Arabic english thematic_lexicon

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Arabic english thematic_lexicon

  1. 1. Arabic–English Thematic Lexicon The Arabic–English Thematic Lexicon is an invaluable resource for all learners of Arabic. It contains some 8,000 entries, arranged into themes, including flora and fauna, food and drink, the human body, health care, the family, housing, clothing, education, IT, sports, politics, economics and commerce, the law, media, language, geography, travel, religion, arts, science and natural resources. Three appendices cover the names of Arab and selected non-Arab regions, countries and capitals, and international organisations. The entries in the Lexicon have been drawn from an extensive corpus of contemporary Standard Arabic vocabulary, based on authentic sources. In addition to verbs, nouns and adjectives, the Lexicon includes phrases and commonly used collocations, providing users with the necessary vocabulary in order to communicate effectively and confidently in both written and spoken Standard Arabic. The Lexicon is an indispensable vocabulary-building tool, as well as a useful reference guide. Daniel Newman is Reader in Arabic and Course Director of the MA in Arabic/English Translation at the University of Durham.
  2. 2. Arabic–English Thematic Lexicon Daniel Newman
  3. 3. First published 2007 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2007. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2007 Daniel Newman All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Newman, Daniel, 1963– [Arabic–English lexicon] The Arabic/English thematic lexicon / Daniel Newman. – 1st ed. p. cm. 1. Arabic language – Dictionaries – English. PJ6640.N46 I. Title. 2007 492.7′321—dc22 ISBN 0-203-96087-4 Master e-book ISBN ISBN10: 0–415–42093–8 (hbk) ISBN10: 0–415–4094–6 (pbk) ISBN10: 0–203–96087–4 (ebk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–42093–8 (hbk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–42094–5 (pbk) ISBN13: 978–0–203–96087–5 (ebk) 2006037980
  4. 4. Contents Introduction | 1 Fruit | 7 Flora | 8 Herbs and spices | 10 Vegetables | 10 Animals | 11 Mammals | 11 Birds | 14 Marine animals | 16 Reptiles and insects | 17 Animal sounds | 18 Food and drink | 19 The human body | 27 Diseases and health care | 36 The family, human relations and emotions | 48 Housing and construction | 63 Clothing | 71 School and education | 77 General | 77 Sciences and academic subjects | 85 Computing | 86 The media | 91 Sports | 94 Arts and entertainment | 100 Politics | 104 Law and order | 120 The military | 126 Economics and commerce | 135 Agriculture and farming | 150 Natural resources | 153
  5. 5. vi CONTENTS Tools and equipment | 156 Time | 160 General | 160 Days of the week | 163 The seasons | 163 Months | 164 Gregorian | 164 Islamic | 164 Coptic | 164 Geography | 165 Natural geography | 165 Urban geography | 168 Travel and mobility | 169 General | 169 Communications | 173 Air | 175 Sea | 176 Rail | 178 Road | 179 Traffic | 179 The car | 181 The weather | 184 Language and communication | 186 Religion | 191 General | 191 Islam | 192 Christianity | 195 Colours | 198 The zodiac | 199 Weights and measures | 200 Appendix I | 202 Arab regions, countries and capitals | 202 Appendix II | 203 Selected non-Arab regions, countries and capitals | 203 Appendix III | 204 International organizations | 204
  6. 6. Introduction The task of the ‘harmless drudge’, as Dr Johnson Unfortunately, things do not stop here for the called the lexicographer, is always challenging, and, Arabic lexicographer as within the normative variety it must be said, often thankless. Such is the ever- there are often a number of competing changing nature of language that no sooner has a geographical variants. This matter is not unrelated dictionary appeared than it is already to some to the fact that there are a number of Arabic extent out of step with the living language. Consider, Language Academies (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and for instance, the developments in computing and Syria). For instance, ‘mobile telephone’ can be the Internet and the concomitant surge in new rendered by the following: terminology in the space of just one decade. In the case of Arabic, the lexicographer’s task is ‫,ﻣﺘﻨَﻗﻞ ,ﻧﻘﺎل ,ﺟﻮال‬ َّ ََ ّ َُ ‫ )ﺟﻬﺎز/ﻫﺎﺗﻒ( ﺧﻠﻮي ,ﻣﺤﻤﻮل ,ﺳﻴﺎر‬and ُ ْ َ ّ ِ ََ ِ ِ َّ َ ‫ ,ﻫﺎﺗﻒ ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬all of which are fusha terms. The ّ َ َُ ..¯ further complicated by the phenomenon of only difference between them is where they were diglossia – i.e. the coexistence of several varieties originally coined and their place (and frequency) of along an acro-basilectal continuum – and the fact usage: the first three tend to be used more in North that many of the regional dialects are mutually Africa, the fourth in Egypt, the fifth in the Levant and unintelligible. the sixth in some areas of the Gulf. Naturally, the The normative variety of the language, which is Arabic speaker understands all coinings, but in the commonly referred to as Modern Standard Arabic standard variety of his/her native area, one of them (MSA) – the so-called fusha ( ‫ – ) ﻓﺼﺤﻰ‬is the ُ ..¯ will probably be used to the exclusion of the others. closest to the Classical Arabic of the Qur’an in ¯ What is more, it is very likely that in informal terms of grammar. This variety, which, of course, contexts the same speaker will use none of the has been subject to many changes, not least in the above, choosing instead the borrowing ‫ﻣﻮﺑﺎﻳﻞ‬ area of lexis, is a language that is used exclusively (‘mobile’) or ‫‘( ﺟﻲ أس أم‬GSM’)! for official and literary purposes. It diverges greatly, It is in the area of terminology, or specialized as it always has done, from the everyday language language, that this problem is sometimes the most spoken by people in the street. Indeed, it is worth acute. It is particularly problematic, of course, in the remembering that this variety has no mother- sciences where the prevailing orthodoxy is that of tongue speakers – it is the dialect which is the native one-to-one correspondence, i.e. one meaning, one language of the Arabic speaker. The normative term. In reality, this principle is consistently variety is also the link language which allows overridden in Arabic where a plethora of terms may educated Arabic speakers from Morocco to Iraq to render one English scientific term. For instance, in communicate with one another. research the present author conducted some time In this Lexicon the emphasis is squarely on the ago, no fewer than thirteen terms were found for the standard language, rather than a given colloquial English linguistic term ‘phoneme’, all of which are variety. used interchangeably by specialists in the field.
  7. 7. 2 INTRODUCTION The large number of (near-)synonyms and/or differently, the author attempted to include only competing coinings make it very difficult for the those terms whose use transcends a single country lexicographer to make a choice, particularly as or area. In any event, it is impossible to remain consulting native speakers may sometimes entirely immune from accusations that such and obfuscate, rather than clarify, the issue. For such a term is less ‘accurate’ or ‘widespread’ than instance, an educated speaker from, say, Iraq will another. state that a given term is the one in use in Standard Rather than a collection of entries culled from Arabic (or at least that used in Iraq), whereas an various dictionaries, the Lexicon is based on a educated Moroccan speaker will comment that corpus compiled over a period of many years, with s/he has never encountered that very same word. the author relying on authentic data drawn from In most cases the informant will recognize that it is both written and audiovisual sources from a wide Standard Arabic, but in others they will condemn variety of countries. Only words whose usage was the term for being a colloquial variant. attested in a number of sources were included in At the same time, one should not exaggerate the problem either. The above remark applies to certain the Lexicon. The first question any dictionary compiler needs fields more than others, whereas in most cases the to address is whether the work deserves to be same word is used across the Arabic-speaking done, i.e. whether it fills a gap of some sort. The world. second one involves the target audience: who will In a work of this kind, one solution would be to list all ‘standard’ terms, irrespective of where they are used. Instead, it has been decided to select the one be using the book, and perhaps equally important, why? The origins of the Lexicon grew out of a desire that is most frequently encountered in the corpus and need to provide students with core vocabulary for a number of reasons, the principal one being conveniently grouped together in thematic userfriendliness, since it was never intended to categories. Indeed, none of the basic vocabulary produce a Thesaurus. In the event of several lists met this goal, whereas textbooks often competing forms occurring with similar frequency, frustratingly, albeit understandably, only give limited each was retained, with the reader being referred to vocabulary relating to the same semantic field: for the definition given elsewhere: e.g. instance, students will be given only five colours, say, and will be expected to start compiling their ‫ﺑﻴﺖ‬ َْ : house own lists or, if they are lucky, rely on those provided ‫دار‬ : see ‫ﺑﻴﺖ‬ by the teacher. Furthermore, it is much easier to assimilate lexis if it is presented in a logical and On the whole, geographically determined MSA terms were excluded. For instance, it is well coherent format. Like so many lexicographical endeavours, this documented that in former French colonies such as Lexicon started out as a series of lists, which were Tunisia, Algeria, or Lebanon, a number of MSA handed to students when a particular area of terms in use are calques from French, whereas in vocabulary was tackled, i.e. for general vocabulary many countries in the Middle East there is often a building, lexical extension, as well as translation noticeable influence from English. To put it exercises.
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION It is important to point out that, while the Lexicon was initially drawn up for learners of Arabic, it is equally suitable for Arabic-speaking learners of 3 order to be able to interpret and use the information effectively. Throughout, the primary aim has been to English, for whom the book will also be a very useful provide all but the most technical vocabulary vocabulary-building tool. relating to a large number of fields which language Arguably, one of the the first thematic vocabulary users are likely to encounter. Naturally, choices lists was that compiled by the great French Arabist, again had to be made, in terms of the field in Charles Pellat (L’Arabe Vivant : mots arabes which certain words would have to be put, or the groupés d’après le sens et vocabulaire fondamental number of words in each field. Both questions de l’arabe moderne, 1961). Based on a study of a were addressed pragmatically, and within number of newspapers, the lexicon contains 6,000 practical constraints of length. Furthermore, words which are ordered according to themes, but the size of each category also depended on the not alphabetically (though the book came with, nature and scope of the semantic field, and it is unfortunately all too often unreliable, French and hardly surprising therefore that the section on Arabic alphabetical indices)! Other endeavours ‘Politics’ contains significantly more terms than followed, both in the West and in the Middle East, that on ‘Fruit’. In theory, there was no fixed yet none fully met students’ needs for a number of maximum (or minimum) number of words for reasons, ranging from layout and presentation (e.g. each category. either only transliteration or only Arabic script As for the classification, there are, of course, without vowelling), to the number and types of cases in which the ultimate choice may be categories included, or the absence of collocations debatable, and to some degree subjective. and of basic grammatical metatext. However, one would hope that the inclusion of the The present Lexicon is intended to meet the term is considered more important than the needs of students at all levels who wish to expand category in which it is placed. Similarly, some their vocabulary in a large number of everyday users will undoubtedly lament the absence of this or fields. The Lexicon contains about 8,000 entries, that term, which they deem absolutely imperative and also includes phrases and collocations. It can for the student. All that can be said in defence is be used for both passive and active vocabulary use. that there was undoubtedly good reason to do so, Students who have mastered the vocabulary either because it was too technical, colloquial, or contained in the Lexicon will be able to synonymous with a term that was attested more communicate effectively and confidently in most often in the author’s corpus. daily contexts, both orally and in writing. The thematic ordering makes the Lexicon eminently practical and suitable for both home and classroom use. At the same time, the layout encourages browsing. Although the Lexicon is designed for use by Arabic learners at all levels, Consistently, the basic premise has been to class entries together as much as possible in meaningful categories and subcategories. If (near-)synonyms are provided in English, they are separated by a comma. The next question is a very practical one, i.e. how both in formal and informal settings, the user must to use the dictionary. The entries are arranged have a basic knowledge of Arabic grammar in according to themes and appear in straight Arabic
