete ember clothing bosom friend, hot water true believer, orthodox to be hard-hearted fault-finder ingenious, quick-witted soft clear living in ease and luxury to hope helper an infernal tree ( ) night traveller, to penetrate vicious, malicious Page 490
  • 491. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four edge the hard rock nude, naked rain brave cheerful, humourous flooded, covered,obscure death helpless tottering, reeling gift timid, fearful, coward awake Note: ( ) was originally ( was inverted and made into ( to the word ( in the phrase, ( )–( ). It ). This is similar – weapon belt) when it is used ) – bristling with arms. Page 491
  • 492. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 157 . . (1 . (2 (3 . . (4 (5 . . (6 (7 . . (8 (9 . (10 . . (11 Page 492
  • 493. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (12 . Exercise No. 158 Translate the following poetry into English: Page 493
  • 494. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 764 : Page 494
  • 495. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 74 The Dual, Plural and Diminutive The Dual 1. You have learnt the method of constructing the dual in Lesson 5. Hereunder follow a few specific points: Those nouns which are ( ) – that is, the final alphabet is elided, at the time of making the dual, this alphabet returns, e.g. from ( and ( ), from ( ) = ( ) and ( )=( ). However, if an alphabet is prefixed or suffixed to the word in place of the elided letter, it will not return in the dual form, e.g. ( ( ), ( ) was ( ), ( ) was ( these words will respectively be ( ( ) was originally ). The dual of ), ( ) and ). The word ( ) was originally ( ), ( ) was ( ). Page 495
  • 496. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The dual forms will be ( ) and ( ). The elided alphabet does not revert. The ( ) and the hamzah of ( most often change into a ( obtain ( The dual of ( ) ), we ), we obtain ( ), from ( ), e.g. from ( ). ) can be ( ) or ( ), but the ( ) which had been changed to an alif, changes into a ( ) in the dual, e.g. ( ( ) changes to ). The Plural 2. You may remember that the plural is of two types: ( ) and ( further divided into ( ). ( ) and ( ) is ). See Lesson 5.3. Page 496
  • 497. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Sound Masculine Plural ( ) 3. The sound masculine plural is made from those nouns which form a ( ) or ( intelligent being, e.g. ( ) of a male ) – truthful men. Besides adjectival nouns, very few other words have a masculine sound plural, e.g. ( – plural of ( ), ( – plural of ( ), ( plural of ( ) and ( ) – plural of ( ), ( ) – plural of ( ) – plural of ( ), ( ) ) ) – ). The plurals of proper names are made on the sound masculine scale, e.g. ( ), etc. The Sound Feminine Plural ( ) 4. The plurals of adjectival nouns which form the ( ) or ( ) of ( beings, are normally ( ) – intelligent female ), e.g. Page 497
  • 498. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) – pious women. Besides the ( ), the plural of the following nouns is also ( ): a) The noun which has a ( ) – a round tā at the end, whether it is for the feminine gender or for the singular form, e.g. ( the plural is ( ). This tā is for ( The plural of ( ( ) is ( )– ). ). This tā is for ) - the singular form. However, there are a few words which do not have a sound plural, e.g. ( ), ( ( ) is ( ) and ( ( ) is ( ) and ( ) etc. The plural of ), while the plural of ). b) Proper names of females, e.g. the plural of ( ) is ( ). c) Those verbal nouns ( ) which have more than three alphabets, e.g. ( ( ), ). Page 498
  • 499. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four d) Those nouns which have an ( ( ) or ) suffixed to them for the sake of ( ), e.g. the plural of ( - fever) is ) and the plural of ( ( ( ) is ). It also has a broken plural, namely ( ). The Broken Plural ( ) ) is of two types74: ( 5. The ( ( ) and ). The ( ) is a plural expressing an amount not exceeding ten. It has only four scales which are: Example 74 Scale See Lesson 5.3. Page 499
  • 500. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Note 1: If ( ) is prefixed to ( ( ) or it is ) to such a word which indicates an excess amount ( ), it can refer to more than ten, e.g. ( ) – In it (heaven) are those things which the souls desire and which please the eyes. ( ) – Honour your children. In these examples, the words ( ( ), ( ) and ) indicate an excess amount. If the plural of a noun has only one scale, it may indicate ( only ( ) or ( ), e.g. the plural of ( ) and the plural of ( The scales of ( them are ( ) is only ( ) is ). ) are many and most of ) - as heard from the Arabs. Only the following scales follow a rule: Page 500
  • 501. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 1. ( ) is the plural of ( ( 2. ( ), ( - ), ). ) is the plural of ( ( 3. ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ), e.g. ( ), ). ) is the plural of the ( ( ), e.g. ( ( ) that is ). 4. ( ), ( ), ) is the plural of ( ( ) and ( ( ), ), e.g ( ), ), ( ). One alphabet has been elided from ( and two from ( 5. ( ). ) is the plural of ( ( scale of ( ) ), ( ) and ( ), e.g. ). When the ) is used for a feminine word, its plural also comes on this scale ( e.g. ( ), ( ), ). Page 501
