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    Arabic english thematic_lexicon Arabic english thematic_lexicon Document Transcript

    • Arabic–English Thematic Lexicon The Arabic–English Thematic Lexicon is an invaluable resource for all learners of Arabic. It contains some 8,000 entries, arranged into themes, including flora and fauna, food and drink, the human body, health care, the family, housing, clothing, education, IT, sports, politics, economics and commerce, the law, media, language, geography, travel, religion, arts, science and natural resources. Three appendices cover the names of Arab and selected non-Arab regions, countries and capitals, and international organisations. The entries in the Lexicon have been drawn from an extensive corpus of contemporary Standard Arabic vocabulary, based on authentic sources. In addition to verbs, nouns and adjectives, the Lexicon includes phrases and commonly used collocations, providing users with the necessary vocabulary in order to communicate effectively and confidently in both written and spoken Standard Arabic. The Lexicon is an indispensable vocabulary-building tool, as well as a useful reference guide. Daniel Newman is Reader in Arabic and Course Director of the MA in Arabic/English Translation at the University of Durham.
    • Arabic–English Thematic Lexicon Daniel Newman
    • First published 2007 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2007. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2007 Daniel Newman All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Newman, Daniel, 1963– [Arabic–English lexicon] The Arabic/English thematic lexicon / Daniel Newman. – 1st ed. p. cm. 1. Arabic language – Dictionaries – English. PJ6640.N46 I. Title. 2007 492.7′321—dc22 ISBN 0-203-96087-4 Master e-book ISBN ISBN10: 0–415–42093–8 (hbk) ISBN10: 0–415–4094–6 (pbk) ISBN10: 0–203–96087–4 (ebk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–42093–8 (hbk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–42094–5 (pbk) ISBN13: 978–0–203–96087–5 (ebk) 2006037980
    • Contents Introduction | 1 Fruit | 7 Flora | 8 Herbs and spices | 10 Vegetables | 10 Animals | 11 Mammals | 11 Birds | 14 Marine animals | 16 Reptiles and insects | 17 Animal sounds | 18 Food and drink | 19 The human body | 27 Diseases and health care | 36 The family, human relations and emotions | 48 Housing and construction | 63 Clothing | 71 School and education | 77 General | 77 Sciences and academic subjects | 85 Computing | 86 The media | 91 Sports | 94 Arts and entertainment | 100 Politics | 104 Law and order | 120 The military | 126 Economics and commerce | 135 Agriculture and farming | 150 Natural resources | 153
    • vi CONTENTS Tools and equipment | 156 Time | 160 General | 160 Days of the week | 163 The seasons | 163 Months | 164 Gregorian | 164 Islamic | 164 Coptic | 164 Geography | 165 Natural geography | 165 Urban geography | 168 Travel and mobility | 169 General | 169 Communications | 173 Air | 175 Sea | 176 Rail | 178 Road | 179 Traffic | 179 The car | 181 The weather | 184 Language and communication | 186 Religion | 191 General | 191 Islam | 192 Christianity | 195 Colours | 198 The zodiac | 199 Weights and measures | 200 Appendix I | 202 Arab regions, countries and capitals | 202 Appendix II | 203 Selected non-Arab regions, countries and capitals | 203 Appendix III | 204 International organizations | 204
    • Introduction The task of the ‘harmless drudge’, as Dr Johnson Unfortunately, things do not stop here for the called the lexicographer, is always challenging, and, Arabic lexicographer as within the normative variety it must be said, often thankless. Such is the ever- there are often a number of competing changing nature of language that no sooner has a geographical variants. This matter is not unrelated dictionary appeared than it is already to some to the fact that there are a number of Arabic extent out of step with the living language. Consider, Language Academies (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and for instance, the developments in computing and Syria). For instance, ‘mobile telephone’ can be the Internet and the concomitant surge in new rendered by the following: terminology in the space of just one decade. In the case of Arabic, the lexicographer’s task is ‫,ﻣﺘﻨَﻗﻞ ,ﻧﻘﺎل ,ﺟﻮال‬ َّ ََ ّ َُ ‫ )ﺟﻬﺎز/ﻫﺎﺗﻒ( ﺧﻠﻮي ,ﻣﺤﻤﻮل ,ﺳﻴﺎر‬and ُ ْ َ ّ ِ ََ ِ ِ َّ َ ‫ ,ﻫﺎﺗﻒ ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬all of which are fusha terms. The ّ َ َُ ..¯ further complicated by the phenomenon of only difference between them is where they were diglossia – i.e. the coexistence of several varieties originally coined and their place (and frequency) of along an acro-basilectal continuum – and the fact usage: the first three tend to be used more in North that many of the regional dialects are mutually Africa, the fourth in Egypt, the fifth in the Levant and unintelligible. the sixth in some areas of the Gulf. Naturally, the The normative variety of the language, which is Arabic speaker understands all coinings, but in the commonly referred to as Modern Standard Arabic standard variety of his/her native area, one of them (MSA) – the so-called fusha ( ‫ – ) ﻓﺼﺤﻰ‬is the ُ ..¯ will probably be used to the exclusion of the others. closest to the Classical Arabic of the Qur’an in ¯ What is more, it is very likely that in informal terms of grammar. This variety, which, of course, contexts the same speaker will use none of the has been subject to many changes, not least in the above, choosing instead the borrowing ‫ﻣﻮﺑﺎﻳﻞ‬ area of lexis, is a language that is used exclusively (‘mobile’) or ‫‘( ﺟﻲ أس أم‬GSM’)! for official and literary purposes. It diverges greatly, It is in the area of terminology, or specialized as it always has done, from the everyday language language, that this problem is sometimes the most spoken by people in the street. Indeed, it is worth acute. It is particularly problematic, of course, in the remembering that this variety has no mother- sciences where the prevailing orthodoxy is that of tongue speakers – it is the dialect which is the native one-to-one correspondence, i.e. one meaning, one language of the Arabic speaker. The normative term. In reality, this principle is consistently variety is also the link language which allows overridden in Arabic where a plethora of terms may educated Arabic speakers from Morocco to Iraq to render one English scientific term. For instance, in communicate with one another. research the present author conducted some time In this Lexicon the emphasis is squarely on the ago, no fewer than thirteen terms were found for the standard language, rather than a given colloquial English linguistic term ‘phoneme’, all of which are variety. used interchangeably by specialists in the field.
    • 2 INTRODUCTION The large number of (near-)synonyms and/or differently, the author attempted to include only competing coinings make it very difficult for the those terms whose use transcends a single country lexicographer to make a choice, particularly as or area. In any event, it is impossible to remain consulting native speakers may sometimes entirely immune from accusations that such and obfuscate, rather than clarify, the issue. For such a term is less ‘accurate’ or ‘widespread’ than instance, an educated speaker from, say, Iraq will another. state that a given term is the one in use in Standard Rather than a collection of entries culled from Arabic (or at least that used in Iraq), whereas an various dictionaries, the Lexicon is based on a educated Moroccan speaker will comment that corpus compiled over a period of many years, with s/he has never encountered that very same word. the author relying on authentic data drawn from In most cases the informant will recognize that it is both written and audiovisual sources from a wide Standard Arabic, but in others they will condemn variety of countries. Only words whose usage was the term for being a colloquial variant. attested in a number of sources were included in At the same time, one should not exaggerate the problem either. The above remark applies to certain the Lexicon. The first question any dictionary compiler needs fields more than others, whereas in most cases the to address is whether the work deserves to be same word is used across the Arabic-speaking done, i.e. whether it fills a gap of some sort. The world. second one involves the target audience: who will In a work of this kind, one solution would be to list all ‘standard’ terms, irrespective of where they are used. Instead, it has been decided to select the one be using the book, and perhaps equally important, why? The origins of the Lexicon grew out of a desire that is most frequently encountered in the corpus and need to provide students with core vocabulary for a number of reasons, the principal one being conveniently grouped together in thematic userfriendliness, since it was never intended to categories. Indeed, none of the basic vocabulary produce a Thesaurus. In the event of several lists met this goal, whereas textbooks often competing forms occurring with similar frequency, frustratingly, albeit understandably, only give limited each was retained, with the reader being referred to vocabulary relating to the same semantic field: for the definition given elsewhere: e.g. instance, students will be given only five colours, say, and will be expected to start compiling their ‫ﺑﻴﺖ‬ َْ : house own lists or, if they are lucky, rely on those provided ‫دار‬ : see ‫ﺑﻴﺖ‬ by the teacher. Furthermore, it is much easier to assimilate lexis if it is presented in a logical and On the whole, geographically determined MSA terms were excluded. For instance, it is well coherent format. Like so many lexicographical endeavours, this documented that in former French colonies such as Lexicon started out as a series of lists, which were Tunisia, Algeria, or Lebanon, a number of MSA handed to students when a particular area of terms in use are calques from French, whereas in vocabulary was tackled, i.e. for general vocabulary many countries in the Middle East there is often a building, lexical extension, as well as translation noticeable influence from English. To put it exercises.
    • INTRODUCTION It is important to point out that, while the Lexicon was initially drawn up for learners of Arabic, it is equally suitable for Arabic-speaking learners of 3 order to be able to interpret and use the information effectively. Throughout, the primary aim has been to English, for whom the book will also be a very useful provide all but the most technical vocabulary vocabulary-building tool. relating to a large number of fields which language Arguably, one of the the first thematic vocabulary users are likely to encounter. Naturally, choices lists was that compiled by the great French Arabist, again had to be made, in terms of the field in Charles Pellat (L’Arabe Vivant : mots arabes which certain words would have to be put, or the groupés d’après le sens et vocabulaire fondamental number of words in each field. Both questions de l’arabe moderne, 1961). Based on a study of a were addressed pragmatically, and within number of newspapers, the lexicon contains 6,000 practical constraints of length. Furthermore, words which are ordered according to themes, but the size of each category also depended on the not alphabetically (though the book came with, nature and scope of the semantic field, and it is unfortunately all too often unreliable, French and hardly surprising therefore that the section on Arabic alphabetical indices)! Other endeavours ‘Politics’ contains significantly more terms than followed, both in the West and in the Middle East, that on ‘Fruit’. In theory, there was no fixed yet none fully met students’ needs for a number of maximum (or minimum) number of words for reasons, ranging from layout and presentation (e.g. each category. either only transliteration or only Arabic script As for the classification, there are, of course, without vowelling), to the number and types of cases in which the ultimate choice may be categories included, or the absence of collocations debatable, and to some degree subjective. and of basic grammatical metatext. However, one would hope that the inclusion of the The present Lexicon is intended to meet the term is considered more important than the needs of students at all levels who wish to expand category in which it is placed. Similarly, some their vocabulary in a large number of everyday users will undoubtedly lament the absence of this or fields. The Lexicon contains about 8,000 entries, that term, which they deem absolutely imperative and also includes phrases and collocations. It can for the student. All that can be said in defence is be used for both passive and active vocabulary use. that there was undoubtedly good reason to do so, Students who have mastered the vocabulary either because it was too technical, colloquial, or contained in the Lexicon will be able to synonymous with a term that was attested more communicate effectively and confidently in most often in the author’s corpus. daily contexts, both orally and in writing. The thematic ordering makes the Lexicon eminently practical and suitable for both home and classroom use. At the same time, the layout encourages browsing. Although the Lexicon is designed for use by Arabic learners at all levels, Consistently, the basic premise has been to class entries together as much as possible in meaningful categories and subcategories. If (near-)synonyms are provided in English, they are separated by a comma. The next question is a very practical one, i.e. how both in formal and informal settings, the user must to use the dictionary. The entries are arranged have a basic knowledge of Arabic grammar in according to themes and appear in straight Arabic
    • 4 INTRODUCTION alphabetical order within each category. In cases In cases where the plural is only rarely used, as is where the lemma includes the article ‘‫ ,’ال‬it is the case for a number of fruits, it is given but listed according to the first character of the base enclosed in round brackets: e.g. word: e.g. ‫‘( اﻟﺪاﻣﺎ‬draughts’) appears under ‘‫,’د‬ َّ not ‘‫.’ا‬ Unlike in many Western dictionaries of Arabic, ‫ﻛﻤﺜﺮى‬ َ َْ ُ (coll.) pear َ َْ ُ (pl. ‫)ﻛﻤﺜﺮﻳﺎت‬ words patterned on the same root are not listed together, but in strictly alphabetical order. So, for ََ ِْ instance, ‫‘( ﻓﺘﺢ‬to open’) and ‫‘( ﻣﻔﺘﺎح‬key’) are not listed together. The main reason behind this was, once again, ease of use. Specific phrases which are often found on signs are capitalized: e.g. ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﺨﺮوج‬ ُْ َ ُُ NO EXIT In line with common usage, Arabic verbs are ِ listed in the third person singular preterite (‫)اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ All Arabic words are fully vowelled; the absence of transcriptions has been a conscious choice form. The appropriate conjugation vowel of the ِ ُ first-form (base-stem) imperfect (‫ )اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬is inasmuch as it has a number of disadvantages, not least the fact that the learner will attempt to store added in brackets next to the entry: e.g. two ‘forms’ in the mental lexicon, rather than one, ‫( درس‬u) َ ََ i.e. the Arabic graphemic form. It is also hoped that to study beginners, in particular, will benefit from the If there is more than one possible vowel, both variants are given: e.g. ‫( ﺧﻤﺶ‬i, u) َ َ َ additional reading practice. Arabic nouns appear in pausal form, without the ِ َْ so-called ‘nunnation’ (‫ ,)ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻦ‬i.e. case endings, to scratch In the case of so-called ‘weak’ verbs (those in which one of the root letters is ‫ ي ,و‬or ‫ ,)أ‬the full imperfect third person singular form is given: e.g. ‫وﺻﻞ )ﻳﺼﻞ( إﻟﻰ‬ ُ ِ َ َ َ َ except for some accusative and genitive indefinite inflections: e.g. ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎ‬ ً َ free (of charge) ‫ﻗﺎض‬ ٍ judge to arrive in The plurals of Arabic words are only given if they ‘Diptote’ forms, i.e. those with reduced inflections, are indicated by means of a superscript are in some way irregular, i.e. if it involves a so-called ُ ِ َ damma ( ُ ) over the final consonant: e.g. ‫.ﻣﺪارس‬ . ‘broken’ plural, or in cases of deviating pluralization The diptote marking is omitted, however, in recent (e.g. a sound feminine plural for words without the borrowings and proper nouns as the inflected feminine marker ‫ ,ة‬i.e. ta’ marbuta): e.g. ¯ ¯. endings in those cases are never pronounced: ‫ﺑﺎب‬ door pl. ‫أﺑﻮاب‬ ْ ُ e.g. ‫*( ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ‬not ‫‘ ,)ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ‬Berlin’. Relevant grammatical information is provided when necessary for both Arabic and English entries: e.g. English infinitives appear with ‘to’, whereas in ‫ﻣﻀﺧﻢ‬ ‫ُ َ ﱢ‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ amplifier cases of ambiguity, the appropriate grammatical category (e.g. adjective, noun) is indicated. Useful
    • INTRODUCTION 5 collocations are also listed, as are prepositions: adj. adjective e.g. adv. adverb coll. collective (noun) el. electricity f. feminine fig. figurative gen. generic (noun) intrans. intransitive (verb) math. mathematics n. noun n. un. unit noun o. self oneself pass. passive (voice) perf. perfect tense pl. plural prep. preposition different meanings are part of the same field, then Qur. Qur’an they appear numbered next to the entry: e.g. s.o. someone s.thing something 1. raven trans. transitive (verb) 2. crow v. verb ‫ات‬‫-ون‬ regular masculine plural ‫رﺳﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ official (adj.) ‫واﻓﻖَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ََ َ to approve ‫( ﺣﺮب‬f.) َْ war ‫ﺿﺮبَ ﺣﻘﻨﺎ‬ ً َْ ََ to give an injection In cases of polysemy or homonymy (sc. multiple meanings) of Arabic words, the various meanings are included in the relevant categories: e.g. ‫ ﻓﺘﺢ‬in َ ََ the sense of ‘to open’ will be found under ‘Housing and Construction’, whereas it reappears under ‘The Military’ in the meaning of ‘to conquer’. If the ‫ﻏﺮاب‬ ُ The following abbreviations are used in the Lexicon: < regular feminine plural > the opposite of
    • FRUIT 7 Fruit ‫ﻃﺎزج‬ َ fresh pineapple ‫( ﻋﻨﺐ‬coll.) َِ grapes ‫( ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎل‬coll.) ُْ ُ oranges (pl. ‫)أﻋﻨﺎب‬ ْ ‫( ﺑﻄﻴﺦ‬coll.) َ (water)melons ‫( ﺑﻠﺢ‬coll.) ََ dates ‫أﺛﻤﺮ‬ ََ َ to bear fruit (tree, plant) ‫أﻧﺎﻧﺎس‬ َ ‫( ﺑﻨﺪق‬coll.) ُ ُْ ِ َ (pl. ‫)ﺑﻨﺎدق‬ ‫( ﺗﻔﺎح‬coll.) َّ ُ (pl. ‫)ﺗﻔﺎﻓﻴﺢ‬ ُ ِ َ hazelnuts ‫ﻋﻨﻘﻮد‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎﻗﻴﺪ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺔ‬ ِ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻮاﻛﻪ‬ bunch (of grapes) fruit ‫ﻓﺞ‬ ّ ِ unripe ‫ﻓﺮاوﻟﺔ‬ ْ َ apples strawberry ‫( ﺗﻤﺮ‬coll.) ْ َ (dried) dates ‫( ﻓﺴﺘﻖ‬coll.) ُْ ُ pistachio nuts ‫ﺗﻤﺮ ﻫﻨﺪ‬ ِْ َ tamarind ‫( ﻓﻮل ﺳﻮداﻧﻲ‬coll.) ّ peanuts ‫ﺗﻮت‬ mulberry ‫( ﻛﺮز‬coll.) ََ cherries ‫ﺗﻮت ﺷﻮﻛﻲ‬ ّ َْ raspberry ‫ﻛﺴﺘﻨﺎء‬ َْ ُ chestnut ‫( ﺗﻴﻦ‬coll.) figs ‫( ﻛﻤﺜﺮى‬coll.) َ َْ ُ َ َْ ُ (pl. ‫)ﻛﻤﺜﺮﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺛﻤﺮ‬ َ َ ِ pl. ‫ﺛﻤﺎر‬ fruit (produce) ‫ﻻرﻧﺞ‬ ِ pears grapefruit ‫ﺟﻮاﻓﺔ‬ َ guava ‫( ﺟﻮز‬coll.) َْ walnuts ‫ﻟﺐ‬ ّ ُ p. ‫ﻟﺒﻮب‬ ُُ ‫( ﺟﻮز اﻟﻬﻨﺪ‬coll.) ِْ ْ َ coconuts ‫( ﻟﻮز‬coll.) َْ almonds َ ‫( ﺣﺐّ اﻟﺼﻨﻮﺑﺮ‬coll.) َ ْ َ َّ pine nuts ‫( ﻟﻴﻤﻮن‬coll.) ُ ِ lemons ‫( ﺧﻮخ‬coll.) َ plums ‫ﻟﻴﻤﻮن ﺣﺎﻣﺾ‬ ِ lime ‫( زﺑﻴﺐ‬coll.) َِ raisins ‫ﻣﺎﻧﺠﻮ‬ ُ ْ mango ‫ﺳﺒﺎط‬ ُ cluster (fruit) ‫( ﻣﺸﻤﺶ‬coll.) ِ ْ ِ apricots ‫( ﺳﻔﺮﺟﻞ‬coll.) َ ََْ quinces ‫ﻣﻮاﻟﺢ‬ ِ َ citrus fruits ‫( ﻣﻮز‬coll.) َْ bananas ‫ﻧﺎﺿﺞ‬ ِ ripe (fruit) musk melon ‫ﻳﻘﻄﻴﻦ‬ َْ squash to ripen ‫ﻳﻮﺳﻔﻲ‬ ّ ُِ ُ tangerine ُ ِ ََ (pl. ‫)ﺳﻔﺎرج‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﺤﺔ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﺢ‬ ُ َ َّ َ ‫( ﺷﻤﺎم‬coll.) ‫( ﻃﺎب‬i) َ slice core (e.g. apple)
    • 8 FLORA Flora ‫أﺑﻨﻮس‬ َُْ ‫( أﺛﻞ‬coll.) َُ (pl. ‫)أﺛﻮل‬ ebony ‫( ﺟﻤﻴﺰ‬coll.) َْ ُ sycamore tamarisk ‫ﺣﺒﺔ ﺣﻠﻮة‬ ُْ ََ aniseed ‫ﺣﻨﺎء‬ َّ ِ henna ‫ﺣﻨﻄﺔ‬ ِْ see ‫ﻗﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻣﻰ‬ َ ُ lavender ‫ﺧﺸﺐ اﻟﻤﻐﻨﺔ‬ ُْ ْ َ mahogany ‫( أرز‬coll.) َْ cedars ‫أزﻫﺮ‬ ََ َْ to blossom (plant, flower) ‫أﺻﻴﺺ‬ ِ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫أﺻﺺ‬ flowerpot 2. daisy ‫( ﺧﺸﺨﺎش‬coll.) ْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﺸﺎﺧﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﺔ‬ bunch of flowers, bouquet ‫ﺧﻨﺸﺎر‬ ِْ fern ‫ﺑﺎﺋﻊ اﻟﺰﻫﻮر‬ ُ ُّ florist ‫( ﺧﻮص‬coll.) ُ palm leaves ‫ﺑﺘﻮﻻ‬ َُ birch tree ‫دﺧﻦ‬ ْ ُ millet ‫ﺑﺨﻮر‬ ُ َ incense ‫دردار‬ َْ elm ‫ﺑﺨﻮر ﻣﺮﻳﻢ‬ َْ َ cyclamen َ ََ ‫( ذﺑﻞ‬u) to wilt, wither 1. seed ‫( رﻣﺎن‬coll.) ُ pomegranates ‫أﻗﺤﻮان‬ ُ ُْ ٍ (pl. ‫)أﻗﺎﺣﻲ ,أﻗﺎح‬ 1. camomile poppies ‫ﺑﺬرة‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺑﺬور‬ 2. pip, stone (fruit) ‫ﺑﺮدي‬ َِْ papyrus (plant) ‫ﺑﺮدﻳﺔ‬ َِْ papyrus (sheet) ‫ﺑﺮﻋﻢ‬ ََ َْ ‫( زﻫﺮ‬coll.) ْ َ to burgeon ُ ُ ُ ْ ْ ُ ِ pl. ‫أزاﻫﻴﺮ ,أزﻫﺎر ,أزﻫﺮ ,زﻫﻮر‬ bud ‫زﻫﺮ اﻟﻠﺆﻟﺆ‬ ُْ ُ ْ َ daisy ‫( ﺳﺮو‬coll.) َْ evergreen cypress ‫ﺑﺮﻋﻢ‬ ُ ُْ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺞ‬ َ ََْ 1. violet 2. lilac ‫ﺗﺮﻣﺲ‬ ُ ُْ ‫ﺟﺬر‬ ِْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺟﺬور‬ ‫ﺟﺬع‬ ِْ lupin root trunk pl. ‫ﺟﺬور‬ ُُ ‫( زﻧﺒﻖ‬coll.) ََْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫زﻧﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎق‬ ُ pl. ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺎق‬ ُ ‫( ﺳﻨﺒﻞ‬coll.) ُُْ pl. ‫ﺳﻨﺎﺑﻞ ,-ات‬ ُ ِ َ iris flowers stem (plant) sumac ear, spike (grain) ‫( ﺳﻨﺪﻳﺎن‬coll.) ِ ِْ oak َّ َ ‫(ﺟف‬i) to dry out ‫ﺳﻮس‬ ُ licorice ‫ﺟﻔﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to dry ‫ﺳﻮﺳﻦ‬ َ َْ lily of the valley
    • FLORA ‫( ﺷﺠﺮ‬coll.) َ َ pl. ‫أﺷﺠﺎر‬ ْ ‫ﻗﺼﺐ ﻫﻨﺪي‬ ّ ِ ِْ َ َ bamboo ‫ﻗﻤﺢ‬ ْ َ trees wheat hemp, flax ‫ﺷﻌﻴﺮ‬ َِ barley ‫ﻗﻨﺐ‬ ََ ‫ﺷﻮﻓﺎن‬ َْ oats ‫ﻛﺄس‬ ُ ِ pl. ‫ﻛﺌﺎس ,ﻛﺆوس‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺎر‬ َّ ُ 9 1. cactus calyx 2. Indian fig ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻮر‬ ُ camphor ‫( ﺻﻔﺼﺎف‬coll.) َْ willow ‫ﻛﺎﻛﺎو‬ cocoa ‫ﻃﻠﺢ‬ َْ acacia َّ َ ‫ﻋﺒﺎد اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ْ َّ sunflower ‫ﻛﺮم‬ َْ ُ pl. ‫ﻛﺮوم‬ 1. see ‫)2( ﺳﺎق‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺘﻨﺎء‬ َْ َ chestnut tree 2. vein (plant) ‫ﻟﺒﻼب‬ َْ ivy grass ‫ﻣﺮﺳﻴﻦ‬ ِ َْ see ‫آس‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻫﺮﻳﺔ‬ َِ َْ vase ‫ﻋﺮق‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻋﺮوق‬ ُُ ‫( ﻋﺸﺐ‬coll.) ْ ُ pl. ‫أﻋﺸﺎب‬ ْ ‫ﻋﻨﺎب‬ ُّ jujube ‫ﻏﺎﺑﺔ‬ reed ‫( ﻧﺒﺎت‬coll.) َ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫( ﻏﺎر‬coll.) laurel trees ‫( ﻧﺒﺎت ﻣﺘﺴﻠﻖ‬coll.) ِّ َ َ ُ َ ‫( ﻏﺮس‬i) َ ََ to plant ‫ﻏﺮس‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﻏﺮاس‬ ‫ﻏﺼﻦ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫ﻏﺼﻮن ,أﻏﺼﺎن‬ ْ ُ ُ vine plants, flora climbing plants, creepers branch ّ ُ ‫ﻓﻞ‬ Arabian jasmine ‫ﻗﺮﻧﻔﻞ‬ ُُْ ُ 1. clove ‫( ﻧﺒﺖ‬i) َ ََ to grow (plants) ‫( ﻧﺨﻞ‬coll.) ْ َ palm trees ‫ﻧﺨﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ see ‫ﻧﺨﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﺟﺲ‬ ِ َْ seedling narcissus ‫( ورد‬coll.) َْ ُُ pl. ‫ورود‬ roses ‫ﻗﺸﺮ‬ ْ ِ 1. bark ‫( ورق‬coll.) ََ pl. ‫أوراق‬ ْ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﺸﻮر‬ 2. peel ‫( ورق ﻋﻨﺐ‬coll.) َِ َ َ vine leaves ‫( ﻗﺼﺐ‬coll.) َ َ reed, cane ‫ﻳﺎﺳﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ jasmine ‫ﻗﺼﺐ ﺳﻜﺮ‬ َّ ُ sugar cane ‫ﻳﺎﺳﻨﺖ‬ ِْ hyacinth 2. carnation leaves
    • 10 HERBS AND SPICES Herbs and spices ‫ﺑﺮﺳﻴﻢ‬ ِ ِْ clover ‫ﻋﻄﺮ‬ ِ َ fragrant, aromatic ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺎﺳﺔ‬ ْ ِ mace ‫ﻋﺒﻴﺮ‬ َِ aroma, fragrance ‫ﺑﻘﺪوﻧﺲ‬ ِ َُْ parsley ‫ﻏﺎر‬ laurel ‫ﺑﻬﺎر‬ َ herb ‫ﻓﻠﻔﻞ ,ﻓﻠﻔﻞ‬ ُ ُْ ِ ِْ pepper ‫ﻓﻠﻔﻞ أﺣﻤﺮ‬ َ ْ ِ ِْ paprika ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ِ 1. spice, condiment ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻮاﺑﻞ‬ 2. see ‫ﻛﺰﺑﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻔﻞ أﺧﻀﺮ‬ َ ْ ِ ِْ green pepper ‫ﺛﻮم‬ ُ garlic ‫ﻓﻠﻔﻞ ﺣﺎر‬ ّ ِ ِْ chilli ‫ﺟﻮز اﻟﻄﻴﺐ‬ ِ َْ nutmeg ‫ﻗﺮﻃﻢ‬ ُ ُْ safflower ‫ﺣﺒﻖ‬ ََ basil ‫ﻗﺮﻓﺔ‬ ِْ cinnamon ‫ﺣﺒﻬﺎن‬ ََ cardamom ‫ﻛﺮﻛﻢ‬ ُ ُْ turmeric ‫ﺣﺼﺎﻟﺒﺎن‬ ُ َ rosemary ‫ﻛﺮوﻳﺎ‬ ََْ caraway ‫( ﺧﺮدل‬coll.) ََْ mustard seed ‫ﻛﺎري‬ curry ‫درس‬ َِ dried clover ‫ﻛﺰﺑﺮة‬ َ َْ ُ coriander ‫رﻳﺤﺎن‬ َْ sweet basil cumin ‫زﻋﺘﺮ‬ َْ َ ُّ َ ‫ﻛﻤﻮن‬ wild thyme scented, perfumed ‫زﻋﻔﺮان‬ ِْ َ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻌﻄﺮ‬ saffron ‫زﻧﺠﺒﻴﻞ‬ َ َْ ginger ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ ِْ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻼح‬ ‫ﺷﺒﺖ‬ ِِ dill َ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎت ﻋﻄﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ aromatic plants ‫ﺳﻤﺴﻢ‬ ِ ْ ِ sesame ‫ﻧﻌﻨﺎع‬ َْ mint ‫ﺷﻤﺎر‬ َ fennel ‫ﻳﻨﺴﻮن‬ ُ َْ aniseed ‫أرز‬ َُّ rice َّ ِ ِ ‫ﺑﺴﻠﺔ‬ pea ‫ﺑﺎذﻧﺠﺎن‬ ِْ aubergine ‫( ﺑﺼﻞ‬coll.) َ َ onions ‫ﺑﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ okra, ladies’ fingers ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻃﺎ‬ َ sweet potato, yam salt Vegetables
    • ANIMALS 11 ‫( ﺑﻄﺎﻃﺲ‬coll.) َ potatoes ‫( ﻃﻤﺎﻃﻢ‬coll.) ِ َ tomatoes ‫ﺑﻨﺠﺮ‬ َ َْ beetroot ‫( ﻋﺪس‬coll.) ََ lentils ‫( ﺟﺰر‬coll.) ََ carrots ‫ﻏﻠﺔ‬ َّ grain, cereals ُّ ُ ‫ﺣﻤﺺ، ﺣﻤﺺ‬ ِّ ِ chick-peas artichokes ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻮﻟﻴﺎء‬ ِ European bean ‫( ﻓﺠﻞ‬coll.) ْ ِ radishes ‫( ﻓﻄﺮ‬coll.) ْ ُ (coll.) ‫( ﺧﺮﺷﻮف‬coll.) ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﺧﺮاﺷﻴﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻏﻼل ,-ات‬ ِ mushrooms ‫( ﺧﺲ‬coll.) ّ َ lettuce ‫( ﻓﻮل‬coll.) beans, broad beans ‫ﺧﻀﺮوات‬ َْ َ vegetables ‫( ﻗﺮع‬coll.) َْ pumpkins, gourds ‫( ﺧﻴﺎر‬coll.) َ cucumbers, gherkins ‫( ﻗﺮﻧﺒﻴﻂ‬coll.) َِْ َ cauliflower ‫ذرة‬ َّ ُ maize ‫ﻛﺮاث‬ َُ leek ‫راوﻧﺪ‬ َْ rhubarb ‫( ﻛﺮﻓﺲ‬coll.) ََْ celery ‫( زﻳﺘﻮن‬coll.) َُْ olives ‫( ﻛﺮﻧﺐ‬coll.) ُْ ُ cabbage ‫ﺳﺒﺎﻧﺦ‬ ِ َ spinach ‫ﻛﻮﺳﻰ‬ َ courgette ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪر‬ َ َْ َ white beet, chard ‫ﻟﻔﺖ‬ ِْ turnip ‫ﻃﺎزج‬ ِ fresh ‫ﻟﻮﺑﻴﺎء‬ ِ bean Animals Mammals ‫اﺑﻦ آوى‬ َ ِْ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﺎت آوى‬ َ ‫اﺑﻦ ﻋﺮس‬ ْ ِ ِْ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﺎت ﻋﺮس‬ ِْ َ ‫أرﻧﺐ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫أراﻧﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫أﺳﺪ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﺳﻮد ,أﺳﺪ‬ ُ ُ ُ jackal ‫إﺳﻄﺒﻞ‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫-ات‬ stable 1. rabbit 2. hare lion ‫آﻛﻞ اﻟﻨﻤﻞ‬ ْ َّ ِ ant-eater ‫أﻟﻴﻒ‬ َِ weasel tame ‫أﻳﻞ‬ ِّ pl. ‫أﻳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺑﺮﺛﻦ‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﺛﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ stag claw, paw
    • ‫21‬ ‫‪ANIMALS‬‬ ‫ﺑﻐﻞ‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺎل .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪horse shoe‬‬ ‫ﺣﺬوة اﻟﺤﺼﺎن‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪mule‬‬ ‫‪stallion‬‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺎن‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ْ ِ‬ ‫أﺣﺼﻨﺔ ,ﺣﺼﻦ .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪1. cows‬‬ ‫).‪ (coll‬ﺑﻘﺮ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎر‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ ِ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻴﺮ .‪pl‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ‪2. see‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﺑﻘﺎر .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪1. large domestic animal‬‬ ‫ﺑﻬﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎر اﻟﻮﺣﺶ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪2. quadruped‬‬ ‫‪donkey‬‬ ‫‪zebra‬‬ ‫‪lamb‬‬ ‫‪animal‬‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻞ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﺣﻤﺎل ,ﺣﻤﻼن .‪pl‬‬ ‫)‪3. livestock (plural‬‬ ‫‪fox‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮان‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫-ات .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪mammal‬‬ ‫‪predatory animal‬‬ ‫‪fetlock‬‬ ‫‪bull‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺮة‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﺻﺮ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ُِ‬ ‫‪buffalo‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻃﻮم‬ ‫َْ ُ‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﻴﻢ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫‪young donkey‬‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻞ ‪see‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮوف‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫أﺧﺮﻓﺔ,ﺧﺮاف,ﺧﺮﻓﺎن .‪pl‬‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫ِْ ِ‬ ‫)‪kid (small goat‬‬ ‫)‪flank (horse‬‬ ‫)‪trunk (elephant‬‬ ‫‪bat‬‬ ‫ُ َّ‬ ‫ﺧﻔﺎش‬ ‫ﺧﻔﺎﻓﻴﺶ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫‪to scratch‬‬ ‫)‪ (i, u‬ﺧﻤﺶ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫‪pig‬‬ ‫ﺧﻨﺰﻳﺮ‬ ‫ِْ ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﺎزﻳﺮ .‪pl‬‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫‪boar‬‬ ‫‪bear‬‬ ‫ﺧﻨﺰﻳﺮ ﺑﺮي‬ ‫ِ ْ ِ َ ِّ ّ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﺎزﻳﺮُ ﺑﺮﻳﺔ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ِ َ ِّ َّ‬ ‫دب‬ ‫ُ ّ‬ ‫دﺑﺒﺔ ,أدﺑﺎب .‪pl‬‬ ‫ْ ُ‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫ﺛﻌﻠﺐ‬ ‫َ َْ‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫ﺛﻌﺎﻟﺐ .‪pl‬‬ ‫ﺛﻨﺔ‬ ‫ُ َّ‬ ‫ﺛﻨﻦ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮان ﺛﺪﻳﻲ‬ ‫َْ ّ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮان ﻣﻔﺘﺮس‬ ‫َُْ ِ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫َ ُ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎﺋﻢ .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪rat‬‬ ‫‪1. puppy‬‬ ‫‪2. cub‬‬ ‫‪camel‬‬ ‫ﺛﻮر‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ﺛﻴﺮان .‪pl‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻮس‬ ‫ﺟﻮاﻣﻴﺲ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫ﺟﺤﺶ‬ ‫َ ْ‬ ‫ﺟﺤﺎش .‪pl‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺟﺪي‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺎن .‪pl‬‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫ﺟﺮذ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫ﺟﺮذان .‪pl‬‬ ‫ﺟﺮو‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫,أﺟﺮ ,ﺟﺮاء .‪pl‬‬ ‫ٍْ ِ‬ ‫أﺟﺮاء‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻞ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎل .‪pl‬‬ ‫‪race horse, charger‬‬ ‫‪hoof‬‬ ‫ﺟﻮاد‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺎد .‪pl‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﺮ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪sloth‬‬ ‫دبُّ ﻛﺴﻼن‬ ‫ُ َ ْ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﻓﺮ .‪pl‬‬ ‫َ ُِ‬ ‫‪poultry‬‬ ‫دواﺟﻦ‬ ‫َ ِ ُ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ‬ ‫ِ ْ‬ ‫‪mare‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻮرة ,ﺣﺠﻮر ,أﺣﺠﺎر .‪pl‬‬ ‫ذﻳﻞ ‪see‬‬ ‫ذﻧﺐ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫أذﻧﺎب .‪pl‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫‪zoo‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫َِ‬
    • ANIMALS ‫ذﺋﺐ‬ ِْ pl. ‫ذؤﺑﺎن ,ذﺋﺎب‬ ُْ ‫ذﻳﻞ‬ ِْ ُُ ْ pl. ‫أذﻳﺎل ,ذﻳﻮل‬ ‫رﺑﺎﻋﻲ اﻷرﺟﻞ‬ ُ َْ ِ ُ ‫ردف‬ ِْ pl. ‫أرداف‬ ُ ْ ‫روث‬ َْ pl. ‫أرواث‬ ْ ‫زراﻓﺔ‬ َ wolf tail ‫ﺳﻤﻮر‬ ُّ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻣﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺳﻨﺎم‬ َ pl. ‫أﺳﻨﻤﺔ‬ ِْ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺎب‬ ِْ ‫( ﺷﺎء‬coll.) pl. ‫ﺷﻮاه ,ﺷﻴﺎه‬ ِ ِ ‫ﺷﻤﺒﺎﻧﺰي‬ ِْ ْ ِ ‫ﺻﻬﻮة‬ َْ pl. ‫ات ,ﺻﻬﺎء‬ِ ‫ﺿﺒﻊ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﺿﺒﺎع‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻞ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﺠﻮل‬ ُ ‫ﻋﺮف‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﺮاف‬ ‫ﻋﺮف اﻟﺪﻳﻚ‬ ِّ ُْ ‫ﻋﺮﻳﻦ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻋﺮن‬ ُُ see ‫ﻣﻌﺰ‬ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎز ,ﻋﻨﻮز ,أﻋﻨﺰ‬ ُْ ُُ ُ ِ ‫ﻏﺰال‬ َ pl. ‫ﻏﺰﻻن‬ ِْ gazelle quadruped ‫ﻏﻨﻢ‬ ََ see ‫)1( ﺷﺎء‬ croup ‫ﻏﻮرﻳﻼ‬ ِ ُ gorilla dung, droppings ‫( ﻓﺄر‬coll.) َْ ِْ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﻴﺮان ,ﻓﺌﺮان‬ giraffe ‫ﻓﺮس‬ ََ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻓﺮاس‬ ُ َ َ pl. ‫زراﻓﻰ ,زراﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻊ‬ َُ pl. ‫ﺳﺒﺎع‬ ِ ‫ﻋﻨﺰ‬ َْ 13 1. mice 2. rats horse ‫ﻓﺮس اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ََ 1. beast of prey 2. see ‫اﺳﺪ‬ hippopotamus ‫ﻓﺮس ﻣﺨﺼﻲ‬ ِ ْ َ ََ gelding sable ‫ﻓﺮو‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﺮاء‬ hump (camel) pl. ‫أﻓﻬﺪ ,ﻓﻬﻮد‬ ُ َُْ (grey) squirrel ‫ﻓﻴﻞ‬ ِ pl. ‫أﻓﻴﺎل ,ﻓﻴﻮل ,ﻓﻴﻠﺔ‬ َِ ُُ ْ ‫ﻓﻬﺪ‬ َْ 1. sheep 2. ewes chimpanzee back (horse) ‫ﻗﺮد‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻗﺮود‬ ُ ‫ﻗﺮن‬ َْ fur leopard, cheetah elephant monkey horn pl. ‫ﻗﺮون‬ ُُ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ُ otter hyena ‫ﻗﻂ‬ ّ ِ cat calf َّ ِ ‫ﻗﻂّ اﻟﺰﺑﺎد‬ civet cat ‫ﻗﻄﻴﻄﺔ‬ َْ ُ kitten mane (horse) coxcomb lion’s den, lair َ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﻄﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻴﻊ‬ ِ َ flock, herd pl. ‫أﻗﻄﺎع ,ﻗﻄﺎع ,ﻗﻄﻌﺎن‬ ْ ُ ِ ْ ‫ﻗﻨﺪس‬ ُ ُْ ‫ﻗﻨﻔﺬ‬ ُُْ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﺎﻓﺬ‬ ُِ َ beaver hedgehog
    • 14 ‫ﻗﺎرض‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﻮارض‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻛﺒﺶ‬ َْ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﻛﺒﺎش ,ﻛﺒﺎش‬ ‫ﻛﺮﻛﺪن‬ ّ ََ َْ ‫( ﻛﻒ‬f.) ّ َ ُُ ّ ُ pl. ‫أﻛﻒ ,ﻛﻔﻮف‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺐ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻛﻼب‬ ANIMALS rodent ram rhinoceros paw, foot ‫( ﻣﻌﺰ، ﻣﻌﺰ‬coll.) ََ َْ pl. ‫أﻣﻌﺰ‬ ُْ ‫ﻣﻬﺎة‬ َ ََ pl. ‫ﻣﻬﻮات‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺮ‬ ُْ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻬﺎر ,ﻣﻬﺎرة‬ goats wild cow foal ‫ﻣﻬﺮة‬ ُْ dog filly ‫ﻧﺎب‬ tusk ْ pl. ‫أﻧﻴﺎب‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﺔ‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻮق‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎﻣﺔ‬ َ muzzle ‫ﻛﻤﻢ‬ َ َّ َ to muzzle ‫ﻛﻨﻐﺮ‬ َ َْ kangaroo ‫ﻻﻣﺔ‬ llama ‫ﻟﺒﻮة‬ َ َْ lioness ‫ﻧﻤﺲ‬ ْ ِ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻤﻮس‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﺔ‬ ِ cattle ‫ﻧﻴﺺ‬ ِ porcupine ‫ﻫﺠﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ dromedary, racing camel ‫ﻣﺎﻋﺰ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻋﺰ‬ ُِ َ see ‫ﻣﻌﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺣﺶ‬ ‫َُ َ ﱢ‬ wild ‫ﻣﺠﺘﺮ‬ ّ َْ ُ ruminant ‫ﻣﺨﻠﺐ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻟﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ see ‫ﺑﺮﺛﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻤﻮر‬ ُ ُ marmot ‫ﻣﻌﺎز‬ َّ goatherd 1. leopard 2. tiger 1. mongoose 2. ferret, weasel pl. ‫ﻫﺠﻦ‬ ُ ُ ‫وﺑﺮ‬ ََ pl. ‫أوﺑﺎر‬ ْ ‫وﺣﺶ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫وﺣﻮش‬ ‫وﺷﻖ‬ َ َ ‫ﻣﺮﻣﻮط‬ َْ she-camel ‫وﻃﻮاط‬ ْ َ pl. ‫وﻃﺎوﻳﻂ ,وﻃﺎوط‬ ِ َ ِ َ hair, coat (camel, goat, cat) wild animal lynx see ‫ﺧﻔﺎش‬ Birds ‫ﺑﺎز‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮوش‬ َُ َ flamingo ‫( ﺑﻂ‬coll.) ّ َ falcon ِ pl. ‫ﺑﻴﺰان‬ ducks ‫( ﺑﺎض‬i) َ to lay eggs ‫ﺑﺒﻐﺎء‬ ََ parrot ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ‬ ِْ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻄﺎرﻳﻖ‬ ‫( ﺑﺠﻊ‬coll.) َ َ pelicans ‫ﺑﻠﺸﻮن‬ ُ ََ penguin heron
    • ANIMALS ‫ﺑﻮم‬ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﻮام‬ ‫ﺗﺪرج‬ َُْ َُْ pl. ‫ﺗﺪرﺟﺔ‬ ‫( ﺗﻢ‬coll.) َّ ‫ﺟﻨﺎح‬ ِ ِْ pl. ‫أﺟﻨﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﺎرى‬ َ ُ pl. ‫ﺣﺒﺎرﻳﺎت‬ َ ُ pheasant swans wing bustard ‫( دﺟﺎج‬coll.) َ chickens, hens ‫دﻳﻚ‬ ِ cock pl. ‫أدﻳﺎك ,دﻳﻮك ,دﻳﻜﺔ‬ ِ ُُ ْ ‫ﺳﻤﻦ‬ ُّ ُ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻣﻦ‬ ِ َ turkey (cock) feathers, plumage quails see ‫ﺳﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﻧﻮ‬ ُ ُُ swallow ‫ﺷﻮﺣﺔ‬ َْ vulture ‫ﺻﻘﺮ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺻﻘﺮ ,ﺻﻘﻮر‬ ُُ ُْ migratory bird ‫ﻃﻴﺮ ﺟﺎرح‬ ِ َْ bird of prey ‫ﻋﺸ ﺶ‬ َ ّ َ to build a nest ‫ﻋﺶ‬ ّ ُ nest pl. ‫ﻋﺸﺸﺔ ,أﻋﺸﺎش ,ﻋﺸﺎش‬ ِ ْ َ ِ pigeons, doves ‫( ﺳﻤﺎن‬coll.) َّ ُ flight ِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻃﻴﻮر ﺟﺎرﺣﺔ‬ ‫( ﺣﻤﺎم‬coll.) َ ‫( رﻳﺶ‬coll.) ِ ِ ْ pl. ‫أرﻳﺎش ,رﻳﺎش‬ ‫ﻃﻴﺮة‬ َْ ‫ﻃﻴﺮ ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ‬ ِ ُ َْ owl ‫ﺣﺪأة‬ ِْ kite pl. ‫ﺣﺪآن ,ﺣﺪاء ,ﺣﺪأ‬ ِْ ِ ِْ ‫دﻳﻚ روﻣﻲ‬ ِ ُ 15 1. see ‫ﺑﺎز‬ ‫ﻋﺼﻔﻮر‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﺼﺎﻓﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻋﻘﺎب‬ ُ sparrow eagle pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺒﺎن ,أﻋﻘﺐ‬ ُْ ِْ ‫ﻋﻘﻌﻖ‬ ََْ magpie ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻟﻴﺐ‬ َِ َْ nightingale pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎدل‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻏﺮاب‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻏﺮﺑﺎن‬ ِْ ‫ﻏﺮﻧﻮق‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫ﻏﺮاﻧﻴﻖ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. raven 2. crow crane َ َّ َ ‫ﻓﺮخ‬ to hatch (eggs) ‫ﻗﺎق اﻟﻤﺎء‬ cormorant ‫ﻗﻔﺺ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻗﻔﺎص‬ ْ ‫( ﻗﻨﺒﺮ‬coll.) ُُْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺑﺮ‬ 2. hawk ‫( ﻃﺎر‬i) َ ‫ﻛﺘﻜﻮت‬ ُ َْ to fly hummingbird larks pl. ‫ﻛﺘﺎﻛﻴﺖ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻃﻨﺎن‬ َّ َ cage ‫ﻃﺎووس‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاوﻳﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﻃﻴﺮ‬coll/n.un.) َْ pl. ‫ﻃﻴﻮر‬ ُ peacock ‫ﻛﺮﻛﻲ‬ ِ ُْ pl. ‫ﻛﺮاﻛﻲ‬ ِ َ chick crane ‫ﻛﻨﺎري‬ ِ َ bird canary ‫ﻟﻘﻼق‬ َْ stork pl. ‫ﻟﻘﺎﻟﻖ‬ ُ ِ َ
    • 16 ‫ﻣﻨﻘﺎر‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﻧﻌﺎم‬coll.) َ َ (pl. ‫)ﻧﻌﺎﺋﻢ‬ ANIMALS beak, bill ostriches َّ َ ‫ﻧﻘﺎر اﻟﺨﺸﺐ‬ ْ َ woodpecker ‫( ﻧﻘﺮ‬a) َََ ‫( ﻧﻮرس‬coll.) ََْ pl. ‫ﻧﻮارس‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻫﺪﻫﺪ‬ ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﻫﺪاﻫﺪ‬ ُِ َ ‫( وز‬coll.) َّ ‫وﻗﻮاق‬ َْ sea gulls hoopoe geese to peck cuckoo Marine animals ‫أﺑﻮ ﺳﻴﻒ‬ َْ ّ swordfish ‫أﺧﻄﺒﻮط‬ ُُ ْ ُ octopus ‫أمّ اﻟﺤﺒﺮ‬ ِْ ُ squid ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ pl. ‫-ات‬ amphibian ‫ﺑﻠﺢ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ََ mussel ‫ﺑﻮري‬ (striped/red) mullet ‫( ﺗﻦ‬coll.) ّ ُ tuna َّ َ ‫ﺟﺮاد اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ‫( رﻋﺎد‬coll.) ‫َ ﱠ‬ electric ray ‫زﻋﻨﻔﺔ‬ َْ َ fin, flipper pl. ‫زﻋﺎﻧﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻤﻮن‬ ُ ْ ‫ﺳﺮب‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺳﺮاب‬ ْ ‫( ﺳﺮدﻳﻦ‬coll.) ِ َ salmon shoal (fish) sardines ‫ﺳﺮﻃﺎن‬ ََ pl. ‫ات‬ 2. see ‫ﺟﺮاد اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ crayfish ‫ﺳﺮﻃﺎن ﺑﺤﺮي‬ ِْ َ ََ lobster ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺚ‬ ِّ َ eel ‫ﺳﻘﻤﺮي‬ ِْ ُُ mackerel ‫ﺣﺒﺎر‬ َّ َ see ‫أم اﻟﺤﺒﺮ‬ ‫( ﺳﻤﻚ‬coll.) َ َ fish fish scale pl. ‫أﺳﻤﺎك‬ ْ ‫ﺣﺮﺷﻒ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﺮاﺷﻒ‬ ِ َ ‫( ﺣﺴﻚ‬coll.) َ َ ‫ﺣﻮت‬ ُ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﻮات ,ﺣﻴﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮان ﺑﺤﺮي‬ ّ ِْ َ ََ ِّ ْ َ ََ pl. ‫ﺣﻴﻮاﻧﺎت ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺸﻮم‬ ُ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻴﺎﺷﻴﻢ‬ ‫دﻟﻔﻴﻦ‬ ِ َْ ِ َ pl. ‫دﻻﻓﻴﻨﺚ‬ 1. crab ‫ﺳﻤﻚ اﻟﺘﺮس‬ ْ ُّ َ َ turbot fishbones ‫ﺳﻤﻚ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬ َ ُ َ َ sole whale ‫ﺷﺒﻮط‬ ُّ َ carp ‫( ﺻﺪف‬coll.) ََ pearl oysters marine animal ْ pl. ‫أﺻﺪاف‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻞ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ْ ِ gill dolphin seal ‫ﻗﺎروس‬ ُ seabass ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ُّ cod ‫ﻗﺮش‬ ِْ shark
    • ANIMALS ‫ﻗﺮﻣﻮط‬ ُ َْ ‫( ﻗﺸﺮ‬coll.) ْ ِ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﺸﻮر‬ shrimp fish scales َّ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﻗﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ crustacean ‫ﻗﻨﻔﺬ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ُُْ catfish ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﺮاﻣﻴﻂ‬ ‫( ﻗﺮﻳﺪس‬coll.) ِ َْ ُ 17 sea urchin ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎر‬ ِ caviar Reptiles and insects ‫أﻓﻌﻰ‬ ً َْ pl. ‫أﻓﺎع‬ ٍ َ adder, viper ‫دﺑﻮر‬ ُّ َ pl. ‫دﺑﺎﺑﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫أﻣﻴﺒﺔ‬ ِ َ amoeba ‫ﺑﺮص‬ ُْ gecko ‫( دود‬coll.) ُ ِ pl. ‫دﻳﺪان‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻏﻮث‬ ُ ُْ flea ُ ‫دودة اﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ‬ ِ َّ tapeworm ‫دودة اﻟﻘﺰ‬ َّ silkworm ‫دودي‬ ِ ُ worm-like pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﻏﻴﺚ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﺑﻖ‬coll.) ّ َ bedbugs ‫ﺑﻨﺖ وردان‬ ْ ِ ِْ earthworm ‫ﺑﻴﺖ اﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮت‬ َُ َْ َْ spider’s web ‫ﺗﻞّ اﻟﻨﻤﻞ‬ ْ َّ َ ant hill ‫ﺗﻤﺴﺎح‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﺗﻤﺎﺳﻴﺢ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺛﻌﺒﺎن‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﺛﻌﺎﺑﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﺟﺮاد‬coll.) َّ ‫ﺣﺮﺑﺎء‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﺣﺮاﺑﻲ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺣﺸﺮة‬ َ َ ‫ﺣﻠﺰون‬ ََ pl. ‫ﺣﻼزﻳﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ َِ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﺤﻞ‬ ْ َّ ‫ﺧﻨﻔﺴﺎء‬ ُُْ pl. ‫ﺧﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ crocodile ‫( ذﺑﺎب‬coll.) ُ َّ ِ َ َّ ِ (pl. ‫)ذﺑﺎن، أذﺑﺔ‬ ‫ذﺑﺎب ﻗﺎرض‬ ِ ُ ‫زاﺣﻒ‬ ِ pl. ‫زواﺣﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ hornet worms, maggots flies horsefly reptile ‫( زﺣﻒ‬a) َ َ َ to creep, crawl ‫( زﻳﺰ‬coll.) ِ snake cicada chameleon ‫ﺳﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ِْ ِ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺳﺮب‬ ِْ 1. swarm (e.g. bees) insect pl. ‫أﺳﺮاب‬ ْ 2. colony (ants) locusts lizard snail ‫ﺳﻠﺤﻔﺎة‬ ْ َُ pl. ‫ﺳﻼﺣﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ beehive ‫ﺳﻤﻨﺪر‬ َ َْ َ salamander ‫( ﺳﻮس‬coll.) ُ mites, woodworms dung beetle ِ (pl. ‫)ﺳﻴﺴﺎن‬ tortoise