  9. 9. 4 INTRODUCTION alphabetical order within each category. In cases In cases where the plural is only rarely used, as is where the lemma includes the article ‘‫ ,’ال‬it is the case for a number of fruits, it is given but listed according to the first character of the base enclosed in round brackets: e.g. word: e.g. ‫‘( اﻟﺪاﻣﺎ‬draughts’) appears under ‘‫,’د‬ َّ not ‘‫.’ا‬ Unlike in many Western dictionaries of Arabic, ‫ﻛﻤﺜﺮى‬ َ َْ ُ (coll.) pear َ َْ ُ (pl. ‫)ﻛﻤﺜﺮﻳﺎت‬ words patterned on the same root are not listed together, but in strictly alphabetical order. So, for ََ ِْ instance, ‫‘( ﻓﺘﺢ‬to open’) and ‫‘( ﻣﻔﺘﺎح‬key’) are not listed together. The main reason behind this was, once again, ease of use. Specific phrases which are often found on signs are capitalized: e.g. ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﺨﺮوج‬ ُْ َ ُُ NO EXIT In line with common usage, Arabic verbs are ِ listed in the third person singular preterite (‫)اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ All Arabic words are fully vowelled; the absence of transcriptions has been a conscious choice form. The appropriate conjugation vowel of the ِ ُ first-form (base-stem) imperfect (‫ )اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬is inasmuch as it has a number of disadvantages, not least the fact that the learner will attempt to store added in brackets next to the entry: e.g. two ‘forms’ in the mental lexicon, rather than one, ‫( درس‬u) َ ََ i.e. the Arabic graphemic form. It is also hoped that to study beginners, in particular, will benefit from the If there is more than one possible vowel, both variants are given: e.g. ‫( ﺧﻤﺶ‬i, u) َ َ َ additional reading practice. Arabic nouns appear in pausal form, without the ِ َْ so-called ‘nunnation’ (‫ ,)ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻦ‬i.e. case endings, to scratch In the case of so-called ‘weak’ verbs (those in which one of the root letters is ‫ ي ,و‬or ‫ ,)أ‬the full imperfect third person singular form is given: e.g. ‫وﺻﻞ )ﻳﺼﻞ( إﻟﻰ‬ ُ ِ َ َ َ َ except for some accusative and genitive indefinite inflections: e.g. ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎ‬ ً َ free (of charge) ‫ﻗﺎض‬ ٍ judge to arrive in The plurals of Arabic words are only given if they ‘Diptote’ forms, i.e. those with reduced inflections, are indicated by means of a superscript are in some way irregular, i.e. if it involves a so-called ُ ِ َ damma ( ُ ) over the final consonant: e.g. ‫.ﻣﺪارس‬ . ‘broken’ plural, or in cases of deviating pluralization The diptote marking is omitted, however, in recent (e.g. a sound feminine plural for words without the borrowings and proper nouns as the inflected feminine marker ‫ ,ة‬i.e. ta’ marbuta): e.g. ¯ ¯. endings in those cases are never pronounced: ‫ﺑﺎب‬ door pl. ‫أﺑﻮاب‬ ْ ُ e.g. ‫*( ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ‬not ‫‘ ,)ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ‬Berlin’. Relevant grammatical information is provided when necessary for both Arabic and English entries: e.g. English infinitives appear with ‘to’, whereas in ‫ﻣﻀﺧﻢ‬ ‫ُ َ ﱢ‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ amplifier cases of ambiguity, the appropriate grammatical category (e.g. adjective, noun) is indicated. Useful
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION 5 collocations are also listed, as are prepositions: adj. adjective e.g. adv. adverb coll. collective (noun) el. electricity f. feminine fig. figurative gen. generic (noun) intrans. intransitive (verb) math. mathematics n. noun n. un. unit noun o. self oneself pass. passive (voice) perf. perfect tense pl. plural prep. preposition different meanings are part of the same field, then Qur. Qur’an they appear numbered next to the entry: e.g. s.o. someone s.thing something 1. raven trans. transitive (verb) 2. crow v. verb ‫ات‬‫-ون‬ regular masculine plural ‫رﺳﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ official (adj.) ‫واﻓﻖَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ََ َ to approve ‫( ﺣﺮب‬f.) َْ war ‫ﺿﺮبَ ﺣﻘﻨﺎ‬ ً َْ ََ to give an injection In cases of polysemy or homonymy (sc. multiple meanings) of Arabic words, the various meanings are included in the relevant categories: e.g. ‫ ﻓﺘﺢ‬in َ ََ the sense of ‘to open’ will be found under ‘Housing and Construction’, whereas it reappears under ‘The Military’ in the meaning of ‘to conquer’. If the ‫ﻏﺮاب‬ ُ The following abbreviations are used in the Lexicon: < regular feminine plural > the opposite of
  11. 11. FRUIT 7 Fruit ‫ﻃﺎزج‬ َ fresh pineapple ‫( ﻋﻨﺐ‬coll.) َِ grapes ‫( ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎل‬coll.) ُْ ُ oranges (pl. ‫)أﻋﻨﺎب‬ ْ ‫( ﺑﻄﻴﺦ‬coll.) َ (water)melons ‫( ﺑﻠﺢ‬coll.) ََ dates ‫أﺛﻤﺮ‬ ََ َ to bear fruit (tree, plant) ‫أﻧﺎﻧﺎس‬ َ ‫( ﺑﻨﺪق‬coll.) ُ ُْ ِ َ (pl. ‫)ﺑﻨﺎدق‬ ‫( ﺗﻔﺎح‬coll.) َّ ُ (pl. ‫)ﺗﻔﺎﻓﻴﺢ‬ ُ ِ َ hazelnuts ‫ﻋﻨﻘﻮد‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎﻗﻴﺪ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺔ‬ ِ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻮاﻛﻪ‬ bunch (of grapes) fruit ‫ﻓﺞ‬ ّ ِ unripe ‫ﻓﺮاوﻟﺔ‬ ْ َ apples strawberry ‫( ﺗﻤﺮ‬coll.) ْ َ (dried) dates ‫( ﻓﺴﺘﻖ‬coll.) ُْ ُ pistachio nuts ‫ﺗﻤﺮ ﻫﻨﺪ‬ ِْ َ tamarind ‫( ﻓﻮل ﺳﻮداﻧﻲ‬coll.) ّ peanuts ‫ﺗﻮت‬ mulberry ‫( ﻛﺮز‬coll.) ََ cherries ‫ﺗﻮت ﺷﻮﻛﻲ‬ ّ َْ raspberry ‫ﻛﺴﺘﻨﺎء‬ َْ ُ chestnut ‫( ﺗﻴﻦ‬coll.) figs ‫( ﻛﻤﺜﺮى‬coll.) َ َْ ُ َ َْ ُ (pl. ‫)ﻛﻤﺜﺮﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺛﻤﺮ‬ َ َ ِ pl. ‫ﺛﻤﺎر‬ fruit (produce) ‫ﻻرﻧﺞ‬ ِ pears grapefruit ‫ﺟﻮاﻓﺔ‬ َ guava ‫( ﺟﻮز‬coll.) َْ walnuts ‫ﻟﺐ‬ ّ ُ p. ‫ﻟﺒﻮب‬ ُُ ‫( ﺟﻮز اﻟﻬﻨﺪ‬coll.) ِْ ْ َ coconuts ‫( ﻟﻮز‬coll.) َْ almonds َ ‫( ﺣﺐّ اﻟﺼﻨﻮﺑﺮ‬coll.) َ ْ َ َّ pine nuts ‫( ﻟﻴﻤﻮن‬coll.) ُ ِ lemons ‫( ﺧﻮخ‬coll.) َ plums ‫ﻟﻴﻤﻮن ﺣﺎﻣﺾ‬ ِ lime ‫( زﺑﻴﺐ‬coll.) َِ raisins ‫ﻣﺎﻧﺠﻮ‬ ُ ْ mango ‫ﺳﺒﺎط‬ ُ cluster (fruit) ‫( ﻣﺸﻤﺶ‬coll.) ِ ْ ِ apricots ‫( ﺳﻔﺮﺟﻞ‬coll.) َ ََْ quinces ‫ﻣﻮاﻟﺢ‬ ِ َ citrus fruits ‫( ﻣﻮز‬coll.) َْ bananas ‫ﻧﺎﺿﺞ‬ ِ ripe (fruit) musk melon ‫ﻳﻘﻄﻴﻦ‬ َْ squash to ripen ‫ﻳﻮﺳﻔﻲ‬ ّ ُِ ُ tangerine ُ ِ ََ (pl. ‫)ﺳﻔﺎرج‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﺤﺔ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﺢ‬ ُ َ َّ َ ‫( ﺷﻤﺎم‬coll.) ‫( ﻃﺎب‬i) َ slice core (e.g. apple)
  12. 12. 8 FLORA Flora ‫أﺑﻨﻮس‬ َُْ ‫( أﺛﻞ‬coll.) َُ (pl. ‫)أﺛﻮل‬ ebony ‫( ﺟﻤﻴﺰ‬coll.) َْ ُ sycamore tamarisk ‫ﺣﺒﺔ ﺣﻠﻮة‬ ُْ ََ aniseed ‫ﺣﻨﺎء‬ َّ ِ henna ‫ﺣﻨﻄﺔ‬ ِْ see ‫ﻗﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻣﻰ‬ َ ُ lavender ‫ﺧﺸﺐ اﻟﻤﻐﻨﺔ‬ ُْ ْ َ mahogany ‫( أرز‬coll.) َْ cedars ‫أزﻫﺮ‬ ََ َْ to blossom (plant, flower) ‫أﺻﻴﺺ‬ ِ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫أﺻﺺ‬ flowerpot 2. daisy ‫( ﺧﺸﺨﺎش‬coll.) ْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﺸﺎﺧﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﺔ‬ bunch of flowers, bouquet ‫ﺧﻨﺸﺎر‬ ِْ fern ‫ﺑﺎﺋﻊ اﻟﺰﻫﻮر‬ ُ ُّ florist ‫( ﺧﻮص‬coll.) ُ palm leaves ‫ﺑﺘﻮﻻ‬ َُ birch tree ‫دﺧﻦ‬ ْ ُ millet ‫ﺑﺨﻮر‬ ُ َ incense ‫دردار‬ َْ elm ‫ﺑﺨﻮر ﻣﺮﻳﻢ‬ َْ َ cyclamen َ ََ ‫( ذﺑﻞ‬u) to wilt, wither 1. seed ‫( رﻣﺎن‬coll.) ُ pomegranates ‫أﻗﺤﻮان‬ ُ ُْ ٍ (pl. ‫)أﻗﺎﺣﻲ ,أﻗﺎح‬ 1. camomile poppies ‫ﺑﺬرة‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺑﺬور‬ 2. pip, stone (fruit) ‫ﺑﺮدي‬ َِْ papyrus (plant) ‫ﺑﺮدﻳﺔ‬ َِْ papyrus (sheet) ‫ﺑﺮﻋﻢ‬ ََ َْ ‫( زﻫﺮ‬coll.) ْ َ to burgeon ُ ُ ُ ْ ْ ُ ِ pl. ‫أزاﻫﻴﺮ ,أزﻫﺎر ,أزﻫﺮ ,زﻫﻮر‬ bud ‫زﻫﺮ اﻟﻠﺆﻟﺆ‬ ُْ ُ ْ َ daisy ‫( ﺳﺮو‬coll.) َْ evergreen cypress ‫ﺑﺮﻋﻢ‬ ُ ُْ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺞ‬ َ ََْ 1. violet 2. lilac ‫ﺗﺮﻣﺲ‬ ُ ُْ ‫ﺟﺬر‬ ِْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺟﺬور‬ ‫ﺟﺬع‬ ِْ lupin root trunk pl. ‫ﺟﺬور‬ ُُ ‫( زﻧﺒﻖ‬coll.) ََْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫زﻧﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎق‬ ُ pl. ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺎق‬ ُ ‫( ﺳﻨﺒﻞ‬coll.) ُُْ pl. ‫ﺳﻨﺎﺑﻞ ,-ات‬ ُ ِ َ iris flowers stem (plant) sumac ear, spike (grain) ‫( ﺳﻨﺪﻳﺎن‬coll.) ِ ِْ oak َّ َ ‫(ﺟف‬i) to dry out ‫ﺳﻮس‬ ُ licorice ‫ﺟﻔﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to dry ‫ﺳﻮﺳﻦ‬ َ َْ lily of the valley
  13. 13. FLORA ‫( ﺷﺠﺮ‬coll.) َ َ pl. ‫أﺷﺠﺎر‬ ْ ‫ﻗﺼﺐ ﻫﻨﺪي‬ ّ ِ ِْ َ َ bamboo ‫ﻗﻤﺢ‬ ْ َ trees wheat hemp, flax ‫ﺷﻌﻴﺮ‬ َِ barley ‫ﻗﻨﺐ‬ ََ ‫ﺷﻮﻓﺎن‬ َْ oats ‫ﻛﺄس‬ ُ ِ pl. ‫ﻛﺌﺎس ,ﻛﺆوس‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺎر‬ َّ ُ 9 1. cactus calyx 2. Indian fig ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻮر‬ ُ camphor ‫( ﺻﻔﺼﺎف‬coll.) َْ willow ‫ﻛﺎﻛﺎو‬ cocoa ‫ﻃﻠﺢ‬ َْ acacia َّ َ ‫ﻋﺒﺎد اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ْ َّ sunflower ‫ﻛﺮم‬ َْ ُ pl. ‫ﻛﺮوم‬ 1. see ‫)2( ﺳﺎق‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺘﻨﺎء‬ َْ َ chestnut tree 2. vein (plant) ‫ﻟﺒﻼب‬ َْ ivy grass ‫ﻣﺮﺳﻴﻦ‬ ِ َْ see ‫آس‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻫﺮﻳﺔ‬ َِ َْ vase ‫ﻋﺮق‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻋﺮوق‬ ُُ ‫( ﻋﺸﺐ‬coll.) ْ ُ pl. ‫أﻋﺸﺎب‬ ْ ‫ﻋﻨﺎب‬ ُّ jujube ‫ﻏﺎﺑﺔ‬ reed ‫( ﻧﺒﺎت‬coll.) َ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫( ﻏﺎر‬coll.) laurel trees ‫( ﻧﺒﺎت ﻣﺘﺴﻠﻖ‬coll.) ِّ َ َ ُ َ ‫( ﻏﺮس‬i) َ ََ to plant ‫ﻏﺮس‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﻏﺮاس‬ ‫ﻏﺼﻦ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫ﻏﺼﻮن ,أﻏﺼﺎن‬ ْ ُ ُ vine plants, flora climbing plants, creepers branch ّ ُ ‫ﻓﻞ‬ Arabian jasmine ‫ﻗﺮﻧﻔﻞ‬ ُُْ ُ 1. clove ‫( ﻧﺒﺖ‬i) َ ََ to grow (plants) ‫( ﻧﺨﻞ‬coll.) ْ َ palm trees ‫ﻧﺨﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ see ‫ﻧﺨﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﺟﺲ‬ ِ َْ seedling narcissus ‫( ورد‬coll.) َْ ُُ pl. ‫ورود‬ roses ‫ﻗﺸﺮ‬ ْ ِ 1. bark ‫( ورق‬coll.) ََ pl. ‫أوراق‬ ْ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﺸﻮر‬ 2. peel ‫( ورق ﻋﻨﺐ‬coll.) َِ َ َ vine leaves ‫( ﻗﺼﺐ‬coll.) َ َ reed, cane ‫ﻳﺎﺳﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ jasmine ‫ﻗﺼﺐ ﺳﻜﺮ‬ َّ ُ sugar cane ‫ﻳﺎﺳﻨﺖ‬ ِْ hyacinth 2. carnation leaves