  • 502. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 6. ( ) is the plural of ( ( 7. ( ) and ( ), ( ), e.g. ). ) is the plural of ( ) and ( ), e.g. ), ( ). The plural of the superlative ( ) also comes on this ( scale, e.g. ( ), ( ). This is the case even though it has a sound plural, e.g. ( 8. ( ). See Lesson 24. ) is the plural of ( e.g. ( ) and ( ), ( ), ). 9. If the penultimate alphabet of a four-letter ), its plural will be word is a ( ( 10. ( ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ) is the plural of ( ) and ( ). ), ( ), e.g. ( ( ), ( ( ), ( - ), ), ), ). Page 502
  • 503. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 11. ( ) is the plural of ( ( ), e.g. ( ( - ), ( ), ( ) and - ), ). The Diminutive ) ( 6. To indicate the diminutive of anything, a noun that is ( – 3 letter word) is transferred to the scale of ( ) or ( or ( ( ) ) and the original word is referred to as ( ( ). This is called ( ), e.g. ( ) from ( ) from the word ( ), ( ) from ( ) which was originally ( ) from ( ( ) and the second one is ( If the word is ( diminutive is ( ), ( ), ( and ( – dog), ) from ) from ( ) ). The first noun is ). – 4 lettered), the scale for the ), e.g. ( ) from ( ) and Page 503
  • 504. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) from ( ). If a word is ( have a ( – 5 lettered), and it does not ), the same scale of ( the ( ), e.g. ( ) is used for ) from ( ). The final alphabet has been elided. If the word has a ( ) will be ( ( ( ), the scale for the ) and ( ), e.g. ( ) from ( ) from ). Note 2: If the harakah of the alphabet preceding the ( ) corresponds to it, that is, an ( preceded by ( ), a ( ( ) preceded by a ( ) preceded by ( ), it is called ( ) ) or a ), e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ). If it does not correspond, it will be called ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ). 7. Remember the ( ) of the following nouns in particular: Page 504
  • 505. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Noun Diminutive Vocabulary List No. 61 Word Meaning (1) to keep ready, to observe ( ) spear those (same as ) (7) to take out or to throw an arrow (2) to provide accommodation Page 505
  • 506. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four white, sharp sword fine spear archer fixed, immovable curtain bed arrow one who cries or screams crown idol large bowl pool, basin of Khatt – a port of Bahrain sharp sword Page 506
  • 507. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four equipment, instrument, device compatriot, among, numerous honourable, dominant horserider cooking pot, deg ( ) to intend, to adopt moderation part of the front of a house that is attractive, recess in musjid wall fresh, living in luxury Exercise No. 159 Examine the plurals in the following verses and determine the singular form of each one. (1 . Page 507
  • 508. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2 . (3 . (4 . . (5 . . (6 Page 508
  • 509. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 160 (A) Translate the following poetry: (B) The following verses have the ( ) contained in them. Underline each of the ( ). The origins of these words are provided after the verses. Page 509
  • 510. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Original word Diminutive Meaning dot musk rose birthmark, beauty spot tatoo cheek that shining forenoon face moon good luck Page 510
  • 511. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four child antelope outer garment, jubbah dreadful influence, attack lion Page 511
  • 512. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 75 The ( 1. The ( ) ) are those words which are not verbs but have the meanings of verbs. They are all indeclinable ( ). 2. Most of them have the meaning of the imperative ( ) while some have the meaning of the perfect tense ( ). The following verbs have the meaning of the imperative ( 1) ( ) – come. Like the ( ): ), it also has a paradigm: e.g. ( ) – Say O people of the book, come to a word that is equal between us and you that we do not worship anyone besides Allah. Page 512
  • 513. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 2) ( ) – give, bring. It also has a paradigm: e.g. ( ) – Say, bring your evidence if you are truthful. 3) ( ) – take. Its plural is ( ( ), e.g. ) – Here, take my book of deeds and read it. Sometimes the pronoun of the second person ( ) is attached to it and a paradigm is constructed as follows: 4) ( ) – come, go, bring. This verb can either )– be transitive, e.g. ( Those who are saying to their brothers, “Come to us,” or intransitive, e.g. ( The phrase ( ) – Bring your witnesses. ) is very commonly used. Literally it means, “continue Consequently it conveys the pulling”. meaning, Page 513
  • 514. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four “understand this in a like manner, and so on, ), etc.” similar to the phrase, ( which means, by analogy or correspondingly. Note 1: This word is ( ) in the dialect of Hijaz, that is, it is used with this word-form for the singular, dual, plural, masculine and feminine without any change, as is clear from the above examples. However, in the dialect of the Banū ) and it has a paradigm, Tamīm, it is ( namely, ( 5) ( ). ) – come, e.g. ( ) – She said, “Come to me.” He replied, “I seek the refuge of Allah.” The pronoun of the second person ( ) changes according to the number of listeners, e.g. ( 6) ( , ). ) – choose, take, help yourself to, e.g. Page 514