    • 18 ‫ﺷﺮﻧﻘﺔ‬ َْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﻧﻖ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﺻﻮر‬ ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﺻﺮاﺻﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺿﻔﺪع‬ ِِْ pl. ‫ﺿﻔﺎدع‬ ِ َ ‫ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻲ‬ َِْ ُ ََِْ ُ pl. ‫ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻴﺎت‬ ُّ ‫ﻋﺜﺔ‬ ANIMALS 1. cricket 2. cockroach frog parasite moth ‫( ﻗﻤﻞ‬coll.) ْ َ lice َ ََ ‫( ﻟﺪغ‬u) chrysalis to bite (snake), to sting ‫ﻟﺪﻏﺔ‬ َْ snakebite, sting ‫ﻣﺼﺎص اﻟﺪﻣﺎء‬ ِّ َ َ bloodsucker ُ َ َْ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺣﻞ‬ ‫( ﻧﺎﻣﻮس‬coll.) pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﻣﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ apiary, beehive mosquitoes ‫( ﻧﺤﻞ‬coll.) ْ َ bees ‫ﻧﺴﻴﺞ اﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮت‬ َُ َْ ِ َ َُ pl. ‫ﻋﺜﺚ‬ see ‫ﺑﻴﺖ اﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮت‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻜﺒﻮت‬ َُ َْ spider ََ ‫ﻓﺮس اﻟﻨﺒﻲ‬ ِ َّ praying mantis ‫ﻓﺮاﺷﺔ‬ َ butterfly ‫( ﻳﺮﻗﺎن‬coll.) ََ larvae tick ‫ﻳﺮﻗﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻀﻔﺎدع‬ ِ َ َْ tadpole ‫ﻳﺴﻌﻮب‬ ُْ َ drone, male bee antenna ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻳﻌﺎﺳﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺮادة‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﺮدان‬ ِْ ‫ﻗﺮن اﻻﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎر‬ ْ ِْ ِ ْ َ ‫( ﻧﻤﻞ‬coll.) ْ َ ِ (pl. ‫)ﻧﻤﺎل‬ ants Animal sounds ‫ﺑﻄﺒﻂ‬ َ َْ ِ to quack (duck) 3. see ‫ﺻﺮ‬ ّ ‫( ﺛﻐﺎ‬u) َ to bleat (sheep) َ ََ ‫( ﺻﻬﻞ‬i) to neigh ‫( ﺧﺎر‬u) to moo, to low (cattle) ‫ﺻﻬﻴﻞ‬ َِ neighing ‫( دن‬u) َ َ to buzz, hum (insect) ‫( ﺻﻮى‬i) ََ to peep, squeak ‫( زأر‬a, i) َ َ see ‫زﻣﺠﺮ ,ﻋﺠﻌﺞ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎح‬ ِ cry (bird) ‫زﻗﺰق‬ َ ََْ to chirp (bird) ‫ﻋﺠ ﻌﺞ‬ َ َْ َ to bellow (e.g. bull) ‫زﻣﺠﺮ‬ ََ ْ َ to roar (lion) ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻟﺔ‬ َ َْ song of the nightingale ‫ﺷﻘﺸﻖ‬ َ َ َْ to twitter ‫( ﻋﻮى‬i) ََ 1. to howl (wolf, jackal) 2. to yelp ‫( ﺻﺎح‬i) َ ‫( ﺻﺮ‬i) َّ َ to chirp (cricket) ‫( ﻏﺮد، ﻏﺮد‬a) َ َّ َ َ ِ َ to sing, warble (bird) ‫( ﺻﻔﺮ‬i) َََ 1. to whistle (bird) ‫( ﻓﺢ‬u, i) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to hiss (snake) 2. see ‫ﻓﺢ‬ ‫( ﻗﺎق‬u) َ to cackle, cluck (hen) to cry (bird)
    • FOOD AND DRINK 19 ‫( ﻧﻌﺐ‬a, i) َ ََ to croak (raven) 2. to trumpet (elephant) ‫( ﻧﻌﺮ‬a, i) َََ to snort ‫ﻟﻘﻠﻖ‬ َ َْ َ to clatter (stork) َّ َ ‫( ﻧﻖ‬i) 1. see ‫ﻗﺎق‬ ‫( ﻣﺎء‬u) to miaow ‫ﻣﻮاء‬ ُ miaow ‫( ﻧﻬﻖ‬a) َ ََ to bray (donkey) ‫( ﻧﺒﺢ‬a) َ ََ 1. to bark ‫ﻫﺒﻬﺐ‬ َ َ َْ see ‫)2( ﻧﺒﺢ‬ َ 2. to bay َ ََ ‫( ﻫﺪل‬i) to coo (pigeon) 1. pitcher, jug ‫ﺑﻘﺴﻤﺎت‬ ُ ُْ rusk 2. coffee pot ‫( ﺑﻠﻊ‬a) َ ََ to swallow ‫أدوات اﻟﻤﺎﺋﺪة‬ ََ cutlery ‫ﺑﻴﺮة‬ ِ beer ‫اﺳ ﺘ ﻨﺸ ﻖ‬ َ َ َْْ ِ to snuff ‫( ﺑﻴﺾ‬coll.) َْ eggs ‫أﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ِْ َ foodstuffs ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺔ ﺑﺮﺷﺖ‬ ْ َِ َْ soft-boiled egg َ َ َ ‫( أﻛﻞ‬u) to eat ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺔ ﻣﺴﻠﻮﻗﺔ ﺟﺪا‬ ًّ ِ ُْ َ َْ hard-boiled egg ‫أﻛﻞ‬ ْ َ food ‫ﺗﺠﻤﺪ‬ َ َّ َ َ to freeze (intrans.) ‫أﻟﺒﺎن‬ َْ dairy products ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َ embellishment, icing ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎء‬ ِِْ intoxication ‫ﺗﻌﺸﻰ‬ َّ َ to have dinner (evening meal) ‫اﻧﺘﺸﻰ‬ َ َِْ to become intoxicated ‫ﺗﻐﺪى‬ َّ ّ َ to have lunch ‫( ﺑﺮد‬u) َََ to cool off ‫ﺑﺮد‬ َ َّ َ to chill, refrigerate ‫( ﻗﺒﻊ‬a) َ ََ 1. to grunt (pig) 2. to croak (frog) Food and drink ‫إﺑﺮﻳﻖ‬ ِْ pl. ‫اﺑﺎرﻳﻖ‬ ُ ِ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺔ‬ ُْ ِ َُ pl. ‫ﺑﺮم ,ﺑﺮام‬ nutrition ‫ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻘﺔ‬ ِ َْ pinch of snuff ‫ﺗﻮرﺗﺔ‬ ْ ُ earthenware pot ‫ﺗﻐﺬى ب/ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ِ َََ ‫ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ َِْ pie, tart to live on ‫ﺑﺮﻳﻤﺔ‬ ِّ َ corkscrew ‫ﺗﻮﺳﺖ‬ ْ ُ toast ‫ﺑﺴﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬ ْ ِ biscuit ‫ﺛﻼﺟﺔ‬ ّ َ refrigerator ‫( ﺑﺸﺮ‬u) ََ َ to grate ‫ﺟﺎف‬ ّ dry ‫ﺑﻘﺎل‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ون ,ﺑﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ََ grocer ‫ﺟﺎﻣﺪ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﻮاﻣﺪ‬ ُِ َ hard, solid
    • 20 FOOD AND DRINK َّ َ ‫ﺟﺒﺎن‬ cheese seller ‫ﺟﺒﻨﺔ‬ ِْ cheese ‫ﺟﺒﻨﺔ ﻣﺒﺸﻮرة‬ ُ َْ ِْ grated cheese ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻂ‬ َِ ‫( ﺧﻤﺮ‬m/f) ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﻤﻮر‬ mixture wine jar ‫ﺧﻤﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻤﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ َّ َ ‫ﺟﺰار‬ butcher ‫( ﺟﺰر‬u) َََ ٍ ‫داع‬ ُ pl. ‫دﻋﺎة‬ to slaughter (animals) ‫دﺧﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to smoke (food) ‫ﺟﻤﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to freeze (trans.) ‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺠﻤﺪ‬ ْ َ ََ freezing point ‫ﺟﻬﺎز اﻟﻘﻬﻮة‬ َْ ِ coffee machine ‫دﺳﺘﺔ‬ ْ َ dozen ‫ﺣﺎر‬ ّ hot (‫( دﻋﺎ )إﻟﻰ‬u) َ to invite s.o. (to) ‫ﺣﺴﺎء‬ َ soup, broth ‫دﻋﻮة‬ ْ َ invitation ‫( ﺣﺸﺎ‬u) َ to stuff َ َْ َ ‫دﻏﺪغ‬ to crunch (with the teeth) ‫ﺣﺸﻮة‬ ْ َ stuffing ‫دﻗﻴﻖ‬ َِ flour ‫( ﺣﻔﻆ‬a) َ َِ to preserve, keep ‫( دﻟﻖ‬u) َ ََ to spill (liquid) ‫ﺣﻠﻮ‬ ُْ sweet (adj.) ‫( ذاب‬u) َ to melt, dissolve ‫ﺣﻠﻮاﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ confectioner ‫( ذاق‬u) َ to taste ‫ﺣﻠﻮﻳﺎت‬ َ َْ sweets, confectionery ‫ذوق‬ َْ taste ‫ﺣﻠﻴﺐ‬ َِ milk ‫ذواق‬ َّ gourmet, foodie ‫( ﺣﻤﺾ‬u) َ ُ َ to be/become sour ‫( ذﺑﺢ‬a) َ ََ ‫ﺧﺒﺎز‬ َّ َ baker ‫ﺧﺒﺰ‬ ُْ bread ‫ﺧﺮدل‬ ََْ mustard ‫ﺧﺸﺎرة‬ ُ leftover (of meal) ‫ﺧﻀﺮي‬ ّ َِ ُ greengrocer ‫( ﺧﻔﻖ‬i, u) َ ََ to beat (eggs), whip (cream) ّ َ ‫ﺧﻞ‬ vinegar ِ ْ ُ ُ ُ pl. ‫رﻏﻒ ,رﻏﻔﺎن ,راﻏﻔﺔ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺧﻠﻞ‬ to pickle, marinate ‫رﻗﺎﻗﺔ ﺣﻠﻮى‬ ‫َْ ﹰ‬ ُ waffle ‫( ﺧﻠﻂ‬i) َ ََ to mix ‫رﻗﻖ‬ َ َّ َ to roll out ‫ﺟﺮة‬ َّ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﺮار‬ ‫راﺳﺐ‬ ِ pl. ‫رواﺳﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ yeast, ferment host, inviter to slaughter (by slitting the throat) sediment, dregs ‫( رﺷﻒ‬u, i) َ َ َ to sip ‫رﺷﻔﺔ‬ ْ َ gulp, sip (drink) ‫رﻏﻮة‬ ْ َ foam, froth ‫رﻏﻴﻒ‬ ِ َ flat loaf of bread, roll
    • FOOD AND DRINK 21 ‫روح‬ ُ essence ‫( زﺑﺪ‬u) َ ََ to churn ‫ﺳﻜﺮ‬ َ ُ pl. ‫ﺳﻜﺎﻛﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫زﺑﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to froth (milk) ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﺜﻤﺎر‬ َّ َّ ُ fructose ‫زﺑﺪة‬ ُْ butter َّ ُ ‫ﺳﻜﺮ ﺧﺎم‬ raw sugar ‫زﺑﺪة ﻣﺼﻔﺎة‬ ْ ُ ُْ clarified butter َّ ُ ‫ﺳﻜﺮاﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮ‬ ِ َّ maltose bowl ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﻌﻨﺐ‬ ِ َّ َ dextrose ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﻘﺼﺐ‬ َ َ َّ ُ cane sugar ‫زﺑﺪﻳﺔ‬ ِ َْ ِ َ pl. ‫زﺑﺎدي‬ sugar ‫زﺟﺎﺟﺔ‬ ُ bottle ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﻠﺒﻦ‬ َ َ َّ ُ lactose ‫زق‬ ّ ِ skin (as receptacle for liquids) ‫ﺳﻜﺮ ﻣﻜﺮر‬ َّ ُ َّ ُ refined sugar ‫زﻳﺖ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺳﻜﺮ ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‬ ِ َّ ُ powdered sugar to add oil to (food) ‫ﺳﻜﺮ اﻟﻨﺒﺎت‬ َّ َّ ُ rock candy ‫ﺳﻜﺮان‬ ْ َ drunk (adj.) pl. ‫أزﻗﺔ‬ َّ ْ ‫زﻳﺖ‬ َْ ُ pl. ‫زﻳﻮت‬ oil ‫زﻳﺖ اﻟﺰﻳﺘﻮن‬ َُْ َْ olive oil f. ‫ ;ﺳﻜﺮى‬pl. ‫ﺳﻜﺎرى‬ َْ َ َ َ ‫زﻳﺖ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﻲ‬ ِ َ َْ vegetable oil ‫ﺳﻜﺮة‬ ْ َ drunkenness large conical (clay) waterjar َّ ِ َّ ُ ‫ﺳﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ sugar bowl ‫ﺳﻜﺮﻳﻦ‬ ِ َّ َ saccharin ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ِ ْ ِ pl. ‫زﻳﺎر ,أزﻳﺎر‬ ‫ﺳﺎدة‬ unsweetened (tea, coffee) ‫ﺳﻜﻴﺮ‬ ِّ ِ drunkard ‫ﺳﺎﻃﻮر‬ chopper, cleaver ‫ﺳﻜﻴﻦ‬ ِّ ِ knife ‫ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ liquid pl. ‫ﺳﻜﺎﻛﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. to braise َّ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ pl. ‫ﺳﻼﻃﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ َّ َ َّ (‫ﺳﺒﻚَ )اﻟﻄﺒﺦ‬ 2. to stew ‫ﺳﺠﻖ‬ ُ ُ sausage ‫ﺳﻤﺎك‬ َّ َ ‫( ﺳﺤﻖ‬a) َ َ َ to grind, crush ‫ﺳﺨﻦ‬ ْ ُ hot ‫ﺳﻤﻦ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﻮن‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺳﺨﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to heat up ‫ﺳﻔﺮة‬ ُْ dining table ‫ﺳﻨﺪوﻳﺶ‬ ِ َْ tureen fishmonger clarified butter sandwich pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺷﺎي‬ pl. ‫ﺳﻔﺮ‬ َُ tea َّ َ ‫ﺳﻘﺎء‬ water carrier ‫ﺷﺎي ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻌﻨﻊ‬ َ ْ َّ ِ mint tea ‫( ﺳﻜﺮ‬a) َِ َ to get drunk ‫ﺷﺎي ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮز‬ ِ almond tea
    • 22 FOOD AND DRINK ‫( ﺷﺒﻊ‬a) َ َِ to satisfy one’s appetite ‫ﺷﺒﻌﺎن‬ َْ sated, satisfied (eating) َّ َ ‫( ﺻﺐ‬u) to pour ‫ﺻﺤﻦ‬ ْ َ plate َ َْ َ َ ِ f. ‫ ,ﺷﺒﻌﻰ‬pl. ‫ﺷﺒﺎع ,ﺷﺒﺎﻋﻰ‬ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺻﺤﻮن‬ ‫ﺷﺤﻢ‬ ْ َ fat (n.) ‫ﺻﻔﺎر اﻟﺒﻴﻀﺔ‬ َْ َ drink ‫ﺻﻔﺎ‬ َّ َ ‫ﺷﺮاب‬ َ pl. ‫أﺷﺮﺑﺔ‬ ِْ egg yolk 1. to pour off (water) 2. to strain ‫( ﺷﺮب‬a) َ َِ to drink ‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬ ُْ see ‫ﺟﺎﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮبَ ﻧﺨﺒﻪ‬ َْ َ ِ َ to drink to someone’s health ‫ﺻﻠﺼﺔ‬ َْ sauce ‫ﺷﺮﺑﺔ‬ ُْ 1. soup ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ artificial pl. ‫ﺷﺮﺑﺎت‬ ُُ 2. draught, swallow ‫ﺷﺮح‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺻﻮم‬ َْ fast(ing) to slice ‫ﺷﺮش اﻟﻠﺒﻦ‬ ََ ِْ َّ َ ‫ﺻﻴﺎد‬ huntsman whey ‫ﺷﺮه‬ َِ ‫ﺻﻴﺎد ﺳﻤﻚ‬ َ َ َّ َ fisherman glutton ‫ﺷﺮﻳﺤﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﺢ‬ ‫ﺷﻄﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ slice, sliver see ‫ﺳﻨﺪوﻳﺶ‬ pl. ‫ﺷﻄﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺷﻌﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ َ vermicelli ‫ﺷﻔﺎﻃﺔ‬ َّ َ siphon ‫ﺷﻔﺎﻃﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ َّ َ ْ َ extractor hood ‫ﺷﻤﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ْ َ champagne ‫ﺷﻮاﻳﺔ‬ َّ َ grill ‫ﺷﻮﺑﻚ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻮاﺑﻚ‬ ُ ِ َ rolling pin ‫ﺻﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺻﻮان‬ ٍ َ ‫ﺿﻴﻒ‬ َْ serving tray guest ُُ pl. ‫ﺿﻴﻮف‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺟﻦ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاﺟﻦ‬ frying pan ‫ﻃﺒﺎخ‬ َّ َ cook ‫( ﻃﺒﺦ‬u, a) َ ََ to cook ‫ﻃﺒﺦ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺨﺎر‬ ُ ِ َ ََ to steam ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻃﺒﺎق‬ ْ 1. see ‫ﺻﺤﻦ‬ 2. dish (course) ‫( ﺷﻮى‬i) ََ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ اﻟﻔﻨﺠﺎن‬ ِْ saucer ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ natural, organic 1. to roast ‫ﻃﺤﺎن‬ ّ miller 2. to grill ‫ﺷﻮﻛﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺷﻮك‬ َُ ‫( ﻃﺤﻦ‬a) َ َ َ fork ‫( ﺻﺎد‬i) َ to hunt ‫( ﺻﺎم‬u) َ to fast 1. see ‫ﺳﺤﻖ‬ 2. to grind (coffee) ‫ﻃﺤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ flour
    • FOOD AND DRINK َّ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻃﺤﻴﻦ اﻟﺬرة‬ cornflour ‫ﻃﺮﺷﻲ‬ ِ ُْ pickles ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ْ ِْ َِ directions for use ‫ﻃﻌﺎم‬ َ see ‫أﻛﻞ‬ ْ ‫ﻃﻌﻢ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻃﻌﻮم‬ flavour ‫ﻏﺪاء‬ َ pl. ‫أﻏﺪﻳﺔ‬ ِْ ‫ﻏﺬاﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﺎل‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻏﺮاﺑﻴﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻏﺮﻏﺮ‬ ََ َْ 23 lunch nutritional sieve, colander to simmer, bubble (food in pot) ‫( ﻃﻬﻰ‬u) ََ to cook, stew ‫ﻏﺾ‬ ّ َ tender, succulent ‫ﻃﻴﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to season ‫ﻏﻼﻳﺔ‬ َّ َ kettle ‫ﻇﺮف اﻟﺒﻴﻀﺔ‬ َْ َْ egg cup َّ َ ‫ﻏﻠﻰ‬ to boil ‫( ﻏﻠﻰ‬i) ََ 1. see ‫ﻏﻠﻰ‬ َ pl. - ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ُُ ‫ﻋﺒﺄ‬ َّ َ to bottle ‫ﻋﺠﺔ‬ َّ ِ omelette ِ ‫ﻓﺎﺗﺢ اﻟﺸﻬﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ appetizing ‫( ﻋﺠﻦ‬i, u) َ َ َ to knead ‫ﻓﺎرغ‬ ِ empty ‫ﻋﺠﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ dough, batter, paste ‫ﻓﺎﺳﺪ‬ ِ see ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻔﻦ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ ‫ﻓﺎض‬ ٍ see ‫ﻓﺎرغ‬ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﺠﻦ‬ ‫( ﻋﺰم‬i) َََ ‫ﻋﺴﻞ‬ َ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺴﻮل ,أﻋﺴﺎل‬ ْ ُ ُ َ َ ‫ﻋﺴﻞ اﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ َّ ُّ ‫ﻋﺸﺎء‬ َ pl. ‫أﻋﺸﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ see ‫دﻋﺎ‬ honey 2. to ferment ‫ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺎﻧﻲ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﻜﻬﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ fruit seller ‫ﻓﺘﺎت اﻟﺨﺒﺰ‬ ُْ ُ treacle dinner, supper breadcrumbs َّ َّ (‫ﻓﺘﺎﺣﺔ )اﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﺎت‬ bottle opener َّ َ (‫ﻓﺘﺎﺣﺔ )اﻟﻌﻠﺐ‬ َُ tin opener ‫ﻓﺦ‬ ّ َ trap (animals) ‫ﻋﺼﺎرة‬ َّ َ (fruit) press ‫( ﻋﺼﺮ‬i) ََ َ to squeeze, press (fruit) ‫ﻓﺨﺪ‬ ْ َ leg of lamb ‫ﻋﺼﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ juice mincer ‫ﻋﺼﻴﺮ اﻟﻔﻮاﻛﻪ‬ ِ َ َّ َ ‫ﻓﺮاﻣﺔ‬ fruit juice ‫( ﻓﺮم‬i) َََ to chop, mince ‫( ﻋﺾ‬a) ّ َ to bite ‫ﻓﺮن‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﻓﺮان‬ ْ ‫ﻋﻠﺒﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻋﻠﺐ‬ َُ packet, pack pl. ‫ﻓﺨﻮخ ,ﻓﺨﺎخ‬ ِ ُ ُ oven ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ِ ‫( ﻋﻠﻚ‬i,u) َ ََ to chew ‫ﻋﻠﻚ‬ ِْ mastic, chewing gum popcorn ‫ﻓﺺ‬ ّ َ 1. clove (garlic) ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻓﺼﻮص‬ 2. segment (orange)
    • 24 FOOD AND DRINK ‫( ﻓﻄﺮ‬u) ََ َ to have breakfast ‫ﻓﻄﻮر‬ ُ ُ breakfast ‫ﻓﻨﺠﺎن‬ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻨﺎﺟﻴﻦ‬ َّ َ ‫ﻓﻮال‬ (‫ﻓﻮﻃﺔ )ﺳﻔﺮة‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻓﻮط‬ cup beanseller ِّ ِ ‫ﻗﻨﻴﻨﺔ‬ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﺎن‬ 2. see ‫زﺟﺎﺟﺔ‬ napkin ‫ﻗﻬﻮة‬ َْ coffee ‫ﻗﻬﻮة ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ ْ َ Turkish coffee ‫ﻛﺄس‬ glass paper napkin ‫ﻗﺎرورة‬ ُ long-necked bottle َ ََ ‫( ﻛﺒﺲ‬i) to preserve (e.g. in vinegar) mould ‫ﻛﺒﺸﺔ‬ َْ 1. scoop 2. spatula ‫ﻗﺪح‬ ََ cup, beaker ‫ﻛﺮار‬ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ pantry jerked meat ‫( ﻗﺮم‬i) َََ to nibble chopping block َّ َ ‫ﻛﺴﺎرة اﻟﺠﻮز‬ َْ nutcracker ‫ﻛﺴﺘﻠﻴﺘﻪ‬ ُِْ ُ pot ‫ﻗﺪﻳﺪ‬ َِ cutlet ‫ﻛﻌﻚ‬ َْ cake ‫ﻛﻮب‬ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻛﻮاب‬ cup ‫( ﻻن‬i) َ ‫( ﻗﺸﺪ‬u) ََ َ to skim (cream) ‫ﻗﺸﺪة‬ ْ ِ cream ‫ﻗﺸﺪة ﻣﺨﻔﻮﻗﺔ‬ ُْ َ ْ ِ whipped cream ‫ﻗﺸﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to peel ‫ﻗﺸﺮة اﻟﺨﺒﺰ‬ ُْ ْ ِ bread crust ‫( ﻗﺼﺐ‬i) َ َ َ pl. ‫ﻛﺌﺎس ,ﻛﺆوس ,-ات‬ ِ menu to be savoury (food) ‫ﻗﺮﻣﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻗﺮم‬ 1. flask to pour out/away (liquid) َ َِ ‫( ﻗﺪا‬u)/‫( ﻗﺪى‬i) َ ‫ﻗﺪر‬ ِْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻗﺪور‬ funnel ‫( ﻛﺐ‬u) َّ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻮارﻳﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﻟﺐ‬ to fry ‫ﻗﻤﻊ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻤﺎع‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻃﺔ اﻟﻮرق‬ ََ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ َّ ‫( ﻗﻼ‬u) َ to cut up (slaughtered animals) َ َ ‫ﻗﺼﺐ اﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ َّ ُّ sugar cane ‫ﻗﺼﻌﺔ‬ ْ َ bowl َ َ َ ِ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﺼﺎع ,ﻗﺼﻊ ,ﻗﺼﻌﺎت‬ to become soft ‫ﻟﺐ‬ ّ ُ core, kernel (fruit) ُُ pl. ‫ﻟﺒﻮب‬ َّ َ ‫ﻟﺒﺎن‬ milkman ‫ﻟﺒﻦ‬ ََ see ‫ﺣﻠﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻦ اﻟﺨﺾ‬ ّ َ ََ butter milk ‫ﻟﺒﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ دﺳﻢ‬ ِ َ َْ ََ skimmed milk ‫ﻟﺒﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ دﺳﻢ‬ ِ َ ْ ُ ََ semi-skimmed milk َ ِ َ ‫( ﻟﺤﺲ‬a) to lick ‫ﻟﺤﻢ‬ ْ َ meat ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻟﺤﻮم‬
    • FOOD AND DRINK 25 ‫ﻟﺤﻢ ﻣﻔﺮوم‬ َُْ ْ َ minced meat ‫ﻣﺮ‬ ُّ bitter ‫ﻟﺬﻳﺬ‬ َِ tasty َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻰ‬ jam َّ َ ‫( ﻟف‬u) to roll up ‫ﻣﺮﻃﺒﺎت‬ ‫َُ ﱢ‬ soft drinks ‫ﻟﻬﺐ‬ ََ flame ‫ﻣﺮق‬ ََ gravy block of ice ‫ﻣﺮﻗﻮق‬ َُْ thin (e.g. pastry) ‫ﻣﺮﻣﻄﻮن‬ ُ َ َْ kitchen boy, scullery boy ‫ﻣﺎء اﻟﺰﻫﺮ‬ ْ َ orange-blossom water pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﺎء اﻟﻮرد‬ َْ rose water ‫ﻣﺰة‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺎزة ,-ات‬ ‫ﻟﻮح اﻟﺠﻠﻴﺪ‬ َِ َْ pl. ‫أﻟﻮاح ,-ات‬ ْ ‫ﻣﺄدﺑﺔ‬ ُ َْ ُ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺎدب‬ banquet mezze (appetizers) َ ََ ‫( ﻣﺰج‬u) to whip, mix (cream, eggs) ‫ﻣﺎﻟﺢ‬ ِ salty ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺞ‬ َِ see ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺎوى‬ ِ juicy ‫ﻣﺴﺤﻮق‬ ُ ْ َ ground, crushed ‫ﻣﺎﻳﻮﻧﻴﺰ‬ mayonnaise ‫ﻣﺸﺮوب‬ ُْ َ beverage ‫ﻣﺒﺸﺮة‬ َ ِْ grater ‫ﻣﺒﻄﻦ ب‬ ِ َّ َ ُ َّ ِ ُ ‫ﻣﺸﺮوﺑﺎت روﺣﻴﺔ‬ ُْ َ spirits, alcoholic beverages lined with َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻮي‬ ِْ َ 1. grilled spicy ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻔﻦ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ rotten, mouldy َّ َ ‫( ﻣﺺ‬a, u) ‫ﻣﺠﺰرة‬ َْ َ slaughterhouse ‫ﻣﺠﻔﻒ‬ َّ َ ُ dried ‫ﻣﺼﻔﺎة‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎف‬ ٍ َ 2. percolator ‫ﻣﺠﻔﻔﺎت‬ َّ َ ُ dried foodstuffs َ َ َ ‫( ﻣﺼﻞ‬u) to curdle ‫ﻣﺤﺸﻰ‬ ِ ْ َ stuffed ‫ﻣﺼﻞ‬ ْ َ whey ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺼﺔ اﻟﺨﺒﺰ‬ ُْ َ ْ ِ toaster ‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮط‬ ُْ َ medium sweet (coffee, tea) ‫ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺎت‬ ُْ َ tinned goods ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ً َّ ُ sweetened ‫ﻣﻀﺮب‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻀﺎرب‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺨﻔﻘﺔ‬ َْ ِ eggbeater, whisk َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻔﺎت‬ leftovers, scraps َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻞ‬ pickled ‫ﻣﺪﻋﻮ‬ ُ َْ guest, invitee ‫ﻣﺪق‬ ّ َِ pestle pl. ‫-ات‬ 2. roasted to suck 1. colander see ‫ﻣﺨﻔﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺮوب‬ ْ َ scrambled (eggs) ‫( ﻣﻀﻎ‬a, u) َ َ َ see ‫ﻋﻠﻚ‬ َ ‫ﻣﻀﻐﺔ‬ ْ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫ﻣﻀﻎ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﺦ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﺦ‬ ُ ِ َ chewing gum kitchen
    • 26 ‫ﻣﻄﺒﺦ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﺦ‬ ُ ِ َ FOOD AND DRINK cooker 2. to cure ‫ﻣﻠﻌﻘﺔ‬ َ ِْ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮخ‬ ُْ َ cooked ُ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻼﻋﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺤﻨﺔ اﻟﺒﻦ‬ ّ ُ َ ْ ِ coffee mill َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻤﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺤﻨﺔ ﻗﻬﻮة‬ ََْ َ ْ ِ see ‫ﻣﻄﺤﻨﺔ اﻟﺒﻦ‬ ّ ُ َ ْ ِ ‫ﻣﻄﺤﻮن‬ ُ ْ َ see ‫ﻣﺴﺤﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻳﻞ‬ ِ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎدﻳﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ restaurant ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻮم‬ ُ َْ spoon ‫ﻣﻄﻌﻢ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ُِ َ pan ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻠﺒﻦ‬ ََ َ ْ َ dairy (plant) ‫ﻣﻐﺮﻓﺔ‬ َِْ ladle tablecloth ‫ﻣﻔﻠﻔﻞ‬ َ َْ ُ peppered ‫ﻣﻘﺒﻼت‬ ِّ َ ُ hors d’oeuvres ‫ﻣﻘﻼة‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎل‬ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻰ‬ ِْ َ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﺖ ﺑﻴﺾ‬ ِ ‫َُﱢ‬ egg-timer ‫ﻣﻮﻗﺪ‬ َِْ stove (gas) ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎدل‬ ِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻧﺪل‬ waiter measure (quantity) crisp, dry see ‫ﻃﺎﺟﻦ‬ fried cooked (< > raw) َ َ َ ‫( ﻧﺨﻞ‬u) to strain, sift ‫ﻧﺸﺎء‬ َ corn starch ‫ﻧﺸﻮﻳﺎت‬ َّ َ َ starchy foodstuffs ‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﻧﺎﺿﺞ‬ ِ ْ ُ half-cooked ‫( ﻧﻀﺞ‬a) َ ِ َ to be(come) well cooked ‫ﻧﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ِْ َ food safe, meat safe ‫ﻧﻬﻢ‬ ََ meat grinder ‫ﻣﻘﺮﻣﺶ‬ َ َُْ 1. see ‫ﺷﺮه‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺿﺞ‬ ِ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻣﺔ‬ َِْ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ see ‫ﻓﻮﻃﺔ‬ 2. greedy ‫ﻣﻄﻬﺎة‬ ْ ِ ‫ﻣﻔﺮش‬ ََْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎرش‬ salted, cured gluttony ‫ﻧﻮاة‬ َ kernel, stone ََ pl. ‫ﻧﻮﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺮوﻧﺔ‬ َُ َ macaroni ‫ﻣﻜﺮر‬ َّ َ ُ purified, refined ‫ﻣﻜﻌﺒﺔ ﺳﻜﺮ‬ َّ ُ َّ َ ُ sugar cube ‫ﻣﻼﺣﺔ‬ َّ َ salt cellar ‫ﻣﻼﺣﺔ ﻓﻠﻔﻞ‬ ُ ْ ُ َّ َ ‫ﻫﺶ‬ ّ َ see ‫ﻏﺾ‬ ّ pepper cellar ‫ﻫﻼم‬ ُ jelly ‫ﻣﻶن‬ َ filled ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ َ َّ َ 1. to season with salt ‫وﺟﺒﺔ‬ ْ َ َ َ pl. ‫وﺟﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ‫ﻫﺎوون‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻫﻮاوﻳﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ raw mortar (vessel) 1. meal 2. see ‫)2( ﻃﺒﻖ‬
    • THE HUMAN BODY ‫وﺟﺒﺔ ﻧﺎﺷﻔﺔ‬ ِ dry rations ‫وﺻﻔﺔ ﻃﺒﺦ‬ ََ ْ َ ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺲ‬ ِ recipe 27 1. firm 2. see ‫ﺟﺎف‬ ّ The human body ‫اﺑﺾ‬ ُْ pl. ‫آﺑﺎض‬ ‫إﺑﻬﺎم‬ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ُ ‫إﺟﻬﺎض‬ ْ ‫أﺟﻬﺾ‬ َ َْ secretion, discharge ‫إﻓﺮازات أذﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِّْ ُ earwax ‫إﻓﺮازات ﻣﻬﺒﻠﻴﺔ‬ َِّْ ِ vaginal discharge 1. thumb ‫أﻧﺠﺐ‬ َ َ ْ to give birth 2. big toe ‫إﻧﺴﺎن اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َْ ْ pupil (eye) 1. miscarriage َِْ ‫اﻧﻘﺺَّ اﻟﻮزن‬ َْ to lose weight 2. abortion ‫إﺑﻂ‬ ْ pl. ‫آﺑﺎط‬ ‫إﻓﺮاز‬ ْ ‫أﻧﻤﻠﺔ‬ ُ ُْ ُ ِ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﻣﻞ‬ hollow of the knee armpit 1. to miscarry 2. to abort ‫أﺧﻤﺺ اﻟﻘﺪم‬ ََ َ ْ ‫أدرد‬ َْ َْ ُْ f. ‫ ,درداء‬pl. ‫درد‬ ‫أذن‬ ُْ pl. ‫آذان‬ arch of the foot to be toothless ear nose ‫أوﺗﺎر ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ‬ َِ َ َْ vocal folds ‫أﻳﺮ‬ ْ penis pl. ‫أﻳﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻃﻦ اﻟﻘﺪم‬ ََ ِ sole of the foot masturbation ‫ﺑﺎﻃﻦ اﻟﻜَﻒ‬ ّ ِ palm of the hand finger َ ‫( ﺑﺎل‬u) to urinate ‫ﺑﺮاز‬ ِ faeces ‫اﺳﺘﻤﻨﺎ‬ ْ َْ ِ to masturbate ‫اﺳﺘﻤﻨﺎء‬ ْ ِْ ِ ‫إﺻﺒﻊ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺻﺎﺑﻊ‬ ُ ِ ‫أﻧﻒ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫آﻧﺎف ,أﻧﻮف‬ fingertip ‫إﺻﺒﻊ اﻷوﺳﻂ‬ َ ْ middle finger ‫إﺻﺒﻊ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬ َِ ْ ِّ big toe ‫ﺑﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﺟﻢ‬ ُِ َ ‫إﺻﺒﻊ اﻟﻘﺪم‬ َ َ َْ toe ‫ﺑﺮوﺳﺘﺎت‬ prostate ‫أﺻﻞ اﻟﻠﺴﺎن‬ ِ ْ tongue root ‫ﺑﺸﻊ‬ ِ َ see ‫ﻗﺒﻴﺢ‬ ‫أﻃﻠﻖَ ﻟﺤﻴﺘﻪ‬ َْ ِ َْ to let one’s beard grow ‫ﺑﺼﺎق‬ ُ saliva, phlegm ْ ‫أﻋﻀﺎء اﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﻞ‬ ُ َّ genitals ‫ﺑﺼﺮ‬ ْ َ sight knuckle
    • 28 THE HUMAN BODY ‫ﺑﺼﺮي‬ ّ ِْ َ visual ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ِْ َ child delivery ‫( ﺑﺼﺮ‬u) َُ َ to look ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِ front incisor ‫( ﺑﺼﻖ‬u) َ َ َ to spit ‫ﺑﺼﻤﺔ اﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ‬ ِ ْ َ fingerprint َ َ ‫ﺑﻄﺔ اﻟﺴﺎق‬ َّ calf ‫ﺑﻄﺮ‬ ْ َ clitoris ُ pl. ‫ﺑﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻦ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﻄﻦ ,ﺑﻄﻮن‬ belly ‫ﺛﺪي‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺛﺪاء‬ ْ ‫ﺛﻨﻴﺔ‬ ََِ breast, bosom middle incisor َ pl. ‫ﺛﻨﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺆﺑﺎء‬ ُْ yawn (‫ﺛﺆﻟﻮل )ة‬ ُْ ُ wart ُ ِ pl. ‫ﺛﺎﻟﻴﻞ‬ to cry, weep َّ ِ ِ ‫ﺟﺎذﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﺠﻨﺲ‬ ِْ sex appeal pharynx َ ‫( ﺟﺎع‬u) to be hungry ring finger ‫ﺟﺎﺋﻊ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﻴﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻴﺎن‬ ُْ physique, stature ََ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﺒﺎه ,ﺟﺒﻬﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺆﺑﺆ اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َْ ُْ ُ see ‫اﻧﺴﺎن اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻮز‬ َ َّ َ to pout ‫ﺟﺜﺔ‬ َّ ُ pl. ‫أﺟﺜﺎث ,ﺟﺜﺚ‬ َُ ْ urine ‫( ﺟﺤﻆ‬a) َ َ َ ‫ﺑﻮﻳﻀﺔ‬ َْ ُ ovum ‫ﺟﺴﺪ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﺟﺴﺎد‬ ْ ‫ﺗﺒﺮز‬ َ َّ َ َ to defecate ‫ﺗﺜﺎءب‬ َ َ ََ to yawn ‫ﺗﺠﺎﻋﻴﺪ‬ ِ َ wrinkles (face) ‫ﺗﺠﺸﺄ‬ َّ َ َ to burp ‫ﺗﺨﻠﺺَ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮزن‬ َْ ِ َّ َ َ see ‫اﻧﻘﺺ اﻟﻮزن‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻟﻴﻚ‬ ِْ َ massage ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺤﺔ‬ ِْ َ hairdo (women) ‫ﺟﻠﺪ‬ ِْ ُ pl. ‫ﺟﻠﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔَﺲ‬ َ ََّ to breathe ‫ﺟﻤﺎل‬ َ beauty ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ََﱡ‬ breathing, respiration ‫ﺟﻤﺠﻤﺔ‬ ُ ْ ُ skull ‫ﺗ ﻮ ﺷ ﻮش‬ َ َْ ََ see ‫)1( ﻫﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ beautiful ‫( ﺑﻜﻰ‬i) َ َ ‫ﺑﻠﻌﻮم‬ ُْ ُ ِ pl. ‫ﺑﻼﻋﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺼﺮ‬ ِ ِْ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﺑﻮل‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﻮال‬ ‫ﺟﺒﻬﺔ‬ َْ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫أﺟﺴﺎم‬ ْ starved, famished forehead corpse to protrude (eye) see ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ body ‫ﺟﻌﺪة‬ ََ curl, lock ‫ﺟﻌﺪي‬ ّ َِْ curly ‫ﺟﻔﻦ‬ َْ eyelid ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺟﻔﺎن ,ﺟﻔﻮن‬ skin
    • THE HUMAN BODY ‫ﺟﻨﻴﻦ‬ َِ َِ ُْ pl. ‫أﺟﻨﻦ ,أﺟﻨﺔ‬ foetus ‫ﺣﻤﻞ‬ ْ َ nervous system ‫ﺟﻬﺎز ﻫﻀﻤﻲ‬ ّ َ َ ِ digestive system ‫ﺣﻨﺠﺮة‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﻨﺎﺟﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﺟﻮع‬ ُ hunger ‫ﺣﻨﻂ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺟﻮﻋﺎن‬ َْ hungry ‫ﺟﻴﺐ أﻧﻔﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َْ sinus ‫ﺣﺎف‬ ٍ ُ pl. ‫ﺣﻔﺎة‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻠﺴﺎن‬ ِ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺐ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﺐ‬ eyebrow barefooted ‫ﺣﻨﻚ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﺣﻨﺎك‬ ْ ‫ﺣﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﻣﺮارﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َ َ ْ َ ‫ﺣﻮض‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺣﻮاض‬ ْ ‫ﺧﺪ‬ َّ tongue edge pelvis cheek fertile conception ‫ﺣﺒﻞ اﻟﻮرﻳﺪ‬ ِ َ َْ jugular vein ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُ diaphragm ‫ﺣﺠﺮ‬ ْ ِ lap ‫( ﺣﺲ‬u) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to feel, sense sense ‫ﺣﺴﻴﺎت‬ ِّ ِ sensations ‫ﺣﺸﻔﺔ‬ ْ َ glans ‫ﺣﻼق‬ َّ َ hairdresser, barber ‫ﺣﻠﻤﺔ‬ ََ pl. ‫ﺣﻠﻢ‬ ََ gall bladder fertility ‫ﺣﺒﻞ‬ ََ ‫( ﺣﻠﻖ‬i) َ ََ palate ‫ﺧﺼﺐ‬ ْ ِ ‫ﺧﺼﺮ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺧﺼﻮر‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺣﻠﻖ‬ َْ pl. ‫اﺣﻼق ,ﺣﻠﻮق‬ ُ ْ to embalm (corpse) ‫ﺧﺼﺐ‬ ِ َ urether pregnant ‫ﺣﺲ‬ ّ ِ pl. ‫أﺣﻮاس‬ ْ larynx pl. ‫ﺧﺪود‬ ُ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﺎب اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺰ‬ ِ ِ ُ ُ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﺠﺒﺔ ,ﺣﺠﺐ‬ pregnancy pl. ‫ﺣﻤﺎل ,أﺣﻤﺎل‬ ْ ِ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز ﻋﺼﺒﻲ‬ ّ َ َ ِ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺐ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺣﻮاﺣﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ 29 throat ‫ﺧﺼﻴﺔ‬ ْ ُ ً ُ pl. ‫ﺧﺼﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ ﺷﻌﺮي‬ ّ ِْ ّ َ ‫ﺧﻼﻟﺔ‬ ِ َّ ِ pl. ‫أﺧﻠﺔ‬ waist, haunch see ‫ﺧﺼﺐ‬ ْ ِ testicle hairline toothpick َّ َ ‫( ﺧﻦ‬i) to speak with a nasal twang َّ ُ ‫ﺧﻨﺔ‬ nasal twang ‫ﺧﻨﺼﺮ‬ ِ ِْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺸﻮم‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺧﻴﺎﺷﻴﻢ‬ ُ َ little finger see ‫اﻧﻒ‬ to shave (head, beard) ‫دار اﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ِ ْ َّ maternity home nipple ‫دﺑﻮس ﻟﻠﺸﻌﺮ‬ َْ ُّ َ hairpin ‫درق‬ ََ thyroid gland
    • 30 THE HUMAN BODY ‫دﻏﺪغ‬ َ َْ َ to tickle ‫رﺿﻊ‬ َ َ َ ‫دﻟﻚ‬ َ َّ َ to massage ‫رﺿﻊ ﺛﺪي أﻣﻪ‬ ِّ ُ ْ َ ‫دم‬ َ blood ِ pl. ‫دﻣﺎء‬ ‫دﻣﺎغ‬ ِ pl. ‫أدﻣﻐﺔ‬ ُ ْ ‫( دﻣﻊ‬a) َ َ َ ‫( دﻣﻊ‬coll.) ْ َ ُ pl. ‫دﻣﻮع‬ see ‫ﻣﺦ‬ ّ to water (eyes) tears ‫دﻣﻮع‬ ُ َ watery, tearful (eyes) َّ ِ َ َ ْ َ ‫دورة دﻣﻮﻳﺔ‬ blood circulation ‫دورة ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ period (menstruation) ‫ذراع‬ ِ arm ُْ ُْ pl. ‫ذرﻋﺎن ,أذرع‬ ‫ذﻗﻦ‬ َْ ْ َِ pl. ‫ذﻗﻦ ,اذﻗﺎن‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ َ َ pl. ‫ذﻛﻮر‬ ُ ُ to suck (baby) to suckle at the mother’s breast ‫رﺿﻊ‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ to breast-feed ‫رﺿﻴﻊ‬ ِ َ suckling َ ُ ُ ِ pl. ‫رﺿﺎﺋﻊ ,رﺿﻌﺎء‬ ‫رﺿﻔﺔ‬ ْ َ ‫رﻗﺒﺔ‬ ََ ُ pl. ‫ات ,رﻗﺎب‬‫( رﻗﺪ‬i) َََ ‫رﻛﺒﺔ‬ ْ ُ َ ُ ْ َ pl. ‫رﻛﺒﺎت ,رﻛﺐ‬ kneecap neck to lie down knee َ َّ َ ‫رﻳﻞ‬ to drool, slaver ‫زاﺋﺪة‬ appendix ُ َ pl. ‫زواﺋﺪ‬ chin see ‫أﻳﺮ‬ ‫زاﺋﺪة أﻧﻔﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ adenoids ‫( زاد اﻟﻮزن‬i) َْ to put on weight ‫زاﺋﺪة اﻟﻮزن‬ َْ weight gain ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺪ‬ ِ forearm ‫ذﻳﻞ اﻟﺤﺼﺎن‬ ِ َْ ponytail ‫( رأى‬u) َ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻮاﻋﺪ‬ to see ‫ﺳﺎق‬ pl. ‫ﺳﻴﻘﺎن‬ ‫راﺋﺤﺔ‬ ُ َ pl. ‫رواﺋﺢ‬ ‫رﺟﻞ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫أرﺟﻞ‬ ُ ْ ‫راﺣﺔ‬ pl. ‫ات ,راح‬‫رأس‬ َ ُ pl. ‫رؤوس‬ ‫رﺑﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ َِ ُ ‫رﺣﻢ‬ ِ َ ْ pl. ‫أرﺣﺎم‬ smell 1. leg 2. shank ‫ﺳﺒﺎﺑﺔ‬ ََ leg palm index finger َّ ِّ َ َ َ ‫ﺳﺒﻠﺔ ﺧﺪﻳﺔ‬ sideburns ‫ﺳﺤﺎءة‬ َ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺤﺎﻳﺎ‬ cortex ‫ﺳﺮة‬ َّ ُ navel (‫ﺳﺮحَ )ﺷﻌﺮه‬ ََْ َّ َ to comb, do one’s hair lateral incisor ‫ﺳﻘﻒ اﻟﻔﻢ‬ َ َْ roof of the mouth womb ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬ ْ ِّ َ calf ‫( ﺳﻤﻊ‬i) َ َ to hear, listen head
    • THE HUMAN BODY ‫ﺷﻌﺮي‬ ّ َِْ 31 ‫ﺳﻤﻊ‬ ْ َ hearing ‫ﺳﻤﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ auditory, aural ‫( ﺳﻤﻦ‬a) َ ِ َ to become fat ‫ﺷﻔﺔ‬ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻔﺎه‬ ِ ‫ﺳﻤﻨﺔ‬ ْ ِ obesity َّ ‫اﻟﺸﻔﺔ اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬ َ ْ ُّ lower lip fat َّ ‫اﻟﺸﻔﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ُْ upper lip ‫ﺳﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﺎن‬ ِ ‫ﺳﻦ‬ ّ ِ tooth ‫ﺷﻔﺮة‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺷﻔﺎر ,ﺷﻔﺮات‬ ََ ِ hairy, hirsute lip razor blade ‫( ﺷﻢ‬u, a) َّ َ pl. ‫أﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ to smell, sniff ِ ‫ﺳﻦّ اﻟﺮﺷﺪ‬ ْ ُّ the age of reason ‫ﺷﻢ‬ َّ smelling, sense of smell ‫ﺳﻦّ ﻗﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬ ِ ِ incisor ‫( ﺷﻬﻖ‬a, i) َ ََ to inhale teeth-ridge, alveolum ‫ﺷﻮﺷﺔ‬ ُ tuft of hair ‫ﺻﺎﻟﻮن اﻟﺤﻼﻗﺔ‬ ِ ُ barber’s shop ‫( ﺻﺢ‬u) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to wake up ‫ﺻﺤﻰ‬ َّ َ to wake (trans.) ‫ﺳﻨﺦ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺳﻨﺎخ‬ ْ ‫ﺷﺎرب‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻮارب‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﺔ‬ pl. ‫ﺷﺎم ,-ات‬ moustache mole, birthmark ‫ﺻﺪر‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺻﺪور‬ ُ chest ‫ﺷﺎﺋﺐ‬ white-haired, old ‫ﺻﺪغ‬ َْ temple ‫ﺷﺒﺎب‬ َ youth ‫ﺷﺒﻜﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ ْ َ َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬ َِ short retina ِ pl. ‫ﺻﻐﺎر‬ ‫ﺷﺤﻤﺔ اﻷذن‬ ُْ ْ َ ear lobe ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮاء‬ َْ bile ‫( ﺷﺨﺮ‬i) ََ َ to snore ‫ﺻﻔﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to arrange one’s hair ‫ﺷﺮج‬ َْ anus, rectum ‫ﺻﻔﻦ‬ ََ scrotum pl. ‫أﺷﺮاج‬ ُ ْ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﺎن‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﺻﻔﺎن‬ ْ artery bronchus pl. ‫ﺷﻌﺐ‬ َُ ‫( ﺷﻌﺮ‬u) َََ ‫ﺷﻌﺮ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺷﻌﻮر‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺎر‬ َْ ُ ْ َ see ‫ﺣﺲ‬ ّ hair ‫ﺻﻮت‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺻﻮات‬ ْ ‫ﺿﺎﺣﻚ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺿﻮاﺣﻚ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. sound 2. voice premolar ‫ﺿﺞ‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ to be noisy, to clamour ‫ﺿﺮس‬ ِْ molar tooth pl. ‫أﺿﺮاس‬ ْ wig ‫ﺿﺮس اﻟﻌﻘﻞ‬ َْ ِْ wisdom tooth
    • 32 THE HUMAN BODY ‫( ﺿﺮط‬i) َ ََ to break wind ‫( ﺿﺮط‬coll.) َْ fart ‫ﺿﻠﻊ ,ﺿﻠﻊ‬ ِْ َِ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺿﻼع ,ﺿﻠﻮع‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺣﻦ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاﺣﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ (‫ﻃﺄﻃﺄ )رأﺳﻪ‬ َْ ‫ﻃﺤﺎل‬ ِ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻃﺤﻞ ,-ات‬ rib ‫ﻋﺮق‬ ََ ‫ﻋﺮﻗﻮب‬ ُْ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺮاﻗﻴﺐ‬ sweat Achilles’ tendon 1. see ‫ﻋﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻳﺎن‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻋﺮاﻳﺎ‬ َ 2. nakedness َّ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﻋﺮﻳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ naturism to bow one’s head ‫ﻋﺼﺐ‬ َ َ 1. nerve spleen ْ pl. ‫أﻋﺼﺎب‬ 2. sinew ‫ﻋﺼﻲ اﻟﻨﻄﻖ‬ ْ ُّ ِ َ incapable of speech see ‫ﺿﺮس‬ ‫( ﻃﺮف‬i) َ ََ to wink ‫ﻋﻀﻞ‬ ِ َ muscular, brawny ‫ﻃﺮف‬ َْ blink of an eye ‫ﻋﻀﻠﺔ‬ َ َ muscle ‫ﻃﺮف اﻟﻠﺴﺎن‬ ِ ََ tip of the tongue ‫ﻋﻀﻠﻲ‬ ّ َ َ muscular (compounds) ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ُ height, length ‫ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻀﺎء‬ pl. ‫أﻃﻮال‬ ْ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬ َِ ِ pl. ‫ﻃﻮال‬ ‫ﻇﻔﺮ‬ ُُ pl. ‫أﻇﺎﻓﺮ‬ ُِ ‫ﻇﻨﺒﻮب‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻇﻨﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻇﻬﺮ‬ َْ ُ ُْ pl. ‫أﻇﻬﺮ ,ﻇﻬﻮر‬ limb, organ tall ‫ﻋﻄﺎر‬ َّ َ perfume vendor ‫ﻋﻄﺮ‬ ْ ِ scent, perfume nail ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻄﺎر‬ َ َ َ ‫( ﻋﻄﺲ‬i, u) back to sneeze َ َّ َ ‫ﻋﻄﺲ‬ to cause to sneeze ‫ﻋﻄﺴﺔ‬ ْ َ sneeze ‫( ﻋﻄﺶ‬a) َ َ َ shinbone to be thirsty ‫ﻋﺎر‬ ٍ naked ‫ﻋﻄﺶ‬ َ َ thirst ‫ﻋﺎزل ﺟﻨﺴﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ condom ‫ﻋﻄﺸﺎن‬ ْ َ thirsty ‫( ﻋﺎش‬i) َ to live, be alive ‫ﻋﺎﻧﺔ‬ groin, pubis ‫ﻋﺒﺮة‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻋﺒﺮات ,ﻋﺒﺮ‬ َِ ََ ‫ﻋﺠﻮز‬ ُ َ bone old, elderly ‫ﻋﻈﻢ ﻛﺘﻔﻲ‬ ّ َِِ ْ َ shoulder blade ‫ﻋﻈﻢ وﺟﻬﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ ْ َ see ‫دﻣﻊ‬ ْ cheekbone ‫ﻋﻘﺪة‬ ُْ joint pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺪ‬ َُ pl. ‫ﻋﺠﺎﺋﺰ‬ ُ َ ‫( ﻋﺮق‬a) َ َِ ‫ﻋﻈﻢ‬ ْ َ ُ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻈﺎم ,أﻋﻈﻢ‬ to sweat ‫ﻋﻘﻢ‬ ُْ infertility
    • THE HUMAN BODY 33 ‫ﻋﻘﻴﻢ‬ َِ infertile ‫ﻓﺮﺷﺔ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ ُْ toothbrush ‫ﻋﻤﻮد ﻓﻘﺮي‬ ّ َِْ ُ َ spine, spinal column ُْ ‫ﻓﺮﺷﺔ اﻟﺸﻌﺮ‬ ْ َّ hairbrush َّ ُُْ ‫ﻋﻨﻔﻮان اﻟﺸﺒﺎب‬ the prime of youth ‫ﻓﺮق‬ َْ parting (hair) see ‫رﻗﺒﺔ‬ َْ ‫ﻓﺮوة اﻟﺮأس‬ ْ َّ scalp ‫ﻋﻮرة‬ َْ pudendum ‫ﻓﺺ‬ ّ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻓﺼﻮص‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﻋﻮل‬ to wail, howl ‫ﻓﺼﻴﻠﺔ دﻣﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ ِ َ blood group ‫ﻋﻮﻳﻞ‬ َِ wailing ‫ﻓﻘﺎرة‬ َ vertebra eye ‫ﻓﻚ‬ ّ َ jaw ‫ﻋﻨﻖ‬ ُُ pl. ‫أﻋﻨﺎق‬ ْ ‫ﻋﻴﻦ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻋﻴﻮن‬ ُ َّ ُ ‫ﻏﺪة‬ pl. ‫ﻏﺪد‬ َُ lobe pl. ‫ﻓﻜﻮك‬ ُ gland ‫ﻓﻢ‬ َ mouth pl. ‫أﻓﻮاه‬ ْ ‫اﻟﻐﺪة اﻟﺤﻠﻮة‬ ُْ َّ ُ pancreas (‫( ﻗﺎم )ﻳﻘﻮم‬u) ُُ َ to stand up ‫اﻟﻐﺪة اﻟﺪرﻗﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َّ َ ُ see ‫درق‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬ build, stature ‫ﻏﺮﻏﺮ‬ ََ َْ to gargle ‫ﻗﺒﺎﺣﺔ‬ َ ugliness prepuce, foreskin ‫ﻗﺒﻀﺔ اﻟﻴﺪ‬ َ َْ fist َ َ َ ‫( ﻏﺴﻞ‬i) to wash ‫ﻗﺒﻴﺢ‬ َِ ugly pl. ‫ﻗﺒﺤﻰ ,ﻗﺒﺎﺣﻰ ,ﻗﺒﺎح‬ ِ ِ ِ َ َْ ‫ﻏﺸﺎء اﻟﺒﻜﺎر‬ َ َ hymen ‫( ﻏﻔﺎء‬u) َ to take a nap, doze off ‫ﻏﻔﻮة‬ َْ nap ‫ﻏﻤﺎرة‬ ّ َ dimple (cheek) ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ اﻷﻧﻒ‬ َْ َْ nostril ‫ﻏﺮﻟﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻏﺮل‬ َُ ‫ﻓﺨﺪ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أﻓﺨﺎد‬ ْ ‫ﻓﺮج‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻓﺮوج‬ ُ foot vagina to brush ‫ﻓﺮﺷﺔ‬ ُْ brush (‫( ﻗﺬفَ )اﻟﻤﻨﻰ‬i) َِ ََ to ejaculate ‫ﻗَﺬف اﻟﻤﻨﻰ‬ َِ ْ ejaculation ‫ﻗﺰﺣﻴﺔ‬ َِ َ ُ iris ‫ﻗﺸﺮة‬ ْ ِ dandruff ‫ﻗَﺼﺒﺔ اﻟﺮﺋﺔ‬ ِّ َ windpipe, trachea ‫ﻗﺼﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺮئ‬ ِّ َ َ َ gullet ‫( ﻗﻄﺐ ﺟﺒﻴﻨﻪ‬i) َ َِ َ َ َ thigh ‫ﻓﺮش‬ َ َّ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺮش‬ َُ ‫ﻗﺪم‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻗﺪام‬ ْ to frown ‫ﻗﻔﺎء‬ َ nape ‫ﻗﻔﺺ ﺻﺪري‬ ّ َِْ ََ thorax pl. ‫أﻗﻔﺎص ﺻﺪرﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ ْ
    • 34 ‫ﻗﻠﺐ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻗﻠﻮب‬ ُ ‫ﻗﻬﻘﻪ‬ ََْ َ ‫ﻗﻮس‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻗﻮاس‬ ْ ‫ﻛﺎﺣﻞ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻮاﺣﻞ‬ ُّ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻮ‬ pl. ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻮﻫﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﻞ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻛﻮاﻫﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻛﺒﺪ‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻛﺒﻮد‬ ُ THE HUMAN BODY heart ‫ﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ْ ِ beard ً ُ pl. ‫ﻟﺤﻰ‬ to guffaw arch (foot) ‫ﻟﺴﺎن‬ ِ tongue ِ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻟﺴﻦ ,أﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺎن اﻟﻤﺰﻣﺎر‬ ِْ ِ epiglottis ‫ﻟﻌﺎب‬ ُ drool, dribble ‫ﻟﻘﺎح‬ َ sperm ‫ﻟﻘﺢ‬ َ َّ َ to impregnate upper part of the back ‫ﻟﻤﺲ‬ ْ َ touch ‫ﻟﻬﺎة‬ َ uvula liver ََ pl. ‫ﻟﻬﻮات‬ ankle corn (toes) ‫ﻟﻮزﺗﺎن‬ ََْ tonsils ‫( ﻛﺒﺮ‬u) َ ََ to grow up ‫ﻟﻮن‬ َ َّ َ to dye (hair) ‫ﻛﺘﻒ‬ َِ shoulder ‫ﻣﺄﻗﺔ‬ َْ sob ‫ﻣﺎ وراء اﻟﻮﻋﻰ‬ ْ َ ََ the subconscious ْ pl. ‫أﻛﺘﺎف‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮﻳﺎت اﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎء‬ َْ ََ ُ the white corpuscles ‫اﻟﻜﺮﻳﺎت اﻟﺤﻤﺮاء‬ ْ َ ََ ُ the red corpuscles ‫ﻛﺸﺔ‬ َ ُ lock of hair ‫ﻛﻌﺐ‬ َْ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻌﺎب ,ﻛﻌﻮب‬ ‫ﻛﻒ‬ ّ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻔﻮف‬ َ ‫ﻋﺠﺰ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أﻋﺠﺎز‬ ُ ْ ‫ﻛﺮش‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﻛﺮاش‬ ْ َ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬ ُْ ً ُ َُْ pl. ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺘﺎن ,ﻛﻠﻰ‬ heel ‫ﻣﺒﺮد اﻷﻇﺎﻓﺮ‬ ِ َ َ ِْ ُ ِ ََ pl. -‫ﻣﺒﺮد‬ nail file ‫ﻣﺒﻴﺾ‬ َِ ovary ‫ﻣﺦ‬ ّ ُ brain pl. ‫ﻣﺨﺨﺔ ,ﻣﺨﺎخ‬ ِ َ َ ِ see ‫راﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎظ‬ ُ nasal mucus, snot َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺪﻟﻚ‬ masseur 2. buttocks ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬ َِْ ُ loud (voice) paunch ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻖ‬ َِْ elbow 1. backside ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﺜﺔ‬ ِ gums ‫ﻟﺤﻢ‬ ْ َ flesh ‫ﻣﺮيء‬ َ gullet ‫ﻣﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِّ َ ُ kidney hairdresser (women) ‫ﻣﺴﺎم‬ ّ َ pore pl. ‫-ات‬
    • THE HUMAN BODY 35 ‫( ﻣﺴﺢ‬i) َ َ َ to wipe, rub off ‫( ﻧﺒﺖ‬u) َ ََ to grow (e.g. teeth) (‫( ﻣﺸﻂَ )ﺷﻌﺮه‬u, i) َْ َ َ to comb (one’s hair) ‫( ﻧﺒﺾ‬i) َ ََ to throb, to beat (heart, pulse) ‫ﻣﺸﻂ‬ ْ ُ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎط ,أﻣﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻂ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬ ْ ِّ ْ ُ ‫ﻣﺸﻴﻤﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻳﻢ ,ﻣﺸﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ ُ َ ‫ﻣﻌﺟﻮن اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ ُ َْ ‫ﻣﻌﺪة‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺪ‬ َِ ‫ﻣﻌﺼﻢ‬ َ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺻﻢ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﻣﻌﻰ‬ ً ِ pl. ‫أﻣﻌﺎء‬ ْ comb instep to grow thin see ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻞ‬ see ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻞ‬ stomach ‫ﻧﺤﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺤﻞ ,ﻧﺤﻠﻰ‬ َْ َ َ ُ wrist ‫ﻧﺨﺎع‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﺨﻊ‬ ُ ُ toothpaste bone marrow ‫( ﻧﺸﺞ‬i) َ َ َ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻰ اﻷﻋﻮر‬ َْ َِ caecum, blind gut ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻰ اﻟﻐﻠﻴﻆ‬ َِ َِ the large intestine joint to sob ‫ﻧﻌﺴﺎن‬ َْ sleepy ‫( ﻧﻬﺾ‬a) َ ََ bowels the small intestine ‫ﻣﻘﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َْ ُْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﻞ‬ َُ َ َ َ ‫( ﻧﺤﻞ‬u, a) pulse ‫ﻧﺤﻴﻒ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺤﻔﺎء ,ﻧﺤﺎف‬ ِ َ ُ placenta َِ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻰ اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬ ِ َّ ‫ﻣﻔﺼﻞ‬ ِ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺾ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻧﺒﺎض‬ ْ to get up (from bed) ‫ﻧﻬﻨﻪ‬ ََْ َ see ‫ﻧﺸﺞ‬ ‫ﻧﻮم‬ َْ sleep ‫ﻧﻮﻧﺔ‬ chin dimple ‫( ﻫﺪب‬coll.) ُُ eyelashes pl. ‫أﻫﺪاب‬ ْ eyeball َ ‫ﻫﺰَّ رأﺳﻪ‬ to shake one’s head having a paunch َ ََ ‫( ﻫﺰل‬i) to be(come) emaciated infant ‫ﻫﻀﻢ‬ ْ َ digestion ‫( ﻫﻀﻢ‬i) ََ َ to digest (food) canine tooth ‫ﻧﺎب‬ ْ ُُ ُ ِ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﻳﻴﺐ ,ﻧﻴﻮب ,أﻧﻴﺎب‬ َ َ َ ‫( ﻫﻤﺲ‬i) 1. to whisper ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻞ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺤﻞ ,ﻧﺤﻠﻰ‬ َْ َ َ ُ ‫ﻫﻤﺲ‬ ْ َ whisper ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ َْ appearance, shape ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﻋﻈﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ َ َْ skeleton ‫واﻃﻰء‬ soft (voice) ‫ﻣﻜﺮش‬ ِْ ُ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﻮد‬ ُْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻟﻴﺪ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ِ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاص‬ ‫( ﻧﺎم‬a) َ slim, thin forelock to sleep 2. to mumble, mutter
    • 36 ‫وﺗﻴﻦ‬ َِ ُُ َْ pl. ‫أوﺗﻨﺔ ,وﺗﻦ‬ ‫وﺟﺪان‬ ْ ِ ‫وﺟﻪ‬ ْ َ ُ pl. ‫وﺟﻮه‬ DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE emotional life face ‫وﺳﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ handsome َ َْ َ ‫وﺷﻮش‬ aorta see ‫)1( ﻫﻤﺲ‬ َ ‫وﻋﺎء دﻣﻮي‬ ّ َ َ ِ blood vessel pl.‫دﻣﻮﻳﺔ أوﻋﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ َّ ِ َ َ ‫وﻻدة‬ ِ birth ِ ‫وﻻدة ﻣﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ premature birth vein ‫وﻟﻴﺪ‬ َِ newborn baby (‫وﺳﺦَ )ﻳﻮﺳﺦ‬ ُ َ َْ َ َ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﻮخ‬ crown (head) to be(come) dirty َ pl. ‫ﻳﻮاﻓﻴﺦ‬ ‫وﺳﺦ‬ ِ َ dirty ‫ﻳﺪ‬ َ ‫وﺳﻄﻰ‬ َ ْ ُ middle finger ‫ورك‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أوراك‬ ‫ورﻳﺪ‬ َِ ِْ pl. ‫أوردة‬ hip hand ِْ ِ pl. ‫أﻳﺎد ,أﻳﺪ‬ Diseases and health care ‫أ ﺑﺢ‬ ّ َ hoarse ‫ارﺗﻌﺶ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to shiver, tremble ‫إﺣﺒﺎط‬ ْ see ‫اﻛﺘﺌﺎب‬ َْ ِْ ِ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع ﺿﻐﻂ اﻟﺪم‬ َّ hypertension ‫اﺣﺘﻘﺎن‬ ِْ ِ congestion ‫أرق‬ َ insomnia, sleeplessness َّ ِ ‫اﺣﺘﻘﺎن اﻟﺪم‬ vascular congestion ‫إرﻫﺎق‬ ْ stress, fatigue َْ ِ ‫اﺧﺘﺺَّ ب‬ ِ to specialize in ‫إزاﻟﺔ اﻟﺮﺣﻢ‬ ِ َّ hysterectomy ‫اﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ specialist ‫اﺳﺘﺌﺼﺎل‬ ْ ِ ‫اﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲّ اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ِ ِ ْ ِ ‫اﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ gastroenterologist (doctor) َ َ ْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﺄﺻﻞ‬ removal (of an organ) by surgery to remove (an organ) by surgery ‫أﺧﺮس‬ َْ dumb ‫اﺳﺘﺤﻢ‬ َّ َ َ ْ ِ to take a bath َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ‫أداة ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺼﻴﺔ‬ diagnostic tool ‫اﺳﺘﺤﻤﺎم‬ ْ ِْ ِ bathing ‫إدﻣﺎن اﻟﻤﺨﺪرات‬ ِّ َ ُ ْ drug addiction َ ِْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﺮاح‬ to take a rest ‫أدﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َ ْ to be addicted to ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺮجَ اﻟﻮﻋﻰ‬ ْ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to regain consciousness ‫ارﺗﺠﺎج اﻟﻤﺦ‬ ّ ُ ِْ ِ concussion ‫اﺳﺘﺴﻘﺎء‬ ْ ِْ ِ dropsy
    • DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE 37 ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺎدة‬ ِْ ِ recuperation ‫أﻏﻤﻲَ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ِ ََْ ِ ْ ُ to faint, lose consciousness ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺴﺎخ اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ِْْ ِ cloning ‫أﻗﻠﻊ‬ َ َْ to extract, pull out ‫اﺳﻌﺎف‬ ْ ِ medical assistance ‫اﻛﺘﺌﺎب‬ ِْ ِ depression ْ / ‫اﻹﺳﻌﺎف اﻷوﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َّ ‫اﻟﻔﻮري‬ ّ َِْ ‫إﻛﺰﻳﻤﺎ‬ ِْ eczema First Aid ‫إﺳﻔﻨﺞ‬ َْْ ‫آﻻم اﻟﻤﻌﺪة‬ ِْ stomach ache sponge ‫إﺳﻬﺎل‬ ْ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب‬ ِِْ inflammation diarrhoea ‫أﺷﻌﺔ ﻓﻮق‬ َ ْ َ َّ ِ َ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ َ ultraviolet rays ّ َ ‫أﺷﻞ‬ paralysed, paralytic (adj.) injury ‫( أﺻﻴﺐ ب‬pass.) ِ ُ ِ ُ to be afflicted by (a disease) ‫أﺻﻠﻊ‬ َْ bald َْ ُُ f. ‫ ;ﺻﻠﻌﺎء‬pl. ‫ﺻﻠﻊ‬ ‫أﻃﺮش‬ َْ deaf f. ‫ ;ﻃﺮﺷﺎء‬pl. ‫ﻃﺮش‬ َْ ُُ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺤﻠﻖ‬ ََ ِ throat infection laryngitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب رﺋﻮي‬ ّ ِ ِ ِ lung infection َّ ِ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺰاﺋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺪودﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُّ appendicitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺴﺤﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِّ ِ meningitis ِ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺸﻌﺐ‬ َ ُّ ‫إﺻﺎﺑﺔ‬ sinusitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺤﻨﺠﺮة‬ َ َْ ِ f. ‫ ; ﺷﻼء‬pl. ‫ﺷﻠﻮء‬ ُّ َّ َ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﺠﻴﻮب‬ ُُ ِ ‫اﻷﻧﻔﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ bronchitis َّ ْ ِ ِ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب ﻋﺮق اﻟﻨﺴﺎ‬ sciatica mumps ‫إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ‬ ِ َّ rehabilitation َّ ُ ِ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﻐﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َّ ‫أﻋﺮج‬ َْ lame ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب ﻛﺒﺪي‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ hepatitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب ﻛﻠﻮي‬ ّ ِ َُ ِ nephritis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﻠﺜﺔ‬ ِ ِ gingivitis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬ ِ َ ِ arthritis ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب اﻟﻠﻮزﺗﻴﻦ‬ ََْ ْ َ ِ tonsilitis f. ‫ ;ﻋﻤﻴﺎء‬pl. ‫ﻋﻤﻴﺎن ,ﻋﻤﻰ‬ ْ َ ْ ُ ْ ُ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب ﻣﻌﻮي‬ ّ َِِ ِ gastritis ‫أﻋﻮر‬ َْ ‫اﻟﺘﻮى‬ َ َِْ to twist (e.g. ankle) ‫اﻟﺘﻮاء‬ ِ ِ sprain f. ‫ ;ﻋﺮﺟﺎء‬pl. ‫ﻋﺮج‬ َْ ُُ ‫أﻋﺸﺎء‬ ْ night-blind f. ‫ﻋﺸﻮاء‬ ْ َ ‫أﻋﻤﻰ‬ َ ْ blind one-eyed َْ ُ f. ‫ ;ﻋﻮراء‬pl. ‫ﻋﻮر‬ ‫إﻋﻴﺎء‬ ْ exhaustion, fatigue ‫( أﻟﻢ‬a) َِ to be in pain ‫إﻏﻤﺎء‬ ْ unconsciousness ‫أﻟﻢ‬ َ pain, ache pl. ‫آﻻم‬
    • 38 DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE ‫أﻟﻢ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ َ toothache ‫ﺑﻨﺞ‬ َْ chloroform ‫أﻟﻢ اﻟﺤﻴﺾ‬ َْ َ menstrual pain ‫ﺑ ﻨﺞ‬ َ َّ َ to chloroform ‫أﻟﻢ اﻟﻌﻀﻼت‬ َ َ َ muscle ache ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ haemorrhoids ‫إﻣﺴﺎك‬ ْ constipation ‫ﺑﻮدرة‬ ُ powder ‫اﻧﺒﻄﺢ‬ َ َ ِْ to be prostrated ‫ﺑﻴﻠﻬﺎرﺳﻴﺎ‬ ِ ْ ِ schistosomiasis, bilharziasis ‫أﻧﺒﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُُْ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬ ُ ِ tube (e.g. toothpaste) ‫ﺗﺎج‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺗﻴﺠﺎن‬ crown (teeth) ‫اﻧﺘﺤﺮ‬ َ َ َِْ to commit suicide ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺻﺤﻲ‬ ّ ِّ ِ ِ health insurance ‫اﻧﺘﻌﺶ‬ َ َ َِْ to recover (from illness) ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ ُّ َ َ bedwetting ‫اﻧﺘﻜﺎس‬ ِْ relapse ‫ﺗﺘﻨﻮس‬ ََ tetanus ‫اﻧﺘﻜﺲ‬ َ َ َِْ to suffer a relapse ‫ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻒ‬ ِْ َ cavity (tooth) ‫اﻧﺴﺪاد ﻋﻀﻠﺔ‬ َ َ ِ ِْ ‫اﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬ َْ ‫ﺗﺤﺖَ إﺷﺮاف ﻃﺒﻲ‬ ّ ِّ ِ ْ َ under doctor’s supervision infarctus ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ِْ َ analysis ‫اﻧﻌﺎش‬ ِ resuscitation pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎم‬ ِِْ schizophrenia ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﺒﻮل‬ ُ ِْ َ urine analysis ‫اﻧﻘﺒﺎض‬ ِِْ contraction ِْ َ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﺪم‬ َّ blood analysis ‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎر ﻋﺼﺒﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ ِ ِْ nervous breakdown ‫أ وﺟ ﻊ‬ َ َ ْ to cause pain ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﺔ‬ ِ ْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﺤﺎﻣﻴﻞ‬ ‫أورﻃﻰ‬ aorta ‫ﺗﺨﺪﻳﺮ‬ ِْ َ anaesthesia ‫( ﺑﺘﺮ‬u) َ ََ to amputate ‫( ﺗﺨﻢ‬a) َِ َ to suffer from indigestion ‫ﺑﺘﺮ‬ َْ amputation ‫ﺗﺨﻤﺔ‬ ْ ُ indigestion pimple ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺪرن‬ see ‫ﺳﻞ‬ ّ ‫ﺗﺮاﺧﻮﻣﺎ‬ trachoma ‫ﺑﺜﺮة‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺑﺜﻮر‬ suppository ‫ﺑﺢ‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ to be hoarse ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت أﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ ِ ِْ braces (teeth) َّ ُ ‫ﺑﺤﺔ‬ hoarseness ‫ﺗﺮﻳﺎق‬ ِْ antidote َّ َ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺧﺔ‬ spray ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻊ‬ auscultation ‫ﺑﺮداء‬ ََ feverish chill ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻢ ﺑﻮﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ َ ُّ َ uraemia ‫ﺑﻜﺘﻴﺮي‬ ّ ِ ِْ َ bacterial ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻢ دﻣﻮي‬ ّ ِ َ َ ُّ َ َ blood poisoning ‫ﺑﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ِ ِْ َ bacteria ُّ َ َ ُّ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻢ اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ food poisoning
    • DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE 39 ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻮس‬ dental caries ‫ﺟﺪري‬ ّ َُِ smallpox ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ِ ْ َ diagnosis ‫ﺟﺪريّ اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ََِ chickenpox ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺟﺜﺔ‬ َّ ُ ِ ْ َ autopsy ‫ﺟﺬام‬ ُ leprosy ‫ﺗ ﺸ ﻨﺞ‬ َ َّ َ َ 1. to have convulsions َّ َ ‫ﺟﺮاح‬ surgeon 2. to twitch ‫ﺟﺮاﺣﺔ‬ ِ surgery ِ ‫ﺟﺮاﺣﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َّ cosmetic surgery ‫ﺟﺮب‬ ََ scabies ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺸﻨﺞ‬ convulsion, spasm ‫ﺗﺸﻨﺠﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُّ َ َ spasmodic, convulsive ‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ‬ ِْ َ deformity, mutilation ‫ﺗﺼﻠﺐ اﻟﺸﺮاﻳﻴﻦ‬ ِ َّ ُّ َ َ arteriosclerosis ‫ﺗﻀﺨﻢ‬ َ َّ َ َ to swell, distend ‫ﺗﻄﻌﻴﻢ‬ ِْ َ inoculation, vaccination ‫ﺟﺮح‬ ََ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ َ َ َ to undergo medical treatment pl. ‫ﺟﺮوح‬ ُُ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﺎن‬ َْ tired َّ َ َ ِ ‫ﺗﻌﺮضّ ل‬ to be exposed to ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﺺ‬ cramp ِْ َ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﻨﺴﻞ‬ ْ َّ birth control َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻘﻴﺄ‬ to vomit ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻴﺢ‬ ِ َْ vaccination ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻴﻒ اﻟﺤﻮﺻﻠﻲ‬ ّ َِ ْ َ ُّ َ َّ cystic fibrosis ‫ﺗﻤﺰق‬ ُّ َ َ laceration, tear ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ‫ََﱡ‬ َّ َ ‫ﺣﺐّ اﻟﺸﺒﺎب‬ artificial respiration ‫ﺗﻬﻴﺞ‬ ُّ َ َ irritation ‫ﺣﺒﺔ‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ﺣﺒﻮب‬ ُُ ‫ﺗﻮﺣﺪ‬ ‫ََ ﱡ‬ autism ‫ﺣﺒﻞ ﺳﺮي‬ ّ َّ ُ ْ َ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﻲ‬ َ َّ ُ ُ see ‫ﻣﺎت‬ ْ ُ ‫ﺣﺠﺮة اﻟﻄﻮارئ‬ ِ َّ ‫ﺗﻴﺘﺎﻧﻮس‬ ُ ِ tetanus ‫ﺗﻴﻔﻮس‬ ُ ِ typhus ْ ُ ‫ﺣﺠﺮة اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ َّ ِ َ َ operating theatre ‫ﺟﺒﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to set (broken bones) ‫ﺣﺠﺰ ﺻﺤﺤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِّ ِ ْ َ quarantine ‫ﺟﺒﻴﺮة‬ َِ splint ‫ﺣﺪﻗﺔ‬ ََ pupil ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ َ burning (of the skin) pl. ‫ﺟﺒﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺟﺮﺛﻮم‬ ُْ َ pl. ‫ﺟﺮاﺛﻴﻢ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. microbe 2. bacillus 3. bacteria ‫ﺟﺮﻋﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﺟﺮع ,-ات‬ wound dose, potion ‫ﺟﺴﻢ ﻣﻀﺎد‬ ُ ْ ِ antibody ‫ﺟﻠﻄﺔ‬ ُْ clot ‫ﺟﻠﻄﺔ دﻣﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ ْ ُ blood clot ‫ﺟﻬﺎز اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ َ ِ immune system ‫ﺣﺎدث‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺣﻮادث‬ ِ َ accident acne pill umbilical cord Accidents and Emergency Room
    • 40 ‫ﺣﺮق‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﺮوق‬ ُُ DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE ‫ُ ﱠ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﻰ اﻟﺼﻔﺮاء‬ ْ َّ yellow fever َّ ِ ِ َ ‫ُ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻳﺔ‬ burn gastric fever ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ّ َ allergic typhoid fever (‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ل‬ ِ َّ ِ ّ ‫ﺣﻤﻰ ﻣﻌﻮي‬ ّ َِِ ‫ُ ﱠ‬ allergy (to) benign (e.g. tumour) ‫ﺣﺴﺮ اﻟﺒﺼﺮ‬ ْ َ َ َ ‫ﺣﻤﻴﺪ‬ ِ َ short-sightedness cyst ‫ﺣﺴﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺣﻮﻳﺼﻠﺔ‬ َْ ُ short-sighted ‫( ﺣﺸﺎ‬u) َ to fill (e.g. teeth) ‫ﺧﺒﻴﺚ‬ َِ malignant (disease, tumour) ُُ َُ ْ pl. ‫أﺧﺒﺎث ,ﺧﺒﺜﺎء ,ﺧﺒﺚ‬ ‫ﺣﺸﻮ‬ ْ َ filling (teeth) َ ََ ‫( ﺧﺪش‬i) to scratch ‫ﺣﺼﺎة‬ َ calculus ‫( ﺧﺮاج‬coll.) ُ abscess ‫ﺣﺼﺎة ﺑﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ bladder stone ‫ﺧﺮاﻗﺔ‬ َِ blister َ ‫ﺣﺼﺎة ﺻﻔﺮاوﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ gallstone ‫ﺧﺮف‬ ََ senility ‫ﺣﺼﺒﺔ‬ ْ َ measles ‫ﺧﻠﻘﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ congenital 1. to depilate ‫ﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ َِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻼﻳﺎ‬ َّ َ ‫( ﺣف‬i) 2. to trim (beard) ‫ﺣﻔﺎض‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ nappy cell ‫ﺧﻮف ﻣﻦ اﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ‬ ِ َْ ‫اﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬ َْ ُ claustrophobia ‫ﺣﻔﺎض اﻟﺤﻴﺾ‬ َْ ِ sanitary towel ‫ﺧﻴﻂ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ َْ dental floss ‫( ﺣﻘﻦ‬i, u) َ ََ to give someone an injection ‫داء‬ see ‫ﻣﺮض‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻦ‬ َْ injection ‫داء اﻟﻜﻠﺐ‬ َْ rabies ‫ﺣﻘﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮرﻳﺪ‬ َِ intravenous injection ‫داﺋﺦ‬ dizzy enema ‫دار اﻟﻨﻘﺎﻫﺔ‬ َّ convalescent home َّ َ ‫( ﺣﻚ‬u) to itch ‫ﺣﻜﺔ‬ َّ ِ ‫دﺟﺎل‬ َّ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫دﺟﺎﺟﻠﺔ ,-ون‬ itch heartbeat َ َّ َ ‫ﺣﻠﻞ‬ ‫دﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬ ْ َ َّ َ to analyse ‫دﻗﻴﻖ اﻟﻠﻮاﻗﺢ‬ ِ َ َِ pollen ‫ﺣﻤﻮﺿﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺪة‬ ِْ ُ ُ heartburn blood ‫( ﺣﻤﻰ‬a) َ ِ َ ‫دم‬ َ to be feverish pl. ‫دﻣﺎء‬ ِ fever َ َ َ ‫( دﻣﻞ‬u) to scar scarlet fever ‫دﻣﻞ‬ ْ ُ 1. abscess hay fever ُ ِ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫دﻣﺎﻣﻴﻞ ,دﻣﺎﻣﻞ‬ 2. boil ‫ﺣﻘﻨﺔ ﺷﺮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ ُْ pl. ‫ﺣﻘﻦ‬ َُ ‫ﺣﻤﻰ‬ ‫ُ ﱠ‬ َّ ‫ﺣﻤﻰ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ‬ ‫ُ ﱠ َ َ ِﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻰ اﻟﻘﺶ‬ ّ َ ‫ُ ﱠ‬ quack
    • DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE 41 ‫دﻣﻮي‬ ّ َِ َ bloody ‫روﺑﺼﺔ‬ َْ َ sleepwalking ‫( دﻣﻰ‬a) َ ِ َ to bleed ‫روﻣﺎﺗﺰم‬ ِ ُ rheumatism َّ َ ‫دﻣﻰ‬ to cause to bleed ‫زرع ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ْ َ َْ transplant ‫دﻫﺎﻧﺔ‬ ِ unguent, cold cream ‫زﻛﺎم‬ ُ cold ‫دﻫﻴﻨﺔ‬ ِ َ pomade ‫( زﻛﻢ‬pass.) َِ ُ to catch a cold drug, medicine ‫زﻻﻟﻴﺎت‬ ِ ُ proteins ‫زﻫﺮي‬ ّ َِ ُ syphilis ‫دواء‬ َ ِْ pl. ‫أدوﻳﺔ‬ ‫دواﺋﻲ‬ ّ َ medicinal ‫زﻳﺖ ﺧﺮوع‬ ُ َْ castor oil ‫دوار اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ُ seasickness ‫زﻳﺖ ﺳﻤﻚ‬ َ َ َْ cod-liver oil ‫دوار اﻟﺠﻮ‬ َّ ُ air sickness ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎت اﻟﻌﻴﺎدة‬ ِ consultation hours (doctor) ُ ‫دوار اﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬ ْ َّ travel sickness ‫ﺳﺒﺎت‬ ُ lethargy ‫دوﺧﺔ‬ َْ vertigo ‫دوﺳﻨﺘﺎرﻳﺎ‬ ِ ِ ُ dysentery ‫ﺳﺠﺎرة‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺳﺠﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ِْ ‫ذﺑﺤﺔ ﺻﺪرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ angina pectoris ‫( ﺳﺤﺞ‬a) َ َ َ to graze (the skin) ‫رﺑﺎط‬ ِ dressing (wound) ‫ﺳﺤﺞ‬ ْ َ abrasion ‫( رﺑﻂ‬i, u) َ ََ to dress (a wound) ‫ﺳﺪة ﺷﺮﻳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ َّ ُ embolism ‫رﺑﻮ‬ َْ asthma ‫ﺳﺮﻃﺎن‬ ََ cancer ‫رﺟﺎل اﻹﺳﻌﺎف‬ ْ ِ ambulance men ‫ﺳﻌﺎل‬ ُ cough ‫رض‬ ّ َ to bruise ‫ﺳﻌﺎل دﻳﻜﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ُ whooping cough bruise َ ََ ‫( ﺳﻌﻞ‬u) to cough ‫ﺳﻘﻄﺔ‬ َْ fall ‫( رض‬u) ّ َ pl. ‫رﺿﻮض‬ ُ ُ cigarette ‫رﺿﺎﻋﺔ‬ ِ nursing bottle َّ َ ‫ﺳﻜﺎﺗﺔ‬ dummy, pacifier ‫رﺿﻴﺾ‬ ِ َ bruised ‫ﺳﻜﺘﺔ دﻣﺎﻏﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ skull fracture ‫رﻋﺎف‬ ُ nosebleed ‫ﺳﻜﺘﺔ ﻗﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ ْ َ heart attack ‫رﻋﺸﺔ‬ ْ َ shiver ‫ﺳﻜﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to soothe (pain) ‫رﻋﺸﺔ اﻟﺤﻤﻰ‬ ‫ُ ﱠ‬ feverish shiver ّ ُ ‫ﺳﻞ‬ tuberculosis ‫( رﻋﻒَ أﻧﻔﻪ‬u, a) ُُْ َ َ to have a nosebleed ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ُْ of sound health َّ ِ ْ ِ ْ َ ‫رﻏﺒﺔ ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬ libido ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻌﻘﻞ‬ َْ َِ sane ‫( رﻗﺪ‬u) َََ to lie down ‫ﺳﻢ‬ ُّ poison
    • 42 DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE َّ َ ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ stethoscope ‫ﺻﻤﻞ‬ ْ َ stiffness, rigidity ‫ﺳﻦّ اﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ ِ ِ false tooth ‫ﺻﻤﻞ ﺟﻴﻔﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ َ rigor mortis ُ ‫ﺻﻮرة أﺷﻌﺔ‬ َّ ِ X-ray ‫ﺳﻮء اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ َِْ ُ malnutrition ‫ﺻﻴﺪﻟﻲ‬ ّ َِ َْ pharmacist ‫ﺳﻴﺎرة اﻹﺳﻌﺎف‬ ْ َّ ambulance (car) ‫ﺻﻴﺪﻟﻴﺔ‬ َِ َْ pharmacy ‫ﺷﺎش‬ gauze ‫اﻟﺼﻴﺪﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺨﺎﻓﺮة‬ ِ َِ َْ duty pharmacy ‫ﺷﺪّ ﻋﻀﻠﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ َ muscle cramp ‫( ﺿﺮبَ ﺣﻘﻨﺎ‬i) ً َْ ََ to give an injection ‫ﺷﺮﺟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ََ anal َْ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ْ َّ sunstroke ‫ﺷﺮح‬ َ َّ َ to dissect (a corpse) ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬ َِ weak َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺳﻨﺎن اﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ 1. remedy َُ ِ َ pl. m. ‫ ,ﺿﻌﺎف ,ﺿﻌﻔﺎء‬pl. f. ‫ﺿﻌﺎﺋﻒ‬ 2. cure َْ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ اﻟﺪم‬ َّ blood pressure ‫( ﺷﻔﻰ‬i) ََ to cure, heal ‫ﺿﻤﺎن اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ َ social security َ‫( ﺷﻞ‬a) ّ َ to be paralysed ِ ‫ﺿﻴﻖ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ َ َّ shortness of breath ‫ﺷﻠﻞ‬ ََ paralysis ‫ﺷﻠﻞ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ْ ََ polio ‫ﺷﻠﻞ اﻫﺘﺰازي‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ ََ Parkinson’s Disease َ ‫ﺷﻬﺎدة ﻃﺒﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِّ ِ medical certificate ‫ﺷﻬﻴﺔ‬ َِ appetite ‫ﺻﺎﺑﻮن‬ soap ‫ﺻﺎﺑﻮن اﻟﺤﻼﻗﺔ‬ ِ shaving soap ‫ﺻﺒﻐﺔ اﻟﻴﻮد‬ ُ ِْ tincture of iodine ‫ﺻﺪاع‬ ُ headache ‫ﺻﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﺼﺒﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ ْ َ mental shock ‫ﺻﺮع‬ ََ epilepsy ‫ﺻﻔﺮاوي‬ ّ ِ َْ bilious ‫ﺻﻠﻊ‬ ََ baldness ‫ﺷﻔﺎء‬ ِ ‫ﻃﺎرﺋﺔ‬ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻃﻮارئ‬ emergency ‫ﻃﺎﻋﻮن‬ plague ‫ﻃﺐ اﻷﻋﺸﺎب‬ ْ ّ ِ homeopathy ‫اﻟﻄﺐّ اﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ َِ ِ alternative medicine ‫ﻃﺐ وﻗﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ َ ّ ِ preventive medicine ‫ﻃﺒﻴﺐ‬ َِ pl. ‫أﻃﺒﺎء‬ َّ ِ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﺐ اﻷذن و‬ ْ ‫اﻷﻧﻒ واﻟﺤﻨﺠﺮة‬ َ َْ ْ doctor ear, nose and throat specialist ‫ﻃﺒﻴﺐ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ dentist ‫ﻃﺒﻴﺐ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ْ paediatrician ‫ﻃﺒﻴﺐ أﻣﺮاض‬ ْ ِّ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺎء‬ gynaecologist ‫ﻃﺒﻴﺐ اﻟﻌﻴﻮن‬ ُُ opthalmologist ‫ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﻧﻔﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ psychiatrist
    • DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE ‫ﻋﻼج‬ ِ 43 ‫ﻃﺤﺎل‬ ُ splenitis ‫ﻃﻔﺢ‬ َْ rash ‫ﻃﻔﺢ اﻟﺤﻔﺎﺿﺎت‬ ِ َْ nappy rash ‫ﻋﻼج ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِ chemotherapy ‫ﻃﺮش‬ ََ deafness ‫ﻋﻼﺟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ therapeutic ‫ﻃﻬﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to disinfect ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﺢ‬ ِ ْ َّ ْ ِ anatomy ٍ ‫ﻋﺎل‬ high (e.g. blood pressure) ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻳﻖ‬ ِّ on an empty stomach ‫ﻋﺎﻟﺞ‬ َ َ to treat (disease) ‫ﻋﻤﻞ اﻟﻮﻻدة‬ ِ َ َ labour (childbirth) ‫( ﻋﺜﺮ‬u, i) َ ََ to stumble َّ ِ ِ َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺟﺮاﺣﻴﺔ‬ operation ‫ﻋﺜﺮ ﺑﻪ‬ َ ََ to trip s.o. up ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ َّ َ َ Caesarean section ‫ﻋﺎﺟﺰ ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺎ‬ ً ِ ِْ ِ impotent ‫ﻋﻤﻴﺎن‬ ْ ُ blindness ‫ﻋﺠﺰ‬ ْ َ disability ِ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﺔ‬ َّ َّ ِ medical care ‫ﻋﺠﺰ ﺟﻨﺴﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ْ َ impotence َّ َ ُ ِ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰة‬ intensive care ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻻﺻﻘﺔ‬ ِ ََ contact lens ‫ﻋﺪوى‬ ََْ infection, contagion ‫ﻋﺮض‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻋﺮاض‬ ْ ‫ﻋﺮض ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ‬ ّ ِِ ‫ﻋﺼﺎﺑﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﺼﺎﺋﺐ‬ َ 1. remedy 2. therapy, treatment ‫ﻋﻨﺒﺮ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺑﺮ‬ ُِ َ ward ‫ﻋﻴﺎء‬ َ inability, feebleness ‫ﻋﻴﺎدة‬ ِ doctor’s surgery (office) side-effect ‫ﻋﻴﺎدة ﺧﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ outpatient clinic dressing, bandage َّ ِ ُ ْ َ ‫ﻋﻴﻦ زﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ glass eye َْ ‫ﻋﻴﻦ اﻟﺴﻤﻜﺔ‬ َ َّ corn (toes) symptom ‫ﻋﻀﺔ ﺻﻘﻴﻊ‬ ِ َ َّ َ frostbite ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ِّ َ sample ‫ﻋﻀﺎل‬ ُ incurable (disease) ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ اﻟﺒﻮل‬ ِّ َ urine sample drug, remedy َّ ِّ َ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ اﻟﺪم‬ blood sample ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ََِْ eye-piece ‫ﻏﺜﻴﺎن‬ ََ nausea ‫ﻏﺮﻏﺮ‬ ََ َْ to gurgle ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻹﻓﺎﻗﺔ‬ ُْ recovery room ‫ﻋﻘﺎر‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺎﻗﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻋﻘﺎر وﻫﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ َّ َ placebo ‫( ﻋﻘﻢ‬u) َََ to be sterile (woman) ‫ﻋﻘﻢ‬ َ َّ َ 1. to sterilize 2. to disinfect
    • 44 DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎر‬ ِِْ ُْ waiting room ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َْ َ eye drops ‫ﻏﻤﻲَ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ِ ََْ ِ ُ to faint, lose consciousness ‫ﻗﻄﺮة‬ ْ َ drop ‫ﻏﻨﻐﺮﻳﻨﺎ‬ ِ َ َْ gangrene ‫( ﻗﻄﻊ‬i) َ َ to cut ‫ﻓﺄر ﺗﺠﺎرب‬ ِ ُ َْ guinea pig ‫ﻓﺎﺳﺪ‬ ِ rotten, festering ‫ﻓﺘﺎق‬ ِ hernia ‫( ﻓﺤﺺ‬a) َ َ َ to examine ‫ﻓﺤﺺ‬ ْ َ (medical) examination, ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻄﻮع‬ ُ ُ cut strength ‫( ﻗﻮى‬a) َ َِ check-up ‫ﻗﻮة‬ ُّ to be strong ‫ﻗﻮى‬ َِ pl. ‫أﻗﻮﻳﺎء‬ ِْ strong ‫ﻗﻲء‬ ْ َ vomiting ‫ﻗﻴﺎء‬ ُ vomit ‫ﻗ ﻴﺢ‬ َ َّ َ to fester َّ ْ َ ‫ﻓﺤﺺ اﻟﺪم‬ blood test ‫ﻓﻄﺮي‬ ّ ِْ ِ inborn ‫ﻓﻘﺪَ ﺻﻮاﺑﻪ‬ َُ َ ََ to lose one’s mind (i) ‫ﻓﻘﺪان اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة‬ ِ َ ِْ amnesia ‫ﻗﻴﺢ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻗﻴﻮح‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺮ اﻟﺪم‬ َّ ْ َ anaemia ‫ﻛﺄب‬ َ ‫ﻓﻦّ اﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ِ ْ َّ َ midwifery ‫ﻓﻮاق‬ ُ hiccup ‫ﻛﺎﺑﻮس‬ ُ pl. ُ‫ﻛﻮاﺑﻴﺲ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺸﻔﺎء‬ ِّ ِ ِ curable ‫ﻛﺒﺴﻮل‬ ُ َْ capsule ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺻﺎﺑﻮن‬ َ bar of soap ‫ﻛﺌﻴﺐ‬ َ depressive ‫ﻗﺮﺣﺔ‬ ُْ 1. sore (n.) ‫ﻛﺮﻳﻢ‬ cream 2. tablet, lozenge ‫( ﻛﺴﺮ‬i) ََ َ to break, fracture ulcer َُ pl. ‫ﻗﺮح‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺮ‬ ْ َ ُ pl. ‫ﻛﺴﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ‬ ِ ْ ِ (‫ﻛﻤﺎد )ة‬ ِ compress ‫ﻛﻮﻟﻴﺮا‬ ِ ُ cholera ‫ﻗﺮﺣﺔ ﻣﻌﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ِ ْ َ َّ َ ُ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰة‬ intensive care unit pus depression nightmare fracture ‫ﻗﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬ َِ َ chamberpot ‫ﻛﻴﻨﺔ‬ ِ quinine ‫ﻗﻄﺎرة‬ َّ َ pipette, dropper ‫ﻟﺒﺨﺔ‬ َْ poultice ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to let fall in drops (medicine) ََ pl. ‫ﻟﺒﺨﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ اﻧﻒ‬ َْ ْ َ nose drops
    • DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE ‫ﻟﺼﻮق‬ ُ َ plaster paraesthesia, pins and needles ‫ﻟﻔﺤﺔ اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ْ َ َْ sunburn ‫ﻟﻘﺢ‬ َ َّ َ to vaccinate ‫ﻟﻮى‬ ‫َ ﹰ‬ ْ pl. ‫أﻟﻮاء‬ ‫ﻣﺬل‬ ََ 45 colic َّ ِّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ nanny ‫( ﻣﺮض‬a) َ َِ to become ill ‫ﻣﺮض‬ َ َّ َ to nurse ‫ﻟﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﻈﺎم‬ ِ ِ softening of the bones ‫ﻣﺮض‬ ََ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﺮاض‬ ‫( ﻣﺎت‬u) َ to die ‫ﻣﺮض ﺑﺎﻃﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِ internal disease ‫ﻣﺒﻀﻊ‬ َ ِْ scalpel ‫ﻣﺮض ﺗﻨﺎﺳﻠﻲ‬ ّ ُِ َ َ َ venereal disease ََ ‫ﻣﺮض ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ َّ َ allergic disease ‫ﻣﺮض اﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ َّ ُّ diabetes ‫ﻣﺮض ﺻﺪري‬ ّ َِْ pulmonary disease ُ َ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺿﻊ‬ disease ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ specialist (n.) ‫ﻣﺘﺪاع‬ ِ َُ frail (constitution) ‫ﻣﺘﻘﻄﻊ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ intermittent ‫ﻣﺮض ﻋﺼﺒﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ nervous disease ‫ﻣﺘﻘﻴﻊ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ festering (e.g. wound) ‫ﻣﺮض ﻋﻘﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ mental disorder ‫ﻣﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ِ َُ persistent ‫ﻣﺮض اﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬ َْ heart disease ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻧﺔ‬ َ bladder ‫ﻣﺮض اﻟﻜﺒﺪ‬ ِْ ََ liver disease ِّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ اﻟﺸﻌﺮ‬ ْ َّ hairspray ‫ﻣﺮض ﻣﻌﺪ‬ ٍُْ contagious disease ِّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺠﻔﻒ اﻟﺸﻌﺮ‬ ْ َّ hair dryer ‫ﻣﺮض ﻣﻌﺪي‬ ّ َِْ gastric illness ‫ﻣﺠﻨﻮن‬ ُْ َ crazy, insane ‫ﻣﺮض ﻧﻔﺴﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ psychiatric illness syringe َّ ‫ﻣﺮض اﻟﻨﻮم‬ sleeping sickness َّ َ َ َ ‫ﻣﺮض ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖُ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻬﻨﺔ‬ ِْ occupational disease ‫ﻣﺤﻘﻨﺔ‬ َْ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻗﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎط‬ ُ nasal mucus ‫ﻣﺨﺪر‬ ِّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ 2. narcotic ‫( ﻣﺨﻂ‬u, a) َ َ َ to blow one’s nose ‫( ﻣﺪ‬u) َّ َ to stretch ‫ﻣﺪﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺨﺪرات‬ ِّ َ ُ ِ ُْ drug addict ‫ﻣﺰﻣﻦ‬ ِ ُْ chronic ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺒﺼﺮ‬ ْ َ َِ long-sighted ‫ﻣﺰﻳﻞ اﻟﺮاﺋﺤﺔ‬ ُِ deodorant 1. anaesthetic (‫ﻣﺮﺿﻊ )ة‬ ِ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﺿﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺮﻳﺾ‬ َِ wetnurse, foster mother 1. ill 2. patient (n.) ‫ﻣﺮﻫﻢ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﻫﻢ‬ ُِ َ ointment
    • 46 DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE ‫ﻣﺰﻳﻞ اﻟﻌﺮق‬ ََ ُِ anti-perspirant pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ َ ِّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺴﺒﺐ ﻟﻠﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ َ َّ carcinogenic (n.) ‫ﻣﻐﺺ‬ َْ colic medical preparation ‫ﻣﻐﺺ ﻛﻠﻮي‬ ّ ِ َُ َْ renal colic ‫ﻣﻔﺼﻮم‬ ُ َْ schizophrenic ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻀﺮ دواﺋﻲ‬ ّ َ َ ْ َْ ُ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ً ْ َْ ُ ِْ َْ ُ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎت‬ hospital ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ اﻷﻣﺮاض‬ ْ ْ َْ ُ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ mental hospital ِ ِ َْ ُ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪّ ل‬ prone to, predisposed to ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻦ‬ ِّ َ ُ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺴﻢ‬ َّ ُ ‫ﻣﺴﻬﻞ‬ ِّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ sedative, analgesic poisonous, toxic laxative, purgative ‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ‬ ّ ِِ َُْ pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻋﻴﻞُ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻴﺔ‬ ِِّ ِ َ side effect ‫ﻣﻘﺺّ اﻷﻇﺎﻓﺮ‬ ِ َِ nail clippers ‫ﻣﻘﻮ‬ ‫َُﱟ‬ tonic, restorative ِّ َ ُ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﻮﻳﺎت‬ ِ ‫ﻣﻘﻲء‬ ّ َُ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺌﺎت‬ َّ َ ُ emetic ‫ﻣﻼرﻳﺎ‬ ِ َ malaria َْ ‫ﻣﻠﺠﺄ اﻟﺸﻴﻮخ‬ ُ ُّ home for the elderly َّ َ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻳﺔ‬ baby walker ‫ﻣﻠﺢ إﻧﻜﻠﻴﺰي‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ ِْ Epsom salts ‫ﻣﺸﺮﺣﺔ‬ َْ َ 1. operating table ‫ﻣﻠﻘﻂ‬ َ ِْ tweezers 2. autopsy room ‫ﻣﻤﺮﺿﺔ‬ ِّ َ ُ nurse ‫ﻣﺸﻠﻮل‬ ُْ َ paralysed ‫ﻣﻤﻴﺖ‬ ِ ُ lethal ‫ﻣﺼﺎب ب‬ ِ ُ afflicted by (a disease) ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ َ immunity fatal accident ‫ﻣﻨﻊ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ‬ َ َْ contraception ‫ﻣﻨﻮم‬ ِّ َ ُ anaesthetic, sedative ‫ﻣﻮادّ اﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﺐ‬ ِْ َ َ medicaments ‫ﻣﻮادّ ﻣﻀﺎد‬ ُ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴﻮان‬ ََ antibiotics ‫ﻣﻮت‬ َْ death ‫ﻣﺼﺮع‬ َْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎرع‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻞ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﻮل‬ serum ‫ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺎت‬ َ ُ complications ‫ﻣﻄﻬﺮ‬ ِّ َ ُ disinfectant ‫ﻣﻌﺎق‬ ٍ ُ disabled ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻮات‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺠﻮن اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ ُ َْ toothpaste ‫ﻣﻮت أﺑﻴﺾ‬ َْ ْ َ natural death ‫ﻣﻌﺠﻮن اﻟﺤﻼﻗﺔ‬ ِ ُ َْ shaving foam ‫ﻣﻮت اﻟﻐﻔﻠﺔ‬ َْ َْ sudden death ‫ﻣﻌﺪي‬ ّ ُِْ contagious ‫( ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬f.) َ ُ straight razor ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻞ‬ َ َْ laboratory ٍ َ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻮاس ,ﻣﻮاس‬
    • DISEASES AND HEALTH CARE 47 َّ ُ ‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬ temporary َّ ْ َ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ اﻟﺪم‬ blood transfusion ‫ﻣﻮﻟﺪة‬ ِّ َ ُ midwife ‫( ﻧﻘﻪ‬a) َََ to recover ‫ﻣﺆﻟﻢ‬ ِْ ُ painful ‫ﻧﻜﻔﺔ‬ َ َ parotid gland ‫ﻧﺎﺟﻊ‬ ِ beneficial, healthful ‫ﻧﻮﺑﺔ‬ َْ fit, attack fistula َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﺼﺒﻴﺔ‬ nervous crisis ‫ﻧﻮم‬ َ َّ َ to anaesthetize ‫ﻧﺎﺳﻮر‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﺳﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻧﺎﻋﻮر‬ haemophilia ‫ﻫﺬاء‬ ِ delirium, ravings ‫ﻧﺘﻮء‬ ُُ growth, swelling ‫( ﻫﺬى‬i) ََ to rave, be delirious ‫اﻟﻨﺠﺪة,اﻟﻨﺠﺪة‬ ْ َ ْ َ help! help! َّ َ ‫( ﻫﺮ‬i) to whimper, whine ‫( ﻧﺠﻊ‬a) َ َ َ to have a salutary effect ‫ﻫﻮس‬ َ paranoia ‫ﻧﺪب‬ ََ scar ‫واﻃﻰء‬ ِ low (blood pressure) ‫( ﻧﺰف‬i) َ ََ to draw off (blood) ‫واﻫﻦ‬ ِ pl. ‫وﻫﻦ‬ ُ ُ ‫اﻟﻨﺰف اﻟﺪﻣﻮي‬ ّ َِ َ ََ haemophilia (‫وﺧﺰَ )ﻳﺨﺰ‬ ُِ َ َ َ to sting ‫ﻧﺰﻳﻒ‬ َِ bleeding, blood loss ‫وﺧﺰ‬ ْ َ stinging, twinges َّ َ ‫ﻧﻈﺎرات‬ spectacles َ ‫وﺧﺰ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﺮ اﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ acupuncture ‫ﻧﻈﺎراﺗﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ َ optician ‫وﺧﺰة ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺼﺮ‬ ْ َ ِ ْ َ stitch (in the side) ‫ﻧﻌﺶ‬ َْ bier ‫وراﺛﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ genetic, hereditary ‫( ﻧﻌﻰ‬a) ََ to announce s.o.’s death ‫ورم‬ ََ tumour, swelling ‫ﻧﻌﻴﺔ‬ َْ death notice ‫وﺻﻔﺔ‬ ْ َ prescription ‫ﻧﻘﺎض‬ ُ ague, fit َّ ِّ ِ َ ‫وﻓﺎة ﻃﺒﻴﺔ‬ clinical death ‫ﻧﻘﺎﻫﺔ‬ َ convalescence, recovery ‫وﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ِ ِ prophylaxis ‫ﻧﻘﺮس‬ ِِْ gout ‫ﻳﺮﻗﺎن‬ ََ jaundice pl. ‫ﻧﺪب ,أﻧﺪاب‬ ْ ُُ weakened, debilitated
    • 48 THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS The family, human relations and emotions ‫أب‬ pl. ‫اﺑﺎء‬ ‫اﺑﻦ‬ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﻨﺎء‬ son ‫إﺧﻼص‬ ْ sincerity ‫اﺧﺘﻠﻂ ب‬ ِ َ ََْ ِ father to mix with ‫اﺧﺘﻠﻒ‬ َ ََْ ِ to be different uncle) ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ِْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ cousin (son of maternal ‫اﺧﺘﻔﻰ‬ ََْ ِ to hide uncle) ‫( أﺧﺬ‬u) ََ to take ‫اﺗﻔﻖ‬ َ َ َّ ِ to agree ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ِ other ‫اﺟﺘﻤﻊ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to assemble, gather f. ‫ ,أﺧﺮى‬pl. ‫آﺧﺮون‬ َْ َ ُِ َّ َ ‫أﺣﺐ‬ to love َ َْ ‫أﺧﺮج‬ to take out ‫اﺣﺘﺎجَ إﻟﻰ‬ ْ ِ to need ‫أﺧﻮي‬ ّ َِ َ brotherly ‫اﺣﺘﺮام‬ ِْ ِ respect ‫أﺧﻮة‬ ُ ُ brotherliness ‫اﺣﺘﺮم‬ َ َ َْ ِ to respect ‫( آذى‬a) َ to harm, wrong ‫اﺣﺘﺮس‬ َ َ َْ ِ to be wary of ‫اﺧﺘﺎر‬ َ ْ ِ to choose ‫أذى‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ِ pl. ‫أذﻳﺔ ,أذاة‬ ‫اﺣﺘﻘﺎر‬ ِْ ِ contempt, disdain ‫اﺣﺘﻘﺮ‬ َ ََْ ِ to despise ‫أخ‬ brother ‫اﺑﻦ ﻋﻢ‬ ّ َ ِْ ‫اﺑﻦ ﺧﺎل‬ ِ cousin ( son of paternal ‫أﺧﺖ‬ ْ ُ َ pl. ‫أﺧﻮات‬ fraternity, friendship sister ‫أﺧﺖ اﻟﺰوﺟﺔ‬ َْ ْ sister-in-law (sister of wife) ‫اﺧﺘﻼط‬ ِْ ِ social intercourse ‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎر‬ ِْ ِ choice ‫أﺧﺸﻦ‬ َ ْ ْ َ ْ ُ f. ‫ ,ﺧﺸﻨﺎء‬pl. ‫ﺧﺸﻦ‬ harm, offence ‫أراد‬ َ to want ‫إرادة‬ will, wish ‫إرادي‬ ِ intentional ‫ارﺗﺰق‬ َ َ َْ َْ pl. ‫إﺧﻮة‬ ‫إﺧﺎء‬ difference to make a living ‫أرﻣﻞ‬ َ ْ ُ ِ pl. ‫أراﻣﻞ‬ ‫أرﻣﻠﺔ‬ َ ْ pl. ‫أراﻣﻠﺔ ,أراﻣﻞ‬ ِ ِ widower widow to increase ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to use ‫اﺳﺘﻄﺎع‬ َْ ِ rude, uncouth ‫ازداد‬ َ ِْ to be able َ َ َْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬ see ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬
    • THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ ل‬ َ َْ َْ ِ to ask (s.o.) for forgiveness ‫أﻃﻠﻖَ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ اﺳﻢ‬ ِ ِ ََْ َْ 49 to name/call somebody (after s.o.) . . . َ َ َْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻞ‬ to exploit, take advantage of ‫اﺳﺘﻤﺮ‬ َّ َ َ ْ ِ to continue ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬ ِْْ ِ deduction ‫ا ﺳ ﺘ ﻨ ﺘﺞ‬ َ ََْْ ِ to deduce, infer ‫اﺳﺘﻴﺎء‬ ِْ ِ indignation, discontent ‫إﺳﺮاف‬ ْ extravagance, to show َ ‫أﻋﺎل‬ to support (family members) ‫اﻋﺘﺒﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ subjective ‫اﻋﺘﺒﺎﻃﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ accidental, coincidental ‫اﻋﺘﺪال‬ ِْ ِ moderation immoderateness ‫أﺳﺮع‬ َ َْ ‫أﻇﻬﺮ‬ ََ ‫اﻋﺘﺬار‬ ِْ apology to hurry (‫إﻋﺘﺬرَ لِ )ﻣﻦ‬ ِ َ َْ to apologize to s.o. (for s.thing) ‫( أﺳﻒَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬a) ِ to regret, feel sorry for ‫أﺳﻒ‬ َ regret ‫آﺳﻒ‬ ِ sorry, regretful ‫أﺳﻔﺮ ﻋﻦ‬ ََْ to result in ‫أﺳﻘﻂ‬ َ َْ to throw down ‫أﺳﻼف‬ ْ ancestors ‫اﺳﻢ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫أﺳﻤﺎء‬ ْ to depend on ‫اﻋ ﺘ ﻨ ﻖ‬ َ ََْ ِ to embrace, hug ‫أﻋﺪ‬ َّ َ to prepare ‫أﻋﻄﻰ‬ َ ْ to give ‫أﻏﺎر‬ َ to make jealous ‫أﻏﺮى‬ َْ to seduce ‫إﻏﺮاء‬ ْ given name ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺪَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َْ ِ temptation ِ ‫اﻻﺳﻢ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ِ َّ middle name ‫اﻓﺘﺨﺮَ ب‬ ِ َ َِْ to be proud of ‫اﺳﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ ِ full name ‫اﻓﺘﺮض‬ َ َ َِْ to assume ‫اﺷﺘﺒﺎه‬ ِْ ِ suspicion ‫اﻓْﺘﺮضَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ََ ِ to impose s.thing on s.o. ‫اﺷﺘﺒﻪ‬ َََْ ِ to suspect ‫اﻓﺘﻘﺪ‬ َ ََْ to miss (s.o., s.thing) ‫اﺷﺘﻬﺎر‬ ِْ ِ notoriety ‫اﻓﺘﻜﺮ‬ َ َ َِْ to think ‫أﺷﻔﻖَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َْ to pity, feel sorry for َ َْ ‫أﻓﺰع‬ to frighten ‫أ ﺻ ﺒﺢ‬ َ َْ to become ‫أﻗﺎم‬ َ to set up, raise ‫أﺻﺮَّ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ََ َ to insist on ‫اﻗﺘﺮحَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َِْ to propose ‫أﺿﺎع‬ َ to lose ‫أﻗﻠﻖ‬ َ َْ to disturb, bother ‫اﺿﻤﺄن‬ َّ ْ ِ to come to rest ‫أﻗﻨﻊ ب‬ َ َْ to persuade s.o. to do s.thing (‫أﻃﺎق )ﻋﻠﻰ‬ to stand, tolerate (s.thing) ‫ا ﻛ ﺘﺸ ﻒ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to discover
    • 50 THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫اﻛﺘﻔﻰ‬ ََْ ِ to content, satisfy ‫اﻧﺪﻫﺶ‬ َ َ َ ِْ to be astonished ‫أﻛﺪ‬ َ َّ to assure, confirm (‫أﻧﺬرَ )ب‬ ِ َْ to warn s.o. (against s.thing) ‫أﻛﻴﺪ‬ ِ certain ‫اﻧﻀﺒﺎط‬ ِ ِْ discipline ‫أﻟﺢ‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ to pester ‫اﻧﻄﺒﻊ‬ َ ََ ِْ to be impressed ‫إﻟﺤﺎح‬ ْ insistence ‫أم‬ ُّ introversion mother ( ‫اﻧﻄﻮاء )ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ِ ْ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ْ َّ ‫أﻧﻜﺮ‬ ََ ْ to deny ‫اﻧﻜﻤﺎش‬ ِ ْ absorption, preoccupation ‫أﻧﻬﻰ‬ َْ to finish, end pl. ‫أﻣﻬﺎت‬ َّ ‫اﻣﺘﺪح‬ َ َ َْ to praise (‫إﻣﺮأة )اﻟﻤﺮأة‬ َ َ woman pl. ‫ﻧﺴﻮان ,ﻧﺴﻮة ,ﻧﺴﺎء‬ ِ ْ ِ ْ ِ ‫أﻧﻮﺛﺔ‬ ُُ femininity, womanliness (‫أمّ اﻟﺰوج )ة‬ ْ َّ ُ mother-in-law َ َ ‫آﻧﺲ‬ to keep someone company َ َ ‫( أﻣﻞ‬i) to hope ‫أﻧﻴﺲ‬ َِ pleasant, affable ‫أﻣﻞ‬ ْ hope pl. ‫أﻧﺴﺎء‬ ُ ٌَ pl. ‫آﻣﺎل‬ ‫أﻣﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ ُ pl. ‫أﻣﻨﺎء‬ ‫أﻫﺎن‬ َ loyal, honest to treat with contempt, humiliate ‫إﻫﺎﻧﺔ‬ affront, insult ‫اﻫﺘﻢَّ ب‬ ِ َْ ِ to be interested in ‫أﻧﺎﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ selfish ‫أﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِ selfishness, egoism ‫أﻧﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to blame ‫اﻫﺘﻤﺎم ب‬ ِ ِْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫اﻧﺒﻬﺮ‬ َ َ َِْ to be dazzled ‫إﻫﻤﺎل‬ ْ ْ carelessness, negligence ‫اﻧﺘﻈﺮ‬ َ َ َِْ to wait َ َ ْ ‫أﻫﻤﻞ‬ to neglect, disregard ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎم‬ ِِْ revenge ‫أ وﻗ ﻊ‬ َ َْ to drop ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺪ‬ َ ََِْ to criticize ‫أوﻗﻒ‬ َ َْ to stop, cease (trans.) ‫اﻧﺘﻘﻢَ ﻣﻦ‬ ِ ََِْ to take revenge on s.o. َ َ ‫ﺑﺎدل‬ to exchange ‫اﻧﺘﻬﻰ‬ َ َِْ to be finished ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺪاﻫﺔ‬ َ spontaneously female, feminine ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﺎوب‬ ُ َّ ِ successively ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪور‬ َْ ِ alternately, in turns ‫أﻧﺜﻰ‬ َ ُ َ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﺛﻰ ,إﻧﺎث‬ concern, care ‫اﻧﺪﻓﺎع‬ ِ ِْ impetuosity, rashness ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺪﻓﺔ‬ ْ ُّ ِ by chance ‫اﻧﺪﻓﻊ‬ َ ََ ِْ to be impetuous ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺪال‬ ِْ moderately
    • THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫ﺑﺎﻛﺮة‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺑﻮاﻛﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﺑﺎﻫﺮ‬ ِ dazzling, splendid ‫ﺑﺨﻞ‬ ْ ُ avarice َ ِ َ ‫( ﺑﺨﻞ‬a) to be stingy ‫ﺗﺠﺎذب‬ ُ َ mutual attraction َ َ َ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﻫﻞ‬ first-born to pretend not to know ‫ﺗﺠﻨﺐ‬ َ َّ َ َ to avoid ‫ﺗﺤﺎﻣﻞ‬ ُ َ prejudice ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺤﺮش‬ interference, meddling ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ‬ َ َّ َ َ to make sure ‫ﺗﺤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ greeting ‫ﺑﺨﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫ﺑﺨﻼء‬ 2. stingy, mean ‫( ﺑﺪأ‬a) ََ to begin (‫ﺑﺪى )ﻳﺒﺪو‬ ُ َْ َ َ to seem َّ َ ‫ﺑﺮاق‬ sparkling, glittering ‫ﺗﺤﻴﺮ‬ َ َّ َ َ to become confused ‫( ﺑﺴﻂ‬u) َ َ َ to spread out ‫ﺗﺤﻴﺮ‬ ُّ َ َ confusion, bewilderment simple َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺨﻴﻞ‬ to imagine ‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮ‬ َ َّ َ َ to remember ‫ﺗﺮدد‬ َ َّ َ َ to hesitate, waver ‫ﺗﺮدد‬ ُّ َ َ hesitation, reluctance virginity َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻞ‬ to become a widow(er) 1. girl َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺰوج‬ to get married 2. daughter َ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﺄل‬ to ask oneself ‫ﺑﻨﺖ اﻷخ‬ ِْ niece (brother’s daughter) ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻣﺢ‬ ُ َ tolerance ‫ﺑﻨﺖ اﻷﺧﺖ‬ ْ ُ niece (sister’s daughter) ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻞ‬ ُ َ leniency, indulgence cousin (paternal uncle’s daughter) ‫ﺗﺸﺎؤم‬ ُ َ pessimism ‫ﺗﺸﺎؤﻣﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ َ pessimistic ‫ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ ُ َ similarity ‫ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﺴﻄﺎء‬ ُ َ ُ ‫ﺑﺸﻊ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻧﺔ‬ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻄﺎﺋﻦ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺑﻜﺎرة‬ َ ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﺎت‬ ِ ‫ﺑﻨﺖ اﻟﻌﻢ‬ َّ ِْ ‫ﺑﻨﺖ اﻟﺨﺎل‬ 1. miser offensive, repugnant (e.g. act) entourage cousin (maternal uncle’s daughter) 51 َّ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﺤﻴﺎت‬ best wishes (closing formula in letter) ‫ﺑﺆس‬ ُْ misery َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺸﻮقَ اﻟﻰ‬ to long for ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‬ ِ ِ date of birth ‫ﺗﺼﺮف‬ َ َّ َ َ to act, behave ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻰ‬ َّ َ َ to adopt ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ِ ْ َ determination ًّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺒﻦ‬ adoption ‫ﺗﺼﻮر‬ َ َّ َ َ see ‫ﺗﺨﻴﻞ‬ َ
    • 52 THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮَ ب‬ ِ َ َ to pretend ‫ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬ ُ َ dissimulation, pretending ‫ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬ َِْ threat ‫ﺗﻬﻨﺌﺔ‬ َْ congratulation ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻬﺎﻧﺊ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﺳﺔ‬ ِ see ‫ﺑﺆس‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺠﺐ‬ َ َّ َ َ to be surprised, wonder (‫ﺗﻌﺮفَ )ب‬ ِ َّ َ َ to become acquainted (with) (‫ﺗﻌﺮف )ب‬ ِ ُّ َ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻮاﺋﻢ ,ﺗﻮأﻣﺎن‬ َْ ُ َ acquaintance (with) ‫ﺗﻮﺣﺪ‬ ‫ََ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺔ‬ َِْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻌﺎز‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ‬ ِ َْ ‫ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪ‬ َِْ pl. ‫ات‬َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻌﻬﺪَ ب، ل‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻬﺪ‬ ‫ََﱡ‬ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﺗﻌﻮدَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﺲ‬ َِ َُ pl. ‫ﺗﻌﺴﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﺿﻊ‬ ُ َ humility, modesty ‫ﺗﻮأم‬ َْ َ twin condolences 1. loneliness 2. seclusion ‫ﺗﻮﻗَﻊ‬ َ ََّ to expect ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺮَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ to persist, persevere in ‫ﺛﻘﺔ‬ ِ confidence, trust to commit oneself to s.thing ‫ﺟﺎد‬ ّ serious commitment, pledge ‫ﺟﺎﻓﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ِ incentive, spur for ‫ﺟﺎﻣﺢ‬ ِ unruly, headstrong interruption complication, entanglement to get used to miserable, unhappy ‫ﺟﺒﺎن‬ َ ُ َُ pl. ‫ﺟﺒﻨﺎء‬ coward ‫ﺟﺒﺎﻧﺔ‬ َ cowardice ‫ﺗﻐﺎﺿﻰ ﻋﻦ‬ َ َ to ignore ‫ﺟﺪ‬ ِّ seriousness ‫ﺗﻔﺎؤل‬ َ optimism ‫ﺟﺪ‬ َّ 1. grandfather ‫ﺗﻔﺎؤﻟﻲ‬ ّ ُِ َ optimistic pl. ‫أﺟﺪاد ,ﺟﺪود‬ ُُ ْ 2. ancestor ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ َِْ appreciation ‫اﻟﺠﺪ اﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ْ َّ 1. great-grandfather 2. ancestor ‫ﺗﻜﺒﺮ‬ ُّ َ َ arrogance ‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬ ِْ spontaneous َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻦَ ﻣﻦ‬ to be able to ‫ﺗﻤﻠﻖ‬ َ َّ َ َ to flatter s.o. ‫ﺗﻤﻠﻖ‬ ُّ َ َ ُْ pl. ‫ﺟﺬﻋﺎن‬ flattery wish ‫ﺟﻨﺎز‬ ُّ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺟﻨﺎﻧﻴﺰ‬ contradiction ‫ﺟﻨﺎزة‬ ِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺟﻨﺎﺋﺰ ,-ات‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻦ‬ ‫َ َ ﱟ‬ pl. ‫ﺗﻤﻨﻴﺎت‬ َّ َ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ‬ ُ َ َّ َ ‫ﺟﺪة‬ grandmother َّ ّ ‫ﺟﺬاب‬ attractive, enchanting ‫ﺟﺬع‬ ََ young man funeral rites funeral
    • THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫ﺟﻨﺲ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺟﻨﺎس‬ ْ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ّ َ sensitivity ‫( ﺣﺴﺪ‬u) ََ َ sex, gender to envy ‫ﺣﺴﺪ‬ َ َ envy ‫ﻣﺎرسَ اﻟﺠﻨﺲ‬ ِْ َ to have sex ‫ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ sexuality َ َِ ‫( ﺟﻬﻞ‬a) to not know, be ignorant ‫ﺣﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺣﻮاﺿﻦ‬ good ‫ﺣﻔﻠﺔ زواج‬ ََ َْ hot-tempered, irascible ‫ﺣﻔﻴﺪ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺣﻔﺪة‬ ََ envious ‫ﺣﻔﻴﺪة‬ َِ ‫ﺣﺎﺷﺪ‬ ِ crowded ‫ﺣﺠﺔ‬ َّ ُ pl. ‫ﺣﺠﺞ‬ َ ُ ‫ﺣﺎﻗﺪ‬ ِ spiteful, rancorous ‫ﺣﺰر‬ َْ ‫ﺣﺐ‬ ّ ُ love (‫ﺣﺒﻴﺐ )ة‬ َِ darling, sweetheart ‫ﺟﻴﺪ‬ ِّ َ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﻴﺎد‬ ‫ﺣﺎدّ اﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ َْ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺪ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺣﺴﺪة ,ﺣﺴﺎد‬ َ ُ َ َ m.pl. ‫أﺣﺒﺎب ,أﺣﺒﺔ ,أﺣﺒﺎء‬ ُ َِ َِ ْ ‫( ﺣﺚ‬u) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to urge, incite (to do s.thing) (‫ﺣﺪاد )ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ِ mourning (for) ‫( ﺣﺪق‬i) َ ََ to glance, look at ‫ﺣﺬرَ ب‬ ِ َّ َ see ‫أﻧﺬر‬ ‫ﺣﺮشَ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ْ َ َّ َ to sow discord between ‫( ﺣﺮصَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬i) ََ to strive towards ‫ﺣﺮص‬ ِْ 1. see ‫ﻃﻤﻊ‬ َ 2. aspiration, endeavour ‫( ﺣﺰر‬i, u) َََ to guess ‫( ﺣﺰن‬a) َ َِ to be sad ‫ﺣﺰن‬ ُْ sadness, sorrow ‫ﺣﺰﻳﻦ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺣﺰاﻧﻰ ,ﺣﺰﻧﺎء‬ َُ َ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ّ َ sad sensitive ‫ﺣﻖ‬ ّ َ pl. ‫ﺣﻘﻮق‬ ُُ (‫( ﺣﻘﺪَ )ﻋﻠﻰ‬a) َِ ‫ﺣﻘﺪ‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﺣﻘﻮد ,أﺣﻘﺎد‬ ْ ُُ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺮ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺣﻘﺮاء‬ ُ َُ nursemaid wedding grandson granddaughter pretext guess right to have feelings of hatred (against) hatred, rancour low, base, contemptible ‫ﺣﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﺐ‬ ّ ُ ِ love affair ‫ﺣﻢ‬ َ father-in-law pl. ‫أﺣﻤﺎء‬ ْ ‫ﺣﻤﺎة‬ َ pl. ‫ﺣﻤﻮات‬ َ َ ‫ﺣﻤﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ mother-in-law close friend pl. ‫أﺣﻤﺎء‬ ُ ّ ِ ‫ﺣﻨﻖ‬ ََ fury, rage ‫ﺣﻨﻮن‬ َُ affectionate, kind ‫ﺣﻨﻴﻦ‬ َِ 1. yearning 2. nostalgia 3. homesickness 53