  14. 14. 10 HERBS AND SPICES Herbs and spices ‫ﺑﺮﺳﻴﻢ‬ ِ ِْ clover ‫ﻋﻄﺮ‬ ِ َ fragrant, aromatic ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺎﺳﺔ‬ ْ ِ mace ‫ﻋﺒﻴﺮ‬ َِ aroma, fragrance ‫ﺑﻘﺪوﻧﺲ‬ ِ َُْ parsley ‫ﻏﺎر‬ laurel ‫ﺑﻬﺎر‬ َ herb ‫ﻓﻠﻔﻞ ,ﻓﻠﻔﻞ‬ ُ ُْ ِ ِْ pepper ‫ﻓﻠﻔﻞ أﺣﻤﺮ‬ َ ْ ِ ِْ paprika ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ِ 1. spice, condiment ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻮاﺑﻞ‬ 2. see ‫ﻛﺰﺑﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻔﻞ أﺧﻀﺮ‬ َ ْ ِ ِْ green pepper ‫ﺛﻮم‬ ُ garlic ‫ﻓﻠﻔﻞ ﺣﺎر‬ ّ ِ ِْ chilli ‫ﺟﻮز اﻟﻄﻴﺐ‬ ِ َْ nutmeg ‫ﻗﺮﻃﻢ‬ ُ ُْ safflower ‫ﺣﺒﻖ‬ ََ basil ‫ﻗﺮﻓﺔ‬ ِْ cinnamon ‫ﺣﺒﻬﺎن‬ ََ cardamom ‫ﻛﺮﻛﻢ‬ ُ ُْ turmeric ‫ﺣﺼﺎﻟﺒﺎن‬ ُ َ rosemary ‫ﻛﺮوﻳﺎ‬ ََْ caraway ‫( ﺧﺮدل‬coll.) ََْ mustard seed ‫ﻛﺎري‬ curry ‫درس‬ َِ dried clover ‫ﻛﺰﺑﺮة‬ َ َْ ُ coriander ‫رﻳﺤﺎن‬ َْ sweet basil cumin ‫زﻋﺘﺮ‬ َْ َ ُّ َ ‫ﻛﻤﻮن‬ wild thyme scented, perfumed ‫زﻋﻔﺮان‬ ِْ َ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻌﻄﺮ‬ saffron ‫زﻧﺠﺒﻴﻞ‬ َ َْ ginger ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ ِْ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻼح‬ ‫ﺷﺒﺖ‬ ِِ dill َ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎت ﻋﻄﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ aromatic plants ‫ﺳﻤﺴﻢ‬ ِ ْ ِ sesame ‫ﻧﻌﻨﺎع‬ َْ mint ‫ﺷﻤﺎر‬ َ fennel ‫ﻳﻨﺴﻮن‬ ُ َْ aniseed ‫أرز‬ َُّ rice َّ ِ ِ ‫ﺑﺴﻠﺔ‬ pea ‫ﺑﺎذﻧﺠﺎن‬ ِْ aubergine ‫( ﺑﺼﻞ‬coll.) َ َ onions ‫ﺑﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ okra, ladies’ fingers ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻃﺎ‬ َ sweet potato, yam salt Vegetables
  15. 15. ANIMALS 11 ‫( ﺑﻄﺎﻃﺲ‬coll.) َ potatoes ‫( ﻃﻤﺎﻃﻢ‬coll.) ِ َ tomatoes ‫ﺑﻨﺠﺮ‬ َ َْ beetroot ‫( ﻋﺪس‬coll.) ََ lentils ‫( ﺟﺰر‬coll.) ََ carrots ‫ﻏﻠﺔ‬ َّ grain, cereals ُّ ُ ‫ﺣﻤﺺ، ﺣﻤﺺ‬ ِّ ِ chick-peas artichokes ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻮﻟﻴﺎء‬ ِ European bean ‫( ﻓﺠﻞ‬coll.) ْ ِ radishes ‫( ﻓﻄﺮ‬coll.) ْ ُ (coll.) ‫( ﺧﺮﺷﻮف‬coll.) ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﺧﺮاﺷﻴﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻏﻼل ,-ات‬ ِ mushrooms ‫( ﺧﺲ‬coll.) ّ َ lettuce ‫( ﻓﻮل‬coll.) beans, broad beans ‫ﺧﻀﺮوات‬ َْ َ vegetables ‫( ﻗﺮع‬coll.) َْ pumpkins, gourds ‫( ﺧﻴﺎر‬coll.) َ cucumbers, gherkins ‫( ﻗﺮﻧﺒﻴﻂ‬coll.) َِْ َ cauliflower ‫ذرة‬ َّ ُ maize ‫ﻛﺮاث‬ َُ leek ‫راوﻧﺪ‬ َْ rhubarb ‫( ﻛﺮﻓﺲ‬coll.) ََْ celery ‫( زﻳﺘﻮن‬coll.) َُْ olives ‫( ﻛﺮﻧﺐ‬coll.) ُْ ُ cabbage ‫ﺳﺒﺎﻧﺦ‬ ِ َ spinach ‫ﻛﻮﺳﻰ‬ َ courgette ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪر‬ َ َْ َ white beet, chard ‫ﻟﻔﺖ‬ ِْ turnip ‫ﻃﺎزج‬ ِ fresh ‫ﻟﻮﺑﻴﺎء‬ ِ bean Animals Mammals ‫اﺑﻦ آوى‬ َ ِْ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﺎت آوى‬ َ ‫اﺑﻦ ﻋﺮس‬ ْ ِ ِْ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﺎت ﻋﺮس‬ ِْ َ ‫أرﻧﺐ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫أراﻧﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫أﺳﺪ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﺳﻮد ,أﺳﺪ‬ ُ ُ ُ jackal ‫إﺳﻄﺒﻞ‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫-ات‬ stable 1. rabbit 2. hare lion ‫آﻛﻞ اﻟﻨﻤﻞ‬ ْ َّ ِ ant-eater ‫أﻟﻴﻒ‬ َِ weasel tame ‫أﻳﻞ‬ ِّ pl. ‫أﻳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺑﺮﺛﻦ‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﺛﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ stag claw, paw
  16. 16. ‫21‬ ‫‪ANIMALS‬‬ ‫ﺑﻐﻞ‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺎل .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪horse shoe‬‬ ‫ﺣﺬوة اﻟﺤﺼﺎن‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪mule‬‬ ‫‪stallion‬‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺎن‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ْ ِ‬ ‫أﺣﺼﻨﺔ ,ﺣﺼﻦ .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪1. cows‬‬ ‫).‪ (coll‬ﺑﻘﺮ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎر‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ ِ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻴﺮ .‪pl‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ‪2. see‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﺑﻘﺎر .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪1. large domestic animal‬‬ ‫ﺑﻬﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎر اﻟﻮﺣﺶ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪2. quadruped‬‬ ‫‪donkey‬‬ ‫‪zebra‬‬ ‫‪lamb‬‬ ‫‪animal‬‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻞ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﺣﻤﺎل ,ﺣﻤﻼن .‪pl‬‬ ‫)‪3. livestock (plural‬‬ ‫‪fox‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮان‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫-ات .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪mammal‬‬ ‫‪predatory animal‬‬ ‫‪fetlock‬‬ ‫‪bull‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺮة‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﺻﺮ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ُِ‬ ‫‪buffalo‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻃﻮم‬ ‫َْ ُ‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﻴﻢ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫‪young donkey‬‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻞ ‪see‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮوف‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫أﺧﺮﻓﺔ,ﺧﺮاف,ﺧﺮﻓﺎن .‪pl‬‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫ِْ ِ‬ ‫)‪kid (small goat‬‬ ‫)‪flank (horse‬‬ ‫)‪trunk (elephant‬‬ ‫‪bat‬‬ ‫ُ َّ‬ ‫ﺧﻔﺎش‬ ‫ﺧﻔﺎﻓﻴﺶ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫‪to scratch‬‬ ‫)‪ (i, u‬ﺧﻤﺶ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫‪pig‬‬ ‫ﺧﻨﺰﻳﺮ‬ ‫ِْ ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﺎزﻳﺮ .‪pl‬‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫‪boar‬‬ ‫‪bear‬‬ ‫ﺧﻨﺰﻳﺮ ﺑﺮي‬ ‫ِ ْ ِ َ ِّ ّ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﺎزﻳﺮُ ﺑﺮﻳﺔ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ِ َ ِّ َّ‬ ‫دب‬ ‫ُ ّ‬ ‫دﺑﺒﺔ ,أدﺑﺎب .‪pl‬‬ ‫ْ ُ‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫ﺛﻌﻠﺐ‬ ‫َ َْ‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫ﺛﻌﺎﻟﺐ .‪pl‬‬ ‫ﺛﻨﺔ‬ ‫ُ َّ‬ ‫ﺛﻨﻦ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮان ﺛﺪﻳﻲ‬ ‫َْ ّ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮان ﻣﻔﺘﺮس‬ ‫َُْ ِ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫َ ُ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎﺋﻢ .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪rat‬‬ ‫‪1. puppy‬‬ ‫‪2. cub‬‬ ‫‪camel‬‬ ‫ﺛﻮر‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ﺛﻴﺮان .‪pl‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻮس‬ ‫ﺟﻮاﻣﻴﺲ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫ﺟﺤﺶ‬ ‫َ ْ‬ ‫ﺟﺤﺎش .‪pl‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺟﺪي‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺎن .‪pl‬‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫ﺟﺮذ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫ﺟﺮذان .‪pl‬‬ ‫ﺟﺮو‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫,أﺟﺮ ,ﺟﺮاء .‪pl‬‬ ‫ٍْ ِ‬ ‫أﺟﺮاء‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻞ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎل .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪race horse, charger‬‬ ‫‪hoof‬‬ ‫ﺟﻮاد‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺎد .‪pl‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﺮ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪sloth‬‬ ‫دبُّ ﻛﺴﻼن‬ ‫ُ َ ْ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﻓﺮ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ُِ‬ ‫‪poultry‬‬ ‫دواﺟﻦ‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ‬ ‫ِ ْ‬ ‫‪mare‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻮرة ,ﺣﺠﻮر ,أﺣﺠﺎر .‪pl‬‬ ‫ذﻳﻞ ‪see‬‬ ‫ذﻧﺐ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫أذﻧﺎب .‪pl‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫‪zoo‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫َِ‬
  17. 17. ANIMALS ‫ذﺋﺐ‬ ِْ pl. ‫ذؤﺑﺎن ,ذﺋﺎب‬ ُْ ‫ذﻳﻞ‬ ِْ ُُ ْ pl. ‫أذﻳﺎل ,ذﻳﻮل‬ ‫رﺑﺎﻋﻲ اﻷرﺟﻞ‬ ُ َْ ِ ُ ‫ردف‬ ِْ pl. ‫أرداف‬ ُ ْ ‫روث‬ َْ pl. ‫أرواث‬ ْ ‫زراﻓﺔ‬ َ wolf tail ‫ﺳﻤﻮر‬ ُّ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻣﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺳﻨﺎم‬ َ pl. ‫أﺳﻨﻤﺔ‬ ِْ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺎب‬ ِْ ‫( ﺷﺎء‬coll.) pl. ‫ﺷﻮاه ,ﺷﻴﺎه‬ ِ ِ ‫ﺷﻤﺒﺎﻧﺰي‬ ِْ ْ ِ ‫ﺻﻬﻮة‬ َْ pl. ‫ات ,ﺻﻬﺎء‬ِ ‫ﺿﺒﻊ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﺿﺒﺎع‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻞ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﺠﻮل‬ ُ ‫ﻋﺮف‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﺮاف‬ ‫ﻋﺮف اﻟﺪﻳﻚ‬ ِّ ُْ ‫ﻋﺮﻳﻦ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻋﺮن‬ ُُ see ‫ﻣﻌﺰ‬ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎز ,ﻋﻨﻮز ,أﻋﻨﺰ‬ ُْ ُُ ُ ِ ‫ﻏﺰال‬ َ pl. ‫ﻏﺰﻻن‬ ِْ gazelle quadruped ‫ﻏﻨﻢ‬ ََ see ‫)1( ﺷﺎء‬ croup ‫ﻏﻮرﻳﻼ‬ ِ ُ gorilla dung, droppings ‫( ﻓﺄر‬coll.) َْ ِْ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﻴﺮان ,ﻓﺌﺮان‬ giraffe ‫ﻓﺮس‬ ََ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻓﺮاس‬ ُ َ َ pl. ‫زراﻓﻰ ,زراﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻊ‬ َُ pl. ‫ﺳﺒﺎع‬ ِ ‫ﻋﻨﺰ‬ َْ 13 1. mice 2. rats horse ‫ﻓﺮس اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ََ 1. beast of prey 2. see ‫اﺳﺪ‬ hippopotamus ‫ﻓﺮس ﻣﺨﺼﻲ‬ ِ ْ َ ََ gelding sable ‫ﻓﺮو‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﺮاء‬ hump (camel) pl. ‫أﻓﻬﺪ ,ﻓﻬﻮد‬ ُ َُْ (grey) squirrel ‫ﻓﻴﻞ‬ ِ pl. ‫أﻓﻴﺎل ,ﻓﻴﻮل ,ﻓﻴﻠﺔ‬ َِ ُُ ْ ‫ﻓﻬﺪ‬ َْ 1. sheep 2. ewes chimpanzee back (horse) ‫ﻗﺮد‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻗﺮود‬ ُ ‫ﻗﺮن‬ َْ fur leopard, cheetah elephant monkey horn pl. ‫ﻗﺮون‬ ُُ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ُ otter hyena ‫ﻗﻂ‬ ّ ِ cat calf َّ ِ ‫ﻗﻂّ اﻟﺰﺑﺎد‬ civet cat ‫ﻗﻄﻴﻄﺔ‬ َْ ُ kitten mane (horse) coxcomb lion’s den, lair َ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﻄﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻴﻊ‬ ِ َ flock, herd pl. ‫أﻗﻄﺎع ,ﻗﻄﺎع ,ﻗﻄﻌﺎن‬ ْ ُ ِ ْ ‫ﻗﻨﺪس‬ ُ ُْ ‫ﻗﻨﻔﺬ‬ ُُْ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﺎﻓﺬ‬ ُِ َ beaver hedgehog
  18. 18. 14 ‫ﻗﺎرض‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﻮارض‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻛﺒﺶ‬ َْ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﻛﺒﺎش ,ﻛﺒﺎش‬ ‫ﻛﺮﻛﺪن‬ ّ ََ َْ ‫( ﻛﻒ‬f.) ّ َ ُُ ّ ُ pl. ‫أﻛﻒ ,ﻛﻔﻮف‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺐ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻛﻼب‬ ANIMALS rodent ram rhinoceros paw, foot ‫( ﻣﻌﺰ، ﻣﻌﺰ‬coll.) ََ َْ pl. ‫أﻣﻌﺰ‬ ُْ ‫ﻣﻬﺎة‬ َ ََ pl. ‫ﻣﻬﻮات‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺮ‬ ُْ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻬﺎر ,ﻣﻬﺎرة‬ goats wild cow foal ‫ﻣﻬﺮة‬ ُْ dog filly ‫ﻧﺎب‬ tusk ْ pl. ‫أﻧﻴﺎب‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﺔ‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻮق‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎﻣﺔ‬ َ muzzle ‫ﻛﻤﻢ‬ َ َّ َ to muzzle ‫ﻛﻨﻐﺮ‬ َ َْ kangaroo ‫ﻻﻣﺔ‬ llama ‫ﻟﺒﻮة‬ َ َْ lioness ‫ﻧﻤﺲ‬ ْ ِ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻤﻮس‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﺔ‬ ِ cattle ‫ﻧﻴﺺ‬ ِ porcupine ‫ﻫﺠﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ dromedary, racing camel ‫ﻣﺎﻋﺰ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻋﺰ‬ ُِ َ see ‫ﻣﻌﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺣﺶ‬ ‫َُ َ ﱢ‬ wild ‫ﻣﺠﺘﺮ‬ ّ َْ ُ ruminant ‫ﻣﺨﻠﺐ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻟﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ see ‫ﺑﺮﺛﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻤﻮر‬ ُ ُ marmot ‫ﻣﻌﺎز‬ َّ goatherd 1. leopard 2. tiger 1. mongoose 2. ferret, weasel pl. ‫ﻫﺠﻦ‬ ُ ُ ‫وﺑﺮ‬ ََ pl. ‫أوﺑﺎر‬ ْ ‫وﺣﺶ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫وﺣﻮش‬ ‫وﺷﻖ‬ َ َ ‫ﻣﺮﻣﻮط‬ َْ she-camel ‫وﻃﻮاط‬ ْ َ pl. ‫وﻃﺎوﻳﻂ ,وﻃﺎوط‬ ِ َ ِ َ hair, coat (camel, goat, cat) wild animal lynx see ‫ﺧﻔﺎش‬ Birds ‫ﺑﺎز‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮوش‬ َُ َ flamingo ‫( ﺑﻂ‬coll.) ّ َ falcon ِ pl. ‫ﺑﻴﺰان‬ ducks ‫( ﺑﺎض‬i) َ to lay eggs ‫ﺑﺒﻐﺎء‬ ََ parrot ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ‬ ِْ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻄﺎرﻳﻖ‬ ‫( ﺑﺠﻊ‬coll.) َ َ pelicans ‫ﺑﻠﺸﻮن‬ ُ ََ penguin heron