  • 515. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four , ( ( ) – Choose gentleness; ) – Adopt the fear of Allah. The feminine forms can also be constructed from it. 7) ( ) – Bring him to me. 8) ( ) – Keep away from me. 9) ( ) – take this. 10) ( ) – take, e.g. ( ) – take the date. 11) ( ( 12) ( ) – hasten, advance, e.g. ) – Hasten towards salāh. ) – wait, leave it. 13) ( ) – leave, e.g. ( )– Leave thinking about something that is not necessary for you. Page 515
  • 516. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 14) ( ) – stop. 15) ( ) – be silent, keep quiet. 16) ( ) – accept. 17) ( ) – beware, be cautious; ( ) – descend. Similarly, there can be many ( ) on the scale of ( 3. The ( ) which have the meaning of the perfect tense ( 1) ( ). ) are as follows: ) – to be distant, e.g. ( ) – Distant (far- fetched) is that which you are promised. 2) ( ) – what a difference between, how different they are, e.g. ( ) – What a difference is there between the learned and the ignorant one. Page 516
  • 517. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 3) ( ) – hastened, e.g. ( ) – Old age hastened to the ones with worry. Note 2: There is ( - intensity) in the above- mentioned three words. The Specialities of Some Verbs 4. The following verbs are most often used in the passive tense ( Translation ): Example Meaning I was pleased to meet you. to be happy The one who disbelieved was puzzled. to be puzzled He is unconscious. to be unconscious Rashīd liked the speech of Word to like Page 517
  • 518. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four the Bedouin. There is no harm on the one who is compelled (to eat harām). to be compelled to adore to adore to have a cold to have a headache So and so was concerned with the to be concerned Page 518
  • 519. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four publishing of this book. The verb ( ( ) can be read as ( ) as well, e.g. ) – I made you a friend. From the verb ( person ( ( ), the form of the first ) is most often used as ( ), e.g. ). Vocabulary List No. 62 Word Meaning (7) to smile (1) to have enmity enemy (1) to overlook more glorious to reveal, to disclose Page 519
  • 520. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to test, to try potency to arrive in the evening, to leave relevant, correct chain to go east, to go to complain to complain ( ) ( ) ( to pour to pardon, to forgive ) to be miserly (3) to assault, to attack benefit, gift, award to come early in the morning, to go, to leave the finest, the best to go west, to go away Page 520
  • 521. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four iron collar stupid, dull-witted denier to be a neighbour to untie, to unravel war share (of positive qualities, of religion) parrot sleep ( ) ( ) to attack assasinate suddenly, to to dispel worries, grief worry, sorry, grief, distress peaceable, peace-loving picture ) ( habitation, eg. villa to incline Page 521
  • 522. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to turn away, to deviate, to digress realm, kingdom arrow vicissitudes, ups and downs strong emotion, passion desire, love excusable love, legal desire Exercise No. 161 (A) Translate the following stanzas of poetry and note the use of the verbs. ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) Page 522
  • 523. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9) (B) Translate the following anecdote which contains some of the ( ). . . . . . . . . . Page 523
  • 524. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) . Some Specialities of Poetry The following factors which are not permitted in prose are permitted in verse: (1) It is permissible to read a tanwīn on a ( ) word, e.g. Sometimes, in order for the words to correspond, this is permitted in prose as well, e.g. ( and ( ) and ( ) can be read as ( ) ). Page 524
  • 525. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) It is very common to lengthen the fathah, dammah and kasrah and read them like an ( ), ( ) and ( ). The sound of a yaa is made on the final jazam. Sometimes the sound of a ( ) is made, e.g. In these verses, ( ( ) as ( ) and ( ) has been read as ( ) as ( ), ) in order that these words rhyme. Page 525
  • 526. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) Sometimes a kasrah is read at the end of a verb for the sake of rhyming, e.g. Here the word ( (4) The sound of a ( particles ( ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) is read as ( ). ) is read at the end of the ) and ( ). They are read as ), e.g. (5) The hamzah of ( ), ( ) and ( ) is deleted in pronunciation, e.g. In order to fit the scale of the poetry, ( ) is Page 526
  • 527. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four read as ( ) and ( ) is read as ( ). (6) It is also permitted in Arabic poetry at the time of necessity to divide the final word of the first stanza into two parts. The first part remains in the first stanza, while the second part of the word forms the beginning of the second stanza, e.g. With the help of Allāh and His divinely-given ability, the fourth volume of Arabic Tutor has been completed. All praises are due to Allah . Page 527
  • 528. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four May He accept it from me and grant benefit to the students by means of it. The End. Page 528

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