    • 54 َّ َ ‫ﺣﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺎء‬ َ ‫ﺣﻴﺎة‬ َ THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS to greet َ ََ ‫( ﺧﺬل‬u) to desert, leave in the lurch shyness ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ ُ private, personal life ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ُ privacy ََ pl. ‫ﺣﻴﻮات‬ ‫( ﺧﻄﺐ‬u) َ َ َ ‫ﺣﻴﺜﻴﺔ‬ َِْ angle, viewpoint ‫ﺣﻴﺮان‬ َْ confused, perplexed ‫ﺣﻴﻠﺔ‬ ِ َِ pl. ‫ﺣﻴﻞ‬ vital, lively ‫ﺣﻴﻰ‬ َِ shy to be dashed, unsuccessful ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺐ‬ ِ َ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﻄﺒﺎء‬ 2. fiancé ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺒﺔ‬ ِ َ ruse, trick ‫ﺣﻴﻮي‬ ّ ِ ََ ‫( ﺧﺎب‬i) َ to ask for a girl’s hand in marriage fiancée ‫ﺧﻄﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُ ُ engagement ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ََ character, morals 1. suitor ْ pl. ‫أﺧﻼق‬ (hopes) ‫ﺧﻠﻮق‬ َُ ‫ﺧﺎرق اﻟﻌﺎدة‬ ِ extraordinary ‫( ﺧﺎض‬u) to undergo ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‬ َِ ِ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﻼن ,أﺧﻼء‬ ‫( ﺧﺎف‬a) َ to be afraid ‫ﺧﻨﺎق‬ ِ quarrel, row maternal uncle ‫ﺧﻮف‬ َْ fear ‫ﺧﺎل‬ ْ pl. ‫أﺧﻮال‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬ ِ upright, of firm character 1. bosom friend 2. boyfriend 1. betrayal ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺔ‬ maternal aunt ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺺ‬ ِ sincere ‫ﺧﻴﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to disappoint (s.o.) ‫( ﺧﺎن‬u) َ to betray ‫ﺧﻴﺒﺔ‬ ِ disappointment, failure ‫ﺧﺎﻧﻖ‬ َ َ to quarrel, row ‫ﺧﻴﻞَ إﻟﻰ أن‬ َّ َ to lead s.o. to believe that ‫ﺧﺎﺋﻒ‬ afraid, scared ‫دﺑﻠﺔ اﻟﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُ ُ ِْ engagement ring ‫داﻋﺮ‬ ِ immoral, lewd, obscene disloyal, treacherous َ ُ pl. ‫دﻋﺎر‬ َُ pl. ‫ﺧﻮف‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺋﻦ‬ َُ ََ pl. ‫ﺧﻮﻧﺔ ,ﺧﻮان‬ ‫ﺧﺘﻦ‬ ََ ْ pl. ‫أﺧﺘﺎن‬ 2. adultery ‫داﻫﻦ‬ َ َ son-in-law to flatter, fawn on s.o. ‫دﺑﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to arrange, work things out ‫( ﺧﺠﻞَ ﻣﻦ‬a) ِ َ to be ashamed of ‫دﻋﺎرة‬ َ indecency, immorality ‫ﺧﺠﻞ‬ َ َ shame ‫( دﻋﺮ‬a) َِ َ to be immoral ‫ﺧﺠﻼن‬ ْ َ ashamed, embarrassed ‫دﻟﻊ‬ َ َّ َ to spoil (child)
    • THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫دﻧﺎﻳﺔ‬ َ ‫دﻧﻲ‬ َِ pl. ‫أدﻧﻴﺎء‬ ِْ meanness, vileness mean, despicable ‫رﻓﻴﻊ‬ َِ ‫رﻗﻴﻖ‬ َِ َِ ِ pl. ‫رﻗﺎق ,أرﻗﺎء‬ thin fine, delicate ‫دﻫﺶ‬ ْ َ astonishment ‫روقَ دﻣﻪ‬ َ َّ َ to placate, cool s.o. off ‫ذاﺗﻲ‬ ّ ِ subjective ‫زﻓﺔ‬ ‫َﱠ‬ wedding procession ‫ذرﻳﻌﺔ‬ َِ pretext, excuse ‫زﻧﺎء‬ ِ adultery, promiscuous behaviour ُ َ pl. ‫ذراﺋﻊ‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to remind ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ َ َ male, masculine ‫( زﻧﻰ‬i) ََ to commit adultery, be promiscuous ‫زواج‬ َ marriage, wedding ‫زواج اﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ َْ َ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ذﻛﻮر‬ marriage of convenience َ َّ َ ‫ذﻟﻞ‬ to overcome (obstacle) ‫( ذم‬u) ‫َﱠ‬ to blame, criticize ‫زوج‬ َْ pl. ‫أزواج‬ ْ ‫ذﻣﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ objectionable َ َّ َ ‫زوج‬ to marry off (girl) ‫راب‬ ّ stepfather ‫زوﺟﺔ‬ َْ wife ‫راﺑﺔ‬ َ stepmother ‫زوﺟﺎن‬ َْ married couple ‫راﺳﺦ‬ ِ deep-rooted ‫زوﺟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ marital, conjugal stepson, foster son ‫ﺳﺎذج‬ َ naive, gullible ‫ﺳﺎﻗﻂ‬ ِ disreputable stepdaughter, foster daughter pl. ‫ﺳﻘﺎط‬ َُ ‫رﺑﻴﺐ‬ ِِ pl. ‫أرﺑﺎء‬ ِّ ‫رﺑﻴﺒﺔ‬ ِِ ‫رﺟﻞ‬ ُ َ pl. ‫رﺟﺎل‬ ِ husband ‫ﺳﺎﻗﻄﺔ‬ ِ fallen woman, harlot ‫( ﺳﺌﻢَ ﻣﻦ‬a) ِ َ man to be fed up with ‫رﺟﻮﻟﺔ‬ ُ َ manhood ‫( ﺳﺨﺮَ ﻣﻦ‬a) ِ َ to mock, ridicule s.o. ‫رداءة‬ َ wickedness ‫ﺳﺨﻂ‬ ُ ُ annoyance, irritation ‫ردىء‬ َِ bad, wicked, evil ‫ﺳﺬاﺟﺔ‬ َ naivety ‫رذﻳﻠﺔ‬ َِ vice ‫ﺳﺮور‬ ُُ joy ‫ﺳﻄﺤﻰ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ superficial ُ َ pl. ‫رذاﺋﻞ‬ ‫رزﻳﻦ‬ َِ calm, composed ِ ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﺮاﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ love letter ‫( رﻏﺐَ ﻓﻲ‬a) ِ َ to wish ‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺳﻌﺪاء‬ َُ ‫ﺳﻠﻒ‬ ِْ ْ pl. ‫أﺳﻼف‬ happy brother-in-law (husband’s brother) 55
    • 56 ‫ﺳﻠﻔﺔ‬ ِْ THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS sister-in-law (sister of husband) َّ َ ‫( ﺷﻚ‬u) to doubt ‫ﺷﻚ‬ ّ َ doubt ‫ﺳﻠﻮك‬ ُُ behaviour ُ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻜﻮك‬ ِّ َِ ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻨﻴﺔ‬ well-intentioned ‫( ﺷﻜﺮ‬u) ََ َ to thank, be grateful ِ ‫ﺳﻦّ اﻟﺮﺷﺪ‬ ْ ُّ age of reason ‫ﺷﻜﺮ‬ ْ ُ gratitude ‫ﺳﻬﻞ اﻟﺨﻠﻖ‬ ََ َْ easy-going, obliging ‫ﺷﻜﺮا‬ ً ْ ُ thank you! ‫ﺳﻮء اﻟﺤﻈ‬ ّ َ ُ bad luck, misfortune ‫ﻻ ﺷﻜﺮَ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻮاﺟﺐ‬ ِ ْ ُ you’re welcome! ‫ﺳﻮء اﻟﺨﻠﻖ‬ ََ ُ ill nature ‫ﺷﻬﺮ اﻟﻌﺴﻞ‬ ْ َ َْ honeymoon ُ ‫ﺳﻮء اﻟﺴﻠﻮك‬ ُ ُّ misbehaviour ‫ﺷﻬﻮة‬ َْ lust ‫ﺳﻮء اﻟﻔﻬﻢ‬ َْ ُ misunderstanding ‫ﺷﻬﻮاﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُْ sensuous, lascivious ‫ﺳﻮء اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ َ ُ ُ mistreatment ‫ﺷﻴﻮﺧﺔ‬ َُ old age youth, young man ‫( ﺻﺒﺮ‬i) َ ََ to be patient ‫ﺻﺒﺮ‬ َْ patience ‫ﺻﺒﻮر‬ َُ patient ‫ﺻﺪاﻗﺔ‬ َ friendship ‫( ﺻﺪق‬u) َ ََ to tell the truth ‫ﺻﺪق‬ َ َّ َ to believe, consider true ‫ﺻﺪﻳﻖ‬ َِ friend ‫ﺷﺎب‬ ّ َُ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺒﺎب ,ﺷﺒﺎن‬ ‫ﺷﺎرد اﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬ ْ ِ ِ absent-minded ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻴﺒﺔ‬ َِ youth, young people ‫ﺷﺠﻦ‬ َ َ anxiety, distress ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ َ personality ‫ﺷﺮﻣﻮﻃﺔ‬ ُ َْ whore ‫( ﺷﻌﺮ‬u) َََ 1. to perceive, sense 2. to realize ُ ِْ pl. ‫أﺻﺪﻗﺎء‬ ‫ﺻﺮاﺣﺔ‬ َ ‫ﺷﻌﻮر‬ ُُ awareness, perception ُ ُّ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﻮر ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ْ َّ self-consciousness ‫ﺻﺮﻳﺢ‬ َِ َُ َ pl. ‫ﺻﺮاﺋﺢ ,ﺻﺮﺣﺎء‬ compassion, kindness, tenderness َّ َ ‫ﺻﻤﻢَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻔﻮق‬ َُ kind, tender, compassionate ‫ﺷﻘﺎوة‬ َ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ اﻟﺴﻦ‬ ّ ِ َِ mischief, naughtiness ‫ﺷﻔﻘﺔ‬ ََ ‫ﺷﻘﻲ‬ َِ pl. ‫أﺷﻘﻴﺎء‬ ِْ ‫ﺷﻘﻴﻖ‬ َِ pl. ‫أﺷﻘﺎء ,أﺷﻘﺔ‬ ‫ِﱠ‬ ‫ِﱠ‬ ‫ﺻﻬﺮ‬ ِْ naughty ْ pl. ‫أﺻﻬﺎر‬ full brother (as opposed to half-brother) ُ ‫ﺻﻮرة ﻧﻤﻄﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ pl. -‫ﺻﻮر‬ َُ frankness, openness frank, open to be determined to do s.thing young 1. brother-in law (sister’s husband) 2. son-in-law stereotypical image
    • THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫ﺿﺎﻳﻖ‬ َ َ ‫ﺿﺮ‬ َّ 1. harm 2. disadvantage ‫ﺿﺮاء‬ ََ adversity ‫ﺿﺮورة‬ َُ necessity ‫ﺿﺮوري‬ ّ ِ َُ necessary َّ ِ ُ َ ‫ﺿﺮورﻳﺎت اﻟﺤﻴﺎة‬ َ necessities of life ‫ﺿﻐﻴﻨﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺿﻐﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﻤﻮح‬ ُ َ ambitious ‫ﻃﻤﻮح‬ ُ ُ ambition ‫ﻃﻴﺒﺔ‬ ِ goodness ‫ﻃﻴﺶ‬ َْ frivolity, recklessness ‫ﻇﺮف‬ َْ to annoy, irritate elegance, grace ‫ﻇﺮﻳﻒ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻇﺮاﺋﻒ ,ﻇﺮﻓﺎء‬ َُ ُ َ nice, charming َّ َ ‫( ﻇﻦ‬u) to think, believe ‫( ﻇﻬﺮ‬u) َََ to appear, seem ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺲ‬ ِ sullen, grim ‫ﻋﺎدي‬ ِ usual, normal to impress (‫ﻋﺎﺷﻖ )ة‬ ِ lover nature, character ‫ﻋﺎﻃﻒ‬ ِ affectionate, loving ‫( ﻃﺮأ‬a) َ َ to happen to s.o. ‫ﻋﺎﻃﻔﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﻃﻒ‬ ِ َ 2. emotion ‫ﻃﺮﺣﺔ اﻟﻌﺮوﺳﺔ‬ َْ َُ ‫ﻋﺎﻃﻔﻲ‬ ّ ِِ emotional, sentimental bridal veil ‫ﻋﺎﻗﻞ‬ ِ intelligent َ َ ‫ﻋﺎﻛﺲ‬ to tease old spinster ‫ﺿﻴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ِ ‫ﺿﻴﻒ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺿﻴﻮف‬ ‫( ﻃﺒﻊ‬a) َ ََ ‫ﻃﺒﻊ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻃﺒﺎع‬ ‫ﻃﻔﻞ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﻃﻔﺎل‬ ْ rancour, grudge hospitality guest baby, infant ‫ﻃﻔﻮﻟﺔ‬ ُ childhood ‫ﻋﺎﻧﺲ‬ ِ ‫ﻃﻼق‬ َ divorce pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﻧﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﻃﻠﻖ‬u) َ ََ to get a divorce (woman) 1. affection ‫ﻃﻠﻖ‬ َ َّ َ to divorce, repudiate (one’s wife) ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺪ ل/إﻟﻰ‬ belonging to ‫ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ family ‫ﻋﺘﺎب‬ ِ reprimand ‫ﻃﻠﻴﻘﺔ‬ َِ repudiated wife ‫ﻋﺠﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to amaze, astonish َّ َ ‫ﻃﻤﺎع‬ greedy ‫( ﻋﺠﺮَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬i) َ َ to be incapable of 1. greed ‫ﻋﺠﻞ‬ َ َ haste ‫ﻃﻤﻊ‬ َ َ َ 2. see ‫ﻃﻤﻮح‬ ‫ﻃﻤﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to calm, appease ‫ﻋﺠﻮز‬ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺠﺰ ,ﻋﺠﺎﺋﺰ‬ َ َ ُ ُ 1. old man 2. old 57
    • 58 THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS brother-in-law (sister’s ‫ﻋﻄﻮف‬ ُ َ compassionate husband) modesty, chastity َِ ‫ﻋﺪﻳﻢ اﻟﺸﻌﺰر‬ ُ ُّ ‫ﻋﻔﺔ‬ َّ ِ insensitive ‫ﻋﻔﻮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َْ spontaneity ‫( ﻋﺬر‬i) َََ to excuse s.o. َ ََ ‫( ﻋﻘﻞ‬i) to be reasonable excuse َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﻋﻘﻠﻴﺔ‬ mindset, mentality ‫ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ rational ‫ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ reason, rationality ‫ﻋﻘﻠﻦ‬ َ َْ َ to rationalize ‫ﻋﻘﻠﻨﺔ‬ ََْ َ rationalization ‫ﻋﻢ‬ َّ paternal uncle ‫ﻋﺪﻳﻞ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻋﺪاﺋﻞ‬ َ ‫ﻋﺬر‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﺬار‬ ‫ﻋﺬراء‬ َْ َ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺬارى‬ َّ َ ‫ﻋﺮفَ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺮق‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻋﺮوق‬ ُُ ‫ﻋﺮوﺳﺔ‬ َُ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺮاﺋﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮوﺳﺎن‬ َُ ‫ﻋﺮﻳﺲ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻋﺮس‬ ُُ ‫ﻋﺰاء‬ َ ‫ﻋﺰب‬ ََ ُّ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﺰاب ,ﻋﺰاب‬ ‫ﻋﺰﺑﺔ‬ ُْ ‫( ﻋﺰمَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬i) ََ virgin to introduce s.o. to race, stock bride ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻤﺎم ,ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺔ‬ َّ َ paternal aunt the bride and groom ‫ﻋﻨﺎد‬ ِ stubbornness groom ‫ﻋ ﻨﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to reprimand ‫ﻋﻨﻴﺪ‬ َِ stubborn comfort, consolation ُُ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ bachelor ‫( ﻏﺎر‬a) َ bachelorhood, celibacy ‫ﻏﺮض‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻏﺮاض‬ ْ to be determined to do s.thing to be jealous see ‫ﻫﺪف‬ َ َ ‫ﻏﺎزل‬ to flirt ‫ﻏﺎو‬ ٍ seducer ‫ﻋﺰى‬ ََ to offer one’s condolences ‫ﻏﺮام‬ َ infatuation ‫( ﻋﺸﻖ‬a) َ ِ َ to love passionately ‫ﻏﺮاﻣﻴﺎت‬ ِ َ romances, adventures ‫ﻋﺸﻖ‬ ْ ِ passion ‫ﻏﺮور‬ ُُ vanity ‫ﻋﺼﺒﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ nervous ‫ﻋﺼﺒﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ nervousness ‫ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‬ َِ ْ َُ pl. ‫ﻏﺮﺑﺎء ,أﻏﺮاب‬ ‫( ﻋﺼﻰ‬i) َ َ to disobey ‫( ﻋﻀﺪ‬u) ََ َ to support, assist ‫ﻏﺮور‬ ُُ vanity َ َّ َ ‫ﻋﻄﻞ‬ to interrupt ‫( ﻏﻀﺐ‬a) َ ِ َ to be angry ‫ﻏﺮﻳﺰة‬ َِ stranger 1. natural disposition 2. instinct
    • THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫ﻏﻀﺐ‬ ْ َ anger ‫ﻗﺎﺻﺮ‬ ِ minor, legally under age ‫ﻏﻀﺒﺎن‬ ْ َ angry َ َّ َ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ to kiss ‫( ﻏﻔﺮ‬i) َََ to forgive, pardon ‫ﻗﺒﻠﺔ‬ ُْ kiss ‫ﻏﻔﺮ‬ َْ forgiveness, pardon َ ََ ‫( ﻗﺪح‬a) to reproach, rebuke ‫ﻏﻴﺮ اﻧﻀﺒﺎﻃﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِْ َْ undisciplined ‫ﻗﺪر‬ َ َّ َ to appreciate, value ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻘﻮل‬ ُْ َ َْ unreasonable ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‬ َِ relative (n.) ٍ ُ َْ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺒﺎل‬ indifferent ‫ﻏﻴﺮة‬ َْ jealousy 59 ‫ﻓﺘﺎة‬ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺘﻴﺎت‬ ََ young girl ُ ِْ pl. ‫أﻗﺮﺑﺎء‬ ‫ﻗﺴﺎوة‬ َ cruelty ‫ﻗﺼﺪي‬ ّ ِْ َ intentional ‫ﻗﻠﻖ‬ ََ anxiety, worry ‫ﻓﺘﺶَ ﻋﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to look for ‫( ﻗﻠﻖ‬a) َ َِ to be uneasy, anxious َّ َ ‫ﻓﺮجَ ﻋﻦ‬ to comfort ‫ﻛﺎذب‬ ِ liar ‫( ﻓﺮح‬a) َ َِ to be happy ‫ﻛﺘﻮم‬ َُ secretive, discreet ْ ُ ‫ﻓﺴﺘﺎن اﻟﺰﻓﺎف‬ َّ wedding dress َّ َ ‫ﻛﺬاب‬ inveterate liar ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ َّ َ braggart ‫( ﻛﺬب‬i) َ ََ to lie, deceive ‫( ﻓﺸﺮ‬u) ََ َ to brag, boast ‫ﻛﺬب‬ ِْ lie favour, service ‫ﻛﺮاﻣﺔ‬ َ ‫ﻓﻀﻞ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أﻓﻀﺎل‬ ْ ‫ﻓﻀﻮﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ ُ inquisitive, curious ‫ﻓﻀﻴﻠﺔ‬ ِ َ merit, virtue ُ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻄﻦ‬ ِ َ smart, clever ‫ﻓﻈﻴﻊ‬ ِ َ horrible ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻫﻲ‬ ِ ُ humorous ‫ﻓﻜﺮة‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﻜﺮ‬ َ ِ َ َ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎس‬ ٍ pl. ‫ﻗﺴﺎة‬ ُ 1. dignity, self-respect 2. generosity thought to meet cruel ‫ﻛﺮﻳﻢ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻛﺮﻣﺎء‬ ُ َُ generous ‫( ﻛﺮه‬a) ََِ to hate, dislike ‫ﻛﺮه‬ َْ hatred, dislike ‫ﻛﻨﺔ‬ َّ َ daughter-in-law ‫ﻻأﻧﺎﻧﻲ‬ ّ altruistic ‫ﻻأﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ِﱠ‬ altruism ‫ﻻإﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ inhuman(e) ‫اﻟﻼﺷﻌﻮر‬ ُُ the subconscious ‫ﻻﺷﻌﻮري‬ ّ ِ ُُ unconscious, subconscious ُ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻨﺎﺋﻦ‬
    • 60 THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫( ﻻم‬u) َ to blame ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻣﺢ‬ ِ َُ lenient, tolerant ‫ﻻﻣﺒﺎﻻة‬ ُ indifference ‫ﻣﺘﺸﺎﺋﻢ‬ َُ pessimist ‫ﻻﻳﻐﻔﺮ‬ َُُْ unforgivable َّ َ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻮد ﻋﻠﻰ‬ accustomed to reproach, rebuke ‫ﻣﺘﻔﺎﺋﻞ‬ َُ ‫ﻻﺋﻤﺔ‬ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻟﻮاﺋﻢ‬ 1. optimistic 2. optimist ‫ﻟﻄﻴﻒ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻟﻄﺎف ,ﻟﻄﻔﺎء‬ ُ َ ُ ِ ‫ﻟﻘﺐ‬ ََ ‫( ﻟﻘﻰ‬a) َ َِ ‫( ﻟﻤﺲ‬i, u) َ َ َ (‫ﻟﻮاط )ة‬ ِ to persist, persevere ‫ﻣﺘﻔﻮق‬ َّ َ َ ُ outstanding kind, gentle ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺒﺮ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ arrogant, haughty َّ َ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﻠﻒ‬ affected, artificial 1. family name, surname ‫ﻣﺘﻠﻬﻒ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ impatient 2. nickname ‫( ﻟﺞ‬a) ‫َ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻤرد‬ َّ َ َ ُ rebellious, recalcitrant ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ‬ ِ َُ contradictory ‫ﻣﺘﻮاﺿﻊ‬ ِ َُ humble ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺣﺪ‬ ‫َُ َ ﱢ‬ lonely ‫ﻣﺜﺎﺑﺮة‬ ََ ُ tenacity 1. to find 2. see ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ to touch (male) homosexuality, sodomy ‫ﻟﻮﻃﻰ‬ ّ ِ ُ (male) homosexual sodomite ‫ﻣﺜﻴﺮ‬ ُِ exciting ‫ﻟﻴﺎﻗﺔ‬ ِ propriety, decency ‫ﻣﺠﺎزف‬ ِ ُ reckless ‫ﻟﻴﻠﺔ اﻟﺰﻓﺎف‬ ِّ ِ wedding night ‫ﻣﺠﺎزﻓﺔ‬ َ ُ recklessness ‫ﻣﺄزق‬ ِ َْ predicament ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ good qualities ‫ﻣﺨﻴﻒ‬ ِ ُ frightening, fearful ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ َِْ ُ different ‫ﻣﺪاﻫﻨﺔ‬ َ ُ flattery, sycophancy ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺎزق‬ ‫ﻣﺄﺳﺎة‬ َ tragedy ٍ pl. ‫ﻣﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﺄﺳﺎوي‬ ّ ِ َ tragic ‫ﻣﺎﻛﺮ‬ ِ cunning, sly ‫ﻣﺪح‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﺪاح‬ ‫ﻣﺄﻟﻮف‬ ُ familiar, accustomed َ ََ ‫( ﻣﺪح‬a) to praise ‫ﻣﺘﺎﻋﺐ‬ ِ َ troubles, difficulties ‫ﻣﺪﻫﺶ‬ ِ ُْ astonishing (‫ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪ )ﻣﻦ‬ ِّ َ ُ convinced (of) ‫ﻣﺪﻫﻮش‬ ُ َْ astonished ‫ﻣﺘﺮدد‬ ِّ ِ َ ُ hesitant ‫ﻣﺬﻫﻞ‬ ِ ُْ amazing, baffling ‫ﻣﺘﺰﻮج‬ َّ َ َ ُ married ‫ﻣﺮاﻫﻖ‬ ِ ُ adolescent praise
    • THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS ‫ﻣﺮاﻫﻘﺔ‬ ََ ُ adolescence, puberty ‫ﻣﻜﺎن اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‬ ِ َ place of birth َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻚ‬ confused, bewildered ‫( ﻣﻜﺮ‬u) ََ َ to deceive ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺎب‬ ُْ doubtful ‫ﻣﻜﺮ‬ ْ َ cunning, slyness ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺎح‬ ُْ comfortable ّ َ ‫( ﻣﻞ‬a) to be bored ‫ﻣﺮض‬ ٍ ُْ satisfactory ‫ﻣﻼل‬ َ boredom ‫( ﻣﺴﻚ‬u, i) َ َ َ 1. to hold ‫ﻣﻠﺠﺄ اﻷﻳﺘﺎم‬ َْ orphanage ‫ﻣﻠﻬﻢ‬ ِ ُْ inspirational 2. to grab, seize ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ ِ ُ similar ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ‬ َ ُ resemblance ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬ ُِ َ feelings ‫ﻣﻤﺘﺎز‬ ْ ُ outstanding, excellent ‫ﻣﺸﺒﻮه‬ ُْ َ suspicious ‫ﻣﻤﺘﻊ‬ ِْ ُ pleasant, enjoyable ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻮك ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ِ ِ ُ ْ َ see ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺎب‬ ّ ِ ُ ‫ﻣﻤﻞ‬ boring ‫ﻣﺼﺎدﻓﺔ‬ َ ُ chance encounter ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮن‬ ُْ َ indebted, grateful ‫ﻣﺼﻤﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ِّ َ ُ determined (to do s.thing) ‫ﻣﻀﺎﻳﻘﺔ‬ ََ ُ harassment, annoyance ‫ﻣﻀﺾ‬ َ َ agony ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻀﺾ‬ َ َ ََ reluctantly ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻘﺔ‬ َ ُ embrace, hug ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ َِْ acquaintance ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪ‬ َّ َ ُ complicated, complex ‫ﻣﻌﻘﻮل‬ َُْ reasonable ‫ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ْ َ rationality ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻞ‬ ُِ breadwinner ‫ﻣﻐﺮور‬ َُْ vain ‫ﻣﺆذ‬ ٍُْ hurtful, offensive ‫ﻣﻐﺮ‬ ٍُْ tempting ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ َْ objective ‫ﻣﻐﺎزﻟﺔ‬ َ ُ flirtation ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُ ْ َ objectivity ‫ﻣﻘﺼﺪ‬ ِ َْ intention, goal ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺢ‬ َِ pl. ‫أﻣﻼح ,ﻣﻼح‬ ِ ْ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻖ‬ ِ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺾ‬ ِ ُ pleasant, agreeable, nice hypocrite contradictory ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺔ‬ ِ َْ status, standing ‫ﻣﻨﻀﺒﻂ‬ َِ ُْ disciplined َ ُْ (‫ﻣﻨﻄﻮٍ )ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ْ َّ introverted, self-absorbed ‫ﻣﻨﻌﺶ‬ ِ ُْ refreshing, invigorating ‫ﻣﻬﺎﻧﺔ‬ ُ contempt, humiliation ‫ﻣﻬﻴﻦ‬ ُِ humiliating, degrading ‫ﻣﻮﺛﻮق‬ ُْ َ trustworthy ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ‬ ِ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻋﺪ‬ ِ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ُِ َ motive, reason appointment, rendezvous 61
    • 62 ‫ﻣﻴﺰة‬ ِ THE FAMILY, HUMAN RELATIONS AND EMOTIONS peculiarity, distinguishing feature ‫ﻫﺪف‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻫﺪاف‬ ْ َ see ‫ﻣﻮﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺄ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َّ َ ‫ﻧﺎدم‬ ِ regretful, remorseful ‫ﻫﻮن‬ َْ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﻫﺔ‬ َ intelligence ‫ﻧﺒﻪ‬ ُْ insight, acumen ‫ﻣﻴﻌﺎد‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻋﻴﺪ‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺪام‬ َّ ُ ‫ﻧﺒﻴﻪ‬ َِ intelligent, perspicacious ‫ﻧﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬ َ nobility, noble descent ‫ﻧﺠﺐ‬ َ َ noble ‫ﻧﺪاﻣﺔ‬ َ remorse, regret ‫( ﻧﺪب‬u) َ ََ to mourn ‫ﻧﺪدَ ب‬ ِ َّ َ see ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺪ‬ ‫( ﻧﺪمَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬a) َِ to regret ‫( ﻧﺴﻰ‬i) َ ِ َ to forget ‫ﻧﺴﻞ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أﻧﺴﺎل‬ ْ ‫وارث‬ ِ to congratulate s.o. for (s.thing) disgrace, shame duty, obligation heir ََ َُ pl. ‫وراث ,ورﺛﺔ‬ ‫واﻗﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِِ ُ َُ pl. ‫ﻧﺒﻬﺎء‬ ‫ﻧﺴﻴﺐ‬ ِ َ ْ pl. ‫أﻧﺴﺎب‬ ‫واﺟﺐ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫وﺟﺎﺋﺐ‬ aim, objective ‫واﻟﺪ‬ ِ ِ pl. ‫( واﻟﺪان‬dual) realistic parent ‫وﺛﻖَ )ﻳﺜﻖ( ب‬ ُ َِ َِ to trust (in) (‫وﺟﺪَ )ﻳﺠﺪ‬ ُِ َ َ َ to find ‫وﺟﻴﻪ‬ ِ َ َ ُ pl. ‫وﺟﻬﺎء‬ 2. notable َ َّ َ ‫ودع‬ to say goodbye ‫ودود‬ َُ affectionate 2. lineage, descent ‫ودي‬ ّ ِّ َ friendly, amicable offspring, descendant ‫وراﺛﺔ‬ ِ inheritance (‫( ورثَ )ﻳﺮث‬a) ُ ِِ َِ to inherit 1. kinship 1. eminent, distinguished ‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬ َ liveliness, energy ‫ورث‬ َ َّ َ to bequeath ‫ﻧﺸﻴﺪ ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‬ ّ َِْ َ serenade ‫وﺳﺎﻣﺔ‬ َ gracefulness, charm ‫ﻧﺸﻴﻂ‬ ِ َ lively, energetic َ ‫ﻧﻔﺎد اﻟﺼﺒﺮ‬ ْ َّ impatience ‫وﺳﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ ِ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫وﺳﻤﺎء ,وﺳﺎم‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎق‬ ِ hypocrisy (‫وﻋﺪَ )ﻳﻌﺪ‬ َُِ َ َ to promise ‫( ﻧﻢ‬u) َّ َ to gossip ‫وﻋﺪ‬ ْ َ promise ‫ﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِ see ‫ﻣﻘﺼﺪ‬ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﻳﺎ‬ َ ‫ﻫﺪد‬ َ َّ َ to threaten ‫وﻏﺪ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫وﻏﺪان ,أوﻏﺎد‬ ْ ْ ُ ‫وﻗﺎﺣﺔ‬ َ handsome scoundrel impudence, insolence
    • HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION ‫وﻗﺢ‬ َِ impudent, insolent ‫وﻟﺪ‬ ََ 1. boy pl. ‫أوﻻد‬ ْ 2. child ‫وﻟﺪ اﻷخ‬ ََ nephew illegitimate child delusion ‫ﻳﺄس‬ َ despair َ ‫( ﻳﺌﺲ‬i, a) to give up hope ‫ﻳﺘﻴﻢ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻳﺘﺎﻣﻰ ,أﻳﺘﺎم‬ ْ َ َ ‫وﻟﺪ اﻷﺧﺖ‬ ْ ُ ََ ‫وﻟﺪ اﻟﺰﻧﺎء‬ ِّ َ َ ‫وﻫﻢ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أوﻫﺎم‬ ْ 63 orphan ‫ﻳﻮم اﻟﺰﻓﺎف‬ ِّ ْ َ wedding day Housing and construction ‫أﺑﺎد‬ َ to exterminate (e.g. rats) ‫اﺳﺘﺄﺟﺮ‬ ََ ْ ِ to rent ‫إﺑﺎدة‬ extermination (e.g. rats) ‫أﺳﻔﻠﺖ‬ َْ ْ asphalt ‫إﺑﻘﺎء‬ ْ maintenance ‫أﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬ َْ ْ cement ‫أﺛﺎث‬ furniture ‫إﺿﺎء‬ lighting ‫أﺛﺚ‬ َ ‫ﱠ‬ to furnish (house, etc.) ‫أﻃﻔﺄ‬ ْ ‫أﺟﺮ‬ َ َّ to rent out ‫( آﺟﺮ‬coll.) َّ baked bricks َ ‫أﻃﻞَّ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ to look out on َّ َ َْ ‫إﺣﺘﺮس ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪﻫﺎن‬ CAREFUL – FRESH PAINT ‫أﻃﻼل‬ ْ ruins, remains ‫اﺣﺘﺮق‬ َ َ َْ ِ to burn ْ ‫أﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ household chores kitchen utensil ‫إﻓﺮﻳﺰ اﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ‬ ِْ moulding household effect ‫أﻏﻠﻖ‬ َ َْ َ‫أﻗﻔﻞ‬ َْ ‫أدار‬ َ to switch on (appliance, etc.) ‫أﻧﺒﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬ ُ ِ ‫أرض‬ ْ floor, ground ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬ ِِْ removal ‫أرض ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ِ ْ building land ‫اﻧﺘﻘﻞَ إﻟﻰ‬ ََِْ to move (house) foundation ‫اﻧﺠﺮاف‬ ِ ِْ erosion ‫إﻳﺠﺎر‬ rent (money) ‫أداة اﻟﻤﻄﺒﺦ‬ َْ َ pl. - ‫أدوات‬ َ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ‫أداة ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‬ َ pl. - ‫أدوات‬ ‫أﺳﺎس‬ pl. ‫أﺳﺲ‬ ُ ُ 1. to switch off (e.g. appliance) 2. to extinguish (fire) to close, shut to lock pipe
    • 64 ‫ﺑﺎب‬ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﻮاب‬ HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION ‫ﺑﺎب دوار‬ َّ َ revolving door ‫ﺑﺮاد‬ َّ َ fitter (machinery) ‫ﺑﺮﻛﺔ‬ ِْ َِ pl. ‫ﺑﺮك‬ ‫ﺑﺮواز‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاوﻳﺰ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺑﺮوز‬ َََْ ‫ﺑﺴﺎط‬ ِ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﺴﻄﺔ‬ 1. pond 2. pool frame (picture) to frame carpet ‫ﺗﺄﺟﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ renting out َ َّ َ ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻞ‬ door to be eaten away, corroded َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻞ‬ to be(come) wet ‫ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺔ‬ َْ heating َ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ central heating ‫ﺗﺮاب‬ ُ ِْ pl. ‫أﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﺎس‬ ِْ dust, earth bolt (door, window) pl. ‫ﺗﺮاﺑﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ َ َْ َ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﺲ‬ to bolt (door) gardener ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻢ‬ ِ َْ renovation, restoration blanket, duvet ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ُّ َ َ leakage ‫( ﺑﻞ‬u) َّ َ to wet ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ِ ْ َ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﺼﺎﻣﻴﻢ ,-ات‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻃﺔ‬ َ 1. floor tile ‫ﺗﻜﺪس‬ َ َّ َ َ to pile, heap up 2. flagstone ‫ﺗﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ َ wainscoting, panelling to pave ‫ﺗﻤﻠﻴﻚ‬ ِْ َ conveyance of property ‫ﺛﻘﺐ‬ ُْ hole (drilled) ‫ﺑﺴﺘﺎﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِ ّ َ pl. ‫ات ,ﺑﻄﺎﻃﻴﻦ‬ُ ِ َ ‫ﺑﻠﻂ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ِ ِْ pl. ‫أﺑﻨﻴﺔ‬ building (construction) design pl. ‫ﺛﻘﻮب‬ ُُ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ َّ َ bricklayer, mason ‫ﺑﻨﺎﻳﺔ‬ ِ building (structure) ‫ﺟﺎر‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﻴﺮان‬ ‫( ﺑﻨﻰ‬i) ََ to build ‫ﺟﺎور‬ ََ to adjoin bath-tub َ َّ َ ‫ﺟﺒﺲ‬ to plaster ‫ﺟﺒﺲ‬ ِْ gypsum, plaster of Paris ‫ﺑﻨﻴﻮ‬ َُْ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﺑﻬﻮ‬ َْ hall ‫ﺟﺪار‬ ِ ُْ ُْ pl. ‫ﺟﺪران ,ﺟﺪر‬ doorman house ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺟﺪد‬ ُُ furnishing ْ pl. ‫أﺟﺮاس‬ pl. ‫أﺑﻬﺎء‬ ْ ‫ﺑﻮاب‬ َّ َ ‫ﺑﻴﺖ‬ َْ ُ pl. ‫ﺑﻴﻮت‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺚ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺟﺮس‬ ََ neighbour wall new bell
    • HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION ‫( ﺟﺮس‬i) َ ََ to ring (the bell) ‫ﺟﺴﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ large, significant ‫( ﺟﻠﺲ‬i) َ ََ to sit ‫ﺟﻤﺮ‬ ْ ُ live coal, embers ‫ﺟﻬﺎز إﻃﻔﺎء اﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‬ َِ ْ ِ pl. - ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ ِْ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻲ‬ ّ َِ َْ ِ َّ ِ َ ْ َ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺟﻬﺰة ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‬ garden ‫ﺣﺸﻮ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺟﺴﺎم‬ ِ ‫ﺟﻨﺎح‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺟﻨﺤﺔ‬ ِْ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﻘﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺣﺪاﺋﻖ‬ 65 wing (house) fire extinguisher 1. stuffing (e.g. cushions) pl. ‫-ات‬ 2. panel ‫ﺣﺮﻳﻖ‬ َِ َ pl. ‫ﺣﺮاﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻦ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﺣﺼﻮن‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺣﻄﺐ‬ َ َ fire fortress firewood pl. ‫أﺣﻄﺎب‬ ْ household appliance ‫ﺣﻔﺎر اﻟﻘﺒﻮر‬ ُُ َّ َ َّ َ ‫ﺣﻤﺎم‬ gravedigger 1. bathroom ‫ﺟﻬﺪ‬ َْ tension, voltage ٍ ‫ﺟﻬﺪ ﻋﺎل‬ high tension ‫ﺣﻤﺎم اﻟﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ‬ ِّ َ swimming pool ‫ﺟﻬﺰ‬ َ َّ َ to fit out ‫ﺣﻨﻔﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ tap (water) ‫ﺟﻮار‬ ِ neighbourhood ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺰ‬ ِ partition ‫ﺣﻮش‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﻴﺸﺎن ,أﺣﻮاش‬ ْ ِ ‫ﺣﺎد‬ ّ sharp ‫ﺣﺎوﻳﺔ‬ ِ container ‫ﺣﺎﺋﻂ‬ pl. ‫ﺣﻴﻄﺎن‬ ِ ‫ﺣﺎﺋﻂ ﻋﺰل اﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‬ َِ َْ ‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ pl. ‫ﺣﻮاﺋﻞ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺣﺒﻞ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﺣﺒﺎل‬ see ‫ﺟﺪار‬ fire wall 2. bath ‫ﺣﻮض‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﻮاض‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺑﺌﺔ‬ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻮاﺑﻰء‬ ‫ﺧﺎدم‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺧﺪام‬ َُ enclosure 1. basin 2. reservoir vat servant rope َّ َ ‫ﺧﺮاط‬ lathe-turner ‫ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ َْ folding screen concrete ‫( ﺧﺮط‬i, u) َ ََ to turn (lathe) ‫ﺧﺮﻃﻮم‬ ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﻴﻢ‬ ُ ِ َ hose ‫ﺣﺠﺎر‬ َّ َ stonemason ‫ﺣﺠﺮ اﻟﺨﻔﺎف‬ َ َ َ pumice stone ‫ﺣﺠﺮ رﻣﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ َ َ sandstone ‫ﺧﺰان‬ َّ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫-ات ,ﺧﺰازﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬ ِ َّ cornerstone ‫ﺧﺰان اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ُُ fuel tank َّ َ ‫ﺣﺪاد‬ blacksmith ‫ﺧﺰف‬ ََ pottery storage tank, reservoir
    • 66 ‫ﺧﺰﻧﺔ‬ َْ ‫ﺧﺸﺒﺔ‬ َ َ ْ pl. ‫أﺧﺸﺎب ,-ات‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻴﺮ‬ َِ ُ َُ pl. ‫ﺧﻔﺮاء‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺸﺔ‬ َْ َِ pl. ‫ﺧﻴﺶ ,-ات‬ HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION safe (storage) ‫رﺗﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to tidy plank, board ‫رﺟﺎل اﻟﻤﻄﺎﻓﺊ‬ ِ fire brigade ‫رﺟﻞ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﻓﺊ‬ َ ُ َ fireman ‫( ردم‬i, u) َََ to fill up with earth ‫ردم‬ َ َّ َ to repair ‫ردﻫﺔ‬ َْ entrance hall watchman straw mattress ‫دﺑﺶ‬ َْ rubblestone ‫ردﻫﺔ اﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل‬ ِْْ ِ reception hall ‫دراﺑﺰﻳﻦ‬ َِ َ railing, bannister ‫رﺳﻢ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ َ ْ َ rough draft, design drawer ‫َ ﱠ‬ ‫( رش‬u) to spray ‫( رﺷﺢ‬a) َ َ َ to leak ‫رﺷﺢ‬ ْ َ leak ‫درج‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أدراج‬ ‫درج‬ ََ staircase ْ pl. ‫أدراج‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ َ ََ step (stairs) ‫دﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ِ prop, support ُ َ pl. ‫دﻋﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫رف‬ ّ َ ُُ pl. ‫رﻓﻮف‬ ‫رﻛﻦ‬ ْ ُ ْ ُ ُ pl. ‫رﻛﻮن ,أرﻛﺎن‬ shelf 1. support, buttress 2. corner, nook ‫( دﻓﻊ‬a) َ ََ to push ‫( رم‬u, i) ‫َﱠ‬ to repair, overhaul ‫( دق‬u) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to knock (on the door) ‫رﻣﻢ‬ َ َّ َ to restore, to renovate bench ‫( رﻣﻰ‬i) َ to throw away َّ ِ ‫دﻛﺔ‬ َ ِ pl. ‫دﻛﻚ‬ ‫دﻟﻮ‬ َْ bucket ِ pl. ‫دﻻء‬ house painter ‫( دﻫﻦ‬u) َ َ َ to paint ‫دورة اﻟﻤﻴﺎه‬ ِ َْ ‫دوش‬ ُ pl. ‫ات‬‫دوﻻب‬ ُ ُ َِ َ pl. ‫دوﻟﻴﺐ‬ corner, nook ‫زﺑﺎﻟﺔ‬ َ ‫دﻫﺎن‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ ‫دور‬ َْ pl. ‫أدوار‬ ْ ‫زاوﻳﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫زواﻳﺎ‬ see ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ lavatory shower cupboard see ‫ﻗﻤﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫زﻓﺖ‬ َ ‫َﱠ‬ to asphalt ‫زﻓﺖ‬ ِْ pitch ‫زﻟﻴﺞ‬ َُْ ornamental tile ‫زﻳﻖ‬ َ َّ َ to creak (hinge) ‫ﺳﺘﺎرة‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺳﺘﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ curtain َّ ِ َ ْ َ ‫ﺳﺘﺎﺋﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬ Venetian blinds ‫( ﺳﺤﺐ‬a) َ َ َ to pull
    • HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION َ ‫ﺳﺪاد اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َّ ‫ﺳﺠﺎدة‬ َ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺠﺎﺟﻴﺪ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺳﺨﺎن‬ َّ ُ ‫ﺳﺮداب‬ ِْ ََِ pl. ‫ﺳﺮدﻳﺐ‬ plug (el.) ‫ﺷﺒﺎك‬ َُ carpet ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺒﺎﺑﻴﻚ‬ boiler ‫ﺷﺮﺷﻒ‬ َ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﺷﻒ‬ cellar, basement ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ إﻳﺠﺎر‬ َِ rental company ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ِ َِ construction company ‫ﺳﺮﻳﺮ‬ َِ bed pl. ‫ﺳﺮاﻳﺮ ,ﺳﺮر ,أﺳﺮة‬ َِ ُ َ ُ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺰدوج‬ َُِْ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﺮدي‬ ّ َِْ double bed single bed ‫ﺷﻖ‬ ّ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻘﻮق‬ ُُ ‫ﺷﻘﺔ‬ ََ ‫ﺷﻤﻌﺔ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻤﻮع‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺳﻌﺪاﻧﺔ اﻟﺒﺎب‬ َْ door knob ‫ﺳﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ َ ‫ﺷﻤﻌﺪان‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻤﺎﻋﺪ‬ ُِ َ scaffolding 1. roof 2. ceiling ‫( ﺳﻜﻦ‬u) َ َ َ to reside, dwell ‫ﺳﻠﻚ اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َّ lead (el.) َّ َ ‫ﺳﻠﺔ‬ pl. ‫ﺳﻼل‬ ِ basket wastepaper basket ‫ﺳﻠﻢ‬ َّ ُ stairs pl. ‫ﺳﻼﻟﻢ ,ﺳﻼﻟﻴﻢ‬ ُ ِ َ ُِ َ ‫ﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬ ِّ َ َ ُ ‫ﺳﻮر‬ ُ pl. ‫أﺳﻮار‬ ْ bedsheet fissure, crack flat candle candlestick َّ َ ُ ‫ﺻﺎج ﻣﻀﻠﻊ‬ corrugated iron ‫ﺻﺒﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to soap ‫ﺻﺤﻦ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺻﺤﻮن‬ ُ ُ َّ ُ ‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬ َُ pl. ‫ﺻﻔﻒ‬ َ ََ ‫( ﺻﻘﻞ‬u) ‫ﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻼت‬ َ ْ ُ window pl. ‫ﺷﻘﻖ‬ َُ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ْ َ (flat) roof pl. ‫أﺳﻄﺢ ,أﺳﻄﺤﺔ ,ﺳﻄﻮح‬ ُ ُ ِ ْ ُ ْ ‫ﺳﻘﻒ‬ َْ pl. ‫,ﺳﻘﻮف‬ ُُ ‫أﺳﻘﻒ ,ﺳﻘﻒ‬ ُُ ُْ 67 ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق‬ ُ ُْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺻﻨﺎدق‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﻘﻤﺎﻣﺔ‬ ُ courtyard moulding, ledge to polish, burnish box, chest dustbin enclosing wall ‫ﺳﻴﺎج‬ ِ fence pl. ‫أﺳﻴﺎج ,أﺳﻮﺟﺔ ,-ات‬ ِْ ْ ‫ﺷﺎﻟﻴﻪ‬ ِ chalet ‫ﺷﺎﻫﺮ‬ ََ to rent by the month ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ُ َُ pl. ‫ﺻﻮر‬ 2. photograph ‫ﺿﺠﻴﺞ‬ ِ َ escalator noise, din ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺢ‬ َِ َ ِْ pl. ‫أﺿﺮﺣﺔ ,ﺿﺮاﺋﺢ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺑﻖ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاﺑﻖ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. picture mausoleum see ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬
    • 68 HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION ‫ﻃﺎﺑﻖ أرﺿﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ground floor ‫ﻃﺎوﻟﺔ‬ ُ table ‫ﻃﺒﺔ‬ َّ َ stopper, plug ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ َََ pl. ‫ﻃﺒﺎق‬ ِ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ِ َِ ‫ﻃﻘﻢ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻃﻘﻮم‬ floor, storey ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻷﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺠﻠﻮس‬ ُُ dining room lounge ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﻨﻮم‬ ْ َّ bedroom ‫ﻏﻄﺎء‬ ِ lid, cover pl. ‫أﻏﻄﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ ‫ﻏﻄﺎء اﻟﻤﺨﺪة‬ َّ َ ِ building style service (e.g. china) pillow case ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻮس‬ ُ lantern pl. ‫ﻓﻮاﻧﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﻓﺘﺢ‬i) َ ََ ‫( ﻃﻠﻰ‬i) ََ to coat, overlay ‫ﻃﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻫﺐ‬ َ َّ ِ َ َ to gild ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﻃﻮم‬ ُ ُْ ُْ ‫ﻃﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء‬ ِ ْ َ ِ ََ to galvanize َُ pl. ‫-ات ,ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻃﻼء‬ ِ coat (e.g. paint) ‫ﻃﻨﻄﻦ‬ َ َ َْ to ring, tinkle (bell) ‫ﻃﻮاب‬ َّ pl. ‫ﻓﺮش‬ ُُ brickmaker ‫ﻓﺮﺷﺎة‬ ُْ ‫( ﻃﻮب‬coll.) ُ bricks ‫ﻃﻮب أﺣﻤﺮ‬ َ ْ baked bricks ‫ﻓﺴﻴﺢ‬ ِ َ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﺴﺎح‬ 1. to open ‫ﻋﺎرﺿﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻮارض‬ ُ ِ َ doorpost 2. to switch on (e.g. tv) hose nozzle ‫ﻓﺨﻢ‬ ْ َ stately ‫ﻓﺮاش‬ ِ mattress ‫ﻓﻀﻠﺔ‬ ْ َ brush spacious waste َ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻀﻼت‬ ‫ﻋﺎزل‬ ِ insulator (el.) ‫ﻓﻴﻼ‬ ِ villa ‫ﻋﺘﺒﺔ‬ ََ threshold ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺮاق‬ ِْ ِ ِ flammable ‫ﻋﺪاد‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻋﺮﻗﺔ‬ ََ ‫ﻋﻘﺎر‬ َ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻋﻤﺎرة‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻤﺎﺋﺮ ات‬ ُ َ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ُ َ counter, meter transom real estate, property see ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ‬ ُْ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‬ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ 1. groundwork 2. pedestal, base shoe tree main support pl. ‫.ُ ﻗﻮاﺋﻢ‬ َ ‫( ﻗﺒﺮ‬i, u) َ ََ column ِ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻤﺪة‬ َُ pl. ‫ﻏﺮف‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪة‬ ِ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﻏﺪ‬ to bury ‫ﻗﺒﺮ‬ َْ tomb, grave ُُ pl. ‫ﻗﺒﻮر‬ room ‫ﻗﺪﻳﻢ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻗﺪام‬ ُ old
    • HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION ‫ﻗﺬارة‬ َ dirt ‫ﻗﺮﻣﺪ‬ ََ َْ 1. to plaster 2. to cover with tiles ‫( ﻗﺮﻣﻴﺪ‬coll.) ِ ِْ tiles pl. ‫ﻗﺮاﻣﻴﺪ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻗﺰاز‬ َّ َ ‫ﻗﺼﺮ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﺼﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮن‬ َ َْ َ ‫ﻗﻔﻞ‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻌﺔ‬ َْ ِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻗﻠﻮع ,ﻗﻼع‬ glass merchant ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺔ‬ َِ FOR SALE ‫ﻟﻮح اﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬة‬ ِ َّ window pane ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻻﺳﻢ‬ ْ ِ door plate ‫ﻣﺄﺧﺬ‬ َ ُِ pl. ‫ﻣﺎﺧﺬ‬ to tar ‫ﻣﺎدة اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ِ َّ pl. - ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ّ َ 2. padlock brick ‫ﻟﻼﻳﺠﺎر‬ ِ ُ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻊ‬ َْ ِ palace 1. lock 69 ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻼك‬ َّ ُ FOR RENT socket (el.) building material owner castle ‫ﻣﺄوى‬ ‫َ ﹰ‬ pl. ‫ﻣﺎو‬ ٍ ‫ﻗﻤﺎﻣﺔ‬ ُ refuse, garbage ِ َ ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك‬ ُ ُّ etiquette ‫ﻣﺎﺋﺪة‬ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﺋﺪ‬ ُ َ arch ‫ﻣﺒﺎع‬ ُ SOLD ‫ﻣﺒﻠﻂ‬ َّ َ ُ paved ‫ﻗﻮس‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻗﻮاس‬ ْ ‫ﻛﺎرﺗﻮن‬ ْ ‫ﻛﺮﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُْ pl. ‫ﻛﺮاس‬ ٍ َ cardboard chair ‫ﻣﺠﺎور‬ ِ ُ َّ َ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﻛﺮﺳﻲ ﻫﺰاز‬ rocking chair ‫( )ب( ﻛﺴﺎ‬u) َ to cover, line, drape (with) ‫ﻛﻤﺮة‬ َ َ beam ‫( ﻛﻨﺲ‬u) َ ََ to sweep ‫( ﻛﻨﻒ‬u) َ ََ to hedge in ‫ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ََْ electrician ‫ﻛﻮاﻟﻴﻨﻲ‬ ِ ِ َ َّ ِ ِ َ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻮﻟﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻮخ‬ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻛﻮاخ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﺲ اﻟﻘﻤﺎﻣﺔ‬ ُ ِ ‫ﻣﺠﻮة‬ ْ َ َ َ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺠﺎء ,ﻣﺠﻮات‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪة‬ َّ َ ِ ُّ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺨﺎد‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪع‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺨﺎدع‬ ُ ِ َ shelter (e.g. for the homeless) see ‫ﻃﺎوﻟﺔ‬ (horizontal) tombstone neighbouring pillow, cushion small room, cabinet ‫ﻣﺨﺮﺑﺸﺎت‬ َْ َ ُ graffiti َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ‬ layout, design locksmith ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬ ُ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺪاﺧﻞ‬ hut ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻨﺔ‬ َ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺪاﺧﻦ‬ bin liner ‫ﻣﺪرج‬ َّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ entrance chimney open-air staircase, fliers
    • 70 ‫ﻣﺪﻓﺄة‬ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺪاﻓﻰء‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻓﻦ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻣﺪاﻓﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺮآة‬ ِ ٍ َ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﻳﺎ ,ﻣﺮاء‬ HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTION heater, stove ‫ﻣﻄﻔﺄة‬ ْ ِ 1. fire engine 2. see ‫ﺟﻬﺎز إﻃﻔﺎء اﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‬ mirror ‫ﻣﺮاﻧﺔ‬ َ pliability, elasticity َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺐ‬ tidy ‫ﻣﺮﺣﺎض‬ ِ urinal ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻳﺢ‬ ُِ comfortable َّ َ ‫ﻣﺴﺎح‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﻻﺳﺘﺌﺠﺎر‬ ْ ِ ُْ َ WANTED TO RENT ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ِ ِ ُْ َ burial ground WANTED FOR PURCHASE ‫ﻣﻌﺠﻮن‬ ُ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺟﻴﻦ‬ putty ِّ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻨﺠﺎرة‬ timbermill ‫ﻣﻐﺴﻠﺔ‬ َ َْ sink ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. key 2. switch (el.) ‫ﻣﻔﺮوش‬ َُْ furnished land surveyor ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ِ ‫ﻣﻔﺮوﺷﺎت‬ َُْ see ‫أﺛﺎث‬ surveying َّ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ أرﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ hinge acreage ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ‬ ِ ْ ْ ُ ‫ﻣﻘﺎول‬ ِ ُ building contractor tenant ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬ َِْ ُ ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬ َ ُ resistance (el.) straight ‫( ﻣﺴﺢ‬a) َ َ َ to polish ‫ﻣﺴﻘﻮف‬ ُْ َ roofed ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻦ‬ ِ ْ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎح‬ ْ ِ residence ‫ﻣﺼﻬﺮ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺼﻴﻒ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻀﺠﻊ‬ َ ْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻀﺎﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﺦ‬ َْ َ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﺦ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺪ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ‬ ُِ َ cemetery 1. settee 2. armchair ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺪ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬ َِ lamp ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻌﺪ‬ َْ ِ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺒﺮة‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﺮ‬ ُِ َ lift fuse (el.) summer home couch kitchen chaise longue ‫( ﻣﻜﺚ‬u) َ َ َ to stay, remain ‫ﻣﻜﻨﺴﺔ‬ َ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ broom ‫ﻣﻜﻨﺴﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ ْ َ vacuum cleaner ‫ﻣﻼط‬ ِ mortar (material) ‫ﻣﻠﺾ‬ َِ smooth, slippery ‫ﻣﻤﺮ‬ َّ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ corridor, hallway ‫ﻣﻤﺴﺢ‬ َ ْ ِ 1. dust cloth ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻤﺎﺳﺢ‬ 2. scraper
    • CLOTHING ‫ﻣﻤﺴﺢ اﻷرﺟﻞ‬ ُ َْ َ ْ ِ ‫ﻣﻨﺒﻪ‬ ِّ َ ُ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺤﻨﻰ‬ ً ْ َ doormat َّ َ ‫ﻧﺠﺎد‬ upholsterer alarm clock ‫ﻧﺠﺎر‬ َّ َ carpenter ‫ﻧﺠﺎرة‬ ِ carpentry ‫ﻧﺠﻔﺔ‬ َ َ chandelier َّ َ ‫ﻧﺤﺎت‬ 1. stonemason curve, bow pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎن‬ ٍ َ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻦ‬ ٍ َ ُْ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﻀﺔ‬ َ َِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺾ‬ ُ ِ َ 71 bent, crooked 2. sculptor ‫ﻧﺤﺎس‬ َّ َ coppersmith ‫( ﻧﺤﺖ‬a) َ َ َ ashtray to carve (wood) ‫ﻧﺸﺎرة‬ ُ sawdust َّ َ ‫ﻧﺴﺎج‬ weaver ‫( ﻧﺸﺮ‬u) ََ َ to saw apart ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪس‬ ِ َْ ُ engineer ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪس ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ََْ electrical engineer ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪس ﻣﻌﻤﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِْ architect ‫ﻣﻮارب‬ ُ ُ ajar (door) ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ‬ َ cleanliness ‫ﻣﺆﺟﺮ‬ ِّ َ ُ landlord ‫ﻧﻈﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to clean َّ ُ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ذات‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ّ َِْ public utility company ‫ﻧﻈﻴﻒ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻈﺎف ,ﻧﻈﻔﺎء‬ ُ َ ُ ِ ‫ﻣﻮﻛﻴﺖ‬ ِ ُ fitted carpet ‫( ﻫﺪم‬i) َََ ‫ﻧﺎﺷﻒ‬ ِ dry ‫ﻧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ِ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاص‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬة‬ ِ to demolish, pull down (building) see ‫ﺷﺒﺎك‬ removal man ‫ﻫﺪم‬ ََ demolition ‫وزرة‬ ََ street corner pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﻓﺬ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ أﺛﺎث‬ ِ clean skirting ‫وﺳﺎدة‬ ِ pl. ‫وﺳﺎﺋﺪ ,-ات‬ ُ َ (‫وﺿﻊَ )ﻳﻀﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ َ َ see ‫ﻣﺨﺪة‬ to put, place Clothing ‫إﺑﺮة‬ ْ needle ‫أﺣﻤﺮ اﻟﺷﻔﺎه‬ ‫ﱢ‬ َ ْ lipstick ‫إﺳﻜﺎف‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫أﺳﺎﻛﻔﺔ‬ ‫ارﺗﺪى‬ َ َْ ِ to put on (shoes, clothes) ‫إﻋﺘﻢ‬ َّ َ ْ shoemaker to put on/wear a turban