  19. 19. ANIMALS ‫ﺑﻮم‬ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﻮام‬ ‫ﺗﺪرج‬ َُْ َُْ pl. ‫ﺗﺪرﺟﺔ‬ ‫( ﺗﻢ‬coll.) َّ ‫ﺟﻨﺎح‬ ِ ِْ pl. ‫أﺟﻨﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﺎرى‬ َ ُ pl. ‫ﺣﺒﺎرﻳﺎت‬ َ ُ pheasant swans wing bustard ‫( دﺟﺎج‬coll.) َ chickens, hens ‫دﻳﻚ‬ ِ cock pl. ‫أدﻳﺎك ,دﻳﻮك ,دﻳﻜﺔ‬ ِ ُُ ْ ‫ﺳﻤﻦ‬ ُّ ُ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻣﻦ‬ ِ َ turkey (cock) feathers, plumage quails see ‫ﺳﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﻧﻮ‬ ُ ُُ swallow ‫ﺷﻮﺣﺔ‬ َْ vulture ‫ﺻﻘﺮ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺻﻘﺮ ,ﺻﻘﻮر‬ ُُ ُْ migratory bird ‫ﻃﻴﺮ ﺟﺎرح‬ ِ َْ bird of prey ‫ﻋﺸ ﺶ‬ َ ّ َ to build a nest ‫ﻋﺶ‬ ّ ُ nest pl. ‫ﻋﺸﺸﺔ ,أﻋﺸﺎش ,ﻋﺸﺎش‬ ِ ْ َ ِ pigeons, doves ‫( ﺳﻤﺎن‬coll.) َّ ُ flight ِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻃﻴﻮر ﺟﺎرﺣﺔ‬ ‫( ﺣﻤﺎم‬coll.) َ ‫( رﻳﺶ‬coll.) ِ ِ ْ pl. ‫أرﻳﺎش ,رﻳﺎش‬ ‫ﻃﻴﺮة‬ َْ ‫ﻃﻴﺮ ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ‬ ِ ُ َْ owl ‫ﺣﺪأة‬ ِْ kite pl. ‫ﺣﺪآن ,ﺣﺪاء ,ﺣﺪأ‬ ِْ ِ ِْ ‫دﻳﻚ روﻣﻲ‬ ِ ُ 15 1. see ‫ﺑﺎز‬ ‫ﻋﺼﻔﻮر‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﺼﺎﻓﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻋﻘﺎب‬ ُ sparrow eagle pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺒﺎن ,أﻋﻘﺐ‬ ُْ ِْ ‫ﻋﻘﻌﻖ‬ ََْ magpie ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻟﻴﺐ‬ َِ َْ nightingale pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎدل‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻏﺮاب‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻏﺮﺑﺎن‬ ِْ ‫ﻏﺮﻧﻮق‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫ﻏﺮاﻧﻴﻖ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. raven 2. crow crane َ َّ َ ‫ﻓﺮخ‬ to hatch (eggs) ‫ﻗﺎق اﻟﻤﺎء‬ cormorant ‫ﻗﻔﺺ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻗﻔﺎص‬ ْ ‫( ﻗﻨﺒﺮ‬coll.) ُُْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺑﺮ‬ 2. hawk ‫( ﻃﺎر‬i) َ ‫ﻛﺘﻜﻮت‬ ُ َْ to fly hummingbird larks pl. ‫ﻛﺘﺎﻛﻴﺖ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻃﻨﺎن‬ َّ َ cage ‫ﻃﺎووس‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاوﻳﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﻃﻴﺮ‬coll/n.un.) َْ pl. ‫ﻃﻴﻮر‬ ُ peacock ‫ﻛﺮﻛﻲ‬ ِ ُْ pl. ‫ﻛﺮاﻛﻲ‬ ِ َ chick crane ‫ﻛﻨﺎري‬ ِ َ bird canary ‫ﻟﻘﻼق‬ َْ stork pl. ‫ﻟﻘﺎﻟﻖ‬ ُ ِ َ
  20. 20. 16 ‫ﻣﻨﻘﺎر‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﻧﻌﺎم‬coll.) َ َ (pl. ‫)ﻧﻌﺎﺋﻢ‬ ANIMALS beak, bill ostriches َّ َ ‫ﻧﻘﺎر اﻟﺨﺸﺐ‬ ْ َ woodpecker ‫( ﻧﻘﺮ‬a) َََ ‫( ﻧﻮرس‬coll.) ََْ pl. ‫ﻧﻮارس‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻫﺪﻫﺪ‬ ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﻫﺪاﻫﺪ‬ ُِ َ ‫( وز‬coll.) َّ ‫وﻗﻮاق‬ َْ sea gulls hoopoe geese to peck cuckoo Marine animals ‫أﺑﻮ ﺳﻴﻒ‬ َْ ّ swordfish ‫أﺧﻄﺒﻮط‬ ُُ ْ ُ octopus ‫أمّ اﻟﺤﺒﺮ‬ ِْ ُ squid ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ pl. ‫-ات‬ amphibian ‫ﺑﻠﺢ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ََ mussel ‫ﺑﻮري‬ (striped/red) mullet ‫( ﺗﻦ‬coll.) ّ ُ tuna َّ َ ‫ﺟﺮاد اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ‫( رﻋﺎد‬coll.) ‫َ ﱠ‬ electric ray ‫زﻋﻨﻔﺔ‬ َْ َ fin, flipper pl. ‫زﻋﺎﻧﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻤﻮن‬ ُ ْ ‫ﺳﺮب‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺳﺮاب‬ ْ ‫( ﺳﺮدﻳﻦ‬coll.) ِ َ salmon shoal (fish) sardines ‫ﺳﺮﻃﺎن‬ ََ pl. ‫ات‬ 2. see ‫ﺟﺮاد اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ crayfish ‫ﺳﺮﻃﺎن ﺑﺤﺮي‬ ِْ َ ََ lobster ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺚ‬ ِّ َ eel ‫ﺳﻘﻤﺮي‬ ِْ ُُ mackerel ‫ﺣﺒﺎر‬ َّ َ see ‫أم اﻟﺤﺒﺮ‬ ‫( ﺳﻤﻚ‬coll.) َ َ fish fish scale pl. ‫أﺳﻤﺎك‬ ْ ‫ﺣﺮﺷﻒ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﺮاﺷﻒ‬ ِ َ ‫( ﺣﺴﻚ‬coll.) َ َ ‫ﺣﻮت‬ ُ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﻮات ,ﺣﻴﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮان ﺑﺤﺮي‬ ّ ِْ َ ََ ِّ ْ َ ََ pl. ‫ﺣﻴﻮاﻧﺎت ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺸﻮم‬ ُ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻴﺎﺷﻴﻢ‬ ‫دﻟﻔﻴﻦ‬ ِ َْ ِ َ pl. ‫دﻻﻓﻴﻨﺚ‬ 1. crab ‫ﺳﻤﻚ اﻟﺘﺮس‬ ْ ُّ َ َ turbot fishbones ‫ﺳﻤﻚ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬ َ ُ َ َ sole whale ‫ﺷﺒﻮط‬ ُّ َ carp ‫( ﺻﺪف‬coll.) ََ pearl oysters marine animal ْ pl. ‫أﺻﺪاف‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻞ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ْ ِ gill dolphin seal ‫ﻗﺎروس‬ ُ seabass ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ُّ cod ‫ﻗﺮش‬ ِْ shark
  21. 21. ANIMALS ‫ﻗﺮﻣﻮط‬ ُ َْ ‫( ﻗﺸﺮ‬coll.) ْ ِ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﺸﻮر‬ shrimp fish scales َّ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﻗﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ crustacean ‫ﻗﻨﻔﺬ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ُُْ catfish ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﺮاﻣﻴﻂ‬ ‫( ﻗﺮﻳﺪس‬coll.) ِ َْ ُ 17 sea urchin ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎر‬ ِ caviar Reptiles and insects ‫أﻓﻌﻰ‬ ً َْ pl. ‫أﻓﺎع‬ ٍ َ adder, viper ‫دﺑﻮر‬ ُّ َ pl. ‫دﺑﺎﺑﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫أﻣﻴﺒﺔ‬ ِ َ amoeba ‫ﺑﺮص‬ ُْ gecko ‫( دود‬coll.) ُ ِ pl. ‫دﻳﺪان‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻏﻮث‬ ُ ُْ flea ُ ‫دودة اﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ‬ ِ َّ tapeworm ‫دودة اﻟﻘﺰ‬ َّ silkworm ‫دودي‬ ِ ُ worm-like pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﻏﻴﺚ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﺑﻖ‬coll.) ّ َ bedbugs ‫ﺑﻨﺖ وردان‬ ْ ِ ِْ earthworm ‫ﺑﻴﺖ اﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮت‬ َُ َْ َْ spider’s web ‫ﺗﻞّ اﻟﻨﻤﻞ‬ ْ َّ َ ant hill ‫ﺗﻤﺴﺎح‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﺗﻤﺎﺳﻴﺢ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺛﻌﺒﺎن‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﺛﻌﺎﺑﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﺟﺮاد‬coll.) َّ ‫ﺣﺮﺑﺎء‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﺣﺮاﺑﻲ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺣﺸﺮة‬ َ َ ‫ﺣﻠﺰون‬ ََ pl. ‫ﺣﻼزﻳﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ َِ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﺤﻞ‬ ْ َّ ‫ﺧﻨﻔﺴﺎء‬ ُُْ pl. ‫ﺧﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ crocodile ‫( ذﺑﺎب‬coll.) ُ َّ ِ َ َّ ِ (pl. ‫)ذﺑﺎن، أذﺑﺔ‬ ‫ذﺑﺎب ﻗﺎرض‬ ِ ُ ‫زاﺣﻒ‬ ِ pl. ‫زواﺣﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ hornet worms, maggots flies horsefly reptile ‫( زﺣﻒ‬a) َ َ َ to creep, crawl ‫( زﻳﺰ‬coll.) ِ snake cicada chameleon ‫ﺳﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ِْ ِ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺳﺮب‬ ِْ 1. swarm (e.g. bees) insect pl. ‫أﺳﺮاب‬ ْ 2. colony (ants) locusts lizard snail ‫ﺳﻠﺤﻔﺎة‬ ْ َُ pl. ‫ﺳﻼﺣﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ beehive ‫ﺳﻤﻨﺪر‬ َ َْ َ salamander ‫( ﺳﻮس‬coll.) ُ mites, woodworms dung beetle ِ (pl. ‫)ﺳﻴﺴﺎن‬ tortoise
  22. 22. 18 ‫ﺷﺮﻧﻘﺔ‬ َْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﻧﻖ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﺻﻮر‬ ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﺻﺮاﺻﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺿﻔﺪع‬ ِِْ pl. ‫ﺿﻔﺎدع‬ ِ َ ‫ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻲ‬ َِْ ُ ََِْ ُ pl. ‫ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻴﺎت‬ ُّ ‫ﻋﺜﺔ‬ ANIMALS 1. cricket 2. cockroach frog parasite moth ‫( ﻗﻤﻞ‬coll.) ْ َ lice َ ََ ‫( ﻟﺪغ‬u) chrysalis to bite (snake), to sting ‫ﻟﺪﻏﺔ‬ َْ snakebite, sting ‫ﻣﺼﺎص اﻟﺪﻣﺎء‬ ِّ َ َ bloodsucker ُ َ َْ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺣﻞ‬ ‫( ﻧﺎﻣﻮس‬coll.) pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﻣﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ apiary, beehive mosquitoes ‫( ﻧﺤﻞ‬coll.) ْ َ bees ‫ﻧﺴﻴﺞ اﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮت‬ َُ َْ ِ َ َُ pl. ‫ﻋﺜﺚ‬ see ‫ﺑﻴﺖ اﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮت‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻜﺒﻮت‬ َُ َْ spider ََ ‫ﻓﺮس اﻟﻨﺒﻲ‬ ِ َّ praying mantis ‫ﻓﺮاﺷﺔ‬ َ butterfly ‫( ﻳﺮﻗﺎن‬coll.) ََ larvae tick ‫ﻳﺮﻗﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻀﻔﺎدع‬ ِ َ َْ tadpole ‫ﻳﺴﻌﻮب‬ ُْ َ drone, male bee antenna ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻳﻌﺎﺳﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺮادة‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﺮدان‬ ِْ ‫ﻗﺮن اﻻﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎر‬ ْ ِْ ِ ْ َ ‫( ﻧﻤﻞ‬coll.) ْ َ ِ (pl. ‫)ﻧﻤﺎل‬ ants Animal sounds ‫ﺑﻄﺒﻂ‬ َ َْ ِ to quack (duck) 3. see ‫ﺻﺮ‬ ّ ‫( ﺛﻐﺎ‬u) َ to bleat (sheep) َ ََ ‫( ﺻﻬﻞ‬i) to neigh ‫( ﺧﺎر‬u) to moo, to low (cattle) ‫ﺻﻬﻴﻞ‬ َِ neighing ‫( دن‬u) َ َ to buzz, hum (insect) ‫( ﺻﻮى‬i) ََ to peep, squeak ‫( زأر‬a, i) َ َ see ‫زﻣﺠﺮ ,ﻋﺠﻌﺞ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎح‬ ِ cry (bird) ‫زﻗﺰق‬ َ ََْ to chirp (bird) ‫ﻋﺠ ﻌﺞ‬ َ َْ َ to bellow (e.g. bull) ‫زﻣﺠﺮ‬ ََ ْ َ to roar (lion) ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻟﺔ‬ َ َْ song of the nightingale ‫ﺷﻘﺸﻖ‬ َ َ َْ to twitter ‫( ﻋﻮى‬i) ََ 1. to howl (wolf, jackal) 2. to yelp ‫( ﺻﺎح‬i) َ ‫( ﺻﺮ‬i) َّ َ to chirp (cricket) ‫( ﻏﺮد، ﻏﺮد‬a) َ َّ َ َ ِ َ to sing, warble (bird) ‫( ﺻﻔﺮ‬i) َََ 1. to whistle (bird) ‫( ﻓﺢ‬u, i) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to hiss (snake) 2. see ‫ﻓﺢ‬ ‫( ﻗﺎق‬u) َ to cackle, cluck (hen) to cry (bird)
  23. 23. FOOD AND DRINK 19 ‫( ﻧﻌﺐ‬a, i) َ ََ to croak (raven) 2. to trumpet (elephant) ‫( ﻧﻌﺮ‬a, i) َََ to snort ‫ﻟﻘﻠﻖ‬ َ َْ َ to clatter (stork) َّ َ ‫( ﻧﻖ‬i) 1. see ‫ﻗﺎق‬ ‫( ﻣﺎء‬u) to miaow ‫ﻣﻮاء‬ ُ miaow ‫( ﻧﻬﻖ‬a) َ ََ to bray (donkey) ‫( ﻧﺒﺢ‬a) َ ََ 1. to bark ‫ﻫﺒﻬﺐ‬ َ َ َْ see ‫)2( ﻧﺒﺢ‬ َ 2. to bay َ ََ ‫( ﻫﺪل‬i) to coo (pigeon) 1. pitcher, jug ‫ﺑﻘﺴﻤﺎت‬ ُ ُْ rusk 2. coffee pot ‫( ﺑﻠﻊ‬a) َ ََ to swallow ‫أدوات اﻟﻤﺎﺋﺪة‬ ََ cutlery ‫ﺑﻴﺮة‬ ِ beer ‫اﺳ ﺘ ﻨﺸ ﻖ‬ َ َ َْْ ِ to snuff ‫( ﺑﻴﺾ‬coll.) َْ eggs ‫أﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ِْ َ foodstuffs ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺔ ﺑﺮﺷﺖ‬ ْ َِ َْ soft-boiled egg َ َ َ ‫( أﻛﻞ‬u) to eat ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﻠﻮﻗﺔ ﺟﺪا‬ ًّ ِ ُْ َ َْ hard-boiled egg ‫أﻛﻞ‬ ْ َ food ‫ﺗﺠﻤﺪ‬ َ َّ َ َ to freeze (intrans.) ‫أﻟﺒﺎن‬ َْ dairy products ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َ embellishment, icing ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎء‬ ِِْ intoxication ‫ﺗﻌﺸﻰ‬ َّ َ to have dinner (evening meal) ‫اﻧﺘﺸﻰ‬ َ َِْ to become intoxicated ‫ﺗﻐﺪى‬ َّ ّ َ to have lunch ‫( ﺑﺮد‬u) َََ to cool off ‫ﺑﺮد‬ َ َّ َ to chill, refrigerate ‫( ﻗﺒﻊ‬a) َ ََ 1. to grunt (pig) 2. to croak (frog) Food and drink ‫إﺑﺮﻳﻖ‬ ِْ pl. ‫اﺑﺎرﻳﻖ‬ ُ ِ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺔ‬ ُْ ِ َُ pl. ‫ﺑﺮم ,ﺑﺮام‬ nutrition ‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻘﺔ‬ ِ َْ pinch of snuff ‫ﺗﻮرﺗﺔ‬ ْ ُ earthenware pot ‫ﺗﻐﺬى ب/ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ِ َََ ‫ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ َِْ pie, tart to live on ‫ﺑﺮﻳﻤﺔ‬ ِّ َ corkscrew ‫ﺗﻮﺳﺖ‬ ْ ُ toast ‫ﺑﺴﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬ ْ ِ biscuit ‫ﺛﻼﺟﺔ‬ ّ َ refrigerator ‫( ﺑﺸﺮ‬u) ََ َ to grate ‫ﺟﺎف‬ ّ dry ‫ﺑﻘﺎل‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ون ,ﺑﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ََ grocer ‫ﺟﺎﻣﺪ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﻮاﻣﺪ‬ ُِ َ hard, solid
  24. 24. 20 FOOD AND DRINK َّ َ ‫ﺟﺒﺎن‬ cheese seller ‫ﺟﺒﻨﺔ‬ ِْ cheese ‫ﺟﺒﻨﺔ ﻣﺒﺸﻮرة‬ ُ َْ ِْ grated cheese ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻂ‬ َِ ‫( ﺧﻤﺮ‬m/f) ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﻤﻮر‬ mixture wine jar ‫ﺧﻤﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻤﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ َّ َ ‫ﺟﺰار‬ butcher ‫( ﺟﺰر‬u) َََ ٍ ‫داع‬ ُ pl. ‫دﻋﺎة‬ to slaughter (animals) ‫دﺧﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to smoke (food) ‫ﺟﻤﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to freeze (trans.) ‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺠﻤﺪ‬ ْ َ ََ freezing point ‫ﺟﻬﺎز اﻟﻘﻬﻮة‬ َْ ِ coffee machine ‫دﺳﺘﺔ‬ ْ َ dozen ‫ﺣﺎر‬ ّ hot (‫( دﻋﺎ )إﻟﻰ‬u) َ to invite s.o. (to) ‫ﺣﺴﺎء‬ َ soup, broth ‫دﻋﻮة‬ ْ َ invitation ‫( ﺣﺸﺎ‬u) َ to stuff َ َْ َ ‫دﻏﺪغ‬ to crunch (with the teeth) ‫ﺣﺸﻮة‬ ْ َ stuffing ‫دﻗﻴﻖ‬ َِ flour ‫( ﺣﻔﻆ‬a) َ َِ to preserve, keep ‫( دﻟﻖ‬u) َ ََ to spill (liquid) ‫ﺣﻠﻮ‬ ُْ sweet (adj.) ‫( ذاب‬u) َ to melt, dissolve ‫ﺣﻠﻮاﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ confectioner ‫( ذاق‬u) َ to taste ‫ﺣﻠﻮﻳﺎت‬ َ َْ sweets, confectionery ‫ذوق‬ َْ taste ‫ﺣﻠﻴﺐ‬ َِ milk ‫ذواق‬ َّ gourmet, foodie ‫( ﺣﻤﺾ‬u) َ ُ َ to be/become sour ‫( ذﺑﺢ‬a) َ ََ ‫ﺧﺒﺎز‬ َّ َ baker ‫ﺧﺒﺰ‬ ُْ bread ‫ﺧﺮدل‬ ََْ mustard ‫ﺧﺸﺎرة‬ ُ leftover (of meal) ‫ﺧﻀﺮي‬ ّ َِ ُ greengrocer ‫( ﺧﻔﻖ‬i, u) َ ََ to beat (eggs), whip (cream) ّ َ ‫ﺧﻞ‬ vinegar ِ ْ ُ ُ ُ pl. ‫رﻏﻒ ,رﻏﻔﺎن ,راﻏﻔﺔ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺧﻠﻞ‬ to pickle, marinate ‫رﻗﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﻠﻮى‬ ‫َْ ﹰ‬ ُ waffle ‫( ﺧﻠﻂ‬i) َ ََ to mix ‫رﻗﻖ‬ َ َّ َ to roll out ‫ﺟﺮة‬ َّ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﺮار‬ ‫راﺳﺐ‬ ِ pl. ‫رواﺳﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ yeast, ferment host, inviter to slaughter (by slitting the throat) sediment, dregs ‫( رﺷﻒ‬u, i) َ َ َ to sip ‫رﺷﻔﺔ‬ ْ َ gulp, sip (drink) ‫رﻏﻮة‬ ْ َ foam, froth ‫رﻏﻴﻒ‬ ِ َ flat loaf of bread, roll
  25. 25. FOOD AND DRINK 21 ‫روح‬ ُ essence ‫( زﺑﺪ‬u) َ ََ to churn ‫ﺳﻜﺮ‬ َ ُ pl. ‫ﺳﻜﺎﻛﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫زﺑﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to froth (milk) ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﺜﻤﺎر‬ َّ َّ ُ fructose ‫زﺑﺪة‬ ُْ butter َّ ُ ‫ﺳﻜﺮ ﺧﺎم‬ raw sugar ‫زﺑﺪة ﻣﺼﻔﺎة‬ ْ ُ ُْ clarified butter َّ ُ ‫ﺳﻜﺮاﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮ‬ ِ َّ maltose bowl ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﻌﻨﺐ‬ ِ َّ َ dextrose ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﻘﺼﺐ‬ َ َ َّ ُ cane sugar ‫زﺑﺪﻳﺔ‬ ِ َْ ِ َ pl. ‫زﺑﺎدي‬ sugar ‫زﺟﺎﺟﺔ‬ ُ bottle ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﻠﺒﻦ‬ َ َ َّ ُ lactose ‫زق‬ ّ ِ skin (as receptacle for liquids) ‫ﺳﻜﺮ ﻣﻜﺮر‬ َّ ُ َّ ُ refined sugar ‫زﻳﺖ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺳﻜﺮ ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‬ ِ َّ ُ powdered sugar to add oil to (food) ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﻨﺒﺎت‬ َّ َّ ُ rock candy ‫ﺳﻜﺮان‬ ْ َ drunk (adj.) pl. ‫أزﻗﺔ‬ َّ ْ ‫زﻳﺖ‬ َْ ُ pl. ‫زﻳﻮت‬ oil ‫زﻳﺖ اﻟﺰﻳﺘﻮن‬ َُْ َْ olive oil f. ‫ ;ﺳﻜﺮى‬pl. ‫ﺳﻜﺎرى‬ َْ َ َ َ ‫زﻳﺖ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﻲ‬ ِ َ َْ vegetable oil ‫ﺳﻜﺮة‬ ْ َ drunkenness large conical (clay) waterjar َّ ِ َّ ُ ‫ﺳﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ sugar bowl ‫ﺳﻜﺮﻳﻦ‬ ِ َّ َ saccharin ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ِ ْ ِ pl. ‫زﻳﺎر ,أزﻳﺎر‬ ‫ﺳﺎدة‬ unsweetened (tea, coffee) ‫ﺳﻜﻴﺮ‬ ِّ ِ drunkard ‫ﺳﺎﻃﻮر‬ chopper, cleaver ‫ﺳﻜﻴﻦ‬ ِّ ِ knife ‫ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ liquid pl. ‫ﺳﻜﺎﻛﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. to braise َّ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ pl. ‫ﺳﻼﻃﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ َّ َ َّ (‫ﺳﺒﻚَ )اﻟﻄﺒﺦ‬ 2. to stew ‫ﺳﺠﻖ‬ ُ ُ sausage ‫ﺳﻤﺎك‬ َّ َ ‫( ﺳﺤﻖ‬a) َ َ َ to grind, crush ‫ﺳﺨﻦ‬ ْ ُ hot ‫ﺳﻤﻦ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﻮن‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺳﺨﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to heat up ‫ﺳﻔﺮة‬ ُْ dining table ‫ﺳﻨﺪوﻳﺶ‬ ِ َْ tureen fishmonger clarified butter sandwich pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺷﺎي‬ pl. ‫ﺳﻔﺮ‬ َُ tea َّ َ ‫ﺳﻘﺎء‬ water carrier ‫ﺷﺎي ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻌﻨﻊ‬ َ ْ َّ ِ mint tea ‫( ﺳﻜﺮ‬a) َِ َ to get drunk ‫ﺷﺎي ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮز‬ ِ almond tea
  26. 26. 22 FOOD AND DRINK ‫( ﺷﺒﻊ‬a) َ َِ to satisfy one’s appetite ‫ﺷﺒﻌﺎن‬ َْ sated, satisfied (eating) َّ َ ‫( ﺻﺐ‬u) to pour ‫ﺻﺤﻦ‬ ْ َ plate َ َْ َ َ ِ f. ‫ ,ﺷﺒﻌﻰ‬pl. ‫ﺷﺒﺎع ,ﺷﺒﺎﻋﻰ‬ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺻﺤﻮن‬ ‫ﺷﺤﻢ‬ ْ َ fat (n.) ‫ﺻﻔﺎر اﻟﺒﻴﻀﺔ‬ َْ َ drink ‫ﺻﻔﺎ‬ َّ َ ‫ﺷﺮاب‬ َ pl. ‫أﺷﺮﺑﺔ‬ ِْ egg yolk 1. to pour off (water) 2. to strain ‫( ﺷﺮب‬a) َ َِ to drink ‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬ ُْ see ‫ﺟﺎﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮبَ ﻧﺨﺒﻪ‬ َْ َ ِ َ to drink to someone’s health ‫ﺻﻠﺼﺔ‬ َْ sauce ‫ﺷﺮﺑﺔ‬ ُْ 1. soup ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ artificial pl. ‫ﺷﺮﺑﺎت‬ ُُ 2. draught, swallow ‫ﺷﺮح‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺻﻮم‬ َْ fast(ing) to slice ‫ﺷﺮش اﻟﻠﺒﻦ‬ ََ ِْ َّ َ ‫ﺻﻴﺎد‬ huntsman whey ‫ﺷﺮه‬ َِ ‫ﺻﻴﺎد ﺳﻤﻚ‬ َ َ َّ َ fisherman glutton ‫ﺷﺮﻳﺤﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﺢ‬ ‫ﺷﻄﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ slice, sliver see ‫ﺳﻨﺪوﻳﺶ‬ pl. ‫ﺷﻄﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺷﻌﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ َ vermicelli ‫ﺷﻔﺎﻃﺔ‬ َّ َ siphon ‫ﺷﻔﺎﻃﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ َّ َ ْ َ extractor hood ‫ﺷﻤﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ْ َ champagne ‫ﺷﻮاﻳﺔ‬ َّ َ grill ‫ﺷﻮﺑﻚ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻮاﺑﻚ‬ ُ ِ َ rolling pin ‫ﺻﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺻﻮان‬ ٍ َ ‫ﺿﻴﻒ‬ َْ serving tray guest ُُ pl. ‫ﺿﻴﻮف‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺟﻦ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاﺟﻦ‬ frying pan ‫ﻃﺒﺎخ‬ َّ َ cook ‫( ﻃﺒﺦ‬u, a) َ ََ to cook ‫ﻃﺒﺦ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺨﺎر‬ ُ ِ َ ََ to steam ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻃﺒﺎق‬ ْ 1. see ‫ﺻﺤﻦ‬ 2. dish (course) ‫( ﺷﻮى‬i) ََ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﻔﻨﺠﺎن‬ ِْ saucer ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ natural, organic 1. to roast ‫ﻃﺤﺎن‬ ّ miller 2. to grill ‫ﺷﻮﻛﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺷﻮك‬ َُ ‫( ﻃﺤﻦ‬a) َ َ َ fork ‫( ﺻﺎد‬i) َ to hunt ‫( ﺻﺎم‬u) َ to fast 1. see ‫ﺳﺤﻖ‬ 2. to grind (coffee) ‫ﻃﺤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ flour
  27. 27. FOOD AND DRINK َّ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻃﺤﻴﻦ اﻟﺬرة‬ cornflour ‫ﻃﺮﺷﻲ‬ ِ ُْ pickles ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ْ ِْ َِ directions for use ‫ﻃﻌﺎم‬ َ see ‫أﻛﻞ‬ ْ ‫ﻃﻌﻢ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻃﻌﻮم‬ flavour ‫ﻏﺪاء‬ َ pl. ‫أﻏﺪﻳﺔ‬ ِْ ‫ﻏﺬاﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﺎل‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻏﺮاﺑﻴﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻏﺮﻏﺮ‬ ََ َْ 23 lunch nutritional sieve, colander to simmer, bubble (food in pot) ‫( ﻃﻬﻰ‬u) ََ to cook, stew ‫ﻏﺾ‬ ّ َ tender, succulent ‫ﻃﻴﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to season ‫ﻏﻼﻳﺔ‬ َّ َ kettle ‫ﻇﺮف اﻟﺒﻴﻀﺔ‬ َْ َْ egg cup َّ َ ‫ﻏﻠﻰ‬ to boil ‫( ﻏﻠﻰ‬i) ََ 1. see ‫ﻏﻠﻰ‬ َ pl. - ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ُُ ‫ﻋﺒﺄ‬ َّ َ to bottle ‫ﻋﺠﺔ‬ َّ ِ omelette ِ ‫ﻓﺎﺗﺢ اﻟﺸﻬﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ appetizing ‫( ﻋﺠﻦ‬i, u) َ َ َ to knead ‫ﻓﺎرغ‬ ِ empty ‫ﻋﺠﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ dough, batter, paste ‫ﻓﺎﺳﺪ‬ ِ see ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻔﻦ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ ‫ﻓﺎض‬ ٍ see ‫ﻓﺎرغ‬ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﺠﻦ‬ ‫( ﻋﺰم‬i) َََ ‫ﻋﺴﻞ‬ َ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺴﻮل ,أﻋﺴﺎل‬ ْ ُ ُ َ َ ‫ﻋﺴﻞ اﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ َّ ُّ ‫ﻋﺸﺎء‬ َ pl. ‫أﻋﺸﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ see ‫دﻋﺎ‬ honey 2. to ferment ‫ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺎﻧﻲ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﻜﻬﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ fruit seller ‫ﻓﺘﺎت اﻟﺨﺒﺰ‬ ُْ ُ treacle dinner, supper breadcrumbs َّ َّ (‫ﻓﺘﺎﺣﺔ )اﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﺎت‬ bottle opener َّ َ (‫ﻓﺘﺎﺣﺔ )اﻟﻌﻠﺐ‬ َُ tin opener ‫ﻓﺦ‬ ّ َ trap (animals) ‫ﻋﺼﺎرة‬ َّ َ (fruit) press ‫( ﻋﺼﺮ‬i) ََ َ to squeeze, press (fruit) ‫ﻓﺨﺪ‬ ْ َ leg of lamb ‫ﻋﺼﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ juice mincer ‫ﻋﺼﻴﺮ اﻟﻔﻮاﻛﻪ‬ ِ َ َّ َ ‫ﻓﺮاﻣﺔ‬ fruit juice ‫( ﻓﺮم‬i) َََ to chop, mince ‫( ﻋﺾ‬a) ّ َ to bite ‫ﻓﺮن‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﻓﺮان‬ ْ ‫ﻋﻠﺒﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻋﻠﺐ‬ َُ packet, pack pl. ‫ﻓﺨﻮخ ,ﻓﺨﺎخ‬ ِ ُ ُ oven ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ِ ‫( ﻋﻠﻚ‬i,u) َ ََ to chew ‫ﻋﻠﻚ‬ ِْ mastic, chewing gum popcorn ‫ﻓﺺ‬ ّ َ 1. clove (garlic) ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻓﺼﻮص‬ 2. segment (orange)
  28. 28. 24 FOOD AND DRINK ‫( ﻓﻄﺮ‬u) ََ َ to have breakfast ‫ﻓﻄﻮر‬ ُ ُ breakfast ‫ﻓﻨﺠﺎن‬ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻨﺎﺟﻴﻦ‬ َّ َ ‫ﻓﻮال‬ (‫ﻓﻮﻃﺔ )ﺳﻔﺮة‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻓﻮط‬ cup beanseller ِّ ِ ‫ﻗﻨﻴﻨﺔ‬ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﺎن‬ 2. see ‫زﺟﺎﺟﺔ‬ napkin ‫ﻗﻬﻮة‬ َْ coffee ‫ﻗﻬﻮة ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ ْ َ Turkish coffee ‫ﻛﺄس‬ glass paper napkin ‫ﻗﺎرورة‬ ُ long-necked bottle َ ََ ‫( ﻛﺒﺲ‬i) to preserve (e.g. in vinegar) mould ‫ﻛﺒﺸﺔ‬ َْ 1. scoop 2. spatula ‫ﻗﺪح‬ ََ cup, beaker ‫ﻛﺮار‬ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ pantry jerked meat ‫( ﻗﺮم‬i) َََ to nibble chopping block َّ َ ‫ﻛﺴﺎرة اﻟﺠﻮز‬ َْ nutcracker ‫ﻛﺴﺘﻠﻴﺘﻪ‬ ُِْ ُ pot ‫ﻗﺪﻳﺪ‬ َِ cutlet ‫ﻛﻌﻚ‬ َْ cake ‫ﻛﻮب‬ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻛﻮاب‬ cup ‫( ﻻن‬i) َ ‫( ﻗﺸﺪ‬u) ََ َ to skim (cream) ‫ﻗﺸﺪة‬ ْ ِ cream ‫ﻗﺸﺪة ﻣﺨﻔﻮﻗﺔ‬ ُْ َ ْ ِ whipped cream ‫ﻗﺸﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to peel ‫ﻗﺸﺮة اﻟﺨﺒﺰ‬ ُْ ْ ِ bread crust ‫( ﻗﺼﺐ‬i) َ َ َ pl. ‫ﻛﺌﺎس ,ﻛﺆوس ,-ات‬ ِ menu to be savoury (food) ‫ﻗﺮﻣﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻗﺮم‬ 1. flask to pour out/away (liquid) َ َِ ‫( ﻗﺪا‬u)/‫( ﻗﺪى‬i) َ ‫ﻗﺪر‬ ِْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻗﺪور‬ funnel ‫( ﻛﺐ‬u) َّ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻮارﻳﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﻟﺐ‬ to fry ‫ﻗﻤﻊ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻤﺎع‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻃﺔ اﻟﻮرق‬ ََ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ َّ ‫( ﻗﻼ‬u) َ to cut up (slaughtered animals) َ َ ‫ﻗﺼﺐ اﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ َّ ُّ sugar cane ‫ﻗﺼﻌﺔ‬ ْ َ bowl َ َ َ ِ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﺼﺎع ,ﻗﺼﻊ ,ﻗﺼﻌﺎت‬ to become soft ‫ﻟﺐ‬ ّ ُ core, kernel (fruit) ُُ pl. ‫ﻟﺒﻮب‬ َّ َ ‫ﻟﺒﺎن‬ milkman ‫ﻟﺒﻦ‬ ََ see ‫ﺣﻠﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻦ اﻟﺨﺾ‬ ّ َ ََ butter milk ‫ﻟﺒﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ دﺳﻢ‬ ِ َ َْ ََ skimmed milk ‫ﻟﺒﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ دﺳﻢ‬ ِ َ ْ ُ ََ semi-skimmed milk َ ِ َ ‫( ﻟﺤﺲ‬a) to lick ‫ﻟﺤﻢ‬ ْ َ meat ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻟﺤﻮم‬
  29. 29. FOOD AND DRINK 25 ‫ﻟﺤﻢ ﻣﻔﺮوم‬ َُْ ْ َ minced meat ‫ﻣﺮ‬ ُّ bitter ‫ﻟﺬﻳﺬ‬ َِ tasty َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻰ‬ jam َّ َ ‫( ﻟف‬u) to roll up ‫ﻣﺮﻃﺒﺎت‬ ‫َُ ﱢ‬ soft drinks ‫ﻟﻬﺐ‬ ََ flame ‫ﻣﺮق‬ ََ gravy block of ice ‫ﻣﺮﻗﻮق‬ َُْ thin (e.g. pastry) ‫ﻣﺮﻣﻄﻮن‬ ُ َ َْ kitchen boy, scullery boy ‫ﻣﺎء اﻟﺰﻫﺮ‬ ْ َ orange-blossom water pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﺎء اﻟﻮرد‬ َْ rose water ‫ﻣﺰة‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺎزة ,-ات‬ ‫ﻟﻮح اﻟﺠﻠﻴﺪ‬ َِ َْ pl. ‫أﻟﻮاح ,-ات‬ ْ ‫ﻣﺄدﺑﺔ‬ ُ َْ ُ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺎدب‬ banquet mezze (appetizers) َ ََ ‫( ﻣﺰج‬u) to whip, mix (cream, eggs) ‫ﻣﺎﻟﺢ‬ ِ salty ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺞ‬ َِ see ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺎوى‬ ِ juicy ‫ﻣﺴﺤﻮق‬ ُ ْ َ ground, crushed ‫ﻣﺎﻳﻮﻧﻴﺰ‬ mayonnaise ‫ﻣﺸﺮوب‬ ُْ َ beverage ‫ﻣﺒﺸﺮة‬ َ ِْ grater ‫ﻣﺒﻄﻦ ب‬ ِ َّ َ ُ َّ ِ ُ ‫ﻣﺸﺮوﺑﺎت روﺣﻴﺔ‬ ُْ َ spirits, alcoholic beverages lined with َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻮي‬ ِْ َ 1. grilled spicy ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻔﻦ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ rotten, mouldy َّ َ ‫( ﻣﺺ‬a, u) ‫ﻣﺠﺰرة‬ َْ َ slaughterhouse ‫ﻣﺠﻔﻒ‬ َّ َ ُ dried ‫ﻣﺼﻔﺎة‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎف‬ ٍ َ 2. percolator ‫ﻣﺠﻔﻔﺎت‬ َّ َ ُ dried foodstuffs َ َ َ ‫( ﻣﺼﻞ‬u) to curdle ‫ﻣﺤﺸﻰ‬ ِ ْ َ stuffed ‫ﻣﺼﻞ‬ ْ َ whey ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺼﺔ اﻟﺨﺒﺰ‬ ُْ َ ْ ِ toaster ‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮط‬ ُْ َ medium sweet (coffee, tea) ‫ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺎت‬ ُْ َ tinned goods ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ً َّ ُ sweetened ‫ﻣﻀﺮب‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻀﺎرب‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺨﻔﻘﺔ‬ َْ ِ eggbeater, whisk َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻔﺎت‬ leftovers, scraps َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻞ‬ pickled ‫ﻣﺪﻋﻮ‬ ُ َْ guest, invitee ‫ﻣﺪق‬ ّ َِ pestle pl. ‫-ات‬ 2. roasted to suck 1. colander see ‫ﻣﺨﻔﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺮوب‬ ْ َ scrambled (eggs) ‫( ﻣﻀﻎ‬a, u) َ َ َ see ‫ﻋﻠﻚ‬ َ ‫ﻣﻀﻐﺔ‬ ْ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫ﻣﻀﻎ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﺦ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﺦ‬ ُ ِ َ chewing gum kitchen