    • 72 CLOTHING ‫أﻟﺒﺴﺔ ﺟﺎﻫﺰة‬ ِ ِْ ready-made clothes ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺮى‬ َِْ neckline ‫آﻟﺔ اﻟﺨﻴﺎﻃﺔ‬ ِ sewing machine ‫ﺗﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ َ lining, draping, covering َ ‫أﻣﺎل‬ to tip, tilt (e.g. hat) ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِ َْ dry cleaning ‫أﻧﺎﻗﺔ‬ elegance ‫ﺛﻨﻴﺔ‬ َْ crease ‫( أﻧﻖ‬a) َ ِ to be elegant (dress) pl. ‫ﺛﻨﻴﺎت‬ ََ ‫أﻧﻴﻖ‬ ِ elegant, chic ُ ‫ﺗﻮﻛﺔ اﻟﺸﻌﺮ‬ ْ َّ hairclip slipper ‫ﺗﻮل‬ ُ tulle suit ‫ﺛﻮب‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺛﻴﺎب‬ ِ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮج‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻮاﺑﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻟﺔ‬ َْ َِ pl. ‫ﺑﺪل‬ see ‫ﻣﻠﺒﺲ‬ ‫ﺛﻮب اﻟﺤﺪاد‬ ِ ُْ mourning clothes ‫ﺑﺪﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻔﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ْ َ gala dress evening clothes ‫ﺑﺪﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﻤﺎم‬ ّ َ َْ ِ ‫ﺛﻴﺎب اﻟﺴﻬﺮة‬ ْ َّ bathing suit ‫ﺟﺎﻛﻴﺖ‬ ِ jacket ‫ﺑﺪﻟﺔ اﻟﻐﻮص‬ َْ diving suit َّ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﺑﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬ civilian clothes ‫ﺟﻠﺪ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺟﻼد ,ﺟﻠﻮد‬ ُُ ْ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﻴﻄﺔ‬ ِْْ ُ European hat ‫ﺟﻠﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ ِْ genuine leather ‫ﺟﻠﺪ ﻟﻤﺎع‬ ّ َ ِ patent leather ‫ﺟﻮرب‬ ََْ stocking ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﻧﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻧﺔ‬ َ lining 1. leather 2. animal skin pl. ‫ﺟﻮارب‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺑﻨﻄﻠﻮن‬ َ َْ European-style trousers ‫ﺑﻨﻄﻠﻮن ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ َ َْ shorts ‫ﺑﺠﺎﻣﺔ‬ ِ pyjamas ‫ﺑﻠﻮزة‬ blouse ‫ﺑﻴﺎض‬ َ linen ‫ﺟﻴﻨﺰ‬ ْ ِ jeans ‫ﻳﻴﺎﺿﺎت‬ َ linen goods َ ‫( ﺣﺎك‬i) to weave, knit ‫ﺑﻴﺖ اﻟﺰﻳﻨﺔ‬ ِّ َْ beauty parlour ‫ﺣﺎﺋﻚ‬ weaver ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺮة‬ َ َْ jewel pl. ‫ﺟﻮاﻫﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﺟﻴﺐ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺟﻴﻮب‬ ُُ pocket ‫ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺤﺔ‬ ِْ َ hairdo pl. ‫ﺣﺎﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺮﻳﺰ‬ ِْ َ embroidery ‫( ﺣﺒﻚ‬i, u) َ ََ to braid, knit to adorn o.self with a necklace ‫ﺣﺠﺎب‬ ِ headscarf, hijab ُ ُ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﺠﺒﺔ ,ﺣﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﺪ‬ َ َّ َ َ
    • CLOTHING ‫ﺣﺬاء‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺣﺬﻳﺔ‬ ِْ boot ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺮ‬ َِ silk ‫ﺣﺰام‬ ِ belt ‫دﺑﻮس اﻧﻜﻠﻴﺰي‬ ِ ِ ِْ ُّ َ safety pin ‫( دﻋﻚ‬a) َ َ َ shoe ‫ﺣﺬاء ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﺒﺔ‬ ْ َّ to scrub (laundry) ‫دﻣﻠﺞ‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫دﻣﺎﻟﺞ‬ ُ ِ َ bracelet decoration, embellishment ‫دﻳﺒﺎج‬ ِ brocade ‫رﺑﺎط اﻟﺤﺬاء‬ ِ ِْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺣﺰم ,أﺣﺰﻣﺔ ,-ات‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻴﺔ‬ ِْ ً ِ pl. ‫ﺣﻠﻰ‬ 73 shoelace ‫رﺑﺎط اﻟﻌﻨﻖ‬ ُُ necktie َّ َ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺻﺪر‬ َْ bra ‫( رﺑﻂ‬i) َ ََ to tie ‫ﺣﻴﺎﻛﺔ‬ ِ weaving َّ َْ ‫رﺑﻄﺔ اﻟﺴﺎق‬ garter ring ‫( رﺳﻖ‬i) َ َ َ to fasten, insert ‫رﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬ َ atomizer ‫ﺧﺎﺗﻢ‬ ِ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻮاﺗﻢ‬ ‫( ﺧﺮز‬coll.) َْ beads (strung) ‫ﺧﺮم اﻹﺑﺮة‬ ْ ُْ eye of the needle ‫ﺧﺸﻦ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﺸﺎن‬ ِ ‫ﺧﻮان اﻟﺰﻳﻨﺔ‬ ِّ ُ ‫ﺧﻠﺨﻞ‬ َ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻼﺧﻞ‬ (‫( ﺧﻠﻊَ )ﻣﻼﺑﺴﻪ‬a) َ ِ َ ََ ‫( ﺧﻠﻖ‬m./f.) ََ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﺧﻼق ,ﺧﻠﻘﺎن‬ َّ َ ‫ﺧﻴﺎط‬ coarse, rough (<> fine) dressing table anklet to take off (clothes) threadbare tailor ‫ﺧﻴﻂ‬ َ َّ َ to sew ‫دﺑﺎغ‬ َّ َ tanner ‫( دﺑﻎ‬a, i, u) َ ََ to tan (leather) ‫دﺑﻮس ﺻﺪر‬ َْ ُّ َ ‫( رﻓﺄ‬a) ََ to inlay (e.g. with precious stones) 1. to darn (socks) 2. to mend (clothes) ‫ﺧﻴﻂ‬ َْ thread pl. ‫ﺧﻴﻄﺎن ,أﺧﻴﺎط ,ﺧﻴﻮط‬ ُُ ْ ِ ‫دﺑﻮس‬ ُّ َ pl. ‫دﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫رﺻﻊ‬ َ َّ َ ‫رﻓﺮف‬ ََْ pl. ‫رﻓﺎرف‬ ُ ِ َ visor (hat) ‫( رﻗﻊ‬a) َ ََ to patch (a garment) ‫رﻗﻌﺔ‬ ُْ piece of cloth pl. ‫رﻗﺎع ,رﻗﻊ‬ ُُ ِ ‫روﻧﻖ‬ َْ َ splendour, beauty ‫زر‬ ِّ button pl. ‫أزرار‬ ْ ‫زرّ ﻛﻢّ اﻟﻘﻤﻴﺺ‬ ِ َ ُ ِ cufflink pl. -‫أزرار‬ َْ brooch one of a pair ‫زوﺟﺎن‬ َْ couple ‫زﻳﻨﺔ‬ ِْ toilette ‫ﺳﺎذج‬ ِ pin ‫زوج‬ َْ plain, not coloured (fabric) ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ watch
    • 74 ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺠﻴﺐ‬ َْ CLOTHING pocket watch ‫ﺻﺒﻎ‬ َْ dye see ‫ﺟﺎﻛﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺻﺪرة‬ ُْ waistcoat َ ََ ‫( ﺻﻘﻞ‬u) to polish ‫ﺻﻠﺢ‬ َ َّ َ to repair needle) (‫ﺻﻤﻢَ )ل‬ ِ َّ َ to design (clothing) (for) ‫ﺳﺮحَ ﺷﻌﺮه‬ ْ َ َّ َ to do one’s hair ‫ﺻﻮف‬ ُ wool ‫ﺳﺮوال‬ ِْ trousers َّ ِ ‫ﺳﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ shoemaking ‫ﺳﺘﺮة‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﺳﺘﺮ‬ َُ ‫ﺳﺤﺎب‬ َّ َ zipper ‫ﺳﺪد‬ َ َّ َ to thread (yarn through ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ِ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻼﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻂ‬ ْ ِ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﻮط‬ َ َ َ ‫( ﺳﻤﻞ‬u) ‫ﺳﻤﻞ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﺳﻤﺎل‬ ْ chain ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﺿﻌﺎف‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ِ ِ ُ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاﻗﻲ‬ to be worn, in tatters (clothes) worn clothes, rags to embroider ‫ﻃﻘﻢ‬ َْ 1. set (of cufflinks, pens, etc.) pl. ‫ﻃﻘﻮم‬ ُُ 2. see ‫ﺑﺪﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻼء اﻷﻇﺎﻓﺮ‬ ِ nail polish ‫ﻃﻮق‬ َْ 1. see ‫ﻳﺎﻗﺔ‬ 2. frame (spectacles) silk brocade ‫ﺷﺎل‬ َّ َ ‫ﻃﻴﺔ‬ shawl ِ pl. ‫ﺷﻴﻼن‬ 1. pleat 2. lapel ‫ﻇﻞّ اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َ ِ slipper ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺒﺎﺷﺐ‬ ‫( ﺷﺪ‬i) َّ َ skull-cap ‫ﻃﺮز‬ َََ string (necklace) ‫ﺳﻨﺪس‬ ُ ُْ ‫ﺷﺒﺸﺐ‬ ِ ِْ fold (of a garment) ‫ﻋﺒﺎء‬ َ pl. ‫أﻋﺒﺌﺔ‬ ْ eyeshadow all-body woollen wrap to tighten ‫ﻋﺮوة‬ ُْ see ‫ﺟﻮرب‬ ‫ُ ﹰ‬ pl. ‫ﻋﺮى‬ ribbon ‫ﻋﻄﺮ‬ ْ ِ ُ ُ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﻄﻮرات ,ﻋﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺴﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ parasol ُُ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﻮد‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻎ‬ goldsmith (‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ )اﻟﺜﻴﺎب‬ ِّ َّ َ coathanger ‫ﺻﺒﺎغ‬ ََ dyer ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬ َ label (in item of clothing) ‫( ﺻﺒﻎ‬u, i, a) َ ََ to dye ‫ﻋﻠﻖ‬ َ َّ َ to hang up (clothes) ‫ﺷﺮاب‬ َُ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬ َِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺪ‬ َْ buttonhole scent, perfume necklace
    • CLOTHING turban َ َ ‫ﻗﺼﺐ اﻟﺬﻫﺐ‬ َ َّ stitch َّ ُ ‫ﻗﻔﺎز‬ pl. ‫ﻗﻔﺎﻓﻴﺰ -ات‬ ٫ُ ِ َ ‫ﻏﺰال‬ َّ َ spinner ‫ﻗﻔﻄﺎن‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻗﻔﺎﻃﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ َ ََ ‫( ﻏﺰل‬i) to spin ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻣﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻤﺎﺋﻢ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻏﺮزة‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻏﺮز‬ َُ ‫ﻏﺰل‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻏﺰول‬ ُُ yarn ‫ﻗﻼدة‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﻼﺋﺪ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻗﻤﺎش‬ ُ ِ ْ pl. ‫اﻗﻤﺸﺔ‬ 75 gold brocade gloves caftan see ‫ﻋﻘﺪ‬ fabric, cloth َّ َ ‫ﻏﺴﺎل‬ laundryman ‫ﻏﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ َّ َ washing machine pl. ‫أﻗﻤﺼﺔ ,ﻗﻤﺺ ,ﻗﻤﺼﺎت‬ ْ ُ ُ ُ ِ ْ َ َ َ ‫( ﻏﺴﻞ‬i) to wash, launder ِ َ ‫ﻗﻤﻴﺺ اﻟﻨﻮم‬ ْ َّ nightgown ‫ﻏﺴﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ laundry, washing (‫ﻛﺒﺴﻮل)ة‬ ُ َْ press stud ‫( ﻏﻄﺎ‬u) َ to cover (up) ‫ﻏﻄﺎء‬ ِ covering ‫ﻛﺒﺸﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻛﺒﺶ‬ pl. ‫أﻏﻄﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ ‫ﻗﻤﻴﺺ‬ ِ َ shirt, blouse hook, clasp َّ ِ ‫ﻛﺘﺎن‬ linen seductive, charming ‫ﻛﺴﻢ‬ ْ َ cut, style (of a dress) َّ ِ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻠﺔ‬ vest, undershirt ‫ﻛﺸﺘﺒﺎن‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫ﻛﺸﺎﺗﺒﻴﻦ‬ ِِ َ ‫( ﻓﺮو‬coll.) َْ fur ‫ﻓﺎﺗﻦ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﻮاﺗﻦ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺮاء‬ ِ ‫ﻓﺴﺘﺎن‬ ْ ُ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺴﺎﺗﻴﻦ‬ ْ ُ ‫ﻓﺴﺘﺎن اﻟﺴﻬﺮة‬ ْ َّ ‫ﻓﺺ‬ ّ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺼﻮص‬ ُ ُ seam, hem pl. ‫ﻛﺸﺎﻛﺶ‬ ُ ِ َ dress, gown ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ُّ sleeve pl. ‫أﻛﻤﺎم‬ ْ evening dress ‫ﻛﻨﺰة‬ َْ sweater stone (of a ring) ‫ﻛﻮاء‬ َّ ironer ‫( ﻛﻮى‬i) ََ to iron ‫ﻛﻲ‬ ّ َ pressing (clothes) ِ ‫ﻟﺒﺎس اﻟﺮأس‬ ْ َّ headgear ِ ‫ﻟﺒﺎس اﻟﺼﻬﺮة‬ ْ َّ party dress َّ ِ َ َ ِ ‫ﻟﺒﺎس وﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ national costume َ َِ ‫( ﻟﺒﺲ‬a) to get dressed َّ َ ‫( ﻓﻚ‬u) to untie, undo ‫ﻗﺒﻘﺎب‬ َْ wooden clog pl. ‫ﻗﺒﺎﻗﻴﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻗﻄﻦ‬ ْ ُ ‫ﻛﺸﻜﺶ‬ َ ْ َ thimble cotton ‫ﻗﺮط‬ ُْ earring, pendant pl. ‫ﻗﺮوط ,ﻗﺮاط ,أﻗﺮاط‬ ْ ِ ُُ
    • 76 ‫ﻟ ﺒﺲ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﻟﻮح اﻟﻜﻲ‬ ّ َ َْ ْ pl. - ‫أﻟﻮاح‬ CLOTHING to dress someone ironing board َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻜﺴﻢ‬ well shaped ‫ﻣﻜﻮى‬ ‫ِ ْ ﹰ‬ iron (device) ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻜﺎو‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﺢ‬ ِ bootblack ِ َ ‫ﻣﻼﺑﺲ ﺧﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ outer clothes ‫ﻣﺎﻛﻴﺎج‬ make-up َّ ِ ِ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻼﺑﺲ داﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ underwear ‫ﻣﺠﻮﻫﺮات‬ َ َْ ُ jewellery َّ ِ َ ْ َ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻼﺑﺲ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ military uniform ‫ﻣﺨﻤﻞ‬ َ ْ ُ velvet (n.) ‫ﻣﻼﺑﺲ رﺳﻤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ ِ َ uniform ‫ﻣﺮﻳﻠﺔ‬ َْ َ apron, pinafore ‫ﻣﻼﺑﺲ اﻟﺰﻓﺎف‬ ِّ ِ َ wedding clothes ‫ﻣﺮﻳﻮل‬ ُْ َ bib ‫ﻣﺰدوج‬ َُِْ double ‫( ﻣﺰق‬i) َ ََ to tear ‫ﻣﺰق‬ َْ tear ‫ﻣﺰق‬ َ َّ َ to shred ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪم‬ َ َْ ُ well dressed, tidy َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺰﻳﻨﺎت‬ ornaments, jewellery ‫ﻣﻮﺿﺔ‬ ُ fashion to weave ‫ﻣﻠﺒﺲ‬ ََْ ِ َ pl. ُ‫ﻣﻼﺑﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻔﻊ‬ َ ِْ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻳﻞ‬ ِ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎدﻳﻞ‬ garment headshawl handkerchief ‫ﻣﺸﺠﺐ‬ َ ْ ِ 1. clothes hook pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺟﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﻧﺴﺞ‬u) َ َ َ 2. clothes rack َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺸﺠﺮ‬ with plant designs (fabric) ‫ﻧﺴﻴﺞ‬ ِ َ woven fabric ُ ُ ِ ْ ْ pl. ‫أﻧﺴﺎج ,أﻧﺴﺠﺔ ,ﻧﺴﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻤﻢ اﻹزﻳﺎء‬ ْ ِّ َ ُ fashion designer ‫ﻣﻈﻠﺔ‬ َّ َ ِ umbrella, parasol ‫ﻣﻌﻄﻒ‬ َ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻃﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻄﻒ ﻓﺮو‬ َْ َ ِْ ‫ﻣﻐﺰل‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻐﺎزل‬ ِ َ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻘﻮر‬ overcoat ‫ﻧﻘﺎب‬ ِ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ َ ُ َ ِ َ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻤﺎذج ,-ات‬ face veil pattern ‫ورﺷﺔ ﻏﺴﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ َ fur coat spindle laundry (place) ‫وﺷﺎح‬ ِ cummerbund ُ ُ ِ ْ ُ َ pl. ‫وﺷﺎﺋﺢ ,أوﺷﺤﺔ ,وﺷﺢ‬ ‫وﺷﺢ‬ َ ‫َ ﱠ‬ low-necked (e.g. dress) to get dressed up ‫ﻳﺎﻗﺔ‬ collar
    • SCHOOL AND EDUCATION 77 School and education General ‫اﺟﺘﻬﺎد‬ ِْ ِ deadline ‫إﻟﻬﺎم‬ ْ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫إﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ْ statistician ‫اﻣﺘﺤﺎن‬ ِْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫أﺣﻤﻖ‬ َ ْ stupid ‫اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮي‬ ّ ِ ِْ َ ِ written exam ‫اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺷﻔﻬﻲ‬ ّ ََِ ِ oral exam, viva ‫أﺟﻞ‬ َ pl. ‫آﺟﺎل‬ diligence ْ َ ُ ُ f. ‫ ,ﺣﻤﻘﺎء‬pl. ‫ﺣﻤﻖ‬ inspiration examination ‫إﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ‬ ّ ِْ specialist ‫إﻣﻼء‬ ْ dictation ‫أﺧﻄﺄ‬ َ ْ to make mistakes ‫أﻣﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ْ to dictate ‫إذن‬ ْ permission ‫أﻣﻲ‬ ّ ِّ ُ illiterate َّ ِّ ُ ‫أﻣﻴﺔ‬ illiteracy ‫أﻣﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻜْﺘﺒﺔ‬ َ َ ِ librarian professor, university lecturer ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎد‬ ِِْ criticism ‫أﺳﺘﺎذ ﻣﺸﺎرك‬ ِ ُ ْ ُ associate professor ََِْ ‫اﻧﺘﻘﻞَ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺼﻒ‬ ّ َّ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬ ِ to go to a higher form/class ‫أﺳﺘﺎذ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ِ ُ ْ assistant professor ‫إﻧﺸﺎء‬ ْ composition, writing class ‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺣﺔ‬ ِْ ِ break, recreation ‫أوﺿﺢ‬ َ َ ْ to explain, clarify ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺎر‬ َ ِْ ِ to borrow (e.g. books) ‫اﺳﺘﻘﻀﻰ ﻋﻄﻠﺔ‬ ْ ُ ِْْ ِ to spend holidays ‫اﺳﺘﻬﺠﻰ‬ َ َْ ِ to spell ‫اﺳﺘﻮﻋﺐ‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to comprehend, take in ‫أﻃﺮوﺣﺔ‬ ُْ ُ dissertation borrowing period (e.g. library) pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﺟﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫أﺳﺎس‬ َ pl. ‫ات‬‫أﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫أﺳﺎﺗﺬة‬ ‫إﻋﺎرة‬ base, basis ‫إﻳﻀﺎح‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ explanation ‫ﺑﺎﺣﺚ‬ ِ researcher ‫اﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ِ remainder (math.) (‫ﺑﺮاﻳﺔ )اﻷﻗﻼم‬ ْ َّ َ pencil sharpener ‫ﺑﺮﺟﻞ‬ َ ِْ compasses, dividers ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ِ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ‬ 2. curriculum horizontal ‫ﺑﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬ َ simplicity typewriter ُّ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﻄﻼب‬ ِ student card ‫أﻋﺪ‬ َّ َ to prepare (one’s lesson) ‫أﻓﻘﻲ‬ ّ ُِ ‫آﻟﺔ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ِ 1. programme
    • 78 SCHOOL AND EDUCATION ‫ﺑﻜﺎﻟﻮرﻳﻮس‬ ُِ ُ َ Bachelor’s degree ‫ﺗﻐﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ََْ َ َ َّ َ َ to play truant ‫ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ‬ َ ِ tantamount to ‫ﺗﻔﺎﺿﻞ‬ ُ َ rivalry for precedence ‫ﺑﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ِ ُ ِ on the occasion of ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺪرﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ََْ َِْ school report ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ِ ِ by means of ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺳﻞ‬ ُ َ laziness ‫ﺑﻴﺾ‬ َ َّ َ to make a fair copy (of a text) ‫ﺗﻜﺮﻳﺮ‬ ِْ َ repetition ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺎوي‬ ِ َْ oval ‫ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬ‬ ِ ِ pupil ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ َ َْ between, among ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺮَ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺪرس‬ ْ َّ َّ َ to be late for class ٍ ‫ﺗﺎل‬ next to be capable of ‫ﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ‬ ِ َْ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻦَ ﻣﻦ‬ simplification ‫ﺗﻬﺠﻴﺔ‬ ِ َْ spelling ‫ﺗﺒﺴﻴﻄﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِْ simplified ‫ﺗﻮﻃﺌﺔ‬ َْ preface ‫ﺗﺒﻴﻴﻀﺔ‬ َِْ fair copy ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ِ university test, trial ‫ﺟﺎﻫﻞ‬ ِ ignorant ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ِْ َ pl. ‫ﺗﺠﺎرب‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻼﻣﺬة‬ ِ َ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ِْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻤﺎرﻳﻦ‬ exercise pl. ‫ﺟﻬﺎل ,ﺟﻬﻼء ,ﺟﻬﻠﺔ ,ﺟﻬﻞ‬ َّ ُ َ َ ُ َ ُ َّ َ ‫ﺗﺤﺬﻟﻖ‬ َ َْ َ َ to be pedantic ‫ﺟﺎوز‬ ََ to exceed, go beyond ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ِْ َ analysis, parsing َّ َ َ (‫ﺗﺨﺮجَ )ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺋﺰ‬ prize to graduate (from) pl. ‫ﺟﻮاﺋﺰ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺞ‬ ِْ َ graduation ‫ﺗﺪرﻳﺐ ﻣﻬﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ِ ِ ْ َ vocational training ‫ﺟﺪول‬ ََْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺟﺪاول‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﻳﺠﻴﺎ‬ ً ِ َِْ gradually ‫ﺟﺮب‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ِْ َ education, upbringing ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ ِ ْ َ physical education ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ‬ ّ ُِ َ side effect ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬ ً َِْ approximately ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َ َّ َ َ to concentrate on pl. ‫ﺟﻬﻮد‬ ُُ ٍ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﺎل‬ ِْ َ higher education ‫ﺟﻴﺪ‬ َْ B (result) ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻂ‬ َِْ ُ ِْ َ coeducation ‫ﺟﻴﺪ ﺟﺪا‬ ًّ ِ َْ A (result) ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ّ ِ َْ ُ ِْ َ continuing education ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ِ calculator ‫ﺟﺮس‬ ََ pl. ‫أﺟﺮاس‬ ْ 1. roster 2. schedule, timetable to test, try out bell ‫( ﺟﻤﻊ‬i) َ َ َ to collect, gather ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ْ َ adding (math.) ‫ﺟﻬﺪ‬ َْ effort
    • SCHOOL AND EDUCATION ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺒﺔ اﻟﺠﻴﺐ‬ َْ ِ pocket calculator ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ِ result (multiplication, division) َ َ ‫ﺣﺎول‬ to try ‫ﺣﺒﺮ‬ ِْ ink ‫ﺣﺠﺮة اﻷﺳﺎﺗﺬة‬ ِ ْ ُ teachers’ room, common room ‫دار اﻟﺤﻀﺎﻧﺔ‬ ِ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ pl. ‫دواﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫دﺑﺎﺳﺔ‬ َّ َ ‫درج‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أدراج‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ََ 79 crèche, day nursery circle stapler (device) drawer 1. mark, result ‫ﺣﺠﺮة اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ِّ ْ ُ classroom ‫ﺣﺠﺰ‬ ْ َ detention ‫( درس‬u) َ ََ to study, learn ‫ﺣﺪّ أدﻧﻰ‬ َْ َ minimum ‫درس‬ َ َّ َ to teach ‫ﺣﺪّ أﻗﺼﻰ‬ َ ْ َ maximum ‫ﺣﺬﻟﻘﺔ‬ َْ َ pedantry ‫درس‬ َْ pl. ‫دروس‬ ُُ class period ‫دﻓﺔ‬ ‫َﱠ‬ cover (book) ‫دﻛﺘﻮراة‬ ُْ ُ doctorate bringing up, nursing َّ ِ ْ َ ‫دﻛﺘﻮراة ﻓﺨﺮﻳﺔ‬ honorary doctorate to learn by heart, to have in memory ‫دواة‬ َ ََ ُِ pl. ‫دوي ,دوﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻴﻒ‬ َِ rustling (e.g. papers) ‫ذاﻛﺮ‬ ََ to study (one’s lesson) ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ََْ َِ satchel ‫ذﻫﻮل‬ ُ ُ consternation, perplexity ‫ﺣﻴﺎة ﻃﻼﺑﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُ َ student life ‫راﺟﻊ‬ َ َ to revise ‫ﺧﺎﻃﻰء‬ wrong ‫رﺑﻰ‬ َّ َ to bring up (child) stamp (imprint) ‫رﺗﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to arrange, organize ‫ﺣﺼﺔ‬ َ ِ pl. ‫ﺣﺼﺺ‬ َ ِ ‫ﺣﻀﺎﻧﺔ‬ ِ ‫( ﺣﻔﻆ‬a) َ َِ ‫ﺧﺘﻢ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺧﺘﺎم ,ﺧﺘﻮم‬ ُُ ْ ‫رﺟﻊ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺧﺘﺎﻣﺔ‬ َّ َ stamp (device) ‫ﺧﺮج‬ َ َّ َ to train ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ّ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ 2. see ‫ﺻﻒ‬ lesson inkwell 1. to hand in (e.g. assignment) 2. to look up line ‫ردّ اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ِْ َ reaction ‫رزﻣﺔ‬ ُْ ream pl. ‫رزم‬ َِ ‫اﻟﺨﻂّ اﻟﻤﺎﺋﻞ‬ َ oblique, slash ‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬ َ mistake, error ‫رﺳﻢ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫رﺳﻮم‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‬ ُ excerpt ‫( رﻓﺾ‬i, u) َ ََ drawing to refuse
    • 80 SCHOOL AND EDUCATION ‫( رﺳﺐ‬u) َ َ َ to fail (an exam) ‫( ﺷﺒﻚ‬i) َ ََ to attach, staple ‫رﺳﻢ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻄﻰ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ َ ْ َ rough sketch, draft ‫ﺷﺤﻄﺔ‬ ْ َ dash (punctuation) ‫رﺳﻮب‬ ُ ُ failure (exam) ‫ﺷﺎﺋﻊ‬ widespread classmate, school friend ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬ َِ َِ ِ pl. ‫ﺷﺪاد ,أﺷﺪاء‬ see ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬ َ ََ ‫( ﺷﺮح‬a) kindergarten, nursery school ‫ﺷﺮح‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺷﺮوح‬ ُُ ‫رﻓﻴﻖ اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ََْ َِ ُ َُ pl. -‫رﻓﻘﺎء‬ ‫رﻛﺰَ ﻓﻲ‬ ِ َّ َ ‫روﺿﺔ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ْ َْ ْ ِ pl. ‫رﻳﺎض اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ strong, intense to explain, comment 1. see ‫إﻳﻀﺎح‬ 2. commentary (e.g. text) ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ mathematician ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﻻﺻﻖ‬ ِ َِ adhesive tape ‫رﻳﺸﺔ‬ ِ nib ‫ﺷﻄﺎرة‬ َ cleverness pl. ‫رﻳﺶ‬ َِ ‫زاوﻳﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫زواﻳﺎ‬ ‫( ﺷﻄﺐ‬u) َ َ َ angle 1. to erase (e.g. a word) 2. to cross out ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ْ َ ْ pl. ‫أﺷﻜﺎل‬ َّ ‫زاوﻳﺔ ﺣﺎدة‬ acute angle ‫زاوﻳﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ right angle ‫ﺷﻲء‬ َ obtuse angle ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺷﻴﺎء‬ see ‫رﻓﻴﻖ اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ِ َ 1. blackboard ‫ﺻﻌﺐ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﺻﻌﺎب‬ 1. form, shape ‫زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺟﺔ‬ ِ َُْ ِ ِ ‫زﻣﻴﻞ اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ َّ pl. – ‫زﻣﻼء‬ ُ َ ُ ُّ َ ‫ﺳﺒﻮرة‬ 2. illustration (book) thing right (<> wrong) difficult ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُُ difficulty to register, enrol in ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬ َِ small ‫ﺳﻘﻂ‬ َ َّ َ to fail somebody (exam) ِ َُ pl. ‫ﺻﻐﺮاء ,ﺻﻐﺎر‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﻤﻬﻤﻼت‬ َّ ْ ُ َّ َ wastepaper basket ‫ﺳﻤﻊ‬ َ َّ َ to recite, say one’s lesson ‫ﺳﻬﻞ‬ َْ easy ‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ‬ ُُ easiness ‫ﺳﻮد‬ َ َّ َ to make a draft of something 2. slate َّ َ ‫ﺳﺠﻞَ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎرد اﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬ ْ ِ ِ ‫ﺷﺎﻃﺮ‬ ِ absent-minded clever ‫ﺻﻒ‬ ّ َ ُُ pl. ‫ﺻﻔﻮف‬ class, form ‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬ ُْ hard, firm, rigid ‫( ﺿﺒﻂ‬i, u) َ َّ َ to set, regulate ‫( ﺿﺞ‬i) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to be noisy ‫ﺿﺮب‬ َْ multiplication ‫ﺿﺨﻢ‬ ْ َ thick, big, voluminous ِ pl. ‫ﺿﺨﺎم‬
    • SCHOOL AND EDUCATION ‫ﺿﻠﻴﻊ‬ َِ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻃﻼب‬ ُ 81 skilled, knowledgeable ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬ َ mark, grade student ‫( ﻋﻠﻢ‬a) َ َِ see ‫ﻋﺮف‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ َ َّ َ َّ see ‫درس‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ practical ‫ﻃﺎﻟﻊ‬ َ َ to study, peruse ‫ﻃﺒﺎﺷﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ chalk (for blackboard) ‫ﻃﺮح‬ َْ subtraction ‫( ﻃﺮد‬u) َََ to expel ‫ﻋﻤﻴﺪ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻃﺮد‬ ََ expulsion pl. ‫ﻋﻤﺪاء‬ َ َ ‫ﻃﻔﺮة ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ َْ quantum leap ‫ﻋﺎص‬ ٍ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﺼﺎة‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻗﻞ‬ ِ ُ َُ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ ِ َُ pl. ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ِ disobedient dean mysterious, abstruse pl. ‫ﻏﻮاﻣﺾ‬ ِ َ scientist 1. expression genius to glue ‫ﻏﺮاء‬ ِ glue ‫( ﻏﺶ‬u) ‫َ ﱠ‬ intelligent to cheat ‫ﻏﻠﻂ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻏﻼط‬ ْ see ‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻄﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻏﻠﻄﺎت‬ ََ see ‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ واﺿﺢ‬ ِ َْ ‫ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِ ََْ genius, ingenuity ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ََ number pl. ‫أﻋﺪاد‬ ْ ‫ﻋﺪد ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ِ َ ََ pl. ‫أﻋﺪاد ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ِ َ ْ ‫ﻏﺎﻣﺾ‬ ِ column (writing) ‫( ﻏﺮا‬u) ََ 2. phrase ‫ﻋﺒﻘﺮي‬ ّ ِ ََْ pl. ‫ﻋﺒﺎﻗﺮة ,-ون‬ ِ َ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ُ َ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﻣﺪ‬ unclear ‫( ﻓﺮق‬u) َ ََ to separate, divide ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺼﻮل‬ ُ ُ 1. see ‫ﺻﻒ‬ ّ 2. chapter (book) َ ََ ‫( ﻓﻌﻞ‬i) to do, make ‫ﻓﻠﻜﻲ‬ ّ ِ ََ integer astronomer ‫( ﻋﺮف‬i) َ ََ to know ‫ﻋﻄﻠﺔ‬ ْ ُ holidays, vacation ْ ُ ‫ﻋﻄﻠﺔ اﻟﺼﻴﻒ‬ ْ َّ summer vacation ‫( ﻓﻬﻢ‬a) ََِ to understand ‫ﻋﻘﻞ‬ َْ reason, intelligence ‫ﻓﻬﻢ‬ َََ to explain, instruct ‫ﻋﻜﺲ‬ ْ َ opposite ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ْ َ ِ on the contrary ‫ﻓﻴﻠﺴﻮف‬ ُ ََْ pl. ‫ﻓﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻓﻬﺮس‬ ِِْ pl. ‫ﻓﻬﺎرس‬ ِ َ index philosopher
    • 82 SCHOOL AND EDUCATION ‫ﻗﺎرن‬ َ َ to compare ‫ﻛﺘﻴﺐ‬ َُْ booklet ‫ﻗﺎﺳﻢ‬ ِ denominator (math.) ‫ﻛﺮر‬ َ َّ َ to repeat ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪة‬ ِ rule ‫ﻛﺮاﺳﺔ‬ َّ ُ copybook, notebook pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻛﺮارﻳﺲ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﺮاﺟﻊ‬ ِ َ reference section (library) ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﻟﻌﺔ‬ َ ُ reading room, study room ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪة‬ ِ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ rule (e.g. grammar) ‫ﻛﺴﺮ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻛﺴﻮر‬ fraction lazy ‫ﻛﺴﻼن‬ ْ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ pl. ‫ ;ﻛﺴﺎﻟﻰ‬f. ‫ﻛﺴﻼﻧﺔ ,ﻛﺴﻼ‬ ‫( ﻛﺸﻒ‬i) َ َّ َ to reveal ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬ perpendicular َ َِ ‫( ﻗﺒﻞ‬a) to admit (e.g. to a school) ‫ﻗﺒﻮل‬ َُ admission entirely ‫ﻗﺪر‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِّ ُ ِ to esteem highly َّ َّ َّ ُ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة‬ business school ‫ﻗﺪرة‬ ُْ ability َّ ِّ ُ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ‬ ْ ُّ police academy ‫( ﻗﺮأ‬u) ََ to read ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻄﺐ‬ ّ ِّ َّ ِّ ُ medical school ‫ﻗﺮأ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ ََ to study under s.o. ‫ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ chemist ‫ﻗﺮاءة‬ ِ reading ‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬ َ َ to observe, remark ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺔ‬ ْ ِ division ََ ‫ﻟﻘﺐ اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ِ ْ َّ academic title diameter ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺴﺘﻴﺮ‬ ِْ ِ Master’s degree ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫أﻗﻄﺎر‬ ْ ‫ﻗﻠﻢ‬ ََ pen ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻼم‬ crayon ‫ﻗﻠﻢ ﺟﺎف‬ ّ ball-point pen ‫ﻗﻠﻢ اﻟﺤﺒﺮ‬ ِْ fountain pen ‫ﻗﻠﻢ اﻟﺮﺻﺎص‬ َّ pencil ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ُُ 1. faculty 2. college ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ َّ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ُّ َ school subject arc, arch book ‫ﻣﺎﺋﻞ‬ slanting ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺬﻟﻖ‬ ِْ َ َُ pedant (‫ﻣﺘﺨﺮج )ﻣﻦ‬ ِ ِّ َ َ ُ graduate (from) ِ َُ ‫ﻣﺘﻮازى اﻟﺴﻄﻮح‬ ُ َّ parallelepiped ‫ﻣﺘﻮازى اﻷﺿﻼع‬ ْ ِ َُ parallelogram ‫ﻣﺜﻠﺚ‬ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻗﻠﻢ اﻷﻟﻮان‬ ْ ‫ﻗﻮس‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻮاس‬ َّ ِّ ُ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬ triangle ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻬﺪ‬ ِ َْ ُ zealous pl. ‫-ات‬
    • SCHOOL AND EDUCATION 83 praiseworthy ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ‬ ِ َْ ُ impossible volume (book) ‫ﻣﺴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ُ َ ﱢ‬ registrar ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ُ ْ َ sum total ‫ﻣﺴﻄﺮة‬ َ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻃﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫( ﻣﺤﺎ‬u) َ to erase ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ‬ ِ َْ ُ rectangle ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺿﺮ‬ ِ ُ lecturer ‫ﻣﺴﻮدة‬ َّ َ ُ draft, rough copy ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺿﺮة‬ َ ُ lecture ‫ﻣﺤﻮر‬ َْ ِ axis ‫ﻣﺠﺪي‬ ّ ِْ َ ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬ َّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺒﻚ‬ َْ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻚ‬ ruler staple ‫ﻣﺸﺒﻚ اﻟﻮرق‬ ََ َْ ِ paper clip ‫ﻣﺸﺮف‬ ِْ ُ supervisor (e.g. PhD) ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻓـﺄة‬ َ ُ reward ‫ﻣﻄﺮوح‬ ُْ َ subtrahend (math.) ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺮوح ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ُِْ minuend teacher ‫ﻣﻄﻴﻊ‬ ِ ُ obedient school َّ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻌﺎرف ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ general knowledge ‫ﻣﻌﻬﺪ‬ ََْ institute ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ اﺑﺘﺪاﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ primary school ُِ ََ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪ‬ َّ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬ secondary school ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬ َّ َ ُ rhombus َّ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ ﻣﻬﻨﻴﺔ‬ vocational college ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺶ‬ ِّ َ ُ inspector ‫ﻣﺬاﻛﺮة‬ ِ ُ learning, study ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮم‬ َُْ notion, concept pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎور‬ ِ َ َّ ِ ُ ‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂ اﻟداﺋﺮة‬ circumference ‫ﻣﺨﺮوط‬ ُْ َ cone (math.) ‫ﻣﺪد‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﻣﺪرس‬ ِّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻣﺪارس‬ ِ َ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﺗﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬ ِ َْ to extend (e.g. borrowing period) square pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬ َّ َ ُ compound ‫ﻣﺮﺋﻲ‬ َ visible َّ َ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬ wiper (blackboard) ‫ﻣﻘﺒﻮل‬ َُْ pass (mark) introduction ‫ﻣﻘﺴﻮم‬ ُ َْ dividend (math.) ‫ﻣﻘﺴﻮم ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ِ ََْ ُ ْ َ reference work comparison ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ِّ َ ُ class (degree) ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ َ ُ divisor (math.) ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻤﺔ‬ َْ ِ pen case ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ desk
    • 84 ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ ََْ َ ِ َ pl. ‫-ات ,ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ‬ SCHOOL AND EDUCATION 1. library 2. bookstore ‫ﻣﻜﺜﻒ‬ َّ َ ُ intensive (course) َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬ cube ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ َ ُ remark ‫ﻣﻠﺠﺄ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ْ َْ children’s home ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ‬ َ ُْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻖ‬ appendix ‫ﻣﻮازﻧﺔ‬ َ ُ balance, equilibrium ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺰ‬ َ ُ summary ‫ﻣﺆرخ‬ َّ َ ُ historian ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ‬ ُ َْ encyclopaedia ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬ ُ َْ topic, subject ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﺿﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻇﺮ‬ ِ ّ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻈﺎر‬ principal, headteacher ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺻﻮري‬ ّ ِ ُ َ ُْ legend (caption) َ ‫( ﻧﺎل‬u) to grant, award ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‬ َّ َ ُ abstract (n.) ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺗﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ botanist ‫ﻣﻤﺘﺎز‬ ْ ُ with distinction (grade) ‫ﻣﻤﺤﺎة‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻤﺎح‬ ٍ َ eraser ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬ ِ ْ ُ possible ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺒﻪ‬ َُِْ alert ‫ﻣﻨﺤﺔ‬ ِْ َِ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺬة‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻧﺒﺬ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ‬ َِ pl. - ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ُ َ leaflet wall calendar ‫ﻧﺠﺎح‬ َ grant, allowance success ‫( ﻧﺠﺢَ ﻓﻲ‬a) َ َ to pass (exam) َّ ِ َ ْ َ ْ ُ ‫ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﻣﺪرﺳﻴﺔ‬ school trip ‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬ ْ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﺴﺦ‬ َّ ِ ِ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‬ university grant, scholarship ‫ﻣﻨﺤﺔ دراﺳﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِ study grant ‫ﻣﻨﺤﺮف‬ ِ َ ُْ trapezium ‫ﻣﻨﻘﻠﺔ‬ ََْ protractor ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﺼﻮص‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ِ ْ َّ َ ْ َ teaching curriculum ‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﻗﻄﺮ اﻟﺪاﺋﺮة‬ ّ ْ ُ ْ ِ radius ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ َْ methodological ‫ﻧﻈﺮي‬ ّ َِ َ theoretical ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َ َْ methodology ‫ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َ َ theory ‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ُِّ important ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ َْ same ‫ﻣﻬﻤﻞ‬ ِ ُْ sloppy, neglectful ‫ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻄﻼب‬ ِ ُّ student union ‫ﻣﻮازاة‬ ُ equal distance, parallelism َ ََ ‫( ﻧﻘﻞ‬u) to copy ‫ﻣﻮاز ل‬ ٍ ُ parallel to ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ infinite copy َّ َ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻓﺔ‬ blotting pad ‫ﻧﺺ‬ ّ َ text
    • SCHOOL AND EDUCATION ‫ﻫﺎدىء‬ calm, quiet ‫ﻫﺎﻣﺶ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻫﻮاﻣﺶ‬ margin ‫( ورق‬coll.) ََ pl. ‫أوراق‬ ْ 85 paper ‫( ورق اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬coll.) ْ َّ drawing paper ‫ﻫﺎﻣﺸﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ marginal ‫( ورق اﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪة‬coll.) ِ ّ carbon paper ‫ﻫﺎﺋﻞ‬ formidable, extraordinary َّ َ ‫( ورق ﺷﻔﺎف‬coll.) tracing paper ‫ﻫﻮاﻳﺔ‬ ِ hobby ‫( ورق ﻋﺎدم‬coll.) ِ wastepaper ‫( ورق اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬coll.) ِ writing paper teaching staff, faculty ‫( ورق اﻟﻠﻒ‬coll.) ّ َ wrapping paper homework, assignment ‫( ورق اﻟﻨﺸﺎف‬coll.) ّ َّ blotting paper ‫وﻗﺖ ﻓﻀﺎء‬ َ َْ leisure time ِ ِْ َ /‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﻳﺴﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ‫واﺟﺐ‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ Sciences and academic subjects َّ ْ ‫إﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ statistics ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت‬ ِ ِ mathematics ‫أدب/آداب‬ َ literature ‫ﻃﺐ‬ ّ ِ medicine (science) ‫أدب ﻣﻘﺎرن‬ ِ ُ comparative literature ‫ﻃﺐ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ ّ ِ dentistry ‫إدارة‬ management َّ ِ ُ ْ ُ ‫إدارة ﻓﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ‬ dermatology hotel management ‫ﻃﺐّ اﻷﻣﺮاض‬ ْ ِ ‫اﻟﺠﻠﺪﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ِ ُِ ‫ﻃﺐ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ ّ ِ forensic medicine biology ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺦ‬ ِ َّ ‫ﻃﺐ ﻧﻔﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ ّ ِ psychiatry history ‫اﻟﺠﺒﺮ‬ َْ algebra ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ِْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻋﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ِ ُ ِ geology ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻵﺛﺎر اﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ‬ َِ archaeology ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎب‬ ِ arithmetic ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻵﺛﺎر اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ egyptology ِ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻞ‬ ُ َّ differential calculus ‫ﻋﻠﻢ إدارة اﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ْ business administration ‫اﻟﺤﻘﻮق‬ ُُ law ْ ‫ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻹرﺻﺎد اﻟﺠﻮﻳﺔ‬meteorology َّ ِّ َ ‫اﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ِّ religious education ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ َ ْ َّ translation science ‫اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ْ َّ drawing ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ sociology ‫رﻳﺎﺿﺔ‬ ِ gymnastics, PE ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ اﻷﺣﻴﺎء‬ ْ ِ biologist science
    • 86 SCHOOL AND EDUCATION َّ ِ ْ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻷدوﻳﺔ‬ therapeutics ‫ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬microbiology ِ َّ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ِِْ economics ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬ computer science ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻷﻣﺮاض‬ ْ nosology ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎء‬ ِ ِ chemistry ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ْ anthropology َّ ِ َ َ ‫ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎء اﻟﺤﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬biochemistry ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ِ ِْ َ bacteriology ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﺎدن‬ ِ َ mineralogy ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ َّ educational science ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ِ َْ logic ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﺢ‬ ِ ْ َّ anatomy ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﺒﺎت‬ َ botany ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺠﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬ ِ ُْ geography ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ْ َّ psychology ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺠﻤﺎل‬ َ aesthetics ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻮراﺛﺔ‬ ِ genetics ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺤﺸﺮات‬ َ َ entomology ‫ ﻋﻠﻢ وﻇﺎﺋﻒ اﻷﻋﻀﺎء‬physiology ْ َ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ََ zoology ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻮﻻدة‬ ِ ِْ obstetrics ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ‬ ِ agronomy ُُ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ social sciences ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺴﻤﻮم‬ ُ ُّ toxicology ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬ َ َْ philosophy ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ِّ political science ‫ﻟﺴﺎﻧﻴﺎت‬ ِ ِ linguistics ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ َِ physics ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُْ َ Information Technology (IT) ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻄﻴﻮر‬ ُ ُّ ornithology ‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ َ َْ engineering ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻌﻴﻮن‬ ُُ ophthalmology َ َْ ‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ civil engineering ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻔﻠﻚ‬ ََ astronomy ‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ِ mechanical engineering ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎ‬ ِ ِ physics ‫اﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َ َْ geometry َ َ َّ ‫اﺗﺼﻞ‬ to connect ‫إدارة اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ َ data management ‫أﺟﻬﺰة اﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬ ِ ُ ْ ُ ِْ hardware ‫أدﻣﺞ‬ َ َ ْ to insert ‫اﺧﺘﺼﺎر‬ ِْ ِ shortcut ‫أرﻓﻖ‬ َ َْ to attach (e.g. file) ‫أﺧﺮج‬ َ َْ to exit ‫أزال‬ to delete َ َ َْْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﺒﺪل‬ to substitute, swap Computing ‫أداة‬ َ pl. ‫أدوات‬ tool
    • SCHOOL AND EDUCATION ‫اﺳﺘﺮﺟﻊ‬ َ َ ْ ِْ ِ 87 ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﺰﻋﺞ‬ ِ ُْ َِ spam 2. to restore ‫ﺑﻮاﺑﺔ‬ portal site ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺮض‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to browse ‫ﺑﻮرت‬ port ‫اﺳﺘﻮردَ ﻣﻦ‬ ِ َ ْ َْ ِ to import (document) from َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺠﻮل‬ to surf ‫أﺳﻄﻮاﻧﺔ‬ ُ ْ ُ disk ‫َ َ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ َّ ِّ printer control َّ ِ َ ‫أﺳﻄﻮاﻧﺔ رﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ master disk remote control ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ِ ْ َْ ُ ْ ِ ‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ُْ َ ‫َ َ ﱡ‬ user name conversion ‫أﺻﺪر‬ ََْ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ِْ َ to export (a document) storage ‫إﻋﺪادات‬ ْ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِْ َ settings ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ أﺑﺠﺪي‬ ّ َِ ْ ِْ َ alphabetization ‫أﻟﻐﺎ‬ ْ 1. to cancel ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ رﻗﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ ِْ َ numerical sorting ‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬ َِْ digitization ‫ﺗﺴﻄﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﺘﻲ‬ ِْ َ ِ ْ َ underlining 1. to retrieve (e.g. data) 2. to delete ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫أﻣﻮر‬ command ‫أﻧﺎﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ّ ُ analog ‫ﺗﺸﻔﻴﺮ‬ ِْ َ encryption ‫إﻧﺘﺮاﻧﺖ‬ intranet ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ِ َ application ‫إﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ َْ َْ Internet ‫إﻧﺠﺎز‬ ْ execution, performance ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬ َِْ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫أوﻗﻒ‬ َ َْ to shut down (computer, program) change ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺔ‬ ِ َْ see ‫ﺗﺸﻔﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻤﻴﻖ‬ ِ َْ to make bold (text) digital signature ‫إﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ‬ icon ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ رﻗﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ ِ َ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ byte ‫ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺔ‬ َ ُْ ِ َ accessories ‫ﺟﺴﺮ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﺴﻮر‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺞ‬ َ ِ َْ to program ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ‬ َ َْ programming ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ software ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ِ َْ program ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ِ ِْ pl. ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ bridge device ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ِ ِِ electronic mail ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﺻﻮﺗﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ َِ voice mail word processor ‫ﺟﻴﻐﺎﺑﻴﺖ‬ ِ ِ gigabyte ‫ﺟﻴﻐﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ َ ُ ِ ُ‫اﻟﻨ‬ ‫ّﺼﻮص‬ ُ gigahertz ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ ِْ device, piece of hardware