  30. 30. 26 ‫ﻣﻄﺒﺦ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﺦ‬ ُ ِ َ FOOD AND DRINK cooker 2. to cure ‫ﻣﻠﻌﻘﺔ‬ َ ِْ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮخ‬ ُْ َ cooked ُ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻼﻋﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺤﻨﺔ اﻟﺒﻦ‬ ّ ُ َ ْ ِ coffee mill َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻤﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺤﻨﺔ ﻗﻬﻮة‬ ََْ َ ْ ِ see ‫ﻣﻄﺤﻨﺔ اﻟﺒﻦ‬ ّ ُ َ ْ ِ ‫ﻣﻄﺤﻮن‬ ُ ْ َ see ‫ﻣﺴﺤﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻳﻞ‬ ِ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎدﻳﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ restaurant ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻮم‬ ُ َْ spoon ‫ﻣﻄﻌﻢ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ُِ َ pan ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻠﺒﻦ‬ ََ َ ْ َ dairy (plant) ‫ﻣﻐﺮﻓﺔ‬ َِْ ladle tablecloth ‫ﻣﻔﻠﻔﻞ‬ َ َْ ُ peppered ‫ﻣﻘﺒﻼت‬ ِّ َ ُ hors d’oeuvres ‫ﻣﻘﻼة‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎل‬ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻰ‬ ِْ َ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﺖ ﺑﻴﺾ‬ ِ ‫َُﱢ‬ egg-timer ‫ﻣﻮﻗﺪ‬ َِْ stove (gas) ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎدل‬ ِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻧﺪل‬ waiter measure (quantity) crisp, dry see ‫ﻃﺎﺟﻦ‬ fried cooked (< > raw) َ َ َ ‫( ﻧﺨﻞ‬u) to strain, sift ‫ﻧﺸﺎء‬ َ corn starch ‫ﻧﺸﻮﻳﺎت‬ َّ َ َ starchy foodstuffs ‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﻧﺎﺿﺞ‬ ِ ْ ُ half-cooked ‫( ﻧﻀﺞ‬a) َ ِ َ to be(come) well cooked ‫ﻧﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ِْ َ food safe, meat safe ‫ﻧﻬﻢ‬ ََ meat grinder ‫ﻣﻘﺮﻣﺶ‬ َ َُْ 1. see ‫ﺷﺮه‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺿﺞ‬ ِ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻣﺔ‬ َِْ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ see ‫ﻓﻮﻃﺔ‬ 2. greedy ‫ﻣﻄﻬﺎة‬ ْ ِ ‫ﻣﻔﺮش‬ ََْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎرش‬ salted, cured gluttony ‫ﻧﻮاة‬ َ kernel, stone ََ pl. ‫ﻧﻮﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺮوﻧﺔ‬ َُ َ macaroni ‫ﻣﻜﺮر‬ َّ َ ُ purified, refined ‫ﻣﻜﻌﺒﺔ ﺳﻜﺮ‬ َّ ُ َّ َ ُ sugar cube ‫ﻣﻼﺣﺔ‬ َّ َ salt cellar ‫ﻣﻼﺣﺔ ﻓﻠﻔﻞ‬ ُ ْ ُ َّ َ ‫ﻫﺶ‬ ّ َ see ‫ﻏﺾ‬ ّ pepper cellar ‫ﻫﻼم‬ ُ jelly ‫ﻣﻶن‬ َ filled ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ َ َّ َ 1. to season with salt ‫وﺟﺒﺔ‬ ْ َ َ َ pl. ‫وﺟﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ‫ﻫﺎوون‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻫﻮاوﻳﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ raw mortar (vessel) 1. meal 2. see ‫)2( ﻃﺒﻖ‬
  31. 31. THE HUMAN BODY ‫وﺟﺒﺔ ﻧﺎﺷﻔﺔ‬ ِ dry rations ‫وﺻﻔﺔ ﻃﺒﺦ‬ ََ ْ َ ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺲ‬ ِ recipe 27 1. firm 2. see ‫ﺟﺎف‬ ّ The human body ‫اﺑﺾ‬ ُْ pl. ‫آﺑﺎض‬ ‫إﺑﻬﺎم‬ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ُ ‫إﺟﻬﺎض‬ ْ ‫أﺟﻬﺾ‬ َ َْ secretion, discharge ‫إﻓﺮازات أذﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِّْ ُ earwax ‫إﻓﺮازات ﻣﻬﺒﻠﻴﺔ‬ َِّْ ِ vaginal discharge 1. thumb ‫أﻧﺠﺐ‬ َ َ ْ to give birth 2. big toe ‫إﻧﺴﺎن اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َْ ْ pupil (eye) 1. miscarriage َِْ ‫اﻧﻘﺺَّ اﻟﻮزن‬ َْ to lose weight 2. abortion ‫إﺑﻂ‬ ْ pl. ‫آﺑﺎط‬ ‫إﻓﺮاز‬ ْ ‫أﻧﻤﻠﺔ‬ ُ ُْ ُ ِ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﻣﻞ‬ hollow of the knee armpit 1. to miscarry 2. to abort ‫أﺧﻤﺺ اﻟﻘﺪم‬ ََ َ ْ ‫أدرد‬ َْ َْ ُْ f. ‫ ,درداء‬pl. ‫درد‬ ‫أذن‬ ُْ pl. ‫آذان‬ arch of the foot to be toothless ear nose ‫أوﺗﺎر ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ‬ َِ َ َْ vocal folds ‫أﻳﺮ‬ ْ penis pl. ‫أﻳﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻃﻦ اﻟﻘﺪم‬ ََ ِ sole of the foot masturbation ‫ﺑﺎﻃﻦ اﻟﻜَﻒ‬ ّ ِ palm of the hand finger َ ‫( ﺑﺎل‬u) to urinate ‫ﺑﺮاز‬ ِ faeces ‫اﺳﺘﻤﻨﺎ‬ ْ َْ ِ to masturbate ‫اﺳﺘﻤﻨﺎء‬ ْ ِْ ِ ‫إﺻﺒﻊ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺻﺎﺑﻊ‬ ُ ِ ‫أﻧﻒ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫آﻧﺎف ,أﻧﻮف‬ fingertip ‫إﺻﺒﻊ اﻷوﺳﻂ‬ َ ْ middle finger ‫إﺻﺒﻊ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬ َِ ْ ِّ big toe ‫ﺑﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﺟﻢ‬ ُِ َ ‫إﺻﺒﻊ اﻟﻘﺪم‬ َ َ َْ toe ‫ﺑﺮوﺳﺘﺎت‬ prostate ‫أﺻﻞ اﻟﻠﺴﺎن‬ ِ ْ tongue root ‫ﺑﺸﻊ‬ ِ َ see ‫ﻗﺒﻴﺢ‬ ‫أﻃﻠﻖَ ﻟﺤﻴﺘﻪ‬ َْ ِ َْ to let one’s beard grow ‫ﺑﺼﺎق‬ ُ saliva, phlegm ْ ‫أﻋﻀﺎء اﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﻞ‬ ُ َّ genitals ‫ﺑﺼﺮ‬ ْ َ sight knuckle
  32. 32. 28 THE HUMAN BODY ‫ﺑﺼﺮي‬ ّ ِْ َ visual ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ِْ َ child delivery ‫( ﺑﺼﺮ‬u) َُ َ to look ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِ front incisor ‫( ﺑﺼﻖ‬u) َ َ َ to spit ‫ﺑﺼﻤﺔ اﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ‬ ِ ْ َ fingerprint َ َ ‫ﺑﻄﺔ اﻟﺴﺎق‬ َّ calf ‫ﺑﻄﺮ‬ ْ َ clitoris ُ pl. ‫ﺑﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻦ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﻄﻦ ,ﺑﻄﻮن‬ belly ‫ﺛﺪي‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺛﺪاء‬ ْ ‫ﺛﻨﻴﺔ‬ ََِ breast, bosom middle incisor َ pl. ‫ﺛﻨﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺆﺑﺎء‬ ُْ yawn (‫ﺛﺆﻟﻮل )ة‬ ُْ ُ wart ُ ِ pl. ‫ﺛﺎﻟﻴﻞ‬ to cry, weep َّ ِ ِ ‫ﺟﺎذﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﺠﻨﺲ‬ ِْ sex appeal pharynx َ ‫( ﺟﺎع‬u) to be hungry ring finger ‫ﺟﺎﺋﻊ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﻴﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻴﺎن‬ ُْ physique, stature ََ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﺒﺎه ,ﺟﺒﻬﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺆﺑﺆ اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َْ ُْ ُ see ‫اﻧﺴﺎن اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻮز‬ َ َّ َ to pout ‫ﺟﺜﺔ‬ َّ ُ pl. ‫أﺟﺜﺎث ,ﺟﺜﺚ‬ َُ ْ urine ‫( ﺟﺤﻆ‬a) َ َ َ ‫ﺑﻮﻳﻀﺔ‬ َْ ُ ovum ‫ﺟﺴﺪ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﺟﺴﺎد‬ ْ ‫ﺗﺒﺮز‬ َ َّ َ َ to defecate ‫ﺗﺜﺎءب‬ َ َ ََ to yawn ‫ﺗﺠﺎﻋﻴﺪ‬ ِ َ wrinkles (face) ‫ﺗﺠﺸﺄ‬ َّ َ َ to burp ‫ﺗﺨﻠﺺَ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮزن‬ َْ ِ َّ َ َ see ‫اﻧﻘﺺ اﻟﻮزن‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻟﻴﻚ‬ ِْ َ massage ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺤﺔ‬ ِْ َ hairdo (women) ‫ﺟﻠﺪ‬ ِْ ُ pl. ‫ﺟﻠﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔَﺲ‬ َ ََّ to breathe ‫ﺟﻤﺎل‬ َ beauty ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ََﱡ‬ breathing, respiration ‫ﺟﻤﺠﻤﺔ‬ ُ ْ ُ skull ‫ﺗ ﻮ ﺷ ﻮش‬ َ َْ ََ see ‫)1( ﻫﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ beautiful ‫( ﺑﻜﻰ‬i) َ َ ‫ﺑﻠﻌﻮم‬ ُْ ُ ِ pl. ‫ﺑﻼﻋﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺼﺮ‬ ِ ِْ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﺑﻮل‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﻮال‬ ‫ﺟﺒﻬﺔ‬ َْ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫أﺟﺴﺎم‬ ْ starved, famished forehead corpse to protrude (eye) see ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ body ‫ﺟﻌﺪة‬ ََ curl, lock ‫ﺟﻌﺪي‬ ّ َِْ curly ‫ﺟﻔﻦ‬ َْ eyelid ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺟﻔﺎن ,ﺟﻔﻮن‬ skin
  33. 33. THE HUMAN BODY ‫ﺟﻨﻴﻦ‬ َِ َِ ُْ pl. ‫أﺟﻨﻦ ,أﺟﻨﺔ‬ foetus ‫ﺣﻤﻞ‬ ْ َ nervous system ‫ﺟﻬﺎز ﻫﻀﻤﻲ‬ ّ َ َ ِ digestive system ‫ﺣﻨﺠﺮة‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﻨﺎﺟﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﺟﻮع‬ ُ hunger ‫ﺣﻨﻂ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺟﻮﻋﺎن‬ َْ hungry ‫ﺟﻴﺐ أﻧﻔﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َْ sinus ‫ﺣﺎف‬ ٍ ُ pl. ‫ﺣﻔﺎة‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻠﺴﺎن‬ ِ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺐ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﺐ‬ eyebrow barefooted ‫ﺣﻨﻚ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﺣﻨﺎك‬ ْ ‫ﺣﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﻣﺮارﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َ َ ْ َ ‫ﺣﻮض‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺣﻮاض‬ ْ ‫ﺧﺪ‬ َّ tongue edge pelvis cheek fertile conception ‫ﺣﺒﻞ اﻟﻮرﻳﺪ‬ ِ َ َْ jugular vein ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُ diaphragm ‫ﺣﺠﺮ‬ ْ ِ lap ‫( ﺣﺲ‬u) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to feel, sense sense ‫ﺣﺴﻴﺎت‬ ِّ ِ sensations ‫ﺣﺸﻔﺔ‬ ْ َ glans ‫ﺣﻼق‬ َّ َ hairdresser, barber ‫ﺣﻠﻤﺔ‬ ََ pl. ‫ﺣﻠﻢ‬ ََ gall bladder fertility ‫ﺣﺒﻞ‬ ََ ‫( ﺣﻠﻖ‬i) َ ََ palate ‫ﺧﺼﺐ‬ ْ ِ ‫ﺧﺼﺮ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺧﺼﻮر‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺣﻠﻖ‬ َْ pl. ‫اﺣﻼق ,ﺣﻠﻮق‬ ُ ْ to embalm (corpse) ‫ﺧﺼﺐ‬ ِ َ urether pregnant ‫ﺣﺲ‬ ّ ِ pl. ‫أﺣﻮاس‬ ْ larynx pl. ‫ﺧﺪود‬ ُ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﺎب اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺰ‬ ِ ِ ُ ُ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﺠﺒﺔ ,ﺣﺠﺐ‬ pregnancy pl. ‫ﺣﻤﺎل ,أﺣﻤﺎل‬ ْ ِ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز ﻋﺼﺒﻲ‬ ّ َ َ ِ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺐ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺣﻮاﺣﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ 29 throat ‫ﺧﺼﻴﺔ‬ ْ ُ ً ُ pl. ‫ﺧﺼﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ ﺷﻌﺮي‬ ّ ِْ ّ َ ‫ﺧﻼﻟﺔ‬ ِ َّ ِ pl. ‫أﺧﻠﺔ‬ waist, haunch see ‫ﺧﺼﺐ‬ ْ ِ testicle hairline toothpick َّ َ ‫( ﺧﻦ‬i) to speak with a nasal twang َّ ُ ‫ﺧﻨﺔ‬ nasal twang ‫ﺧﻨﺼﺮ‬ ِ ِْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺸﻮم‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺧﻴﺎﺷﻴﻢ‬ ُ َ little finger see ‫اﻧﻒ‬ to shave (head, beard) ‫دار اﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ِ ْ َّ maternity home nipple ‫دﺑﻮس ﻟﻠﺸﻌﺮ‬ َْ ُّ َ hairpin ‫درق‬ ََ thyroid gland
  34. 34. 30 THE HUMAN BODY ‫دﻏﺪغ‬ َ َْ َ to tickle ‫رﺿﻊ‬ َ َ َ ‫دﻟﻚ‬ َ َّ َ to massage ‫رﺿﻊ ﺛﺪي أﻣﻪ‬ ِّ ُ ْ َ ‫دم‬ َ blood ِ pl. ‫دﻣﺎء‬ ‫دﻣﺎغ‬ ِ pl. ‫أدﻣﻐﺔ‬ ُ ْ ‫( دﻣﻊ‬a) َ َ َ ‫( دﻣﻊ‬coll.) ْ َ ُ pl. ‫دﻣﻮع‬ see ‫ﻣﺦ‬ ّ to water (eyes) tears ‫دﻣﻮع‬ ُ َ watery, tearful (eyes) َّ ِ َ َ ْ َ ‫دورة دﻣﻮﻳﺔ‬ blood circulation ‫دورة ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ period (menstruation) ‫ذراع‬ ِ arm ُْ ُْ pl. ‫ذرﻋﺎن ,أذرع‬ ‫ذﻗﻦ‬ َْ ْ َِ pl. ‫ذﻗﻦ ,اذﻗﺎن‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ َ َ pl. ‫ذﻛﻮر‬ ُ ُ to suck (baby) to suckle at the mother’s breast ‫رﺿﻊ‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ to breast-feed ‫رﺿﻴﻊ‬ ِ َ suckling َ ُ ُ ِ pl. ‫رﺿﺎﺋﻊ ,رﺿﻌﺎء‬ ‫رﺿﻔﺔ‬ ْ َ ‫رﻗﺒﺔ‬ ََ ُ pl. ‫ات ,رﻗﺎب‬‫( رﻗﺪ‬i) َََ ‫رﻛﺒﺔ‬ ْ ُ َ ُ ْ َ pl. ‫رﻛﺒﺎت ,رﻛﺐ‬ kneecap neck to lie down knee َ َّ َ ‫رﻳﻞ‬ to drool, slaver ‫زاﺋﺪة‬ appendix ُ َ pl. ‫زواﺋﺪ‬ chin see ‫أﻳﺮ‬ ‫زاﺋﺪة أﻧﻔﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ adenoids ‫( زاد اﻟﻮزن‬i) َْ to put on weight ‫زاﺋﺪة اﻟﻮزن‬ َْ weight gain ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺪ‬ ِ forearm ‫ذﻳﻞ اﻟﺤﺼﺎن‬ ِ َْ ponytail ‫( رأى‬u) َ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻮاﻋﺪ‬ to see ‫ﺳﺎق‬ pl. ‫ﺳﻴﻘﺎن‬ ‫راﺋﺤﺔ‬ ُ َ pl. ‫رواﺋﺢ‬ ‫رﺟﻞ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫أرﺟﻞ‬ ُ ْ ‫راﺣﺔ‬ pl. ‫ات ,راح‬‫رأس‬ َ ُ pl. ‫رؤوس‬ ‫رﺑﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ َِ ُ ‫رﺣﻢ‬ ِ َ ْ pl. ‫أرﺣﺎم‬ smell 1. leg 2. shank ‫ﺳﺒﺎﺑﺔ‬ ََ leg palm index finger َّ ِّ َ َ َ ‫ﺳﺒﻠﺔ ﺧﺪﻳﺔ‬ sideburns ‫ﺳﺤﺎءة‬ َ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺤﺎﻳﺎ‬ cortex ‫ﺳﺮة‬ َّ ُ navel (‫ﺳﺮحَ )ﺷﻌﺮه‬ ََْ َّ َ to comb, do one’s hair lateral incisor ‫ﺳﻘﻒ اﻟﻔﻢ‬ َ َْ roof of the mouth womb ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬ ْ ِّ َ calf ‫( ﺳﻤﻊ‬i) َ َ to hear, listen head
  35. 35. THE HUMAN BODY ‫ﺷﻌﺮي‬ ّ َِْ 31 ‫ﺳﻤﻊ‬ ْ َ hearing ‫ﺳﻤﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ auditory, aural ‫( ﺳﻤﻦ‬a) َ ِ َ to become fat ‫ﺷﻔﺔ‬ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻔﺎه‬ ِ ‫ﺳﻤﻨﺔ‬ ْ ِ obesity َّ ‫اﻟﺸﻔﺔ اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬ َ ْ ُّ lower lip fat َّ ‫اﻟﺸﻔﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ُْ upper lip ‫ﺳﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﺎن‬ ِ ‫ﺳﻦ‬ ّ ِ tooth ‫ﺷﻔﺮة‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺷﻔﺎر ,ﺷﻔﺮات‬ ََ ِ hairy, hirsute lip razor blade ‫( ﺷﻢ‬u, a) َّ َ pl. ‫أﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ to smell, sniff ِ ‫ﺳﻦّ اﻟﺮﺷﺪ‬ ْ ُّ the age of reason ‫ﺷﻢ‬ َّ smelling, sense of smell ‫ﺳﻦّ ﻗﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬ ِ ِ incisor ‫( ﺷﻬﻖ‬a, i) َ ََ to inhale teeth-ridge, alveolum ‫ﺷﻮﺷﺔ‬ ُ tuft of hair ‫ﺻﺎﻟﻮن اﻟﺤﻼﻗﺔ‬ ِ ُ barber’s shop ‫( ﺻﺢ‬u) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to wake up ‫ﺻﺤﻰ‬ َّ َ to wake (trans.) ‫ﺳﻨﺦ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺳﻨﺎخ‬ ْ ‫ﺷﺎرب‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻮارب‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﺔ‬ pl. ‫ﺷﺎم ,-ات‬ moustache mole, birthmark ‫ﺻﺪر‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺻﺪور‬ ُ chest ‫ﺷﺎﺋﺐ‬ white-haired, old ‫ﺻﺪغ‬ َْ temple ‫ﺷﺒﺎب‬ َ youth ‫ﺷﺒﻜﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ ْ َ َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬ َِ short retina ِ pl. ‫ﺻﻐﺎر‬ ‫ﺷﺤﻤﺔ اﻷذن‬ ُْ ْ َ ear lobe ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮاء‬ َْ bile ‫( ﺷﺨﺮ‬i) ََ َ to snore ‫ﺻﻔﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to arrange one’s hair ‫ﺷﺮج‬ َْ anus, rectum ‫ﺻﻔﻦ‬ ََ scrotum pl. ‫أﺷﺮاج‬ ُ ْ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﺎن‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﺻﻔﺎن‬ ْ artery bronchus pl. ‫ﺷﻌﺐ‬ َُ ‫( ﺷﻌﺮ‬u) َََ ‫ﺷﻌﺮ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺷﻌﻮر‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺎر‬ َْ ُ ْ َ see ‫ﺣﺲ‬ ّ hair ‫ﺻﻮت‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺻﻮات‬ ْ ‫ﺿﺎﺣﻚ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺿﻮاﺣﻚ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. sound 2. voice premolar ‫ﺿﺞ‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ to be noisy, to clamour ‫ﺿﺮس‬ ِْ molar tooth pl. ‫أﺿﺮاس‬ ْ wig ‫ﺿﺮس اﻟﻌﻘﻞ‬ َْ ِْ wisdom tooth
  36. 36. 32 THE HUMAN BODY ‫( ﺿﺮط‬i) َ ََ to break wind ‫( ﺿﺮط‬coll.) َْ fart ‫ﺿﻠﻊ ,ﺿﻠﻊ‬ ِْ َِ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺿﻼع ,ﺿﻠﻮع‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺣﻦ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاﺣﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ (‫ﻃﺄﻃﺄ )رأﺳﻪ‬ َْ ‫ﻃﺤﺎل‬ ِ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻃﺤﻞ ,-ات‬ rib ‫ﻋﺮق‬ ََ ‫ﻋﺮﻗﻮب‬ ُْ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺮاﻗﻴﺐ‬ sweat Achilles’ tendon 1. see ‫ﻋﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻳﺎن‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻋﺮاﻳﺎ‬ َ 2. nakedness َّ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﻋﺮﻳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ naturism to bow one’s head ‫ﻋﺼﺐ‬ َ َ 1. nerve spleen ْ pl. ‫أﻋﺼﺎب‬ 2. sinew ‫ﻋﺼﻲ اﻟﻨﻄﻖ‬ ْ ُّ ِ َ incapable of speech see ‫ﺿﺮس‬ ‫( ﻃﺮف‬i) َ ََ to wink ‫ﻋﻀﻞ‬ ِ َ muscular, brawny ‫ﻃﺮف‬ َْ blink of an eye ‫ﻋﻀﻠﺔ‬ َ َ muscle ‫ﻃﺮف اﻟﻠﺴﺎن‬ ِ ََ tip of the tongue ‫ﻋﻀﻠﻲ‬ ّ َ َ muscular (compounds) ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ُ height, length ‫ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻀﺎء‬ pl. ‫أﻃﻮال‬ ْ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬ َِ ِ pl. ‫ﻃﻮال‬ ‫ﻇﻔﺮ‬ ُُ pl. ‫أﻇﺎﻓﺮ‬ ُِ ‫ﻇﻨﺒﻮب‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻇﻨﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻇﻬﺮ‬ َْ ُ ُْ pl. ‫أﻇﻬﺮ ,ﻇﻬﻮر‬ limb, organ tall ‫ﻋﻄﺎر‬ َّ َ perfume vendor ‫ﻋﻄﺮ‬ ْ ِ scent, perfume nail ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻄﺎر‬ َ َ َ ‫( ﻋﻄﺲ‬i, u) back to sneeze َ َّ َ ‫ﻋﻄﺲ‬ to cause to sneeze ‫ﻋﻄﺴﺔ‬ ْ َ sneeze ‫( ﻋﻄﺶ‬a) َ َ َ shinbone to be thirsty ‫ﻋﺎر‬ ٍ naked ‫ﻋﻄﺶ‬ َ َ thirst ‫ﻋﺎزل ﺟﻨﺴﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ condom ‫ﻋﻄﺸﺎن‬ ْ َ thirsty ‫( ﻋﺎش‬i) َ to live, be alive ‫ﻋﺎﻧﺔ‬ groin, pubis ‫ﻋﺒﺮة‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻋﺒﺮات ,ﻋﺒﺮ‬ َِ ََ ‫ﻋﺠﻮز‬ ُ َ bone old, elderly ‫ﻋﻈﻢ ﻛﺘﻔﻲ‬ ّ َِِ ْ َ shoulder blade ‫ﻋﻈﻢ وﺟﻬﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ ْ َ see ‫دﻣﻊ‬ ْ cheekbone ‫ﻋﻘﺪة‬ ُْ joint pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺪ‬ َُ pl. ‫ﻋﺠﺎﺋﺰ‬ ُ َ ‫( ﻋﺮق‬a) َ َِ ‫ﻋﻈﻢ‬ ْ َ ُ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻈﺎم ,أﻋﻈﻢ‬ to sweat ‫ﻋﻘﻢ‬ ُْ infertility
  37. 37. THE HUMAN BODY 33 ‫ﻋﻘﻴﻢ‬ َِ infertile ‫ﻓﺮﺷﺔ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ ُْ toothbrush ‫ﻋﻤﻮد ﻓﻘﺮي‬ ّ َِْ ُ َ spine, spinal column ُْ ‫ﻓﺮﺷﺔ اﻟﺸﻌﺮ‬ ْ َّ hairbrush َّ ُُْ ‫ﻋﻨﻔﻮان اﻟﺸﺒﺎب‬ the prime of youth ‫ﻓﺮق‬ َْ parting (hair) see ‫رﻗﺒﺔ‬ َْ ‫ﻓﺮوة اﻟﺮأس‬ ْ َّ scalp ‫ﻋﻮرة‬ َْ pudendum ‫ﻓﺺ‬ ّ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻓﺼﻮص‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﻋﻮل‬ to wail, howl ‫ﻓﺼﻴﻠﺔ دﻣﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ ِ َ blood group ‫ﻋﻮﻳﻞ‬ َِ wailing ‫ﻓﻘﺎرة‬ َ vertebra eye ‫ﻓﻚ‬ ّ َ jaw ‫ﻋﻨﻖ‬ ُُ pl. ‫أﻋﻨﺎق‬ ْ ‫ﻋﻴﻦ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻋﻴﻮن‬ ُ َّ ُ ‫ﻏﺪة‬ pl. ‫ﻏﺪد‬ َُ lobe pl. ‫ﻓﻜﻮك‬ ُ gland ‫ﻓﻢ‬ َ mouth pl. ‫أﻓﻮاه‬ ْ ‫اﻟﻐﺪة اﻟﺤﻠﻮة‬ ُْ َّ ُ pancreas (‫( ﻗﺎم )ﻳﻘﻮم‬u) ُُ َ to stand up ‫اﻟﻐﺪة اﻟﺪرﻗﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َّ َ ُ see ‫درق‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬ build, stature ‫ﻏﺮﻏﺮ‬ ََ َْ to gargle ‫ﻗﺒﺎﺣﺔ‬ َ ugliness prepuce, foreskin ‫ﻗﺒﻀﺔ اﻟﻴﺪ‬ َ َْ fist َ َ َ ‫( ﻏﺴﻞ‬i) to wash ‫ﻗﺒﻴﺢ‬ َِ ugly pl. ‫ﻗﺒﺤﻰ ,ﻗﺒﺎﺣﻰ ,ﻗﺒﺎح‬ ِ ِ ِ َ َْ ‫ﻏﺸﺎء اﻟﺒﻜﺎر‬ َ َ hymen ‫( ﻏﻔﺎء‬u) َ to take a nap, doze off ‫ﻏﻔﻮة‬ َْ nap ‫ﻏﻤﺎرة‬ ّ َ dimple (cheek) ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ اﻷﻧﻒ‬ َْ َْ nostril ‫ﻏﺮﻟﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻏﺮل‬ َُ ‫ﻓﺨﺪ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أﻓﺨﺎد‬ ْ ‫ﻓﺮج‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻓﺮوج‬ ُ foot vagina to brush ‫ﻓﺮﺷﺔ‬ ُْ brush (‫( ﻗﺬفَ )اﻟﻤﻨﻰ‬i) َِ ََ to ejaculate ‫ﻗَﺬف اﻟﻤﻨﻰ‬ َِ ْ ejaculation ‫ﻗﺰﺣﻴﺔ‬ َِ َ ُ iris ‫ﻗﺸﺮة‬ ْ ِ dandruff ‫ﻗَﺼﺒﺔ اﻟﺮﺋﺔ‬ ِّ َ windpipe, trachea ‫ﻗﺼﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺮئ‬ ِّ َ َ َ gullet ‫( ﻗﻄﺐ ﺟﺒﻴﻨﻪ‬i) َ َِ َ َ َ thigh ‫ﻓﺮش‬ َ َّ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺮش‬ َُ ‫ﻗﺪم‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻗﺪام‬ ْ to frown ‫ﻗﻔﺎء‬ َ nape ‫ﻗﻔﺺ ﺻﺪري‬ ّ َِْ ََ thorax pl. ‫أﻗﻔﺎص ﺻﺪرﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ ْ
  38. 38. 34 ‫ﻗﻠﺐ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻗﻠﻮب‬ ُ ‫ﻗﻬﻘﻪ‬ ََْ َ ‫ﻗﻮس‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻗﻮاس‬ ْ ‫ﻛﺎﺣﻞ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻮاﺣﻞ‬ ُّ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻮ‬ pl. ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻮﻫﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﻞ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻛﻮاﻫﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻛﺒﺪ‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻛﺒﻮد‬ ُ THE HUMAN BODY heart ‫ﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ْ ِ beard ً ُ pl. ‫ﻟﺤﻰ‬ to guffaw arch (foot) ‫ﻟﺴﺎن‬ ِ tongue ِ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻟﺴﻦ ,أﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺎن اﻟﻤﺰﻣﺎر‬ ِْ ِ epiglottis ‫ﻟﻌﺎب‬ ُ drool, dribble ‫ﻟﻘﺎح‬ َ sperm ‫ﻟﻘﺢ‬ َ َّ َ to impregnate upper part of the back ‫ﻟﻤﺲ‬ ْ َ touch ‫ﻟﻬﺎة‬ َ uvula liver ََ pl. ‫ﻟﻬﻮات‬ ankle corn (toes) ‫ﻟﻮزﺗﺎن‬ ََْ tonsils ‫( ﻛﺒﺮ‬u) َ ََ to grow up ‫ﻟﻮن‬ َ َّ َ to dye (hair) ‫ﻛﺘﻒ‬ َِ shoulder ‫ﻣﺄﻗﺔ‬ َْ sob ‫ﻣﺎ وراء اﻟﻮﻋﻰ‬ ْ َ ََ the subconscious ْ pl. ‫أﻛﺘﺎف‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮﻳﺎت اﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎء‬ َْ ََ ُ the white corpuscles ‫اﻟﻜﺮﻳﺎت اﻟﺤﻤﺮاء‬ ْ َ ََ ُ the red corpuscles ‫ﻛﺸﺔ‬ َ ُ lock of hair ‫ﻛﻌﺐ‬ َْ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻌﺎب ,ﻛﻌﻮب‬ ‫ﻛﻒ‬ ّ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻔﻮف‬ َ ‫ﻋﺠﺰ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أﻋﺠﺎز‬ ُ ْ ‫ﻛﺮش‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﻛﺮاش‬ ْ َ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬ ُْ ً ُ َُْ pl. ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺘﺎن ,ﻛﻠﻰ‬ heel ‫ﻣﺒﺮد اﻷﻇﺎﻓﺮ‬ ِ َ َ ِْ ُ ِ ََ pl. -‫ﻣﺒﺮد‬ nail file ‫ﻣﺒﻴﺾ‬ َِ ovary ‫ﻣﺦ‬ ّ ُ brain pl. ‫ﻣﺨﺨﺔ ,ﻣﺨﺎخ‬ ِ َ َ ِ see ‫راﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎظ‬ ُ nasal mucus, snot َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺪﻟﻚ‬ masseur 2. buttocks ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬ َِْ ُ loud (voice) paunch ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻖ‬ َِْ elbow 1. backside ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﺜﺔ‬ ِ gums ‫ﻟﺤﻢ‬ ْ َ flesh ‫ﻣﺮيء‬ َ gullet ‫ﻣﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِّ َ ُ kidney hairdresser (women) ‫ﻣﺴﺎم‬ ّ َ pore pl. ‫-ات‬
  39. 39. THE HUMAN BODY 35 ‫( ﻣﺴﺢ‬i) َ َ َ to wipe, rub off ‫( ﻧﺒﺖ‬u) َ ََ to grow (e.g. teeth) (‫( ﻣﺸﻂَ )ﺷﻌﺮه‬u, i) َْ َ َ to comb (one’s hair) ‫( ﻧﺒﺾ‬i) َ ََ to throb, to beat (heart, pulse) ‫ﻣﺸﻂ‬ ْ ُ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎط ,أﻣﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻂ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬ ْ ِّ ْ ُ ‫ﻣﺸﻴﻤﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻳﻢ ,ﻣﺸﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ ُ َ ‫ﻣﻌﺟﻮن اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ ُ َْ ‫ﻣﻌﺪة‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺪ‬ َِ ‫ﻣﻌﺼﻢ‬ َ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺻﻢ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﻣﻌﻰ‬ ً ِ pl. ‫أﻣﻌﺎء‬ ْ comb instep to grow thin see ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻞ‬ see ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻞ‬ stomach ‫ﻧﺤﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺤﻞ ,ﻧﺤﻠﻰ‬ َْ َ َ ُ wrist ‫ﻧﺨﺎع‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﺨﻊ‬ ُ ُ toothpaste bone marrow ‫( ﻧﺸﺞ‬i) َ َ َ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻰ اﻷﻋﻮر‬ َْ َِ caecum, blind gut ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻰ اﻟﻐﻠﻴﻆ‬ َِ َِ the large intestine joint to sob ‫ﻧﻌﺴﺎن‬ َْ sleepy ‫( ﻧﻬﺾ‬a) َ ََ bowels the small intestine ‫ﻣﻘﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َْ ُْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﻞ‬ َُ َ َ َ ‫( ﻧﺤﻞ‬u, a) pulse ‫ﻧﺤﻴﻒ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺤﻔﺎء ,ﻧﺤﺎف‬ ِ َ ُ placenta َِ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻰ اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ِ َّ ‫ﻣﻔﺼﻞ‬ ِ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺾ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻧﺒﺎض‬ ْ to get up (from bed) ‫ﻧﻬﻨﻪ‬ ََْ َ see ‫ﻧﺸﺞ‬ ‫ﻧﻮم‬ َْ sleep ‫ﻧﻮﻧﺔ‬ chin dimple ‫( ﻫﺪب‬coll.) ُُ eyelashes pl. ‫أﻫﺪاب‬ ْ eyeball َ ‫ﻫﺰَّ رأﺳﻪ‬ to shake one’s head having a paunch َ ََ ‫( ﻫﺰل‬i) to be(come) emaciated infant ‫ﻫﻀﻢ‬ ْ َ digestion ‫( ﻫﻀﻢ‬i) ََ َ to digest (food) canine tooth ‫ﻧﺎب‬ ْ ُُ ُ ِ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﻳﻴﺐ ,ﻧﻴﻮب ,أﻧﻴﺎب‬ َ َ َ ‫( ﻫﻤﺲ‬i) 1. to whisper ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻞ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺤﻞ ,ﻧﺤﻠﻰ‬ َْ َ َ ُ ‫ﻫﻤﺲ‬ ْ َ whisper ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ َْ appearance, shape ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﻋﻈﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ َ َْ skeleton ‫واﻃﻰء‬ soft (voice) ‫ﻣﻜﺮش‬ ِْ ُ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﻮد‬ ُْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻟﻴﺪ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ِ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاص‬ ‫( ﻧﺎم‬a) َ slim, thin forelock to sleep 2. to mumble, mutter