    • 88 SCHOOL AND EDUCATION ‫ﺟﻬﺎز ﺑﺤﺚ‬ ْ َ see ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻞ‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺟﻴﺎل‬ ْ generation (e.g. of computers) ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺰ ﻧﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ firewall (‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ )إﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ّ ْ ِ ِ see ‫ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬ pl. (‫ﺣﻮاﺳﺐ )إﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ّ ِ َ ‫راﺑﻄﺔ‬ ِ link ‫راﺋﺪ‬ surfer (Internet) َُ pl. ‫رواد‬ َّ ِ ِ ِ ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ pl. – ‫رﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ُ َ e-mail message ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ ِ text message see ‫ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫رﻗﻢ‬ َ َّ َ to digitize ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ mode ‫رﻗﻢ اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻊ‬ ِ َْ َْ reference number ‫ﺣﺒﺮ‬ ِْ ink, toner (printer) ‫رﻗﻤﻲ‬ َْ digital, numerical ‫ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ َِ ْ َ document size ‫رﻣﺰ‬ ْ َ symbol capital letter ُ ُ pl. ‫رﻣﻮز‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ ِ personal computer ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ﺣﺮف ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬ َِ ْ َ َِ pl. ‫ﺣﺮوف ﻛﺒﻴﺮة‬ ُُ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ُْ speed (computer, drive) user account َّ ِ ُْ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬ connection speed to save ‫ﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﻤﻬﻤﻼت‬ َ ْ ُ َّ recycle bin field (on screen) ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬ screen ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ َ ُ help screen ‫ﺣﺮر‬ َ َّ َ to edit (text) ‫ﺣﺴﺎب اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ِ ْ َْ ُ ِ ‫( ﺣﻔﻆ‬a) َ َِ ‫ﺣﻘﻞ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﻘﻮل‬ ُُ َ َّ َ ‫ﺣﻤﻞ‬ 1. to load (e.g. page) 2. upload َ َّ َ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِّ َ pl. ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ُ َ to convert ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ اﻷدوات‬ َ َِ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﻂ‬ ُ toolbar ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ اﻟﻤﻬﺎم‬ ّ َِ task bar ‫ﺷﻔﺮ‬ ّ َّ َ property to encrypt ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ََ network ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ اﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮت‬ َُ َْ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ World Wide Web ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬ َْ page ‫( ﺧﺮج‬u) َ ََ to exit (a program) ‫ﺧﺰن‬ َ َّ َ to store ‫( ﺧﻠﻖ‬u) َ ََ to create (document, etc.) َ َ َ ‫( دﺧﻞ‬u) to enter (e.g. words) ‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﻮﺿﻮح‬ ُ ُ ََ resolution (e.g. scanner) ََ pl. ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎت‬ ‫ذاﻛﺮة‬ ِ memory َّ َ ‫ذاﻛﺮة ﺣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ رﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ home page RAM (Random Access ُ ُْ ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﻨﺼﻮص‬ ُ ُّ dialog box Memory)
    • SCHOOL AND EDUCATION 89 2. click (mouse) ‫( ﺿﻐﻂ‬a) َ ََ ‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ (‫ﻗﺮص )ﻣﺮن‬ َِ ُْ َِ ْ pl. (‫أﻗﺮاص )ﻣﺮﻧﺔ‬ printer ‫ﻗﺮص ﺟﺎﻣﺪ‬ ِ ُْ hard disk ‫ﻗﺮص رﻗﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ ُْ DVD 1. to press (key) diskette ‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻴﺰر‬ َ َْ laser printer َّ َ ُ ُْ ‫ﻗﺮص ﻣﺪﻣﺞ‬ CD-ROM ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬ capacity ‫ﻗﺮﺻﺎن اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ُ ُْ computer hacker َ َّ َ ‫ﻋﺪل‬ to edit (a document) ‫( ﻗﻄﻊ‬a) َ َ َ to cut (text) ‫( ﻋﺮض‬u) َ ََ to display ‫ﻗﻮاﺋﻢ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ َ mailing list ‫ﻋﺮﺿﺔ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ‬ ُْ َ band width ‫ﻛﺎرت ﺻﻮت‬ sound card sign, mark ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﺮور‬ ُ َِ password ‫ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬ ِ ُ ْ ُ computer ‫ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﻮل‬ ُ ْ َ laptop computer to close (file, document) ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻲ‬ cookie chatroom ‫ﻛﻴﺎن ﺻﻠﺐ‬ ُْ ِ hardware ‫ﻛﻴﻠﻮﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ِ kilobyte ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬ َ pl. ‫ﻋﻼﺋﻢ ,-ات‬ ُ َ ‫ﻋﻠﺒﺔ اﻟﺤﺒﺮ‬ ِْ ُْ pl. ‫ﻋﻠﺐ‬ َُ ‫( ﻏﻠﻖ‬i) َ ََ ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﺎدﺛﺔ‬ َ ُ ُْ َُ pl. - ‫ﻏﺮف‬ toner cartridge ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬ ِ َّ ُ ْ َ off-line ‫( ﻟﺼﻖ‬a) َ ِ َ to paste (text) ‫ﻏﻴﺮ اﺳﻢ‬ ْ ِ َّ َ to rename (e.g. file) ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺔ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬ َْ computer game ‫ﻓﺄرة‬ َْ mouse ‫ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ ُ programming language ‫ﻓﺎرغ‬ ِ free, available (e.g. space) ‫ﻟﻐﺔ رﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ ُ numerical language ‫( ﻓﺘﺢ‬i) َ ََ to open (a document) ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻷم‬ ُّ َْ motherboard ‫( ﻓﻚَّ رﻣﻮز اﻟﺸﻔﺮة‬u) ْ ِّ ُ ُ َ to decode َ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫َّ َ ﱡ‬ control panel ‫ﻓﻴﺮوس‬ ِ virus ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬ ِ َ َْ keyboard menu ‫ﻣﺎﺳﺢ ﺿﻮﺋﻲ‬ ّ َْ ِ scanner drop-down menu ‫ﻣﺒﺪل‬ ِّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ 1. drive ‫ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬ ِ ْ َُ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﺋﻢ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺴﺪﻟﺔ‬ ََ ُ ‫ﻗﺎرىء‬ 2. reader (device) ‫ﻗﺎرئ اﻷﻗﺮاص‬ ْ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ CD-ROM drive ‫ﻣﺘﺼﻔﺢ‬ َّ َ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ switch programmer browser
    • 90 SCHOOL AND EDUCATION ‫ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬ ِ َّ ُ on-line ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ َّ َ َ ُ requirements ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ‬ َّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح‬ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬ key (keyboard) ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺎدر‬ ِ َّ outbox (e-mail) ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﻮارد‬ ِ inbox (e-mail) ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻓﺮﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ subfolder ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ إﺧﺒﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ُ ْ َ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح إدﺧﺎل‬ ْ ِْ ENTER key ‫ﻣﻔﺮع‬ ِّ َ ُ see ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻪ‬ ّ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ َْ َ folder, directory desktop ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ّ َِ pl. ‫-ات‬ file ‫ﻣﻦ دون ﺳﻠﻚ‬ ِْ wireless newsgroup َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻖ‬ arranged ‫ﻣﺤﺮك اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ْ َ ِّ َ ُ search engine ‫ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ َ ُ product information ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ َ َ َّ َ َ workstation ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻪ‬ ِّ َ ُ router ‫ﻣﺨﺰن ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ َ َْ َ database ‫ﻣﻮدم، ﻣﻮدﻳﻢ‬ modem ‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫َُ ﱢ‬ cursor ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ َِْ (web) site pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻗﻖ إﻣﻼﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ‫َُﱢ‬ spell-checker ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻖ‬ َ ُ attachment ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺰود‬ ‫َُﱠ‬ server ‫ﻣﻴﺰة‬ ِ characteristic, feature ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮة‬ ‫َُ َﱠ‬ َ available space ‫ﻣﻴﻐﺎﺑﻴﺖ‬ ِ ِ megabyte ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ِ ْ َْ ُ user ‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬة‬ ِ window ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﻓﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ََْ ُ see ‫وﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺠﻞ اﺳﻄﻮاﻧﺎت‬ ُ ْ ‫ُ َ ﱢ‬ CD writer ‫ﻣﻌﻠﺞ‬ ِ ُ processor َ ُ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟﻨﺼﻮص‬ ُ َّ word processing ‫ﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎت‬ َ ُْ data ‫( ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬pl.) ُْ َ information ‫ﻧﻄﺎق‬ ِ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻄﻖ‬ criterion ِ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َّ operating system ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ِ system ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺎر‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ َ َّ َ ‫ﻧﺰل‬ to download ‫( ﻧﺴﺦ‬a) َ َ َ to copy ‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ ْ ُ backup file ‫ﻧﺼﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to install (e.g. software) ‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ اﻷﺳﻬﻢ‬ َْ ِ َ arrow keys ِ َْ pl. ‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ اﻟﺪوال‬ ّ ِ َ function keys ‫ﻧﻘﺮة‬ َْ domain click
    • THE MEDIA 91 ‫( ﻧﻘﻞ‬u) ََ to move (text, document) ِ َ ‫وﺳﻴﻂ اﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِ ْ َّ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ َْ َْ data transfer ُ َ pl. – ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻂ‬ ‫( ﻧﻬﻲ‬a) َ َِ to end, quit (e.g. program) ‫وﺻﻠﺔ‬ ْ َ see ‫راﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫وﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ َِ document ‫وﺻﻼت ﻫﺎﻳﺒﺮ‬ َ ‫ﺗﺎﻛﺴﺖ‬ Hyper Text Protocol (http) ُ َ pl. ‫وﺛﺎﺋﻖ‬ storage device The media ‫أﺑﻠﻎَ ب/ﻋﻦ‬ َ ِ َْ to inform s.o. of s.thing ‫اﻋﺘﻘﺪ‬ َ ََْ ِ to believe (‫أﺟﺎب )ﻋﻠﻰ‬ to reply, respond (to) (‫أﻋﺮبَ )ﻋﻦ‬ َْ to express ‫اﻷﺧﺒﺎر‬ ْ the news ‫أﻋﻠﻦ‬ َ َْ to announce, declare ْ ‫أﺧﺒﺎر ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ current affairs ‫أﺧﺒﺎر دوﻟﻴﺔ‬ َِّ ُ ْ international news ‫إﻋﻼن‬ ْ pl. ‫-ات‬ 1. declaration, announcement 2. advertisement ‫أﺧﺒﺎر ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ّ ِّ َ َ local news (‫أذاعَ )ﻋﻠﻰ‬ to broadcast (to) ‫إذاﻋﺔ‬ broadcast (radio, tv) ‫اﺳﺘﻄﺮد‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to go on to say ‫أﺷﺎرَ إﻟﻰ‬ to point to ‫إﺷﺎرة‬ sign, indication ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻮر‬ ُ ُ ‫إﺷﺎﻋﺔ‬ rumour, gossip ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺮ‬ َ َ َِْ to be widespread ‫اﺷﺘﺮاك‬ ِْ ِ subscription ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎد‬ ِِْ review (‫اﺷﺘﺮكَ )ﻓﻲ‬ َ َْ ِ to subscribe (to) ‫أﻧﻜﺮ‬ ََ ْ to deny ‫أﺻﺪر‬ ََْ see ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ َ ‫إﻳﺠﺎﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ positive ‫أﻋﺎدَ اﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ ْ َّ to reprint ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ إﻟﻰ‬ ْ ِّ ِ with regard to ‫إﻋﺎدة اﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ َْ reprint ‫اﻋﺘﺒﺮ‬ َ ََْ ِ to consider, regard ‫ﺑﻴﺎن‬ ََ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫اﻋﺘﺮف‬ َ َ َْ ِ to acknowledge, recognize ْ َ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ اﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ ْ َّ َّ َ ُ ْ ‫إﻋﻼﻧﺎت ﻣﺒﻮﺑﺔ‬ classified ads ‫اﻗﺘﻀﺐ‬ َ َ َِْ to abridge ‫أﻛﺪ‬ َ َّ to confirm ‫أﻟﻘﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﺿﺮة‬ ًََ ُ َْ to deliver a speech matter statement, declaration in press
    • 92 ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ِْ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ THE MEDIA ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ َ َّ َ َ to circulate (news) ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ‬ ِْ َ see ‫ﺑﻴﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬ ِْ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ commentary public opinion see ‫أﺟﺎب‬ ‫رﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ َ censorship ‫رﻗﻴﺐ‬ َِ censor ُ َُ pl. ‫رﻗﺒﺎء‬ ‫( زﻋﻢ‬u) ََ َ ‫ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻴﻔﺰﻳﻮﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِ َْ television coverage َ َّ َ ‫ﺳﺠﻞ‬ to record negative ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ أﺣﺪاث‬ ْ َ ِ ِْ ‘no comment’ to claim ‫ﺳﻠﺒﻲ‬ ّ َِْ ‫ﺑﺪون ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬ ِْ َ ِ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﺗﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ َّ ‫اﻟﺮأي اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ّ َ (‫( ردَّ )ﻋﻠﻰ‬u) analysis chain of events report ‫ﺗﻠﻔﺰ‬ َ َ َْ to televise ‫ﺳﻴﺎق‬ ِ context ‫ﺗﻠﻴﻔﺰﻳﻮن‬ ُ ِ ِِ television َ ‫( ﺷﺎع‬i) to spread, disseminate ‫ﺗﻠﻴﻔﺰﻳﻮن ﻣﻠﻮن‬ َ َّ ُ colour television ‫ﺗﻨﻀﻴﺪ‬ ِ َْ typesetting ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺪة‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺟﺮاﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺪث‬ ََ ‫ﺷﺄن‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺷﺆون‬ ُُ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ إﺧﺒﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ْ ََ news network ‫ﺷﺪدَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َ َّ َ newspaper to stress, emphasize event ‫( ﺷﻬﺮ‬a) َََ interview ‫ﺷﻬﻴﺮ‬ َِ well known ‫ﺻﺤﺎﻓﺔ‬ ِ journalism ‫اﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ‬ ِّ the press ‫ﺻﺤﺎﻓﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ 1. journalistic ْ pl. ‫إﺣﺪاث‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ َِ ِ pl. ‫أﺣﺎدﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ إذاﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ radio interview ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻴﺰﻳﻮﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُِ ِ ِِ ِ َ television interview ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻔﻲ‬ ّ ُِ ُ َِ newspaper interview ْ َ ‫ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﺻﺤﻔﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ُ press campaign ‫ﺧﺒﺮ‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﺧﺒﺎر‬ see ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺔ‬ news item to publicize, make well known 2. journalist ‫ﺻﺤﻔﻲ‬ ّ ُِ ُ see ‫ﺻﺤﺎﻓﻲ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ‬ ِ َ see ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺪة‬ pl. ‫ﺻﺤﺎﺋﻒ ,ﺻﺤﻒ‬ ُ ُ ُ َ ‫دار اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬ ْ َّ publishing house َّ ِ َ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺻﺒﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ morning newspaper ‫( ذﻛﺮ‬u) ََ َ to mention ‫ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ evening newspaper ‫رادﻳﻮ‬ ِ radio َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ daily newspaper
    • THE MEDIA 93 ‫( ﺻﺪر‬i, u) َََ to publicize ‫ﺻﺮحَ ب‬ ِ َّ َ to state ‫ﻛﺸﻚ اﻟﺠﺮاﺋﺪ‬ َ ْ ُ pl. -‫أﻛﺸﺎك‬ ْ ‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ typographic ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬ َ َُ َِ crossword ‫ﻃﺒﻊ اﻟﺤﺠﺮ‬ َ َ َْ lithography َّ َ ‫ﻟﻤﺢَ إﻟﻰ‬ to allude to ‫ﻃﺒﻌﺔ‬ َْ edition ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ إﻋﻼﻧﺎت‬ ْ َْ billboard ‫ﻋﺎرٍ ﻣﻦ/ﻋﻦ‬ َ ِ devoid of ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ‬ َّ َ َ magazine ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻮد‬ ُ column ‫ﻣﺤﺮِّ ر‬ َ ُ newspaper editor ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ اﻹذاﻋﺔ‬ َّ َ َ radio station ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ اﻹرﺳﺎل‬ ْ َّ transmitter ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻞ‬ ِّ َ ُ analyst ‫ﻣﺬﻳﻊ‬ َُ announcer ‫ﻣﺮاﺳﻞ‬ ِ ُ reporter, correspondent pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻴﺪ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻋﺒﺮَ ب‬ ِ َّ َ see ‫أﻋﺮب‬ ‫ﻋﺪم ﻛﺸﻒ اﻟﻬﻮﻳﺔ‬ ُِ ْ َ ََ anonymity ‫ﻋﻠﻖَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َ َّ َ to comment on ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ُْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬ headline news-stand ‫ﻏﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻄﺒﻌﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ ْ َ misprint ‫ﻣﺮاﺳﻞ ﺣﺮﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ war correspondent ‫ﻏﻴﺒﺔ‬ ِ slander ‫ﻣﺮاﺳﻞ ﺧﺎص‬ ّ special correspondent ‫ﻓﺘﺮة اﻹﻋﻼﻧﺎت‬ ْ َْ commercial break ‫ﻣﺮاﺳﻞ رﻳﺎﺿﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ sports correspondent ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ِ factual ‫ﻣﺮﺳﻠﺔ‬ ِ ُْ transmitter (radio) ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖَ ب‬ ِ َّ َ َ َ ِ concerning, as regards َ َ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ to interview (‫( ﻗﺎلَ )إن‬u) to say (that) ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت‬ ُْ َ press law ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ َ ‫ﻗﻨﺎة‬ َ ََ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﻮات‬ َّ َ َ ‫ﻗﻨﺎة ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﻳﻜﺎﺗﻴﺮ‬ pl. ‫ات‬‫( ﻛﺸﻒ‬i) َ َ َ ‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ُ َ see ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺔ‬ channel (tv) satellite channel cartoon galley proof ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮك‬ ِ َْ ُ subscriber ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر ﻣﻄﻠﻌﺔ‬ َ َّ ُ ِ َ informed sources ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻗﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ِ ُ َ ِ َ issue, question ‫ﻣﺴﻮدة اﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ ْ َّ َّ َ ُ reliable sources ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ُِ َ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ‬ َْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻊ‬ source printing press ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت‬ ُْ َ to expose, reveal printed material ‫ﻣﻔﺎد‬ ُ gist (e.g. of an article)
    • 94 SPORTS ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ َ ُ see ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ َ article ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ اﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ editorial َّ ِ ْ ‫ﻧﺸﺮة إﺧﺒﺎرﻳﺔ‬ newscast (radio) ‫ﻣﻘﺘﻀﺐ‬ َ ُْ concise ‫ﻧﺸﺮة أﺳﺒﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ْ ُ weekly publication ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ أﺧﺮى‬ َْ ُ ِ ِ on the other hand ‫ﻧﺸﺮة دورﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ periodical publication ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ أن‬ َ َْ ُ ِ it is probable that ‫ﻧﺸﺮة رﺳﻤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ official bulletin َّ َ َ ُ ِ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ أن‬ it is expected that َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﻧﺸﺮة ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺔ‬ monthly publication ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ‬ ِ َُْ widespread, prevalent ‫ﻧﻀﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to typeset, compose ‫ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺻﺤﻔﻲ‬ ّ ُِ ُ َ َ ُ press conference ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺰ‬ َ ُ summary ‫ﻧﻄﺎق‬ ِ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺷﺮ‬ ِ publisher ‫ﻧﻈﺮاً إﻟﻰ‬ َ َ َ in view of ‫ﻧﻘﺪ‬ َْ criticism َ ََ ‫( ﻧﻘﻞ‬u) to convey ‫ﻧﻀﺪ‬ ّ َّ َ to compose (typeset) ‫ﻧﺎﻗﺪ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻧﻘﺪة ,ﻧﻘﺎد ,-ون‬ َّ ُ َ َ ‫ﻧﺒﺬة‬ ُْ 2. publication 3. leaflet critic section (in newspaper) َُ pl. ‫ﻧﺒﺬ‬ 4. see ‫إﻋﻼن‬ ‫واﻗﻌﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ scope, sphere incident ‫( ﻧﺸﺮ‬u) ََ َ to publish ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ْ َ publishing ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻹﻋﻼم‬ ْ َ the media ‫ﻧﺸﺮة‬ ْ َ 1. broadcast ‫وﻛﺎﻟﺔ اﻷﻧﺒﺎء‬ ْ َ news agency ‫إﺑﻌﺎد‬ ْ exclusion (player) ‫إﺳﺘﺎد‬ ْ stadium ‫أﺑﻌﺪ‬ ََْ to expel ‫اﺳﺘﺄﻧﻒ‬ َ َ ْ ِ to resume (play) َّ ِ ‫اﺗﺤﺎد اﻟﺸﻄﺮﻧﺞ‬ ْ َ ْ َّ chess federation ‫أﻏﺮمَ ب‬ ِ ِْ ُ to support (e.g. a team) َّ ِ ‫اﺗﺤﺎد اﻟﻜﺮة‬ َّ ُ football association ‫أﻗﻠﻊ‬ َ َْ to sail ‫أﺣﺮزَ ﻧﺼﺮا‬ ً ْ َ َْ to win a victory ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻰ‬ َ َِْ to meet (teams) ‫إﺳﺒﺎﺗﻲ‬ ِ ْ clubs (playing cards) ‫أﻟﻌﺎب اﻟﻘﻮى‬ ُ ْ track and field Sports
    • SPORTS 95 َّ ِ ْ ‫أﻟﻌﺎب ﻧﺎرﻳﺔ‬ fireworks ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻔﻮق ﻋﻠﻰ‬ superiority over ‫أﻧﺸﻮدة‬ ُ ْ anthem, hymn ‫ﺗﻤﺘﻊ ب‬ َ ََ َ to enjoy ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮ‬ ِْ َ pass (football) ُ ِ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﺷﻴﺪ‬ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫أﻫﻞَ ل‬ to qualify for (e.g. other round) ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻮﻧﻲ‬ ِ ُْ َ ‫ﺑﻄﻞ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﺑﻄﺎل‬ ْ spades (playing cards) champion ‫ﺑﻄﻮﻟﺔ‬ ُ ُ championship ‫ﺑﻄﻮﻟﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ َ world championship ُِ ُْ ‫ﺑﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ اﻟﺼﻴﺪ‬ ْ َّ ِ َ pl. -‫ﺑﻨﺎدق‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺪق‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﺑﻴﺎدق‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺗﻨﺲ‬ َِ ‫ﺟﺎﺋﺰة‬ pl. ‫ﺟﻮاﺋﺰ‬ ُ َ exercise, training tennis prize ‫ﺟﺪف‬ َ َّ َ to row ‫( ﺟﺮى‬i) ََ to run ‫ﺟﻨﺒﺎز‬ ُْ gymnastics ‫ﺟﻨﺒﺎزي‬ ّ ِ ُْ gymnast ‫ﺟﻮﻟﻒ‬ golf ‫( ﺣﺎذ‬u) َ to spur on (animals) ‫ﺣﺎرس اﻟﻤﺮﻣﻰ‬ َ َْ ِ goalkeeper ‫ﺣﺰام ﻧﺠﺎة‬ َ ِ swimming belt decider hunting rifle pawn (chess) ‫ﺗﺠﺪﻳﻒ‬ ِْ َ rowing ‫ﺗﺨﻠﻒ‬ َ َّ َ َ to lag behind ‫ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ‬ ِ َْ pl. ‫ﺗﺮاﺧﺺ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ِْ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ licence ‫ﺗﺰاﺣﻢ‬ ََ َ to compete with one another ‫ﺣﺴﻢ‬ ْ َ ‫ﺗﺰﺣﻠﻖَ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﻠﻴﺪ‬ َِ َْ َ َ to ice-skate ‫ﺣﺼﺎن‬ ِ 1. riding horse 2. knight (chess) ‫ﺗﺰﺣﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﻠﻴﺪ‬ َِ ُْ َ َ ice-skating ‫ﺗﺰﻟﺞ‬ َ َّ َ َ to ski ‫ﺗﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬ ُ َ competitiveness ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻖ‬ َ َّ َ َ to climb (mountain) ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻞ‬ offside (football) ‫ﺗﺸﻘﻠﺐ‬ َ َْ َ َ to do a somersault ‫ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ‬ ِْ َ elimination َ َ َ ‫ﺗﻌﺎدل‬ to draw, be equal ‫ﺗﻌﺎدل‬ ُ َ draw, tie ‫ﺣﻜﻢ‬ َ َ pl. ‫ﺣﻜﺎم‬ َّ ُ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﺣﻠﺒﺔ‬ َْ ََ pl. ‫ﺣﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻠﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺼﺎرﻋﺔ‬ ُ ‫ﺧﺮﻃﻮش‬ ُ َْ pl. ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﻴﺶ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺧﺮﻓﻮﺷﺔ‬ َُْ pl. ‫ﺧﺮاﻓﻴﺶ‬ ُ ِ َ referee, umpire final judgement race track wrestling ring cartridge (rifle) discard (card playing)
    • 96 SPORTS ‫( ﺧﺴﺮ‬a) َِ َ to lose ْ َ ‫رﻣﻰ ﺗﺎﻟﺮﻣﺢ‬ ْ ُّ javelin throwing ‫ﺧﺼﻢ‬ ْ َ adversary ‫رﻣﻰ اﻟﻘﺮص‬ ُْ ْ َ discus throwing َّ ِ ِ َ ُ ْ َ ‫رﻣﻰ ﻛﺮة ﺣﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ shotput ‫رﻳﺎﺿﺔ‬ ِ sport ‫رﻳﺎﺿﺎت‬ ِ athletics ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﺼﻮم‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬ َ َ fault ‫( ﺧﻄﻒ‬i) َ َ َ to throw ‫( ﺧﻠﻒَ ﻋﻦ‬u) َ ََ to stay away from َّ ‫اﻟﺪاﻣﺎ‬ draughts, checkers ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ athlete, sportsman ‫دﻓﺎع‬ ِ defence ‫زاﺣﻢ‬ ََ to compete with s.o. round (n.) ‫زﺣﺎﻓﺔ‬ َ َ 1. sled ‫دﻳﻨﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ diamonds (playing cards) ‫زﺣﻠﻮﻗﺔ‬ ُْ َ ِ ‫راﻛﺐ اﻟﺪراﺟﺔ‬ َّ cyclist ِ ‫راﻣﻰ اﻟﺮﻣﺢ‬ ْ ُّ javelin thrower ‫راﻣﻰ اﻟﻘﺮص‬ ُْ ِ discus thrower ‫راﻫﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َ to bet on ‫رﺗﺒﺔ‬ ُْ class, category ‫( رﻓﺲ‬i, u) َ ََ to kick ‫( رﻓﻊ‬a) َ َِ to lift ‫رﻓﻊَ اﻷﺛﻘﺘﻞ‬ ْ َِ to lift weights ‫رﻗﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ َْ record ‫( رﻛﺐ‬a) َ ِ َ to ride (horse, bicycle, etc.) ِ َ ‫رﻛﺐَ اﻟﺪراﺟﺔ‬ َ َّ ‫دور‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أدوار‬ 2. see ‫زﺣﻠﻮﻗﺔ‬ 1. skate 2. ski ْ َ ‫( زﻫﺮ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ‬coll.) ُ َّ dice ‫ﺳﺎﺑﺢ‬ ِ swimmer ُّ َُ pl. ‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎء ,ﺳﺒﺎح ,-ون‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺣﺔ اﻷﻟﻌﺎب‬ ْ athletic track ‫ﺳﺒﺎق‬ ِ race, contest ‫ﺳﺒﺎق اﻟﺒﺪل‬ ََ ِ relay race ‫ﺳﺒﺎق اﻟﺤﺼﻦ‬ ُ ُ ِ horse race ‫ﺳﺒﺎق راﻟﻲ‬ ِ rally ‫ﺳﺒﺎق اﻟﻘﻮارب‬ ِ َ ِ boat race to cycle ‫ﺳﺒﺎق اﻟﻬﺠﻦ‬ ُ ُ ِ camel race ‫رﻛﺒﻲ‬ ِْ ُ rugby ‫( ﺳﺒﺢ‬a) َ ََ to swim ‫( رﻛﺾ‬u) َ َ َ to run (race), sprint َ َّ َ ‫ﺳﺠﻞ‬ to score ُ ُ ‫رﻛﻮب اﻟﺪرﺟﺎت‬ َ َّ cycling ‫ﺳﺠﻞَ رﻗﻤﺎً ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ‬ ً ّ ِ ِ ْ َ َّ َ to set a record ‫رﻛﻮب اﻟﺨﻴﻞ‬ َْ ُ ُ horseriding ‫ﺳﺠﻞ ﻫﺪﻓﻲ‬ ّ ََِ ْ ِ score (football) ‫رﻣﺢ‬ ْ ُ javelin pl. ‫أرﻣﺎح ,رﻣﺎح‬ ِ ْ ‫ﺳﺮج‬ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺮوج‬ ُُ saddle
    • SPORTS 97 ‫( ﺳﻘﻂ‬u) َ ََ to fall (down) ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ‬ َْ kick (football) ِْ ‫ﺳﻠﻚ اﻟﺴﻨﺎرة‬ َّ ِّ fishline ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﺠﺰاء‬ َ َْ penalty kick َّ ِ ‫ﺳﻨﺎرة‬ fishing tackle َّ ُ ْ َ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ ﺣﺮة‬ free kick ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ رﻛﻨﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ُ ْ َ corner kick ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﻤﺮﻣﻰ‬ َ َْ َْ goal kick ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ََ division, league pl. ‫ﺳﻨﺎﻧﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺳﻮط‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺳﻮاط‬ ْ whip َّ ِ ‫ﺳﻴﺎرة ﺳﺒﺎق‬ ِ racing car ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ََ net (fishing) ‫ﺷﺮاع‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺷﺮع‬ ُُ َ ََ ‫( ﻃﺮح‬a) to eliminate (e.g. from competition) bait (e.g. fishing) runner (race) ‫ﻋﺼﺎ اﻟﺼﻨﺎرة‬ ّ َّ َ fishing rod ‫ﻋﺼﺎ اﻟﺠﻮﻟﻒ‬ ُ َ golf club (stick) ‫ﻋﺼﺎ اﻟﻬﻮﻛﻰ‬ َ hockey stick ‫( ﻏﺎص‬u) َ to dive chess ‫ﺷﻘﻠﺒﺔ‬ َْ َ elimination ‫ﻋﺪاء‬ ّ ‫ﺷﻄﺮﻧﺞ‬ َْ ْ َ ‫ﻃﺮح‬ ِْ ‫ﻃﻌﻢ‬ ُْ sail somersault ‫ﺷﻮط‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﺷﻮاط‬ round, half (game) ‫ﺷﻴﺶ‬ ِ rapier, foil ِ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ اﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬ ْ َّ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ record holder ‫( ﺻﺎد‬i) َ to hunt ‫ﻏﺎو‬ ٍ pl. ‫ﻏﻮاة‬ ُ ‫ﺻﺎد اﻟﺴﻤﻚ‬ َ َّ fishing َّ َ ‫ﻏﻄﺎ‬ to cover (e.g. the goal) ‫ﺻﺎرع‬ َ َ to wrestle ‫ﻏﻮاص‬ َّ َ diver ‫ﺻﺮاع‬ ِ wrestling َّ َ ‫ﺻﻔﺎرة‬ whistle ‫ﺻﻔﺎرة اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ‬ ِ starting whistle ‫ﺻﻔﺎرة اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ َ ِّ final whistle ‫( ﻓﺎز‬u) َ to win َّ َ ‫ﺻﻴﺎد‬ hunter ‫( ﻓﺎزَ ﻋﻠﻰ ب‬u) ِ َ to beat s.o. at s.thing ‫ﺻﻴﺪ‬ َْ hunting ‫ﻓﺎﺋﺰ‬ winner fishing ‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻓﺮوق‬ ُُ َْ ‫ﺻﻴﺪ اﻟﺴﻤﻚ‬ َ َّ ‫ﺿﺮبَ رﻗﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ َْ َِ to beat a record ‫ﻏﻮص‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻏﻮاص‬ ْ ‫ﻓﺎرس‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻓﺮﺳﺎن‬ ُْ fan, amateur (of something) dive horseman team
    • 98 SPORTS ‫ﻛﺮة ﺗﻨﺲ‬ َِ tennis ball ‫ﻛﺮة اﻟﺴﻠﺔ‬ َّ basketball (game) ‫ﻛﺮة اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ‬ ُ َّ table tennis ‫ﻛﺮة اﻟﻘﺪم‬ ََ football (game) ‫ﻛﺮة اﻟﻴﺪ‬ َ handball (game) ‫ﻛﺮﺑﺎج‬ ُْ (riding) whip ‫ﻓﻦّ اﻻﻧﺰﻻق ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ِ ِْ َ ‫اﻟﺠﻠﻴﺪ‬ َِ figure skating ‫ﻓﻦّ اﻟﻘﺘﺎل‬ ِ َ martial arts ‫ﻓﻮز‬ َْ victory َْ ‫ﻓﻮز ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻂ‬ َ ُّ victory on points ‫ﻓﻮﻟﻰ ﺑﻮل‬ volleyball َ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻬﻮاء اﻟﻄﻠﻖ‬ ْ َّ outdoors pl. ‫ﻛﺮاﺑﻴﺞ‬ ُ ِ َ bishop (chess) ‫ﻛﺮﻳﻜﻴﺖ‬ cricket (‫ﻛﺶّ )اﻟﻤﻠﻚ‬ َِ ِ check! (chess) ‫ﻛﺸﺎف‬ َّ َ boy scout ‫ﻓﻴﻞ‬ ِ َِ ُُ ْ pl. ‫أﻓﻴﺎل ,ﻓﻴﻮل ,ﻓﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻘﺎب اﻻﻧﺰﻻق‬ ِ ِْ َْ see ‫)1( زﺣﻠﻮﻗﺔ‬ ُ ِ َ pl. -‫ﻗﺒﺎﻗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرب ﺗﺠﺪﻳﻒ‬ ِْ َ ِ rowing boat ‫ﻛﻤﺎل اﻷﺟﺴﺎم‬ ْ َ َ bodybuilding ‫ﻗﺎرب ﺳﺒﺎق‬ ِ ِ racing boat ‫ﻛﻮﺑﺔ‬ hearts (playing cards) ‫ﻗﺮص‬ ُْ discus ‫ﻻﻋﺐ‬ ِ player ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ ْ ِ َ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ piece (e.g. chess) ‫ﻗﻔﺎز اﻟﻤﻼﻛﻤﺔ‬ َ ُ ُّ boxing glove ‫( ﻗﻔﺰ‬i) َََ to jump ‫ﻗﻔﺰ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬ َِ َْ long jump ٍ ‫ﻗﻔﺰ ﻋﺎل‬ َْ high jump ‫ﻗﻔﺰ ﻋﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺼﺎ‬ َ ٍ َْ pole vault ‫ﻗﻠﻌﺔ‬ َْ ُ ِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻗﻠﻮع ,ﻗﻼع‬ ‫ﻛﺄس‬ َ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻛﺌﺎس ,ﻛﺆوس‬ ‫ﻻﻛﻢ‬ ََ ‫ﻟﺠﺎم‬ ِ ِ ْ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻟﺠﻢ ,أﻟﺠﻤﺔ‬ launch, motorboat to box rein(s), bridle cup World Cup ‫( ﻛﺒﺢ‬a) َ ََ to rein in (horse) ball ‫ﻟﺠﻢ‬ ََ َ to bridle (horse) ‫( ﻟﻌﺐ‬a) َ َِ to play (e.g. tennis, golf) ‫ﻟﻌﺐ اﻟﺒﺮدج‬ َْ bridge ُ َِ ‫ﻟﻌﺐَ اﻟﻜﺮة ﺑﺎﻟﺮأس‬ ْ َّ rook (chess) ‫ﻛﺄس اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ َ َ ‫ﻛﺮة‬ ُ ‫ُ ﹰ‬ pl. ‫ﻛﺮى ,-ات‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺶ‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ to head (ball) ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺔ‬ َْ game ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺔ اﻟﺸﻴﺶ‬ ِّ fencing ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺔ اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ‬ ُ َ َْ backgammon ‫( ﻟﻜﻢ‬u) ََ َ to box ‫ﻟﻜﻤﺔ‬ ْ َ punch
    • SPORTS 99 ‫ﻟﻮﺟﻪ‬ َْ offside (football) ‫ﻣﺮن‬ َ َّ َ to train, exercise ‫ﻟﻮح ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬ ِّ َ َ ُ ْ َ springboard ‫ﻣﺰﻟﺞ‬ َْ ِ see ‫)2( زﺣﻠﻮﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻟﺪاﻣﺎ‬ َّ draughts board ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺰاﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻟﺸﻄﺮﻧﺞ‬ َ ْ َّ chessboard ‫ﻣﺸﺎء‬ َّ َ walker (athletics) ‫ﻣﺎرس‬ َ َ to practise (a sport) ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺐ‬ ِ ُ (football) hooligan ‫ﻣﺒﺎراة‬ ُ match, tournament ‫ﻣﺸﺠﻊ‬ ‫ُ َ ﱢ‬ supporter, fan َّ َْ ُ ‫ﻣﺒﺎراة أرﺑﻊ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ quarter-final ُ ‫ﻣﺒﺎراة اﻟﺬﻫﺎب‬ َّ away game ُ ‫ﻣﺒﺎراة زوﺟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ doubles ُ ‫ﻣﺒﺎراة ﻓﺮدﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ singles َّ ِ ْ ُ ُ ‫ﻣﺒﺎراة ﻧﺼﻒ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ semi-final َّ ِ ُ ‫ﻣﺒﺎراة ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ final ‫ﻣﺘﺰﺣﻠﻖ‬ ِْ َ َُ skater ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻀﺎرب‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺰﻟﺞ‬ ‫َُ َﱢ‬ skier ‫ﻣﻌﺮوف‬ َُْ known ‫ﻣﺘﻘﺪم‬ ِّ َ َ ُ senior ‫ﻣﻐﻄﻰ‬ َ ُْ indoor oar ‫ﻣﻐﻠﻮب‬ ُْ َ loser ‫ﻣﺠﺪاف‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺠﺎدﻳﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺸﻬﻮر‬ ُْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ famous ‫ﻣﺸﻮق‬ َّ َ ُ fascinating ‫( ﻣﺸﻰ‬i) َ َ to walk ‫ﻣﺼﺎرع‬ ِ ُ wrestler ‫ﻣﺼﺎرﻋﺔ‬ َ ُ wrestling match ‫ﻣﻀﺮب‬ َْ ِ racket (e.g. tennis) ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺪ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ‬ ُِ َ seat ‫ﻣﺠﺪف‬ ِّ َ ُ rower ‫ﻣﺤﺎورة‬ َ ُ dribble (football) ‫ﻣﺪاﻓﻊ‬ ِ ُ defender (e.g. football) ‫ﻣﻘﻮد‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎود‬ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺪرب‬ ِّ َ ُ coach ‫ﻣﻜﺸﻮف‬ ُ ْ َ open-air, outdoor ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺐ اﻟﺨﻄﻮط‬ ُ ُ ِ ُ linesman (football) ‫ﻣﻼﻛﻢ‬ ِ ُ boxer ‫ﻣﺮاﻫﻨﺔ‬ َ ُ bet, wager ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻫﻮاﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ َ ْ َ pl. - ‫ﻣﺮاﺗﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺮر‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﻣﺮﻣﻰ‬ ً َْ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮام‬ air mattress to pass (ball) goal (structure) ‫ﻣﻼﻛﻤﺔ‬ ِ ُ َ َْ ‫ﻣﻠﻌﺐ اﻟﺘﻨﺲ‬ ِ َّ ‫ﻣﻠﻚ‬ َِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻣﻠﻮك‬ leading rein boxing tennis court king (chess) ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ َ ِْ area (pitch), side ‫ﻣﻴﺪاﻟﻴﺔ‬ َِ ِ medal
    • 100 ‫ﻣﻴﺪان اﻟﺴﺒﺎق‬ ِّ َْ ‫ﻧﺎدى‬ ِ ِْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاد ,أﻧﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎدي اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﺔ‬ ِّ ِ ‫ﻧﺰﻫﺔ‬ ُْ ُِ pl. ‫ﻧﺰه‬ ‫ﻧﻂّ اﻟﺤﺒﻞ‬ َْ َ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻧﻘﻂ‬ ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT race track club sports club excursion, outing ‫ﻫﺪاﺟﺔ‬ ِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻫﺪاﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺪف‬ ََ ْ pl. ‫أﻫﺪاف‬ ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻤﺔ‬ َِ camel saddle goal defeat pl. ‫ﻫﺰاﺋﻢ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻫﻮﻛﻰ‬ rope skipping point hockey ‫ﻫﻮﻛﻰ اﻻﻧﺰﻻق‬ ِ ِْ ice-hockey ‫ورق اﻟﻠﻌﺐ‬ َْ ََ playing cards ‫وزﻳﺮ‬ َِ queen (in chess) ‫ﻧﻬﺐ‬ َْ gallop ‫ﻫﺎﺟﻢ‬ ََ to attack (‫وﺻﻒَ )ﻳﺼﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ َ َ to describe to cheer (crowd) ‫وﺻﻒ‬ ْ َ description ‫وﻗﺖ إﺿﺎﻓﻲ‬ ّ َْ extra time ‫ﻳﻮدو‬ judo ‫( ﻫﺘﻒ‬i) َ ََ َّ َ ‫ﻫﺠﺎن‬ pl. ‫ﻫﺠﺎﻧﺔ‬ َّ ‫ﻫﺠﻮم‬ ُ ُ camel rider attack َُ pl. ‫وزراء‬ Arts and entertainment ‫إﺧﺮاج‬ ْ production (film, theatre) ‫آﻟﺔ ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ُ musical instrument ‫أدب، آداب‬ َ literature ‫اوﺑﺮا‬ ِ ُ opera ‫أرﻏﻦ‬ ُ ُْ organ ‫إﻳﻘﺎع‬ rhythm ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮن‬ balloon ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻪ‬ ِ ballet ‫ﺑﻮق‬ ُ trumpet ُ ِ َ pl. ‫أراﻏﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺮاض‬ ْ ِْ ِ revue, parade ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ َ َ ُْ ِ hide-and-seek ‫اﺳﻄﻮاﻧﺔ‬ ُ ْ ‫ﹸ‬ phonograph record pl. ‫أﺑﻮاق ,-ات‬ ْ ‫أﻏﻨﻴﺔ‬ ِْ ُ song ‫ﺑﻮ ق‬ َ َّ َ to blow the trumpet ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻮ‬ piano slot machine ِ pl. ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ٍ pl. ‫أﻏﺎن‬ ‫آﻟﺔ ﻟﻌﺐ اﻟﻘﻤﺎر‬ ِ َْ
    • ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT ‫ﺑﻴﺒﺔ‬ ِ pipe ‫دور‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺗﺒﻎ‬ ِْ tobacco ‫دوزن‬ َ ََْ 101 to wind 1. to tune an instrument 2. to tune in (radio) ِ ْ َّ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ ُّ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎري ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺐ‬ ُُ ّ ِ ْ ِ International Standard ‫ذروة‬ ُْ climax (e.g. novel) ‫رﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ‬ ِْ َ conductor (orchestra) ‫رﺧﻴﻢ‬ ِ ِ melodious oneself ‫( رﺳﻢ‬u) ََ َ to draw, paint ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ entertainment ‫( رﻗﺺ‬u) َ ََ to dance ‫ﺗﺼﻔﻴﻖ‬ ِْ َ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎن‬ ْ ِْ ِ ‫رﻗﺺ ﺷﺮﻗﻲ‬ ّ َِْ َْ belly dancing applause ‫رﻗﺺ ﺷﻌﺒﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ َْ folk dancing ‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬ ِْ َ photography ‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ رﻗﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ ِْ َ digital photography ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻏﻢ‬ ُ َ harmony (music) ‫رﻧﺎﻧﺔ‬ َّ َ tuning fork ‫ﺟﻬﺎز ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ُْ ‫ِ َ َ ﱡ‬ remote control (e.g. tv) ‫رواﻳﺔ‬ ِ novel ‫ﺣﺒﻜﺔ‬ َْ plot (e.g. book, play) َّ ِ ‫رواﻳﺔ ﻏﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ musical َّ ِ ِ ُ ْ َ ‫ﺣﻔﻠﺔ ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ musical concert ‫رواﻳﺔ ﻣﺤﺰﻧﺔ‬ ِْ ُ tragedy ‫رواﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺮﺣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ play (theatre) ‫رواﻳﺔ ﻣﻀﺤﻜﺔ‬ ِ ْ ُ comedy ‫( زﻣﺮ‬i, u) ََ َ to blow (a wind instrument) sorcerer, magician Book Number (ISBN) ‫ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِْ َ pastime َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻰ‬ to be amused, to enjoy ‫رﻗﺼﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫رﻗﺼﺎت‬ ََ ُُ ‫ﺣﻘﻮق اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬ ْ َّ ‫و اﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ ْ َّ copyright ‫ﺣﻜﺎﻳﺔ‬ ِ see ‫ﻗﺼﺔ‬ َْ ‫ﺣﻠﺒﺔ اﻟﺮﻗﺺ‬ ْ َّ dance floor ‫ﺳﺤﺎر‬ َّ َ bathhouse ‫ﺳﺤﺮ‬ ْ ِ ْ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺳﺤﻮر ,أﺳﺤﺎر‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎم اﻟﺒﺨﺎر‬ ُ steam bath ‫ﺳﻠﻢ‬ َ َّ َ ‫دﺧﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to smoke (cigarette, cigar) ‫ﺳﻠﻢ‬ َّ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻼﻟﻢ‬ َّ َ ‫ﺣﻤﺎم‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫دف‬ ّ ُ pl. ‫دﻓﻮف‬ ُُ tambourine dance magic to award (e.g. prize) scale (music) ‫ﺳﻠﻰ‬ َّ َ to entertain ‫دﻧﺪن‬ َ َ َْ to hum ‫ﺳﻤﻌﺔ‬ ْ ُ reputation َّ َ ‫دواﻣﺔ‬ top (toy) ‫ﺳﻴﺮك‬ ِ circus
    • 102 ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT ‫ﺳﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ cinema ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬ screen (e.g. cinema) ‫ﺷﺎﻋﺮ‬ ِ ُ ُِ pl. ‫ﺷﻌﺮاء‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺸﻴﺨﺔ‬ ِ ْ ُ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺨﺎﺷﺦ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ اﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ‬ َِ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺬ‬ َ َْ َ poet rattle (toy) َ ََ ‫( ﻃﺒﻞ‬u) to drum ‫ﻃﺒﻞ‬ َْ Western drum pl. ‫أﻃﺒﺎل ,ﻃﺒﻮل‬ ُُ ْ ‫ﻃﺒﻠﺔ‬ َْ ‫ﻋﻮد‬ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻮاد‬ traditional drum lute َّ َ ‫ﻋﺮاف‬ fortune teller َّ َ ‫ﻏﻨﻰ‬ to sing videotape ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻮس ﺳﺤﺮي‬ ّ ْ ِ ُ magic lantern to practise juggling, sleight ‫ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‬ ِْ band (music) َّ ِ َ ْ َ ْ ِ ‫ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﺴﺮﺣﻴﺔ‬ theatre company ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻫﺔ‬ ُ merriment, joking ‫ﻓﻠﻢ‬ ِْ film audiocassette tape of hand ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺬة‬ َْ َ sleight of hand, juggling ‫ﺷﻌﺮ‬ ِْ poetry ‫ﺷﻐﻞ اﻹﺑﺮة‬ ْ ُْ needlework ْ pl. ‫أﻓﻼم‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮة‬ ُْ fame ‫ﻓﻠﻢ ﺑﻮﻟﻴﺴﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ُ ِ crime drama pleasure ‫ﻓﻦ‬ ّ َ art ‫ﺷﻬﻮة‬ َْ ََ pl. ‫ﺷﻬﻮات‬ ُُ pl. ‫ﻓﻨﻮن‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺸﺔ‬ ِ hookah ‫ﻓﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِّ َ artistic ‫ﺻﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‬ concert hall ‫ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ‬ ِ ِ videocassette recorder ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺮ‬ ََ to gamble ‫ﻗﺮﻋﺔ‬ ُْ (lottery) draw ‫ﺻﻒ‬ ّ َ pl. ‫ﺻﻔﻮف‬ ُُ row (e.g. theatre) َُ pl. ‫ﻗﺮع‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to whistle َّ َ ‫ﺻﻔﻖَ اﻷﻳﺎدي‬ ِ ْ to clap one’s hands ‫ﻗﺼﺔ‬ َّ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﺼﺺ‬ َ ِ ‫ﺻﻨﺞ‬ َْ cymbal َّ ِ ِ ُ َّ َ ‫ﻗﺼﺔ ﺑﻮﻟﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ detective story ‫ﻗﺼﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ َّ ِ short story ‫ﻗﻮس‬ َْ violin bow pl. ‫ﺻﻨﻮج‬ ُُ ‫( ﺿﺮبَ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻮ‬i) ََ to play the piano ‫ﺿﻴﻒ اﻟﺸﺮف‬ ََ َْ guest of honour ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻮاس‬ ‫ﻃﺒﺎل‬ َّ َ drummer ‫ﻗﻴﺘﺎر‬ ِ َّ َ ‫ﻃﺒﺎع‬ printer pl. ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺗﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ story guitar
    • ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT ‫ﻛﺎزﻳﻨﻮ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻛﺎزﻳﻨﻮﻫﺎت‬ 103 ‫ﻣﺼﻮر‬ ِّ َ ُ photographer ‫ﻣﻀﺤﻚ‬ ِ ْ ُ casino funny ‫ﻛﺘﺎب ﻣﺴﻤﻮع‬ ُ ْ َ ِ audiobook ‫ﻛﻤﺎن‬ َ violin ‫ﻛﻮرس‬ َ ُ choir ‫ُ َ ﱢ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺧﻢ اﻟﺼﻮت‬ َّ loudspeaker star (music, film) ‫ﻣﻌﺮض‬ ََْ exhibition ‫ﻛﻮﻛﺐ‬ َ َْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻮاﻛﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻟﻴﺲ‬ ِ ُ pl. ‫ﻛﻮاﻟﻴﺲ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻟﺤﻦ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أﻟﺤﺎن‬ ْ ‫ﻟﻌﺐ اﻟﻘﻤﺎر‬ ِ َْ ‫ﻟﻐﺰ‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﻟﻐﺎز‬ ْ ‫ﻟﻬﻮ‬ َْ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻟﻮاح ,-ات‬ ْ ‫ﻣﻀﺧﻢ‬ ‫ُ َ ﱢ‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ amplifier pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎرض‬ ُ ِ َ wings (theatre) ‫ﻣﻐﻦ‬ ٍ َُ tune, melody ‫ﻣﻘﺮﻋﺔ‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎرع‬ ُ ِ َ singer baton riddle amusement, diversion painting (object) ‫ﻣﻐﻦ‬ ‫َُ ﱟ‬ singer (male) ‫ﻣﻐﻨﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َ ُ singer (female) ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻗﻌﺎت‬ َُِْ game of chance fireworks ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﺮ‬ ِ ُ gambler ‫ﻣﻘﻤﺮ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﺮ‬ ُِ َ gambling house َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ زﻳﺘﻴﺔ‬ oil painting ِّ ُ ‫ﻣﻜَﺒﺮ اﻟﺼﻮت‬ ْ َّ microphone ‫ﻣﺘﺤﻒ‬ َ َْ museum ‫ﻣﻜْﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ َ َ َ public library ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻦ‬ ِّ َ ُ composer ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺣﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺮج‬ ِْ ُ director (e.g. film) ‫ﻣﺮﻗﺺ‬ ََْ dance hall pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺺ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻠﻬﻰ‬ ً َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻼه‬ ٍ َ amusement centre, funfair ‫ﻣﻤﺘﻊ‬ ِّ َ ُ enjoyable ‫ﻣﺰاح‬ َّ َ jester ‫ﻣﻤﺜﻞ‬ ِّ َ ُ actor ‫ﻣﺰح‬ َ َّ َ to joke ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ‬ ُِْ producer (e.g. film) ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺰه‬ َ َُْ recreational area, park ‫ﻣﻨﺪوﻟﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ َْ mandoline ‫ﻣﻨﺼﺔ‬ َّ َ ِ platform (stage) ‫ﻣﻬﺮج‬ َّ َ ُ jester, clown ‫ﻣﺴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ُ َ ﱢ‬ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺴﺮج‬ َْ َ tape recorder theatre ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎرح‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺮﺣﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َ ْ َ (theatre) play
    • 104 ‫ﻣﻬﺰﻟﺔ‬ ََْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻬﺎزل‬ POLITICS farce ‫ﻧﻐﻤﺔ‬ ََ pl. ‫-ات‬ tone ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺔ اﻹرﺳﺎل‬ ْ َْ transmission frequency ‫( ﻧﻘﺮ‬u) َََ to engrave ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﺎر‬ ِ ُ musician ‫( ﻧﻘﺶ‬u) َ ََ 1. to sculpt ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‬ َ ِ ُ music ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ راﻗﺼﺔ‬ ِ dance music َ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻜﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺎدى ﻟﻴﻠﻲ‬ ّ َِْ nightclub (‫ﻧﻮﺗﺔ )اﻟﻤﻮﺳﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ّ ُ musical note gong ‫ﻫﻨﺪس‬ َ َ َْ to sketch ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻮس‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﻗﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻧﺎي‬ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻧﺸﻴﻂ ﺗﺮﻓﻴﻬﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِْ ِ َ pl. ‫أﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺗﺮﻓﻴﻬﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ِ ْ flute 2. to paint ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺔ‬ ْ ُ ‫وﺗﺮ‬ ََ pl.‫أوﺗﺎر‬ ْ joke string (e.g. guitar, violin) ‫وﻗﺖ ﻓﺎرغ‬ ِ ْ leisure time ‫ﻳﺎ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ‬ ِ َ recreational activity lottery ‫اﺟﺘﻤﻊ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to meet (conference) Politics ‫أﺑﺮم‬ ََْ to ratify (pact, treaty) ‫اﺗﺤﺎد‬ ِّ ِ unity, solidarity ‫اﺗﻔﻖَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َّ ِ to agree on ‫إﺗﻔﺎق‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ convention (agreement) ‫اﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺳﻼم‬ َ َّ ِ َّ ِ peace agreement ‫أﺛﺎر‬ َ to influence precautionary measure ‫إﺟﺮاء اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْْ ِ ْ exceptional measure ‫أﺟﺮى اﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎت‬ ِِْ َ ْ to hold elections ‫إﺟﻤﺎع‬ ْ unanimity unanimous to agree unanimously ‫اﺣﺘﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ِ َْ ﱠ‬ to protest against ‫اﺣﺘﺠﺎج‬ ِْ ِ protest 1. measure to incite ‫أﺛﺮ‬ َ‫ﱠ‬ ‫إﺟﺮاء اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ِ ْ ‫أﺟﻤﻊَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ ْ َّ ِ ِّ ِ ‫اﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ 2. procedure ‫إﺟﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ agreement ‫إﺟﺮاء‬ ْ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫أﺟﺎر‬ َ to grant asylum ‫اﺟﺘﻤﺎع‬ ِْ ِ meeting pl. ‫-ات‬
    • POLITICS ‫اﺣﺘﻜﺎك‬ ِْ ‫اﺣﺘﻴﺎط‬ ِْ ِ pl. ‫–ات‬ 105 controversy ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺰ‬ َ ََْ ِ to incite, provoke precaution ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺰاز‬ ِْْ ِ incitement, provocation (‫اﺳﺘﻘﺎلَ )ﻣﻦ، ﻋﻦ‬ ِْ ِ to resign (from) (an office) ‫اﺳﺘﻘﻼل‬ ِْْ ِ independence ‫اﺳﺘﻮزر‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to appoint as minister ‫اﺣﺮار‬ ْ Liberals ْ ‫إﺣﺼﺎء اﻟﺴﻜﺎن‬ َّ ُّ census ‫اﺧﺘﺘﻢ‬ َ ََْ to conclude (an agreement) ‫أدار‬ َ to administer ‫إدراج ﻓﻲ‬ ْ entry (e.g. on a list) ‫أﺳﻘﻂ‬ َ َْ to topple (e.g. ruler) ‫أدى إﻟﻰ‬ َ َّ َ to lead to َّ ِ ‫إﺷﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ collectivism ‫إذن ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ written permission ‫اﺷﺘﺮاك‬ ِْ ِ contribution ‫ارﺗﺒﺎك‬ ِْ ِ see ‫ﺗﻮرط‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ارﺗﺸﺎ‬ َْ ِ to be corrupt ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﻛﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ socialist ‫ارﺗﺸﺎء‬ ِْ ِ venality ‫اﺷﻨﺮاﻛﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ socialism َ ‫أزال‬ to get rid of ‫أزﻣﺔ‬ ْ pl. ‫إزم‬ َ crisis ‫اﺳﺘﻮﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َِ َْ ِ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ْ َّ ‫اﺿﻄﺮاب‬ ِ ِ pl. ‫ات‬‫إﺻﻼح‬ ْ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺒﺪاد‬ ِْْ ِ despotism ‫اﺳﺘﺨﻠﻒ‬ َ َْ َْ ِ to appoint as successor ‫اﺳﺘﺸﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ advisory ‫إﻋﺎدة اﻹﺳﻜﺎن‬ ْ ْ َْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﻄﻼع اﻟﺮأي‬ ْ َّ opinion poll ‫اﻋﺘﺮضَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َْ ِ ‫أﻋﺎدَ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ َ ‫اﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ َ َ ِّ ُ ْ ِّ to seize power political unrest, riot reform to resume diplomatic relations with resettlement 1. to resist, oppose ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎر‬ ْ ِْ ِ colonialism ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ِْ ِ imperialism ‫اﻋﺘﺮف‬ َ َْ ِ to recognize, acknowledge ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺮ‬ َ َ َ َْ ِ to colonize َ َ َْ ِ ‫اﻋﺘﺰل‬ to be deposed ‫اﺳﺘﻐﺎث‬ َ ِْ ِ to call for help ‫اﺳﺘﻐﺎﺛﺔ‬ ِْ ِ appeal for aid ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻼل‬ ْ ِْ ِ exploitation (‫اﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎء )ﺷﻌﺒﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ ِْْ ِ referendum 2. to veto ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ِْ ِ pl. ‫ات‬‫أﻋﺪ‬ َّ َ َّ ِ ْ َ َّ ِ ‫اﻟﻌﺰة اﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ 1. approbation 2. credit, loan to prepare, compile (e.g. report) national pride
    • 106 POLITICS ‫أﻋﻠﻦ‬ َ َْ to declare ‫ اﻣﺘﻴﺎزات دﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬diplomatic privileges ِّ ِ ِ ‫إﻋﻼن‬ ْ declaration, statement ‫أﻣﻢ‬ َ َّ to nationalize ‫أﻋﻤﺮ‬ ََ ْ to develop (a country) ‫أﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ َ general secretariat establishment of َّ ُ ‫أﻣﺔ‬ َ pl. ‫أﻣﻢ‬ ‫إﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎت‬ َ ُِْ ‫دﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ diplomatic relations nation ‫أﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ َِْ majority ‫أﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ َ ْ ُ َّ ِ َ ْ absolute majority ‫أﻓﺴﺢَ اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ َ َ ْ to clear the way َ ‫أﻗﺎل‬ see ‫ﻋﺰل‬ َ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫أﻣﺮاء‬ ballot ‫أﻣﻴﺮة‬ ِ princess ‫أﻣﻴﻦ ﻋﺎم‬ ّ ِ secretary-general ‫أﻣﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ِ treasurer ‫اﻗﺘﺮاع‬ ِِْ pl. ‫ات‬‫اﻗﺘﺮاع ﺛﻘﺔ‬ ِ ِِْ vote of confidence ‫إﻗﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ feudalism ‫أﻗﻠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِّ َ minority ‫أﻗﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ْ ُ ethnic minority ‫إﻗﻠﻴﻢ‬ ِْ ُ ِ pl. ‫أﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ‬ province ‫إﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ regional ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻖَ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺰب‬ ْ ِ ِ َ َِْ to join a party ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ُ ُ ِ ‫إﻟﺘﺰام‬ ِْ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫أﻣﻦ‬ ْ security, safety ‫أﻣﻦ داﺧﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ internal security ‫أﻣﻴﺮ‬ ِ prince ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬ ِِْ pl. ‫-ات‬ election َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ِِْ ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎت ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬ legislative elections ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺟﺰﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ُ ِِْ by-election ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎت ﺣﺮة‬ ُّ ِِْ ‫و ﻧﻈﻴﻔﺔ‬ ِ َ free and fair elections ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎت رﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َِ ِِْ presidential elections to go into government service ِِْ ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎت ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ َّ general elections obligation, commitment ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻓﺮﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ ِِْ see ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺟﺰﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎت ﻣﺒﻜﺮة‬ ِّ َ ُ ِِْ early elections ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺐ‬ َ َ َِْ to elect ‫اﻧﺘﺼﺎر ﺳﺎﺣﻖ‬ ِ ِِْ overwhelming victory ‫اﻧﺘﻌﺎش‬ ِِْ revival ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِِْ selective, eclectic ‫أﻟﻐﻰ‬ ْ to annul, abolish ‫إﻟﻐﺎء‬ ْ annulment, abolition ‫آﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ instrumental ‫إﻣﺎرة‬ 1. power 2. principality ‫اﻣﺘﻴﺎز‬ ِْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ privilege ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِِْ ََْ ‫إﻧﺘﻘﻞَ اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ْ ُّ eclecticism to transfer power
    • POLITICS 107 ‫اﻧﺘﻤﺎء اﻟﻰ‬ ِِْ membership of َّ ِ ْ َ ِ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻎ اﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ of the utmost importance ‫اﻧﺘﻤﻰ إﻟﻰ‬ َ َِْ to be a member of ‫ﺑﺮر‬ َ َّ َ to justify ‫اﻧﺨﺮط‬ َ َ َ ِْ see ‫اﻧﻀﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎن‬ َْ َ see ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻨﻮاب‬ ‫إﻧﺬار ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ultimatum ‫ﺑﺮوﺗﻮﻛﻮل‬ protocol ‫اﻧﺴﺠﺎﻣﺎً ﻣﻊ‬ َ َ ِ ِْ in conformity with ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﻻﻗﺘﺮاع‬ ِِْ ِ ballot paper to establish diplomatic ‫ﺑﻌﺜﺔ‬ َْ ‫أﻧﺸﺄ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ْ َّ ِ ‫دﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ 1. delegation 2. mission relations ‫ﺑﻼد‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺑﻠﺪان‬ ُْ َّ َ ْ ِ ‫اﻧﺸﻖ ﻋﻦ‬ to break away from َ ِْ ‫اﻧﻀﻢَّ إﻟﻰ‬ to join, become a member of (‫اﻧﻀﻤﺎم )إﻟﻰ‬ ِ ِْ accession (to) ‫اﻧﻌﺰال‬ ِ ِْ seclusion, isolation ‫ﺑﻼغ‬ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ ‫اﻧﻌﺰاﻟﻴﺔ‬ isolationism ‫ﺑﻠﺪﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ََ municipality ‫اﻧﻌﻘﺪ‬ َ ََ ِْ to be convened (e.g. meeting) ِ ْ ِّ ِ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ل‬ with respect to ‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِِْ separatist ‫ﺑﻨﺪ‬ َْ clause (e.g. contract, treaty) َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ ‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ separatism ‫اﻧﻘﻼب‬ ِِْ coup ‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎر‬ ِ ِْ downfall, collapse ‫أوراق اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ِْ ِ ْ see ‫وﺛﺎﺋﻖ اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫أوﺳﺎط ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِ َْ see ‫دواﺋﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺎج‬ pl. ‫ﺗﻴﺠﺎن‬ ِ 1. to advise ‫ﺗﺎﻣﺮ‬ ََ َ ‫أوﺻﻰ ب‬ َ ْ 2. to recommend َّ ِ َّ ‫أوﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﺋﺘﻼف‬ ِِْ pl. ‫-ات‬ priority ‫ﺑﻼط‬ َ country (royal) court communiqué ُُ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮوﻗﺮاﻃﻴﺔ‬ bureaucracy ‫ﺗﺄﺛﺮَ ب‬ ِ ‫ََﱠ‬ to influenced by ‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ َِْ influence ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻢ‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ crown to plot nationalization coalition َ َ َ ‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬ (‫اﺋﺘﻤﺮَ )ب‬ ِ َ َِْ to conspire, plot (against) ‫ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺮ‬ ِ َْ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫أﻳﺪ‬ َ َّ see ‫دﻋﻢ‬ َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺠﻨﺲ‬ to become naturalized ‫ﺑﺎرز‬ ِ prominent ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺠﻨﺲ‬ naturalization to exchange (e.g. views) justification
    • 108 POLITICS ‫ﺗﺤﺎﻟﻒ‬ ُ َ alliance ‫ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮة‬ َ َ demonstration ‫ﺗﺤﺖ رﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ِ َ ْ َ under the auspices of ‫ﺗﻌﺎرض‬ َ َ َ to oppose challenge, provocation ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ُ َ collaboration ‫ﺗﺤﺪ‬ ٍّ َ َ ِ ِّ َ َ pl. ‫ﱠ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎون‬ َ َ َ to cooperate ‫ﺗﺤﺪ‬ َّ َ َ to provoke, to challenge ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻳﺶ‬ َ َ َ to live together ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬ ِْ َ modernization ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻳﺶ‬ ُ َ coexistence ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺾ‬ ِ َ inflammatory propaganda ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻳﺶ ﺳﻠﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ُ َ peaceful coexistence ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫َ َﱡ‬ conservatism ‫ﺗﻌﺪدﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُّ َ َ pluralism ‫ﺗﺨﻠﻒ‬ ُّ َ َ backwardness ‫ﺗﻌﺪدﻳﺔ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ّ ِ َ ّ ِ ُّ َ َ multiculturalism ‫ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ‬ ِ َْ strengthening ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ وزاري‬ ّ ِ ِ َِْ cabinet reshuffle ‫ﺗﺪﻫﻮر‬ ُْ ََ decline ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ َِْ reinforcement of action ‫ﺗﺮاض‬ ٍ َ compromise ‫ﺗﻌﺼﺐ ﻋﻨﺼﺮي‬ ّ ِ ُ ْ ُ ُّ َ َ racism ‫ﺗﺮﺷﺢ‬ َ ‫ََ ﱠ‬ to be nominated ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ب‬ َ َّ َ َ to be related to ‫ﺗﺮﺷﻴﺢ‬ ِ َْ nomination, candidature ‫ﺗﺰوﻳﺮ اﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎت‬ ِِْ َِْ election rigging ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻞ‬ ِْ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻣﺢ‬ ُ َ tolerance ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ َِ ْ َ designation َّ ِ ْ ِ َ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺳﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ peace settlement ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ َ legislative ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َ establishment, foundation ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ‬ ِْ َ declaration ‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ِ ِْ َ electronic voting pl. ‫ﺗﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻊ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ َ ِْ َ normalization of relations (‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺼﻴﺮ)ه‬ ِ ِ َ َِْ self-determination ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ِْ َ application ‫ﺗﻜﺘﻞ‬ ُّ َ َ formation of blocs ‫ﺗﻄﺮف‬ ُّ َ َ extremism ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ِ ِْ َ proportional representation ‫ﺗﻄﻮع‬ َ َّ َ َ to volunteer ‫ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬ ِْ َ discrimination argumentation, motivation ‫ﺗﻔﻜَﻚ‬ َ ّ ََ to disintegrate ‫ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ‬ َِْ delegation of authority ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻫﻢ‬ ُ َ agreement ‫ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ُ َ rapprochement ‫ﺗﻘﺪم‬ ُّ َ َ progress ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ َِْ memorial ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ َِْ report
    • POLITICS 109 ‫ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮي‬ ّ ِ ُ ُ ِْ َ racial discrimination ‫ﺟﺰﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ُ partial ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ‬ ُ َ incompatibility ‫ﺟﻠﺴﺔ‬ َْ session َ َ َ ‫ﺗﻨﺎول‬ to deal with s.thing ‫ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ّ َْ plenary meeting ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻨﻮع‬ diversity ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ society, assembly ‫ﺗﻮﺗﺮ‬ ُّ َ َ tension ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ِ ْ َ legislative assembly ‫ﺗ ﻮج‬ َ َّ َ to crown ‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮري‬ ّ ِ ُْ ُ republican َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ orientation ‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ْ ُ republic ‫ﺗﻮرط ﻓﻲ‬ ُّ َ َ involvement in ‫ﺟﻨﺲ‬ ِْ race ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ َ َّ َ َ to mediate ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ََ ﱡ‬ intercession, mediation ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺔ‬ ِ َْ ‫ﺗﻮﻃﻴﺪ اﻟﺮواﺑﻂ‬ ِ َ ِ َْ pl. ‫أﺟﻨﺎس‬ ُ ْ َ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِّ ِ the political apparatus recommendation ‫ﺟﻮر‬ َْ injustice, oppression strengthening of ties ‫ﺣﺎرس‬ ِ guardian, custodian current (n.) ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻢ‬ ِ decisive ‫ﺛﺒﺖ‬ َ َّ َ to stabilize ‫ﺣﺎل‬ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﻮال‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ tripartite ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺮاﻫﻨﺔ‬ ِ َّ status quo ‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ُ bilateral ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻄﻮارىء‬ ِ َّ state of emergency ‫ﺛﻮرة‬ َْ revolution َّ ُ ‫ﺣﺐّ اﻟﺴﻼم‬ pacifism ‫ﺛﻮري‬ ّ َِْ revolutionary ‫ﺣﺪ‬ َّ border ‫ﺟﺎد‬ ّ serious ‫( ﺟﺎرَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬u) to oppress, tyrannize ‫ﺟﺒﻬﺔ‬ َْ front ‫( ﺟﺒﻰ‬i) ََ to collect taxes ‫ﺟﺪل‬ ََ argument, controversy ‫ﺗﻴﺎر‬ َّ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺟﺪول زﻣﻨﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ َ ْ َ ‫ﺟﺪول اﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ْ ََْ situation, circumstance pl. ‫ﺣﺪود‬ ُُ ‫ﺣﺬر‬ َ َّ َ to warn ‫ﺣﺮ‬ ُّ liberal ‫ﺣﺮاﺳﺔ‬ ِ custodianship, administration ‫ﺣﺮج‬ َِ critical ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ََ movement timetable (deadlines by which goals have to be met) ََ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِّ the feminist movement agenda َّ ِّ ُ ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬ freedom, liberty
    • 110 POLITICS ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ‬ ِّ freedom of the press ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ذاﺗﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ُ self-determination ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺒﺎدة‬ ِ freedom of worship ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻻﻣﺮﻛﺰي‬ ّ َِ َْ ْ ُ decentralized rule ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬ ْ ِ freedom of thought ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺟﻤﻬﻮري‬ ّ ِ ُْ ُ ْ ُ republicanism ‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻜﻼم‬ َ freedom of speech ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ‬ َْ ُ ْ ُ absolute rule party ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻴﺎﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ ُ parliamentarianism ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ governmental ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ُ ُ government َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ transitional government ‫ﺣﺰب‬ ِْ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﺰاب‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺰب اﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮري‬ ّ ِ ُْ ُ ِْ Republican Party (US) ‫اﻟﺤﺰب اﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ‬ ِ ِْ the ruling party ‫اﻟﺤﺰب‬ ِْ ‫اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮاﻃﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِّ Democratic Party (US) ‫اﻟﺤﺰب‬ ِْ Liberal Democrat Party ‫( اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮاﻃﻲّ اﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮاﻟﻲ‬UK) ّ ِ ِ ِ ُ ِّ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬ َّ ُ provisional (interim/ caretaker) government ‫( ﺣﻞ‬i) َّ َ to dissolve ‫ﺣﻞّ وﺳﻂ‬ َ َ َ see ‫ﺗﺮاض‬ ِْ ‫ﺣﺰب اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬ َّ ُ Labour Party (UK) ‫ﺣﺰب اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﻴﻦ‬ ِ ِ ُ ِْ Conservative Party (UK) َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺣﻤﻠﺔ اﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ election campaign ‫ﺣﺰﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ِ party member ‫ﺣﻮزة‬ َْ territory ‫( ﺣﺼﻞَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬i) َ َ to obtain ‫ﺣﻴﺎة ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ّ َ public life ‫( ﺣﻀﺮ‬u) ََ َ to attend ‫ﺣﻴﺎد‬ ِ neutrality ‫ﺣﻈﺮ‬ ْ َ embargo, blockade ‫ﺣﻴﺎدي‬ ّ ِ ِ neutral ‫( ﺣﻔﻰَ ب‬a) ِ َِ to receive s.o. with honours َِ ‫ﺧﺰﻳﻨﺔ اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ْ َّ Treasury ‫ﺣﻖّ اﻻﻗﺘﺮاع‬ ِِْ َ suffrage, right to vote ‫ﺣﻖّ اﻟﻔﻴﺘﻮ‬ ُ ِ َ power of veto ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺣﻘﺎﺋﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ ‫( ﺣﻜﻢ‬u) ََ َ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﻜﺎم‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺎب‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ speech truth, fact real ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ grave, momentous ‫ﺧﻔﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to moderate ‫ﺧﻼﻓﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ controversial ‫( ﺧﻠﻊَ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻜﻢ‬a) ْ ُ ِ ََ portfolio (minister) see ‫ﻋﺰل‬ َ ‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ ََ successor to govern pl.‫أﺧﻼف‬ ْ rule, governance ‫ﺧﻴﺎر‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ choice, option
    • POLITICS 111 ‫داﺧﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِِ domestic َّ ِ ِ ‫دﻳﺒﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ diplomacy ِّ ‫داﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﻼم‬ َّ peace activist ِ ‫دﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮاﻃﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ democracy incentive, motive ‫دﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮاﻃﻲ‬ ّ ِ democratic ‫راﺑﻄﺔ‬ ِ confederation ‫داﻓﻊ‬ ِ pl. ‫دواﻓﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫داﺋﺮة اﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ constituency pl. ‫رواﺑﻂ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( دس‬u) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to plot, scheme ‫راﻗﺐ‬ َ َ to supervise َّ َ ‫دﺳﺎس‬ conspirator, schemer ‫اﻟﺮأي اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ّ َّ public opinion constitution ‫راﺋﺞ‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻮر‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫دﺳﺎﺗﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫دﺳﻴﺴﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫دﺳﺎﺋﺲ‬ َ ُ current, common, widespread intrigue, plot ‫راﺋﺪ‬ pioneer َّ ُ pl. ‫رواد‬ (‫دﻋﺎ )ﻳﺪﻋﻮ إﻟﻰ‬ ُ َ to call on s.o. (to do s.thing) ‫رأﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َْ capitalism ‫دﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ِ propaganda ‫( رﺟﻊَ إﻟﻰ‬i) َ َ to stem from ‫( دﻋﻢ‬a) ََ َ to support َّ ِ ْ َ ‫رﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬ reaction ‫دواﺋﺮ اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ُ ُ َ government circles ‫رﺳﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ official (adj.) ‫دواﺋﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِ َ political circles ‫( رﺷﺎ‬u) َ to bribe ‫دورة‬ َْ session ‫دورة ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َْ َ ْ َ parliamentary session ‫رﺷﻮة‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫رﺷﺎوى ,رﺷﻰ‬ ً ُ ِ َ ‫دورة ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ ْ َ legislative period (‫رﺷﺢَ )ل‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ to nominate (for an office) ‫اﻟﺪول اﻷﻋﻀﺎء‬ ْ ُّ member states ‫( رﻓﺾ‬i, u) َ ََ to reject ‫اﻟﺪول اﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ‬ َ ْ ُ َ ُّ the Superpowers ‫( رﻓﻊ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎت‬a) ُ ََ to lift sanctions state ‫روح اﻟﻬﺰﻳﻤﺔ‬ َِ ُ defeatism ‫دوﻟﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫دول‬ َُ ‫رﺋﺎﺳﺔ‬ ِ ‫دوﻟﺔ ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ ْ َ nation-state ‫دوﻟﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪة‬ ِ َُ ْ َ contracting state َُ pl. - ‫دول‬ 1. bribe 2. bribery, corruption 1. presidency 2. see ‫ﻗﻴﺎدة‬ ‫رﺋﻴﺲ‬ pl. ‫رؤﺳﺎء‬ ُ ُ president ‫دوﻟﻲ‬ ّ َِ ُ international ‫رﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﺤﺰب‬ ِْ َ party chairman, leader ‫دﻳﺒﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ diplomatic ‫رﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﻮزراء‬ َُ Prime Minister
    • 112 ‫رﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ ‫زﻋﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫زﻋﻤﺎء‬ َ ُ POLITICS principal, main ‫ﺳﻴﺎدة‬ ِ see ‫ﻗﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬ ِ sovereignty 1. politics 2. policy ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ‬ ّ ِ َ ُّ َّ the international stage ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺠﺎء‬ ِِْ ِ asylum policy ‫ﺳﺎﺣﻖ‬ ِ overwhelming (e.g. majority) ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ politician to be tolerant (towards ‫ﺳﻴﻄﺮَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ََ َ َْ to rule over, to dominate ‫ﺳﻴﻄﺮة‬ َ َْ supremacy ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ comprehensive ‫ﺷﺎور‬ ََ to consult ‫ﺷﺎﺋﻊ‬ widespread ‫ﺷﻌﺎر‬ ِ slogan ‫ﺳﺎﻣﺢ‬ َ َ s.o.) ‫ﺳﺎﻧﺪ‬ ََ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ََ ْ pl. ‫أﺳﺒﺎب‬ see ‫دﻋﻢ‬ prevailing cause, reason ‫ﺳﺠﻼت‬ َّ ِ ِ records ‫ﺳﻔﺎرة‬ ِ embassy ‫ﺳﻔﻴﺮ‬ َِ ُ َُ pl. ‫ﺳﻔﺮاء‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﺎن‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﺳﻼﻃﻴﻦ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ‬ ُْ ambassador ‫ ( ﺷﻌﺐ‬a ) َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺷﻌﻮب‬ people ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ‬ ُّ َّ َ ْ ُ competent authorities ْ ُّ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َّ interim authority ‫ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺔ‬ َ َْ sultanate َّ َ ‫ﺳﻠﻢَ اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ْ ُّ to hand over power ‫ﺳﻠﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ pacifist َّ َ ‫ﺳﻮى‬ to settle (dispute) totalitarianism ‫ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُُ communist َّ ِ ُ ُ ‫ﺷﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ communism to confiscate, seize public welfare topic (e.g. discussion) ِ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺼﺪد‬ َ َّ in this respect َ َّ َ ‫ﺻﺮح‬ to declare, announce ‫ﺻﻬﻴﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُْ َ Zionism the Legislature َّ ُ ْ ُ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُ ُ the Executive ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ َ to include, comprise ‫ﺻﺪد‬ ََ the authorities popularity ‫اﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ّ ِ َ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎت‬ ْ ُّ َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺎدر‬ ََ 1. power, rule 2. authority popular َ ِ َ ‫( ﺷﻤﻞ‬a) sultan ‫ﺷﻌﺒﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ (‫ﺻﻮت )ﻋﻠﻰ/ﺿﺪ‬ َّ َ َّ َ to cast a vote (in favour / against)
    • POLITICS ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ُ pl. ‫ﺻﻮر‬ َُ ‫ﺻﻮت‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺿﻐﻮط‬ ُُ image to vote ‫ﻋﺰة‬ َّ ِ might pressure ‫ﻋﺰز‬ َ َّ َ to consolidate َ ََ ‫( ﻋﺰل‬i) to dismiss, depose ‫ﻋﺰل‬ َْ dismissal, deposition ‫( ﻋﺰم‬i) َََ to decide ‫ﻋﺰﻣﺔ‬ َْ decision ‫( ﻋﺼﻰ‬i) َ َ to rebel, revolt to side with ‫ﻃﺎﺋﻔﻴﺔ‬ ِّ sectarianism ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬ َ َ to demand ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ اﻟﻠﺠﻮء‬ ُ ُ ِ asylum seeker ‫ﻃﺮف ﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬ ّ ِْ َ َ َ concerned party ‫ ( ﻃﻠﺐ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬u ) َّ ِ َ َ َ َ َ to apply for membership ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮ‬ ََ to demonstrate circumstance to oppress ‫ﻇﻠﻢ‬ ُْ oppression, tyranny ‫ﻋﺎرض‬ َ َ to resist, oppose ‫ﻋﺎﺻﻤﺔ‬ ِ capital (country) ‫ﻋﺎﻫﻞ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﻫﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻋﺪم اﻻﻧﺤﻴﺎز‬ ِ ِْ َ َ ‫ﻋﺮش‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻋﺮوش‬ ُُ ‫ﻋﺮﻗﻲ‬ ّ ِِْ member associate member ‫ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻨﺘﺴﺐ‬ ِ َُْ ْ ُ pl. ‫أﻋﻀﺎء ﻣﻨﺘﺴﺒﻮن‬ ُِ َُْ ْ membership ‫( ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎت‬pl.) ُُ sanctions ‫ﻋﻘﺒﺔ‬ ََ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺎب ,-ات‬ ِ obstacle ‫( ﻋﻘﺪ‬i) َََ to hold (a meeting) َ َ َ ‫( ﻋﻜﺲ‬i) to reflect outcome ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎت ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُ َ bilateral relations factor ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎت ﻣﺘﻌﺪدة‬ ِّ َ َ ُ َ ‫اﻷﻃﺮاف‬ ْ multilateral relations ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎت وﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ َِ close ties ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ secularism ‫ﻋﻠﻨﺎ‬ ً ََ in public ‫ﻋﻠﻨﻲ‬ ّ ََِ public (adj.) ‫ﻋﻤﺮان‬ ْ ُ prosperity, civilization َّ ِ َ َ َّ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﻼم‬ peace process ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﺻﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫أﻋﻀﺎء‬ ْ َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫( ﻇﻠﻢ‬i) َ ََ ‫ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﻗﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ petition pl. ‫ﻋﺮاﺋﺾ‬ ُ َ ‫( ﺿﻠﻊَ ﻣﻊ‬a) ََ ‫ﻇﺮف‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ُُ ‫ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ‬ َِ 113 monarch non-alignment throne ethnic, racial
    • 114 POLITICS ‫ﻋﻤﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ 1. agent ‫ﻓﺸﻞ‬ َ َ failure, fiasco ُ َ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﻤﻼء‬ 2. collaborator ‫( ﻓﺼﻞَ ﻣﻨﺎزﻋﺔ‬i) َ ُ َ َ to settle a dispute ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ُ ُْ race ‫ﻓﺾ‬ ّ َ 1. settlement (dispute) pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ُِ َ 2. closure (session) ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ُ ُْ see ‫ﺗﻌﺼﺐ ﻋﻨﺼﺮي‬ ‫ﻋﻬﺪ‬ َْ mandate pl. ‫ﻋﻬﻮد‬ ُُ ‫ﻓﻘﺮة‬ ََْ paragraph ‫ﻓﻜﻚ‬ َ َّ َ to disband ‫ﻓﻮض‬ َ َّ َ to authorize ‫ﻓﻮﺿﻰ‬ َ َْ anarchy ‫ﻓﻮﺿﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ anarchism ‫ﻓﻲ إﻃﺎر‬ in the framework of ‫( ﻗﺎد‬u) to lead, rule ‫ﻗﺎد ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ِ to lead by example ‫ﻋﻴﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to appoint ‫ﻏﺮب‬ َ َّ َ to banish, exile ‫ﻏﺮﺑﺔ‬ ُْ banishment, exile ‫ﻏﻀﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ُ ُْ ِ َ racial hatred ‫ﻏﻮﻏﺎء‬ َْ mob, rabble ‫ﻏﻴﺮ دﺳﺘﻮري‬ ّ ِ ُْ ُ َْ unconstitutional ‫ﻏﻴﺮ رﺳﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ َْ unofficial ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻮق‬ ُْ َ َْ unprecedented ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ْ Chargé d’Affaires ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺆول‬ ُ ْ َ َْ irresponsible ‫ﻗﺒﻠﻲ‬ ّ ََِ tribal ‫( ﻓﺎز‬u) َ to win (an election) ‫ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ‬ َِ tribe ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ِ faction ‫ﻓﺌﻮي‬ ِ factional ‫ﻗﺎﺋﺪ‬ leader َّ ‫ﻗﺎدات ,ﻗﺎدة ,ﻗﻮد ,ﻗ‬ َّ ُ pl. ‫ُﻮاد‬ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻗﺒﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬ َ ‫ﻓﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َِ factionalism َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﻓﺮدﻳﺔ‬ individualism ‫ﻗﺮر‬ َ َّ َ decision, resolution pl. ‫ات‬to resolve, decide opportunity ‫ﻗﺴﻢ‬ ْ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﺴﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻧﺎدرة‬ ِ ُْ unique opportunity (‫( ﻓﺮضَ )ﻋﻠﻰ‬i) ََ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫أﻗﻄﺎر‬ ْ to impose s.thing (on) ‫( ﻓﺮضَ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎت‬u) ُ ََ to impose sanctions ‫ﻗﻄﻊَ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ َ َ َ ‫اﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ َ َ ِّ ُ ْ ِّ ‫ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‬ ُْ separation ‫( ﻗﻠﺐ‬i) َ ََ to overthrow َ َّ َ ‫ﻓﺸﻞ‬ to thwart, foil ‫( ﻗﻤﻊ‬a) َ َ َ to repress ‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻓﺮص‬ service, department region, province to sever diplomatic relations with
    • POLITICS ‫ﻗﻨﺼﻞ‬ ُ ُْ ‫ﻗﻨﺼﻞ ﻋﺎم‬ ّ consul general َّ ِ ُ ْ ُ ‫ﻗﻨﺼﻠﻴﺔ‬ consulate ‫ﻗﻨﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ َّ َّ consulate general ِ َ ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺴﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِّ ِّ the rules of confidentiality strength ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬ َ َْ ُ joint committee ‫ﻟﺠﻮء‬ ُ consul pl. ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺻﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ َّ ُ ‫ﻗﻮة‬ ‫ُ ﹰ‬ pl. ‫ﻗﻮى‬ 115 asylum (refuge) ‫ﻟﺠﻮء ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ political asylum ‫ﻟﻌﺐ دوراً ﻓﻲ‬ ِ َْ َ َِ to play a role in ‫ﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ َ َ ُ working language ‫اﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮاﻟﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِ Liberalism ‫اﻟﻠﻴﺒﺮاﻟﻴﻮن‬ ُّ ِ ِ the Liberals see ‫ﺷﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻣﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ national (of the people) ‫ﻣﺄﻣﻮر‬ ُ َ official (n.) ‫ﻗﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ see ‫وﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎت‬ َ ُ talks ‫ﻗﻴﺎدة‬ ِ leadership ‫ﻣﺒﺎدرة‬ َ ُ undertaking, initiative ‫ﻛﺎرﺛﺔ‬ ِ catastrophe ‫ﻣﺒﺪأ‬ َ َْ principle ‫ﻗﻮم‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻗﻮام‬ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻮارث‬ pl. ‫ﻣﺒﺎدئ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ complete ‫ﻛﺒﺎر اﻟﻤﺴﺆوﻟﻴﻦ‬ ِ ُْ َ ِ high-ranking officials ‫ﻛﺘﻠﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻛﺘﻞ‬ َُ 1. rule 2. see ‫ﺑﻨﺪ‬ bloc ‫ﻣﺒﺮر‬ ِّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺒﻌﺚ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﺒﺎﻋﺚ‬ ُ ِ َ justification, excuse see ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻌﻮث‬ ُ َْ envoy ‫ﻻﺟﺊ‬ ِ refugee ‫ﻣﺒﻌﻮث دﻳﺒﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ َْ diplomatic agent َّ ِ َ ْ َ ‫ﻻﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ‬ decentralization ‫ﻣﺘﺎرﻳﺲ‬ ِ َ barricades ‫( ﻟﺠﺄ‬a) ََ َ 1. to take refuge (‫ﻣﺘﺤﺪث )ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬ ْ ِ ِّ َ َ ُ see ‫ﻧﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺸﺪد‬ ِّ َ َ ُ bigot, radical ‫ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺐ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ hard-line 2. to seek asylum ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﻟﺠﺎن‬ ِ committee, commission ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ اﻻﺗﺼﺎل‬ ِ liaison committee ‫ﻣﺘﻄﺮف‬ ِّ َ َ ُ extremist ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ اﺳﺘﺸﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ َ advisory committee ‫ﻣﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬ ِ َُ demonstrator ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ اﻟﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬ ِ ْ َّ steering committee ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻃﻒ‬ ِ َُ sympathizer ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ اﻟﻄﻌﻮن‬ ُ ُّ ْ appeals committee ‫ﻣﺘﻘﺪم‬ ِّ َ َ ُ predecessor
    • 116 POLITICS compatible with ‫ﻣﺜﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺠﺪل‬ َ َ ِ ُِ see ‫ﺧﻼﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ َ َْ ُ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ ُّ َ َ ْ ُ ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ‬ ِْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻟﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ society the international community council َّ َ ُ َّ ‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ اﻟﺴﻼم‬ peace plan ‫ﻣﺨﻴﻢ‬ َّ َ ُ camp (refugees) ‫ﻣﺪاوﻟﺔ‬ َ ُ deliberation, consultation ‫ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ َِّ ْ َ see ‫ﻃﺎﺋﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ِ ُ observer ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻚ‬ ََْ ُ ‫ﻣﺘﻮاﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ‬ َ َ ِ َُ involved, implicated pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬي‬ ّ ِ َِْ executive board ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻨﻮاب‬ ُّ Parliament ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻮزراء‬ َُ Council of Ministers, Cabinet ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ َ َْ ‫ﻣﺤ ﺘﺞ‬ ّ َْ ُ protestor ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ِ ُ neutral ‫ﻣﺮﺳﻮم‬ ُ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﺳﻴﻢ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺤﻀﺮ‬ َ ْ َ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺿﺮ‬ ُِ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻊ‬ َ ْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻣﻊ‬ minutes (meeting) assembly ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬ ِ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ‬ authority (person) stage, phase decree ‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ‬ ‫َُ ﱠ‬ nominee, candidate ّ َِْ ُ ‫ُ َ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ independent candidate ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ِ ُ aide, assistant ‫ﻣﺤﺎدﺛﺔ‬ َ ُ talk, negotiation ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺒﺪ‬ ّ َِْ ُ despot, tyrant ‫ﻣﺤﺎذرة‬ َ ُ precautionary measure ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة إﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ ُ humanitarian aid proceedings, verbatim records ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة دوﻟﻴﺔ‬ َِّ ُ َ ُ international aid 1. conservative ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺠﻴﺮ‬ ِ َْ ُ see ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻟﻠﺠﻮء‬ 2. governor ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﺎر‬ َْ ُ advisor, consultant َّ ِ ُ ْ َ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ favouritism ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮة‬ َ ْ َْ ُ settlement, colony ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻞ‬ ِّ َ ُ analyst ّ َِْ ُ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ independent ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻲ‬ ّ َّ َ َ local َْ ِ ‫ﻣﺤﻮر اﻟﺸﺮ‬ ّ َّ the Axis of Evil ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ََْ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮري‬ ّ َْ ِ pivotal ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻃﻦ‬ ِ ْ َْ ُ settler ‫ﻣﺨﺒﺮ‬ ِْ ُ informant ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺔ‬ َ ْ َْ ُ settlement (site) َّ َ ْ ُ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺎت‬ competences ‫ﻣﺴﺆول‬ ُْ َ official (n.) ِ ُ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺿﺮات ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ِ ُ document
    • POLITICS ‫ﻣﺸﺎرﻛﺔ‬ َ ُ participation ‫ﻣﺸﺎورة‬ َ ُ consultation ‫ﻣﺸﺮوع‬ ُْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎرﻳﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. project, scheme 2. legitimate, lawful 117 ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬ َ ُ resistance ‫ﻣﻘﺘﺮح‬ َ َُْ proposal pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺮ‬ ََّ pl. ‫-ات‬ seat, centre ‫ﻣﺸﺮوع ﻗﺮار‬ َ ُْ َ draft resolution ‫ﻣﺸﺮوع ﻗﺎﻧﻮن‬ ُْ َ bill (draft law) ‫ﻣﺸﺮوﻋﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ْ َ legitimacy ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ اﻻرﻫﺎب‬ ِْ ُ counter-terrorism ‫ﻣﺸﺎورة‬ َ َُ consultation ‫( ﻣﻼء‬i) َ to fill (e.g. a position) ‫ﻣﺸﻴﺨﺔ‬ ِ َ sheikhdom ‫ﻣﻼﺋﻢ‬ ُ suitable ‫ﻣﺼﺎدرة‬ َ ُ confiscation, seizure َّ ِ ‫ﻣﻠﺔ‬ religious community ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ‬ َ ُْ attaché ‫ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ‬ َ ُ settlement (peace), conciliation ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺪ‬ ََْ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ‬ seat (elections) َِ pl. ‫ﻣﻠﻞ‬ َْ َ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ َّ public interest ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ َ ُ cultural attaché ‫ﻣﻀﻤﻮن‬ ُ ْ َ guaranteed ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﻋﺴﻜَﺮي‬ ّ ِ ْ َ military attaché ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻮب‬ ُْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ demand ‫ﻣﻠﻚ‬ َِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻣﻠﻮك‬ king ‫ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮة‬ ََ ُ demonstration ‫ﻣﻠﻜﺔ‬ َِ queen ُ ‫ﻣﻌﺎداة اﻟﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ّ ِ َّ anti-Semitism ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻲ‬ ِ ََ royalist ‫ﻣﻌﺎرﺿﺔ‬ َ ُ opposition ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ دﺳﺘﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ُْ ُ ِّ ََ constitutional monarchy ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪة‬ َ ُ treaty ‫ﻣﻤﺜﻞ‬ ِّ َ ُ representative ‫ﻣﻌﺪ‬ ُِّ compiler (e.g. of report) ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬ َّ َ ُ specific ‫ﻣﻔﺎوض‬ ِ ُ negotiator ‫ﻣﻔﺎوﺿﺔ‬ َ ُ negotiation, discussion َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻔﻮض‬ commissioner ‫ﻣﻔﻮض ﺳﺎم‬ ٍ َّ َ ُ High Commissioner ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻣﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ‬ َ َْ ُ َ see ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ َْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻤﺎﻟﻚ‬ kingdom ُِْ َ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻋﺔ دﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ diplomatic immunity ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬ ِ ُ rival ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ َ ُ debate, discussion ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪى‬ ‫َُْ ﹰ‬ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻳﺎت‬ َ َُْ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻰ‬ ً َُْ meeting place select (adj.)