  40. 40. 36 ‫وﺗﻴﻦ‬ َِ ُُ َْ pl. ‫أوﺗﻨﺔ ,وﺗﻦ‬ ‫وﺟﺪان‬ ْ ِ ‫وﺟﻪ‬ ْ َ ُ pl. ‫وﺟﻮه‬ DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE emotional life face ‫وﺳﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ handsome َ َْ َ ‫وﺷﻮش‬ aorta see ‫)1( ﻫﻤﺲ‬ َ ‫وﻋﺎء دﻣﻮي‬ ّ َ َ ِ blood vessel pl.‫دﻣﻮﻳﺔ أوﻋﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ َّ ِ َ َ ‫وﻻدة‬ ِ birth ِ ‫وﻻدة ﻣﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ premature birth vein ‫وﻟﻴﺪ‬ َِ newborn baby (‫وﺳﺦَ )ﻳﻮﺳﺦ‬ ُ َ َْ َ َ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﻮخ‬ crown (head) to be(come) dirty َ pl. ‫ﻳﻮاﻓﻴﺦ‬ ‫وﺳﺦ‬ ِ َ dirty ‫ﻳﺪ‬ َ ‫وﺳﻄﻰ‬ َ ْ ُ middle finger ‫ورك‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أوراك‬ ‫ورﻳﺪ‬ َِ ِْ pl. ‫أوردة‬ hip hand ِْ ِ pl. ‫أﻳﺎد ,أﻳﺪ‬ Diseases and health care ‫أ ﺑﺢ‬ ّ َ hoarse ‫ارﺗﻌﺶ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to shiver, tremble ‫إﺣﺒﺎط‬ ْ see ‫اﻛﺘﺌﺎب‬ َْ ِْ ِ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع ﺿﻐﻂ اﻟﺪم‬ َّ hypertension ‫اﺣﺘﻘﺎن‬ ِْ ِ congestion ‫أرق‬ َ insomnia, sleeplessness َّ ِ ‫اﺣﺘﻘﺎن اﻟﺪم‬ vascular congestion ‫إرﻫﺎق‬ ْ stress, fatigue َْ ِ ‫اﺧﺘﺺَّ ب‬ ِ to specialize in ‫إزاﻟﺔ اﻟﺮﺣﻢ‬ ِ َّ hysterectomy ‫اﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ specialist ‫اﺳﺘﺌﺼﺎل‬ ْ ِ ‫اﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲّ اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ِ ِ ْ ِ ‫اﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ gastroenterologist (doctor) َ َ ْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﺄﺻﻞ‬ removal (of an organ) by surgery to remove (an organ) by surgery ‫أﺧﺮس‬ َْ dumb ‫اﺳﺘﺤﻢ‬ َّ َ َ ْ ِ to take a bath َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ‫أداة ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺼﻴﺔ‬ diagnostic tool ‫اﺳﺘﺤﻤﺎم‬ ْ ِْ ِ bathing ‫إدﻣﺎن اﻟﻤﺨﺪرات‬ ِّ َ ُ ْ drug addiction َ ِْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﺮاح‬ to take a rest ‫أدﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َ ْ to be addicted to ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺮجَ اﻟﻮﻋﻰ‬ ْ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to regain consciousness ‫ارﺗﺠﺎج اﻟﻤﺦ‬ ّ ُ ِْ ِ concussion ‫اﺳﺘﺴﻘﺎء‬ ْ ِْ ِ dropsy
  41. 41. DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE 37 ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺎدة‬ ِْ ِ recuperation ‫أﻏﻤﻲَ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ِ ََْ ِ ْ ُ to faint, lose consciousness ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺴﺎخ اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ِْْ ِ cloning ‫أﻗﻠﻊ‬ َ َْ to extract, pull out ‫اﺳﻌﺎف‬ ْ ِ medical assistance ‫اﻛﺘﺌﺎب‬ ِْ ِ depression ْ / ‫اﻹﺳﻌﺎف اﻷوﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َّ ‫اﻟﻔﻮري‬ ّ َِْ ‫إﻛﺰﻳﻤﺎ‬ ِْ eczema First Aid ‫إﺳﻔﻨﺞ‬ َْْ ‫آﻻم اﻟﻤﻌﺪة‬ ِْ stomach ache sponge ‫إﺳﻬﺎل‬ ْ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب‬ ِِْ inflammation diarrhoea ‫أﺷﻌﺔ ﻓﻮق‬ َ ْ َ َّ ِ َ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ َ ultraviolet rays ّ َ ‫أﺷﻞ‬ paralysed, paralytic (adj.) injury ‫( أﺻﻴﺐ ب‬pass.) ِ ُ ِ ُ to be afflicted by (a disease) ‫أﺻﻠﻊ‬ َْ bald َْ ُُ f. ‫ ;ﺻﻠﻌﺎء‬pl. ‫ﺻﻠﻊ‬ ‫أﻃﺮش‬ َْ deaf f. ‫ ;ﻃﺮﺷﺎء‬pl. ‫ﻃﺮش‬ َْ ُُ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺤﻠﻖ‬ ََ ِ throat infection laryngitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب رﺋﻮي‬ ّ ِ ِ ِ lung infection َّ ِ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺰاﺋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺪودﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُّ appendicitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺴﺤﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِّ ِ meningitis ِ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺸﻌﺐ‬ َ ُّ ‫إﺻﺎﺑﺔ‬ sinusitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺤﻨﺠﺮة‬ َ َْ ِ f. ‫ ; ﺷﻼء‬pl. ‫ﺷﻠﻮء‬ ُّ َّ َ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺠﻴﻮب‬ ُُ ِ ‫اﻷﻧﻔﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ bronchitis َّ ْ ِ ِ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب ﻋﺮق اﻟﻨﺴﺎ‬ sciatica mumps ‫إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ‬ ِ َّ rehabilitation َّ ُ ِ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﻐﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َّ ‫أﻋﺮج‬ َْ lame ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب ﻛﺒﺪي‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ hepatitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب ﻛﻠﻮي‬ ّ ِ َُ ِ nephritis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﻠﺜﺔ‬ ِ ِ gingivitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬ ِ َ ِ arthritis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﻠﻮزﺗﻴﻦ‬ ََْ ْ َ ِ tonsilitis f. ‫ ;ﻋﻤﻴﺎء‬pl. ‫ﻋﻤﻴﺎن ,ﻋﻤﻰ‬ ْ َ ْ ُ ْ ُ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب ﻣﻌﻮي‬ ّ َِِ ِ gastritis ‫أﻋﻮر‬ َْ ‫اﻟﺘﻮى‬ َ َِْ to twist (e.g. ankle) ‫اﻟﺘﻮاء‬ ِ ِ sprain f. ‫ ;ﻋﺮﺟﺎء‬pl. ‫ﻋﺮج‬ َْ ُُ ‫أﻋﺸﺎء‬ ْ night-blind f. ‫ﻋﺸﻮاء‬ ْ َ ‫أﻋﻤﻰ‬ َ ْ blind one-eyed َْ ُ f. ‫ ;ﻋﻮراء‬pl. ‫ﻋﻮر‬ ‫إﻋﻴﺎء‬ ْ exhaustion, fatigue ‫( أﻟﻢ‬a) َِ to be in pain ‫إﻏﻤﺎء‬ ْ unconsciousness ‫أﻟﻢ‬ َ pain, ache pl. ‫آﻻم‬
  42. 42. 38 DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE ‫أﻟﻢ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ َ toothache ‫ﺑﻨﺞ‬ َْ chloroform ‫أﻟﻢ اﻟﺤﻴﺾ‬ َْ َ menstrual pain ‫ﺑ ﻨﺞ‬ َ َّ َ to chloroform ‫أﻟﻢ اﻟﻌﻀﻼت‬ َ َ َ muscle ache ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ haemorrhoids ‫إﻣﺴﺎك‬ ْ constipation ‫ﺑﻮدرة‬ ُ powder ‫اﻧﺒﻄﺢ‬ َ َ ِْ to be prostrated ‫ﺑﻴﻠﻬﺎرﺳﻴﺎ‬ ِ ْ ِ schistosomiasis, bilharziasis ‫أﻧﺒﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُُْ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬ ُ ِ tube (e.g. toothpaste) ‫ﺗﺎج‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺗﻴﺠﺎن‬ crown (teeth) ‫اﻧﺘﺤﺮ‬ َ َ َِْ to commit suicide ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺻﺤﻲ‬ ّ ِّ ِ ِ health insurance ‫اﻧﺘﻌﺶ‬ َ َ َِْ to recover (from illness) ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ ُّ َ َ bedwetting ‫اﻧﺘﻜﺎس‬ ِْ relapse ‫ﺗﺘﻨﻮس‬ ََ tetanus ‫اﻧﺘﻜﺲ‬ َ َ َِْ to suffer a relapse ‫ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻒ‬ ِْ َ cavity (tooth) ‫اﻧﺴﺪاد ﻋﻀﻠﺔ‬ َ َ ِ ِْ ‫اﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬ َْ ‫ﺗﺤﺖَ إﺷﺮاف ﻃﺒﻲ‬ ّ ِّ ِ ْ َ under doctor’s supervision infarctus ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ِْ َ analysis ‫اﻧﻌﺎش‬ ِ resuscitation pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎم‬ ِِْ schizophrenia ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﺒﻮل‬ ُ ِْ َ urine analysis ‫اﻧﻘﺒﺎض‬ ِِْ contraction ِْ َ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﺪم‬ َّ blood analysis ‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎر ﻋﺼﺒﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ ِ ِْ nervous breakdown ‫أ وﺟ ﻊ‬ َ َ ْ to cause pain ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﺔ‬ ِ ْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﺤﺎﻣﻴﻞ‬ ‫أورﻃﻰ‬ aorta ‫ﺗﺨﺪﻳﺮ‬ ِْ َ anaesthesia ‫( ﺑﺘﺮ‬u) َ ََ to amputate ‫( ﺗﺨﻢ‬a) َِ َ to suffer from indigestion ‫ﺑﺘﺮ‬ َْ amputation ‫ﺗﺨﻤﺔ‬ ْ ُ indigestion pimple ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺪرن‬ see ‫ﺳﻞ‬ ّ ‫ﺗﺮاﺧﻮﻣﺎ‬ trachoma ‫ﺑﺜﺮة‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺑﺜﻮر‬ suppository ‫ﺑﺢ‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ to be hoarse ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت أﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ ِ ِْ braces (teeth) َّ ُ ‫ﺑﺤﺔ‬ hoarseness ‫ﺗﺮﻳﺎق‬ ِْ antidote َّ َ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺧﺔ‬ spray ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻊ‬ auscultation ‫ﺑﺮداء‬ ََ feverish chill ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻢ ﺑﻮﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ َ ُّ َ uraemia ‫ﺑﻜﺘﻴﺮي‬ ّ ِ ِْ َ bacterial ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻢ دﻣﻮي‬ ّ ِ َ َ ُّ َ َ blood poisoning ‫ﺑﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ِ ِْ َ bacteria ُّ َ َ ُّ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻢ اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ food poisoning
  43. 43. DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE 39 ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻮس‬ dental caries ‫ﺟﺪري‬ ّ َُِ smallpox ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ِ ْ َ diagnosis ‫ﺟﺪريّ اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ََِ chickenpox ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺟﺜﺔ‬ َّ ُ ِ ْ َ autopsy ‫ﺟﺬام‬ ُ leprosy ‫ﺗ ﺸ ﻨﺞ‬ َ َّ َ َ 1. to have convulsions َّ َ ‫ﺟﺮاح‬ surgeon 2. to twitch ‫ﺟﺮاﺣﺔ‬ ِ surgery ِ ‫ﺟﺮاﺣﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َّ cosmetic surgery ‫ﺟﺮب‬ ََ scabies ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺸﻨﺞ‬ convulsion, spasm ‫ﺗﺸﻨﺠﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُّ َ َ spasmodic, convulsive ‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ‬ ِْ َ deformity, mutilation ‫ﺗﺼﻠﺐ اﻟﺸﺮاﻳﻴﻦ‬ ِ َّ ُّ َ َ arteriosclerosis ‫ﺗﻀﺨﻢ‬ َ َّ َ َ to swell, distend ‫ﺗﻄﻌﻴﻢ‬ ِْ َ inoculation, vaccination ‫ﺟﺮح‬ ََ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ َ َ َ to undergo medical treatment pl. ‫ﺟﺮوح‬ ُُ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﺎن‬ َْ tired َّ َ َ ِ ‫ﺗﻌﺮضّ ل‬ to be exposed to ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﺺ‬ cramp ِْ َ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﻨﺴﻞ‬ ْ َّ birth control َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻘﻴﺄ‬ to vomit ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻴﺢ‬ ِ َْ vaccination ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻴﻒ اﻟﺤﻮﺻﻠﻲ‬ ّ َِ ْ َ ُّ َ َّ cystic fibrosis ‫ﺗﻤﺰق‬ ُّ َ َ laceration, tear ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ‫ََﱡ‬ َّ َ ‫ﺣﺐّ اﻟﺸﺒﺎب‬ artificial respiration ‫ﺗﻬﻴﺞ‬ ُّ َ َ irritation ‫ﺣﺒﺔ‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ﺣﺒﻮب‬ ُُ ‫ﺗﻮﺣﺪ‬ ‫ََ ﱡ‬ autism ‫ﺣﺒﻞ ﺳﺮي‬ ّ َّ ُ ْ َ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﻲ‬ َ َّ ُ ُ see ‫ﻣﺎت‬ ْ ُ ‫ﺣﺠﺮة اﻟﻄﻮارئ‬ ِ َّ ‫ﺗﻴﺘﺎﻧﻮس‬ ُ ِ tetanus ‫ﺗﻴﻔﻮس‬ ُ ِ typhus ْ ُ ‫ﺣﺠﺮة اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ َّ ِ َ َ operating theatre ‫ﺟﺒﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to set (broken bones) ‫ﺣﺠﺰ ﺻﺤﺤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِّ ِ ْ َ quarantine ‫ﺟﺒﻴﺮة‬ َِ splint ‫ﺣﺪﻗﺔ‬ ََ pupil ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ َ burning (of the skin) pl. ‫ﺟﺒﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺟﺮﺛﻮم‬ ُْ َ pl. ‫ﺟﺮاﺛﻴﻢ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. microbe 2. bacillus 3. bacteria ‫ﺟﺮﻋﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﺟﺮع ,-ات‬ wound dose, potion ‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﻣﻀﺎد‬ ُ ْ ِ antibody ‫ﺟﻠﻄﺔ‬ ُْ clot ‫ﺟﻠﻄﺔ دﻣﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ ْ ُ blood clot ‫ﺟﻬﺎز اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ َ ِ immune system ‫ﺣﺎدث‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺣﻮادث‬ ِ َ accident acne pill umbilical cord Accidents and Emergency Room
  44. 44. 40 ‫ﺣﺮق‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﺮوق‬ ُُ DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE ‫ُ ﱠ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﻰ اﻟﺼﻔﺮاء‬ ْ َّ yellow fever َّ ِ ِ َ ‫ُ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻳﺔ‬ burn gastric fever ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ّ َ allergic typhoid fever (‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ل‬ ِ َّ ِ ّ ‫ﺣﻤﻰ ﻣﻌﻮي‬ ّ َِِ ‫ُ ﱠ‬ allergy (to) benign (e.g. tumour) ‫ﺣﺴﺮ اﻟﺒﺼﺮ‬ ْ َ َ َ ‫ﺣﻤﻴﺪ‬ ِ َ short-sightedness cyst ‫ﺣﺴﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺣﻮﻳﺼﻠﺔ‬ َْ ُ short-sighted ‫( ﺣﺸﺎ‬u) َ to fill (e.g. teeth) ‫ﺧﺒﻴﺚ‬ َِ malignant (disease, tumour) ُُ َُ ْ pl. ‫أﺧﺒﺎث ,ﺧﺒﺜﺎء ,ﺧﺒﺚ‬ ‫ﺣﺸﻮ‬ ْ َ filling (teeth) َ ََ ‫( ﺧﺪش‬i) to scratch ‫ﺣﺼﺎة‬ َ calculus ‫( ﺧﺮاج‬coll.) ُ abscess ‫ﺣﺼﺎة ﺑﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ bladder stone ‫ﺧﺮاﻗﺔ‬ َِ blister َ ‫ﺣﺼﺎة ﺻﻔﺮاوﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ gallstone ‫ﺧﺮف‬ ََ senility ‫ﺣﺼﺒﺔ‬ ْ َ measles ‫ﺧﻠﻘﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ congenital 1. to depilate ‫ﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ َِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻼﻳﺎ‬ َّ َ ‫( ﺣف‬i) 2. to trim (beard) ‫ﺣﻔﺎض‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ nappy cell ‫ﺧﻮف ﻣﻦ اﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ‬ ِ َْ ‫اﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬ َْ ُ claustrophobia ‫ﺣﻔﺎض اﻟﺤﻴﺾ‬ َْ ِ sanitary towel ‫ﺧﻴﻂ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ َْ dental floss ‫( ﺣﻘﻦ‬i, u) َ ََ to give someone an injection ‫داء‬ see ‫ﻣﺮض‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻦ‬ َْ injection ‫داء اﻟﻜﻠﺐ‬ ـy

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