    • 118 POLITICS ‫( ﻣﻨﺢ‬a) َ ََ to award, grant َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ اﻟﻘﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪوب‬ ُ َْ delegate, representative ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ ُ َ َُ summit meeting 1. government official 2. civil servant ‫ﻣﻨﺪوب ﺧﺎص‬ ّ special envoy ‫ﻣﻨﺪوب ﻓﻮق اﻟﻌﺎدة‬ َْ ambassador extraordinary ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬ َِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻗﻒ‬ alternative ‫ﻣﺆﻳﺪ‬ ِّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﺪوﺣﺔ‬ ُ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎدح‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻴﺜﺎق‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﺛﻴﻖ‬ ُ ِ َ position, stance supporter charter ‫ﻣﻨﺸﺄ‬ َْ native country ‫ﻣﻨﺸﻂ‬ ِّ َ ُ activist ‫ﻣﻴﺰ‬ َ َّ َ to discriminate ‫ﻣ ﻨﺸ ﻖ‬ ّ َ ُْ dissident (‫ﻧﺎﻃﻖ )ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬ ْ ِ ِ spokesman ‫ﻣﻨﺼﺐ‬ َ َْ office, position ‫ﻧﺎﺋﺐ‬ َُ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاب‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺐ‬ Member of Parliament ‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮص ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ََْ ُ َْ stipulated, provided for ‫ﻧﺎﺋﺐ اﻟﻘﻨﺼﻞ‬ ُ ُْ vice-consul ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ organization ‫ﻧﺎﺧﺐ‬ ِ voter non-governmental ‫ﻧﺎزﻳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪة‬ ِ َ ِّ neo-Nazism ‫ﻧﺎﺷﻂ‬ ِ see ‫ﻣﻨﺸﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ دوﻟﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ْ َ َّ ِ َ ُ َّ َ ُ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ُ organization ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ دوﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ُ َّ َ ُ َّ ِ ُ ُ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻇﺮ‬ ِ inspector organization ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ‬ ِ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻈﺎر‬ َّ ُ emigrant ‫ﻧﺎﻗﺶ‬ َ َ to discuss ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮة‬ َ ُ emigration ‫ﻧﺨﺒﻮي‬ ّ َ َْ َ electoral ‫ﻣﻬﺎﻇﺮة‬ َ ُ demonstration ‫ﻧﺴﻖ‬ َ َّ َ to arrange ‫ﻣﻬﺪَ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‬ ِ َّ َّ َ to pave the way ‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ُِّ important ‫ﻧﺸﻴﺪ ﺣﻤﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ َ َ َّ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﺋﺪُ ﺣﻤﺎﺳ‬ َ pl. ‫ِﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻃﻦ‬ ِ ُ compatriot ‫ﻣﻮاﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ‫ﻣﺆاﻣﺮة‬ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ‬ َ َ ُ pl. ‫ات‬َّ َ َْ ُ ‫ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ اﻟﺴﻼم‬ intergovernmental rallying song ‫ﻧﺸﻴﺪ وﻃﻨﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ national anthem citizenship ‫( ﻧﺼﺢ ب‬a) ِ َ َ َ see ‫)1( أوﺻﻰ‬ conspiracy, plot see ‫وﺻﻴﺔ‬ conference ‫ﻧﺼﻴﺤﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺼﺎﺋﺢ‬ ُ َ peace conference ِ َْ pl. ‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﺸﺎﺋﺪ وﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ َّ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ِ regime
    • POLITICS ‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻷﺣﺰاب‬ ْ ِ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪدة‬ ِّ َ َ ُ see ‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺘﻌﺪدﻳﺔ اﻟﺤﺰﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺣﺪاﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ unilateral ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ْ َ unity ‫وزارة‬ ِ ministry ‫وزارة اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎت‬ ْ ِْ ِ Ministry of Information Ministry of Public Works ِ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺘﻌﺪدﻳﺔ‬ ّ ُّ َ َّ َّ ‫اﻟﺤﺰﺑ‬ ‫ِ ْ ِﻴﺔ‬ multiparty system ‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺤﺰب اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ‬ ِ ِْ ِ one-party system ‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺤﻜﻢ‬ ْ ُ political system ‫وزارة اﻷﺷﻐﺎل‬ ْ َّ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣ‬ ‫ُ ُ ِﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to implement, execute ‫وزارة اﻷوﻗﺎف‬ ْ ‫( ﻧﻔﻰ‬i) ََ 119 Ministry of Religious Endowments 1. to exile 2. to deny ‫وزارة اﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ Ministry of the Navy ‫ﻧﻘﺎش‬ ِ debate ‫وزارة اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة‬ ِّ Ministry of Trade ُْ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻮل‬ ُّ َ َّ turning point ‫وزارة اﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ِ ْ َّ Ministry of Planning ‫ﻫﺎﺟﺮ‬ ََ to emigrate ‫وزارة اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ِ ْ َّ Ministry of Education ‫ﻫﻤﺶ‬ َ َّ َ to marginalize ‫وزارة اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ َّ Ministry of Culture ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ َ ‫وزارة اﻟﺤﺮب‬ َْ Ministry of War body (organization) ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻮزراء‬ َُ َ َّ ِ ِ ‫وزارة اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬ Foreign Office Cabinet ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻧﺎﺧﺒﺔ‬ ِ َْ ‫وزارة اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ َّ Home Office electorate ‫ﻫﻴﺒﺔ‬ َْ ‫وزارة اﻟﺪﻓﺎع‬ ِّ Ministry of Defence prestige ‫وزارة اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ‬ ِّ Ministry of Agriculture ‫وزارة اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ِّ Ministry of Tourism Ministry of Social Affairs ِّ ِ ‫واﺳﻊ اﻟﻨﻄﺎق‬ far-reaching ‫واﻓﻖَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ to approve ٍ ‫وال‬ governor ‫وزارة اﻟﺸﺆون‬ ُّ َّ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋ‬ ‫ِ ْ ِ ِﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺛﺎﺋﻖ اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ِْ ِ َ credentials َّ َّ ‫وزارة اﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ُ Ministry of Public Health ‫واﻗﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِِ realistic ‫وزارة اﻟﻄﻴﺮان‬ ْ َّ Ministry of Aviation document (official) ‫وزارة اﻟﻌﺪل‬ َْ Ministry of Justice ‫وزارة اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ َ َ ِ Ministry of Employment pl. ‫وﻻة‬ ُ ‫وﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ َِ pl. ‫وﺛﺎﺋﻖ‬ ُ َ ْ َ ‫وﺟﻬﺔ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ َ َّ point of view ‫وزاة اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ Ministry of Finance ‫وﺣﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to unite ‫وزارة اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻼت‬ ِ َُ Ministry of Communications
    • 120 ‫وزﻳﺮ‬ َِ pl. ‫وزراء‬ ُ َُ LAW AND ORDER minister ‫وﻃﻦ‬ َ َ ْ pl. ‫أوﻃﺎن‬ ‫وزﻳﺮ ﺑﻼ وزارة‬ ِ ِ minister without portfolio ‫وﻃﻨﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ nationalist ‫وزﻳﺮ ﻣﻔﻮض‬ َّ َ ُ minister plenipotentiary ‫وﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ nationalism ‫وﺳﻴﻂ‬ ِ َ intermediary ‫وﻃﻴﺪ‬ ِ َ solid (e.g. ties) ُ َ ُ pl. ‫وﺳﻄﺎء‬ ‫وﺻﺎﻳﺔ‬ ِ mandate ‫وﺻﻞَ )ﻳﺼﻞ( إﻟﻰ‬ ُ ِ َ َ َ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ْ ُّ ‫وﺻﻰ ب‬ ِ َّ َ ‫وﺻﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﺮش‬ َْ ِ َ ِ ْ pl. ‫أوﺻﻴﺎء‬ ‫وﺻﻴﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫وﺻﺎﻳﺎ‬ َ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أوﺿﺎع‬ َْ ‫وﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫وﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ُ َ homeland, nation office, appointment to come to power ‫وﻓﺪ‬ َْ ُُ ْ pl. ‫أوﻓﺎد ,وﻓﻮد‬ see ‫أوﺻﻰ‬ ِ ‫وﻻﻳﺔ وﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ national jurisdiction regent ‫وﻟﻲ اﻟﻌﻬﺪ‬ َْ َِ Crown Prince ‫اﻟﻴﺴﺎر‬ َ the Left ‫ﻳﺴﺎري‬ ّ ِ َ َ left-wing ‫اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ the Right ‫ﻳﻤﻴﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ َ right-wing advice, counsel see ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬ delegation, deputation Law and order ‫اﺑﺘﺰ‬ َّ َ ْ ِ to blackmail ‫اﺧﺘﻄﺎف‬ ِْ ِ 1. kidnapping, abduction 2. hijacking ‫اﺑﺘﺰاز‬ ِِْ blackmail ‫أﺑﺮأ‬ َْ to acquit ُ ْ ‫إﺑﺮاء‬ acquittal, release (e.g. from liability) ‫اﺗﻬﻢَ ه ب‬ ِ َ َّ ِ to accuse s.o. of s.thing ‫أﺛﺒﺖ‬ َ َْ to prove ‫أﺛﺮ اﻟﻘﺪم‬ ََ َ pl. -‫آﺛﺎر‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺠﺰ‬ َ َ َْ ِ footprint to detain ‫اﺧﺘﻄﻒ‬ َ َ َْ ِ 1. to kidnap, abduct, take hostage 2. to hijack ‫اﺧﺘﻼس‬ ِْ ِ embezzlement َ ََْ ِ ‫اﺧﺘﻠﺲ‬ to embezzle (‫أدان )ب‬ ِ to convict s.o. of s.thing ‫ارﺗﻜﺐ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to commit (a crime) ‫إرﻫﺎب‬ ْ terrorism
    • LAW AND ORDER 121 ‫إرﻫﺎﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ terrorist ‫اﻏﺘﺼﺎب‬ ِْ ِ rape ‫أرﻫﺐ‬ َ َ ْ to terrorize ‫اﻏﺘﺼﺐ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to rape ‫أﺳﺎءَ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ َ ُ to mistreat ‫اﻏﺘﻴﺎل‬ ِْ ِ assassination, murder ‫اﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎف‬ ِْ ِ appeal ‫اﻓﺘﺮاض‬ ِِْ hypothesis, assumption ‫اﺳﺘﺄﻧﻒ‬ َ َ ْ ِ to appeal (against a sentence) ‫اﻓﺘﺮاﺿﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِِْ hypothetical ‫اﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻓﻴﺎ‬ ًِّ ِْْ ِ by appeal ‫أﻓﺮجَ ﻋﻦ‬ َ َْ to release ‫ا ﺳ ﺘﺠ ﻮ ب‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to interrogate, question ‫اﻗﺘﻔﻰ أﺛﺮه‬ َ َ ََِْ to follow s.o.’s tracks interrogation ‫أﻗﺴﻢ‬ ََ ْ to take an oath, swear ‫أﻟﻐﻰ‬ َْ to abrogate ‫اﺳﺘﺠﻮاب‬ ْ ِْ ِ pl. ‫ات‬‫اﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎ‬ ْ َْ ِ to summon, subpoena ‫اﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎء‬ ْ ِْ ِ summons, subpoena ‫اﻧﺘﻬﺎك‬ ِِْ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺬﻧﺐ‬ َ َْ َْ ِ to find guilty of a crime ‫اﻧﺤﺮاف‬ ِ ِْ delinquency clash ‫أوﻗﻒ‬ َ َْ see ‫اﻋﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺛﺮ رﺟﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ َ with retroactive force ‫اﺷﺘﺒﺎك‬ ِْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ violation ‫اﺷﺘﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ‬ ِ َََْ ِ to suspect (s.o.) of s.thing ‫اﺷﺘﺮط‬ َ َ َْ ِ to stipulate ‫أﺷﻐﺎل ﺷﺎﻗﺔ‬ ْ hard labour ‫أﺻﺪرَ ﺣﻜﻤﺎ‬ ً ُ َْ to hand down a sentence َّ ْ ‫إﺿﺮاب ﻋﻦ اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ hunger strike (‫أﻃﻠﻖَ )ﺳﺮاﺣﻪ‬ َُ َ َْ to release, set free ‫أﻇﻬﺮ‬ ََْ to demonstrate, show pl. ‫ﺑﻨﻮد‬ ُُ ‫إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺤﻘﻮق‬ ُُ rehabilitation َ ‫ﺑﻴﺖ اﻟﺪﻋﺎرة‬ َّ brothel ‫اﻋﺘﺪاء ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ِْ ِ attempt on s.o.’s life ‫ﺗﺒﺮﺋﺔ‬ َْ exoneration ‫اﻋﺘﺮفَ ب‬ ِ َ َْ ِ to confess ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ِْ َ investigation َ ََْ ِ ‫اﻋﺘﻘﻞ‬ to arrest ‫أﻋﺪم‬ ََْ to execute َ ْ ِ ‫اﻏﺘﺎل‬ to assassinate ‫ﺑﺮىء‬ َِ pl. ‫أﺑﺮﻳﺎء‬ ُ ِْ ‫ﺑﺼﻤﺔ اﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ‬ ِ ْ َ َ َ pl. ‫ﺑﺼﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻄﺠﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ َْ pl. ‫ﺑﻠﻄﺠﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َ َْ ‫ﺑﻨﺪ‬ َْ innocent fingerprint gangster article pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺟﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِْ َ ‫ﺗﺮاﻓﻊَ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ‬ ِ َ َ criminal investigation to bring one’s case before a judge
    • 122 ‫ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ‬ ِ َْ LAW AND ORDER 1. licensing 2. licence ‫ﺣﻛﻢَ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪ ام‬ ْ ِ ِ ََْ َ َ to sentence s.o. to death ‫ﺣﻜﻢ‬ ْ ُ 1. judgement ‫ﺗﺰوﻳﺮ‬ َِْ forgery ْ pl. ‫أﺣﻜﺎم‬ 2. sentence ‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َ registration ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺪام‬ ْ ِ death sentence ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺣﺒﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِّ ُ ِ ْ َ amicable settlement ‫ﺣﻜﻢ اﻟﺒﺮاءة‬ َ acquittal ‫ﺗﻌﺬﻳﺐ‬ َِْ see ‫ﻋﺬاب‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻏﻴﺎﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ trial in absentia َِْ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ اﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ‬ ْ ُّ police report ‫ﺣﻜﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ُ legal ‫ﺗﻼءمَ ﻣﻊ‬ َ َ َ َ to comply with ‫( ﺣﻠﻒَ ﻳﻤﻴﻨﺎ‬i) ً ِ َ ََ to take an oath ‫ﺗﻬﺮﻳﺐ‬ َِْ ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﺔ‬ َ assignment, cession smuggling ‫ﺧﺎﻟﻒ‬ َ َ to break (rule) ‫ﺗﻬﺮﻳﺐ اﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬ َ َ َِْ ‫ﺗﻬﻤﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﺗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺟﺮاﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺴﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ َ ْ َ َْ ‫ﺟﻨﺎﻳﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﻨﺎﻳﺎ‬ َ ‫ﺟﻨﺤﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﺟﻨﺢ‬ people smuggling, trafficking accusation, charge crime ‫ﺧﺒﻴﺮ‬ َِ ُ َُ pl. ‫ﺧﺒﺮاء‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻢ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﺼﻮم‬ expert adversary ‫ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬ ِ treason court hearing ‫ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻈﻤﻰ‬ َ ْ ُ high treason felony ‫دار اﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ‬ ْ ُّ police station ‫دﻋﻮة‬ ْ َ summons misdemeanour ‫دﻋﻮى‬ َْ َ pl. ‫دﻋﺎوى‬ َ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ َ ِ judicial instrument ‫دﻋﻮى ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ civil suit ‫ﺣﺒﺲ اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ َْ remand ‫دلَّ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ََ َ see ‫أﺛﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﺲ اﻧﻔﺮادي‬ ّ ِ ِِْ َْ solitary confinement ‫ذو ﺳﻮاﺑﻖ‬ ِ َ ُ s.o. with a criminal record ‫ﺣﺎﻛﻢ‬ ََ to prosecute s.o. ‫راﻓﻊَ ﻋﻦ‬ َ ‫( ﺣﺘﻢ‬i) َ ََ to impose, prescribe ‫ﺣﺼﺎﻧﺔ‬ َ immunity ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُُ legist, jurist ‫( ﺣﻜﻢَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬u) َ َ to sentence s.o. lawsuit to act as s.o.’s defence counsel ‫رﺟﻌﻲ‬ ِْ َ revocable ‫رﺧﺺ‬ َ َّ َ to license ‫( رﻓﻊ اﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎف‬a) ْ ِ َ ََ (‫)أﻣﺎم‬ (before a court) to lodge an appeal
    • LAW AND ORDER ‫( رﻓﻊَ اﻟﺪﻋﻮى‬a) َْ َ ََ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ against s.o. ‫رﻓﻊ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ِ َ to bring legal action against ‫رﻫﻴﻨﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫رﻫﺎﺋﻦ‬ ُ َ to file a complaint hostage 123 ‫ﺷﺮﻃﺔ اﻷدب‬ ُْ vice squad ‫ﺷﻜﺎﻳﺔ‬ َ complaint ‫( ﺷﻨﻖ‬u) َ ََ to hang ‫ﺷﻨﻖ‬ َْ hanging ‫ﺻﺎدقَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ ‫رﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ‬ ِّ chief prosecutor ‫زﻧﺰاﻧﺔ‬ ِْ cell (prison) ‫زور‬ َ َّ َ to forge َّ ِ ُ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺻﻜﻮك ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ز ﻳﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to counterfeit (money) ‫ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َ jurisdiction ‫ﺳﺎري اﻟﻤﻌﻘﻮل‬ َُْ ِ valid ‫ﺻﻠﺢ ﺗﺤﻔﻈﻲ‬ ّ ِ ‫ُْ َ َ ﱡ‬ preventive settlement ‫ﺳﺠﺎن‬ َّ َ warder, prison guard ‫ﻃﺎرد‬ ََ to chase, pursue ‫( ﺳﺠﻦ‬u) َ َ َ to imprison (‫ﻋﺎﻗﺐَ )ب‬ ِ َ to punish s.o. (for) prison ‫ﻋﺐء اﻹﺛﺒﺎت‬ ْ ْ ِ burden of proof prisoner, inmate ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ََ magnifying glass political prisoner ‫ﻋﺪل‬ َْ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﺪول‬ thief ١ ‫ﻋﺪو ﻗﻮﻣﻲّ رﻗﻢ‬ َْ ِ َْ َْ public enemy No 1 ‫ﻋﺪﻳﻢ اﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬ ِّْ َ َِ legally incompetent ‫ﺳﺠﻦ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﺳﺠﻮن‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺳﺠﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺠﻨﻰ ,ﺳﺠﻨﺎء‬ ُ َ ُ َْ َ ‫ﺳﺠﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫ﺳﺎرق‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺳﺮاق ,ﺳﺮﻗﺔ‬ ََ َُ to authenticate (e.g. signature) ‫ﺻﻚّ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ َ legal instrument notary public ‫( ﺳﺮق‬i) َ ََ to steal ‫ﺳﺮﻗﺔ‬ َِ theft ‫ﻋﺬاب‬ َ ِْ pl. ‫-ات ,أﻋﺬﺑﺔ‬ َّ ُ ‫ﺳﻔﺎح‬ killer ‫ﻋﺬب‬ َ َّ َ to torture َ ْ ُّ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ the Judiciary ‫اﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺔ‬ ِ the Mob ‫ﺳﻴﺎف‬ َّ َ executioner ‫ﻋﺼﺒﺔ‬ ِ (criminal) gang witness ‫ﻋﻔﻮ‬ َْ 1. pardon ‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺷﻬﻮد‬ ُُ torture 2. amnesty ‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪ اﻟﻌﻴﺎن‬ ِ ِ eye-witness ‫ﻋﻘﺎب‬ ِ punishment ‫ﺷﺮﻃﺔ‬ ُْ police ‫ﻋﻘﺎﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ penal ‫ﺷﺮﻃﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُْ policeman ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُُ punishment, sanction
    • 124 LAW AND ORDER ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ اﻹﻋﺪام‬ ْ ُُ death penalty ‫ﻋﻨﻒ‬ ُْ violence ‫ﻋﻨﻴﻒ‬ َِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﻒ‬ ‫ﻏﺮاﻣﺔ‬ َ violent ‫ﻗﺴﻢ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﻗﺴﺎم‬ ْ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺔ‬ ِ َ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ oath lawsuit ‫ﻗﻔﺺ اﻻﺗﻬﺎم‬ ِّ ِ ََ prisoner’s dock َّ َ ‫ﻗﻮاد‬ pimp ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ َْ handcuff 1. fine 2. damages ‫( ﻏﺮم‬a) ََِ to pay (a fine) ‫ﻏﺮم‬ َ َّ َ to fine ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ illegal َُ pl. ‫-ون ,ﻛﺘﺎب‬ ‫ﻏﺴﻞ اﻷﻣﻮال‬ ْ َ ْ ُ money laundering ‫ﻛﺎﺗﺐ اﺧﺘﺰال‬ ِْ ِ ِ stenographer ‫ﻏﺴﻴﻞ اﻷﻣﻮال‬ ْ َ ِ َ see ‫ﻏﺴﻞ اﻷﻣﻮال‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ اﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬ ِّْ َ ِ legally competent ‫ﻏﺶ، ﻏﺶ‬ ّ ِ ّ َ fraud ‫ﻛﺸﺎف ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ََْ َّ َ searchlight ‫( ﻓﻀﺢ‬u) َ َ َ to expose, uncover َّ َ ْ َ َّ َ pl. ‫ﻛﺸﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ scandalous act, infamy َ ََ ‫( ﻛﻔﻞ‬i, u) to guarantee ‫ﻛﻔﺎﻟﺔ‬ َ bail َِ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﺸﺮف‬ ْ َّ word of honour ْ َ ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻒ‬ ِ ْ َّ jury َّ َ ‫( ﻟﺺ‬u) to rob ‫ﻟﺺ‬ ّ ِ robber ‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ‬ ِ َ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻀﺎﺋﺢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺗﻞ‬ ِ َُ pl. ‫ﻗﺘﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﺎض‬ ٍ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﻀﺎة‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﻴﻮد‬ ُُ ‫ﻛﺎﺗﺐ‬ ِ murderer judge law pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ court secretary pl. ‫ﻟﺼﻮص‬ ُ ُ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﺟﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ َ criminal law َّ ِ ُ ُ ‫ﻟﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ‬ robbery ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن دﺳﺘﻮري‬ ّ ِ ُْ ُ constitutional law ‫ﻟﻘﺎء ﻛﻔﺎﻟﺔ‬ َ ِ on bail ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن دوﻟﻲ‬ ّ َِ ُ international law َّ َ ُ ِ ْ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻣﺤﻠﻒ‬ sworn translator ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ civil law ‫ﻣﺘﻬﻢ ب‬ َ َّ ُ accused of ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ legal, lawful ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻬﻢ‬ َ َّ ُ the accused ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ lawfulness ‫ﻣﺠﺮم‬ ِْ ُ criminal ‫( ﻗﺒﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ‬i) ََ َ ََ see ‫اﻋﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ‬ َ ُ court hearing
    • LAW AND ORDER 125 ‫ﻣﺤﺎم‬ ٍ ُ lawyer ‫ﻣﺴﺮوﻗﺎت‬ ُْ َ stolen goods ‫ﻣﺤﺎوﻟﺔ اﻻﻏﺘﻴﺎل‬ ِْ ِ َ ُ assassination attempt ‫ﻣﺴﻠﺢ‬ َّ َ ُ gunman ‫ﻣﺤﻀﺮ‬ ِ ْ ُ court usher ‫ﻣﺸﺒﺒﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ََْ ُ suspect ‫ﻣﺤَﻘﻖ‬ ّ ُ detective ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺒﻪ ب‬ ََْ ُ suspected of court, tribunal ‫ﻣﺸﺒﻮه‬ ُْ َ suspicious, dubious ‫ﻣﺸﺮع‬ ِّ َ ُ lawmaker ‫ﻣﺸﺮوﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُْ َ see ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮوﻋﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُ ْ َ legality ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ َ ْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻛﻢ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺟﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ criminal court ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻟﺠﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ّ َ ْ َ ‫اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ‬ ّ ِ َ ُّ Tribunal ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ُ court martial ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻮم ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ب‬ ِ ِ ََْ ُ ْ َ sentenced to َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻒ‬ juror ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ‬ َ ُ infringement, violation َْ ُ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻖ اﻟﺴﺮاح‬ َّ at large ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﺲ‬ َِْ ُ embezzler ‫ﻣﻌﺪ‬ ٍَُ aggressor illegal drug ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺎد اﻟﺠﺮاﺋﻢ‬ َ ُْ habitual criminal َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻖ‬ pending ‫ﻣﻐﺘﺼﺐ‬ ِ َْ ُ rapist ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺮض‬ َ َُْ alleged (adj.) ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺶ‬ ِّ َ ُ inspector ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻋﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ّ ِ َّ ّ public prosecutor ‫ﻣﻔﻮض ﺷﺮﻃﺔ‬ ُْ َّ َ ُ police commissioner ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع‬ ُْ َ forbidden ‫( ﻣﻨﻊ‬a) ََ to prohibit ‫ﻣﻬﺮب‬ ِّ َ ُ smuggler ‫ﻣﺨﺪر‬ َّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ International Criminal ‫ﻣﺪان ب‬ ِ ُ convicted of ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻋﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ََْ َ َ ُ defendant ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻋﻲ‬ ِ َُ plaintiff ‫ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ civil ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ اﻟﺴﺠﻦ‬ ْ ِّ ُِ prison governor, warden ‫ﻣﺬﻧﺐ‬ ِْ ُ guilty party ‫ﻣﺮاﻓﻌﺔ‬ َ ُ 1. proceedings at law 2. speech for the defence ‫ﻣﺸﻨﻘﺔ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻧﻖ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺸﻬﺪ‬ َْ َ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺐ‬ ِ َْ ُ criminal ‫ﻣﺰاﻋﻢ‬ ُِ َ allegations َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻬﺮب‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻳﻒ‬ ِّ َ ُ counterfeiter ‫ﻣﻬﻠﺔ‬ ُْ gallows scene (crime) contraband respite, delay
    • 126 THE MILITARY َّ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻮادّ ﺟﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ criminal cases َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﻣﻮادّ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬ civil cases ‫ﻣﻮﻓﺪ‬ َ ُ delegate ‫ﻧﺸﺎل‬ َّ َ pickpocket ‫ﻧﺸﻞ‬ ْ َ pickpocketing ‫ﻫﺮوب‬ ُُ flight, getaway ‫اﻟﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ‬ ِّ the prosecution ‫ﻫﻮادة‬ َ leniency, clemency public prosecution ‫وﺻﺎﻳﺎ‬ َ regulation, ordinance ِ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ُ service ‫ﻫﺎرب‬ ِ fugitive, runaway ‫ﻫﺮاوة‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻫﺮاوى‬ َ َ truncheon ‫( ﻫﺮب‬u) َ ََ to escape ‫ﻫﺮب‬ َ َّ َ 1. to free (a prisoner) 2. to smuggle ‫ﻳﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ َ ْ ْ pl. ‫أﻳﻤﺎن ,أﻳﻤﻦ‬ oath The military ‫أﺑﺎد‬ َ to annihilate ‫اﺳﺘﺮﺟﻊ‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to recover ‫إﺑﺎدة ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َ genocide ‫اﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎع‬ ْ ِْ ِ recovery ‫إﺟﺮاءات أﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬ ِّْ ْ ‫اﺳﺘﺮق‬ َ َ َْ ِ to monitor (communications) security measures ‫أﺟﻠﻰ‬ َْ ‫اﺳﺘﺴﻼم‬ ِْ ِ surrender to evacuate (trans.) َ ِْ ِ ‫اﺣﺘﻼل‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺴﻠﻢ‬ َ َْ َْ ِ to surrender occupation ‫اﺣﺘﻞ‬ َّ َ ْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﻄﻼع‬ ِْ ِ reconnaissance to occupy ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺮض‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to review (troops) ‫اﺣﺘﻼل ﻋﺴﻜﺮي‬ ّ َِ ْ َ ِْ ِ military occupation to draw (a sword) ‫أﺣﻜﺎم ﻋﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ َِْ ُ ْ َ‫اﺳﺘﻞ‬ ّ َْ ِ martial law ‫اﺳﺘﻬﺪف‬ َ َ ْ َْ to target ‫أداة اﻟﺘﻔﺠﻴﺮ‬ ِ ْ َّ explosive device ‫اﺳﺘﻮﻟﻰ‬ ََ َْ to confiscate the Occupied Territories (Palestine) ‫( أﺳﺮ‬i) ََ to take prisoner ‫أرﻛﺎن اﻟﺠﻴﺶ‬ َْ ْ general staff ‫أﺳﻄﻮل‬ ُ ْ ُ pl. ‫أﺳﺎﻃﻴﻞ‬ ُ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺒﺎرات‬ ْ ِْ ِ see ‫ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮات‬ ِ ‫اﻷراﺿﻲ اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻠﺔ‬ َّ َ ْ ُ to debrief ‫أﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ‬ َِ ِْ َ small arms ‫أﺳﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ َ َْ َْ ِ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ُْ َ fleet captive, prisoner of war ُ ْ ُ َْ َ َ َ pl. ‫أﺳﺎرى ,أﺳﺮى ,أﺳﺮاء‬
    • THE MILITARY 127 ‫إﺷﻌﺎع‬ ْ ِ radiation ‫اﻧﻔﺠﺮ‬ َ َ َِْ to explode, detonate ‫أﻃﻠﻖ‬ َ َْ َ to launch (e.g. missile) ‫اﻧﻬﺰم‬ َ َ َ ِْ to be defeated, routed ‫أﻃﻠﻖَ اﻟﻨﺎر ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َْ to shoot, open fire at ‫ﺑﺎرﺟﺔ‬ ِ warship, man of war َ ََْ ‫اﻋﺘﻘﻞ‬ to intern (prisoner) ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻮارج‬ ‫أﻏﻤﺪ‬ ََ ْ to sheathe (sword) ‫ﺑﺎرود‬ ُ ‫اﻗﺘﺤﻢ‬ َ َ َِْ to storm ‫آﻟﺔ ﺣﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ instrument of war ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻖَ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻴﺶ‬ َْ َ َِْ to join the army ‫( أﻣﺮ‬u) ََ to command ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ْ pl. ‫أواﻣﺮ‬ ِ command ‫ﺑﻄﻞ‬ َ َ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﻄﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻮك‬ ُُ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﺑﻨﺪ‬ َْ gunpowder, saltpetre hero company banner pl. ‫ﺑﻨﻮد‬ ُُ ‫ﺑﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ْ ُ gun, rifle ‫ﺑﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ آﻟﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُِّ ُْ automatic rifle ‫ﺗﺒﺎدلَ إﻃﻼق اﻟﻨﺎر‬ ّ ْ َ َ to exchange fire nuclear proliferation ‫ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﻼح‬ ِّ ِْ َ disarmament ‫اﻧﺘﺼﺎر‬ ِِْ victory to spy ‫اﻧﺘﺼﺮَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َِْ َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺠﺴﺲ‬ to be victorious over ‫ﺗﺠﺴﺲ‬ ُّ َ َ espionage ‫اﻧﺪﻟﻊ‬ َ ََ ِْ to break out (war) ‫ﺗﺠﻨﻴﺪ‬ ِْ َ enlistment, mobilization ‫ﺗﺠﻨﻴﺪ إﺟﺒﺎري‬ ّ ِ ْ ِْ ِ conscription ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬ ِْ َ liberation ‫ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ‬ ِْ َ sabotage (‫ﺗﺪﺧﻞَ )ﻓﻲ‬ َّ َ َ to intervene (in) ‫آﻣﺮ‬ ِ commanding officer ‫أﻣﻴﺮ اﻟﻠﻮاء‬ ِ ِ brigadier ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎر اﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ‬ ِْ َ ِِْ ‫اﻟﻨﻮوﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َ ّ ‫إﻧﺬار‬ ْ pl. ‫-ات‬ alarm ‫إﻧﺬار ﺑﻮﻗﻮع ﻏﺎرات‬ ُُِ َّ ِّ َ ‫ﺟﻮﻳﺔ‬ air-raid warning ‫اﻧﺴﺤﺎب‬ ِ ِْ withdrawal ‫اﻧﺴﺤﺐ‬ َ َ َ ِ to withdraw (troops) ‫اﻧﻀﺒﺎط‬ ِ ِْ discipline (‫ﺗﺪﺧﻞ )ﻋﺴﻜﺮي‬ ّ ِ َ ْ َ ُّ َ َ (military) intervention ‫اﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎت‬ ِ ِْ repercussions ‫ﺗﺪرﻳﺐ ﻋﺴﻜَﺮي‬ ّ ِ ْ َ َِْ military training ‫اﻧﻐﻠﺐ‬ َ ََ ِْ to be defeated ‫ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮ‬ ِ َْ destruction ‫اﻧﻔﺠﺎر‬ ِِْ pl. ‫-ات‬ explosion ‫ﺗﺮس‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﺗﺮاس ,ﺗﺮوس‬ ْ ُُ shield
    • 128 THE MILITARY ‫ﺗﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ َْ arsenal ‫ﺟﻼء‬ َ evacuation ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ُّ see ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻼ )ﻳﺠﻠﻮ(ﻋﻦ‬ َ ُْ َ َ to evacuate from ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻞَ إﻟﻰ‬ َ َّ َ َ to infiltrate ‫ﺟﻨﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to conscript, draft ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻞ‬ ُّ َ َ infiltration ‫( ﺟﻨﺪ‬coll.) ُْ soldiers ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َ formation (order) ُُ pl. ‫ﺟﻨﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﺢ‬ َ َّ َ َ to arm oneself ‫ﺟﻨﺪي‬ ّ ِ ُْ ‫ﺗﻄﻬﻴﺮ إﺛﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ِ ْ َ ethnic cleansing ‫ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ‬ َْ mobilization pl. ‫ﺟﻴﻮش‬ ُُ َّ ِ َ ْ َ َِْ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰات ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ military reinforcements ‫ﺟﻴﺶ اﻻﺣﺘﻼل‬ ِْ ِ occupation force ‫ﺗﻔﺘﻴﺶ‬ َِْ inspection ‫ﺣﺎرب‬ َ َ to wage war 1. soldier 2. private (rank) ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻔﺎﺗﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺶ‬ َْ ‫ﺣﺎرس‬ ِ َُ pl. ‫ﺣﺮاس‬ army sentry ‫ﺗﻔﺠﺮ‬ َ َّ َ َ to explode (intrans.) ‫ﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ َ َّ َ َ to inspect ‫ﺣﺎﺻﺮ‬ ََ to besiege َ َ َ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺗﻞ‬ to fight one another (‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ )ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ to protect against ‫ﺗﻜﺘﻴﻜﺎت ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َ ْ َ ِْ َ military tactics ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﺄﻫﺐ‬ ُّ َّ state of alert ‫ﺗﻤﺮد‬ ُّ َ َ 1. rebellion ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮب‬ َْ state of war ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ ّ ِ see ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ِ garrison ‫( ﺣﺮب‬a) َ َِ to wage war against ‫( ﺣﺮب‬f.) َْ war 2. mutiny ‫ﺗﻮﻏﻞَ ﻓﻲ‬ ِ َّ َ َ ‫ﺛﺎﺋﺮ‬ pl. ‫ﺛﻮار‬ ُ ‫ﺟﺎﺳﻮس‬ ُ pl. ‫ﺟﻮاﺳﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺟﺒﺎن‬ َ to penetrate deeply into see ‫ﻣﺘﻤﺮد‬ spy ‫ﺣﺮب اﻷدﻏﺎل‬ ْ َْ jungle warfare ‫ﺣﺮب أﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬ ِّْ َ ْ َ civil war cowardice ‫اﻟﺤﺮب اﻟﺒﺎردة‬ ِ the Cold War injured person ‫ﺣﺮب ﺧﺎﻃﻔﺔ‬ ِ blitzkrieg ‫ﺣﺮب اﻟﻌﺼﺎﺑﺎت‬ ِ guerrilla warfare ‫ﺣﺮر‬ َ َّ َ to liberate coward ُ َُ pl. ‫ﺟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﺒﺎﻧﺔ‬ َ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺢ‬ َِ َ ُْ pl. ‫ﺟﺮﺣﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺔ‬ َّ ُ َُ pl. ‫ﺟﻠﻞ‬ pl. ‫ﺣﺮوب‬ ُُ cannon ball
    • THE MILITARY 129 ‫( ﺣﺸﺪ‬i, u) ََ َ to mobilize ‫درﺟﺔ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪاد‬ ْ ِْ ِ ََ ‫ﺣﺼﺎر‬ ِ blockade, cordon ‫ﺣﺼﺎر ﺟﻮي‬ ّ ِّ َ air blockade ‫درع‬ ِْ coat of mail pl. ‫أدرع ,أدراع ,دروع‬ ُُ ْ ُْ ‫ﺣﺼﻴﻠﺔ اﻟﻘﺘﻠﻰ‬ ََْ ِ َ death toll ‫درع واق‬ ٍ ِ protective armour ‫ﺣﻈﺮ اﻟﺘﺠﻮل‬ ُّ َ َّ ْ َ see ‫ﻣﻨﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﻮل‬ ‫دﻓﺎع‬ ِ defence ‫دﻣﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to destroy ‫دورﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ patrol military alliance ‫ذﺧﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ ammunition ally ‫راﺋﺪ‬ pl. ‫ون ,رواد‬َّ ُ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ِ protection ‫رﺋﻴﺲ اﻷرﻛﺎن‬ ْ َ see ‫رﺋﻴﺲ أرﻛﺎن اﻟﺠﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻠﺔ‬ ْ َ campaign ‫( ﺣﻤﻰ‬i) َ َ to protect ‫رﺋﻴﺲ أرﻛﺎن‬ َْ ‫اﻟﺠﻴﺶ‬ َْ chief of general staff ‫ﺣﻠﻒ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺣﻼف‬ ْ ‫ﺣﻠﻒ ﻋﺴﻜﺮي‬ ّ ِ َ ْ َ ِْ ‫ﺣﻠﻴﻒ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺣﻠﻔﺎء‬ ُ َُ ‫ﺧﺎﺋﻦ‬ pl. ‫ﺧﻮان‬ َُ league, alliance traitor ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ military service ‫( ﺧﺮب‬i) َ ََ to destroy, lay waste ‫ﺧﺮﻃﻮش‬ ُ َْ pl. ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﻴﺶ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺧﻨﺠﺮ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﺧﻨﺎﺟﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﺧﻨﺪق‬ َ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻨﺎدق‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬ ِ ‫دارﻋﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫دوارع‬ ِ َ cartridge dagger trench ‫رﺗﺒﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫رﺗﺐ‬ َُ major rank ‫رﺷﺎش ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ َ submachine gun ‫رﺻﺎﺻﺔ‬ َ bullet ‫رﻗﻴﺐ‬ َِ pl. ‫رﻗﺒﺎء‬ ُ َُ َِ ‫رﻗﻴﺐ أول‬ َّ ‫رﻛﻦ‬ ْ ُ َْ pl. ‫أرﻛﺎن‬ ‫رﻣﺢ‬ ْ ُ treason state of readiness sergeant sergeant major military staff lance pl. ‫رﻣﺎح‬ ِ ‫( زﺣﻒ‬a) َ َ َ to advance (army) ‫زﺣﻒ‬ ْ َ armoured cruiser advance, march ‫داﻓﻊَ ﻋﻦ‬ َ to protect against ‫زورق ﺣﺮﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ َ ْ َ gunboat ‫دﺑﺎﺑﺔ‬ َّ tank ‫ﺳﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﻘﺘﺎل‬ ِ battlefield ‫دﺑﺎﻧﺔ‬ ُّ sight (e.g. rifle) ‫ﺳﺒﺎق اﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ‬ ِْ ِ arms race
    • 130 ‫ﺳﺮب‬ ِْ ْ pl. ‫أﺳﺮاب‬ ‫ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﺣﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ِّْ َ َِ ‫ﺳﻼح‬ ِ ِْ pl. ‫أﺳﻠﺤﺔ‬ THE MILITARY squadron see ‫ﺑﺎرﺟﺔ‬ weapon ‫ﺷﻦَّ ﻫﺠﻮﻣﺎ‬ ً ُ ُ َ to launch an attack ‫( ﺷﻬﺮ‬a) َََ to draw (a weapon) َّ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ اﻟﺒﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ to level a gun at ‫ﺷﻬﺮ اﻟﺤﺮب ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ to declare war on rocket, missile ‫ﺳﻼح اﻟﺪﻣﺎر‬ ِّ ِ ‫اﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ weapon of mass ‫ﺻﺎروخ‬ destruction ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺻﻮارﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺳﻼح ذري‬ ّ ِّ َ ِ see ‫ﺳﻼح ﻧﻮوي‬ ‫ﺳﻼح ﻗﺬاﻓﻲ‬ ّ ِ َّ ِ ballistic weapon ‫ﺳﻼح ﻧﻮوي‬ ّ ََِ ِ nuclear weapon ‫ﺳﻼم‬ َ ‫ﺻﺎروخ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬ َِ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺪى‬ َ long-range missile -‫ﺻﺎروخ ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ْ َ ُ ‫ﺟﻮ‬ َّ surface-to-air missile peace ‫ﺻﺎروخ ﻃﻮاف‬ َّ cruise missile ‫ﺳﻠﺢ‬ َ َّ َ to arm َّ ِ َ ْ َ ْ ُ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ military authority ‫ﺻﺎروخ ﻋﺎﺑﺮ‬ ِ ‫اﻟﻘﺎرات‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻚ ﺷﺎﺋﻚ‬ ِْ barbed wire ‫ﺳﻬﻢ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﺳﻬﺎم‬ armoured car ‫ﺳﻴﺎرة ﻣﻔﺨﺨﺔ‬ َّ َّ َ ُ car bomb sword ‫ﺷﺎرد‬ ِ deserter, defector pl. ‫ﺷﻮارد ,ﺷﺮد ,ﺷﺮد‬ ُ َُ ِ َ ُ َّ ُ ‫ﺷﺠﺎع‬ pl. ‫ﺷﺠﻌﺔ ,ﺷﺠﻌﺎن‬ ْ ُ َ َ missile (ICBM) brave ‫ﺻﺎروخ ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ََ short-range missile ّ‫ﺻﺎروخ ﻣﻀﺎد‬ ُ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ anti-aircraft missile ‫ﺻﺎﻟﺢ‬ َ َ to make peace ‫ﺻﺮاع‬ ِ conflict ‫ﺻﻠﺢ‬ ُْ arrow َّ َ َّ َ ُ ‫ﺳﻴﺎرة ﻣﺪرﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻒ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺳﻴﻮف‬ intercontinental ballistic peace, reconciliation ‫ﺻﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﺴﻼح‬ ِّ َِ clatter of weapons ‫ﺿﺎﺑﻂ‬ ِ ُّ pl. ‫ﺿﺒﺎط‬ officer ِ ‫ﺿﺎﺑﻂ اﻟﺼﻒ‬ ّ َّ non-commissioned officer ‫ﺿﺤﻴﺔ‬ ِ َ victim ‫ﺷﺠﺎﻋﺔ‬ َ bravery ‫( ﺷﺠﻊ‬u) َ ُ َ to be brave ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ اﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ َِ َ ْ َ ْ ُّ َ pl. ‫ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ‬ the Military Police ‫( ﺿﺮب‬i) َ ََ to strike ‫( ﺷﻈﺎﻳﺎ‬pl.) َ shrapnel ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ‬ َْ strike ‫( ﺷﻦَّ ﺣﺮﺑﺎ‬u) ً َْ َ to start a war pl. ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺎت‬ ََ
    • THE MILITARY َّ ِ َ ْ َ ْ َ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ military strike ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ وﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِ ْ َ pre-emptive strike َّ َْ ‫ﺿﺮب اﻟﻨﺎر‬ see ‫ﻗﺼﻒ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة دورﻳﺔ‬ reconnaissance plane ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة ﻋﻤﻮدﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ُ ُ helicopter ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة اﻟﻘﺘﺎل‬ ِ combat plane ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة ﻣﺮوﺣﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َ ْ ِ see ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة ﻋﻤﻮدﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺐ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻏﻠﺒﺔ‬ ََ ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة ﻣﻘﺎﺗﻠﺔ‬ ِ ُ fighter plane ‫( ﻏﺰا‬u) ََ َّ َ ‫ﻃﺮادة‬ cruiser ‫ﻃﺮﺑﻴﺪ‬ ِْ ُ see ‫ﻧﺴﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫( ﻃﺮد‬u) َََ to expel, drive out ‫ﻃﺮف‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻃﺮاف‬ ْ ‫ﻃﻠﻖ‬ ََ ْ pl. ‫أﻃﻼق ,-ات‬ side, party pilot ‫ﻋﺎد‬ َ to treat as an enemy (‫ﻋﺒﺄ )ﺟﻴﺸﺎ‬ ً ْ َ َّ َ to mobilize (an army) ‫ﻋﺪّ ﺗﻨﺎزﻟﻰ‬ ّ ُِ َ َ countdown ‫ﻋﺪاوة‬ َ hostility, animosity ‫ﻋﺪوان‬ ُْ ‫ﻋﻘﻴﺪ‬ َِ َُ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺪاء‬ general amnesty (for) colonel َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻧﺘﺤﺎرﻳﺔ‬ suicide attack َّ ِّ َ ‫ﻏﺎرة ﺟﻮﻳﺔ‬ air raid ‫ﻏﺎرات ﻣﺘﻮاﺻﻠﺔ‬ ِ َ َُ rolling attacks ‫ﻏﺰو‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻏﺰوات‬ ََ ‫ﻏﻄﺎء ﺟﻮي‬ ّ ِّ َ ِ ‫ﻏﻤﺪ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫أﻏﻤﺎد‬ ْ victor to raid, attack raid, incursion air cover sheath ‫( ﻏﻨﻢ‬a) َ َِ shot ‫ﻃﻴﺎر‬ َّ ‫ﻋﺪو‬ َُ pl. ‫أﻋﺪاء‬ ْ (‫ﻋﻔﻮ ﻋﺎمّ )ﻋﻦ‬ َْ 131 to plunder ‫ﻏﻨﻴﻤﺔ‬ َِ (war) booty ُ َ pl. ‫ﻏﻨﺎﺋﻢ‬ 1. see ‫ﻋﺪاوة‬ 2. aggression, hostile action submarine ‫( ﻓﺘﺢ‬a) َ ََ to conquer ‫ﻓﺘﺢَ اﻟﻨﺎر‬ ّ ََ enemy ‫ﻏﻮاﺻﺔ‬ َّ َ see ‫أﻃﻠﻖ اﻟﻨﺎر‬ ‫ﻓ ﺘﺶ‬ َ َّ َ see ‫ﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻮح‬ ُُ pl. ‫-ات‬ conquest ‫ﻓﺠﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to explode (trans.) ‫ﻓﺪاﺋﻲ‬ ِ 1. guerrilla fighter 2. fedayeen ‫ﻋﺮﻳﻒ‬ َِ corporal pl. ‫ﻋﺮﻓﺎء‬ ُ َُ َ (‫( ﻓﺮَّ )ﻣﻦ‬i) َِ ‫ﻋﺮﻳﻒ أول‬ َّ lance corporal ‫ﻓﺮﻗﺔ‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻓﺮق‬ َِ ‫ﻋﺴﻜﺮي‬ ّ َِ ْ َ military (adj.) ‫ﻓﺮﻗﻊ‬ َ ََْ to escape (from), run away company (army) to explode, burst
    • 132 ‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬ َِ ُ ُ ِْ pl. ‫أﻓﺮﻗﺎء ,ﻓﺮوق‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻴﻠﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺼﺎﺋﻞ‬ ُ َ THE MILITARY squad ‫ﻗﺼﻒ‬ ْ َ bombardment, shelling ‫ﻗﺼﻒ ﺟﻮي‬ ّ ِّ َ ْ َ lieutenant general air bombardment ‫ﻗﺼﻒ دﻗﻴﻖ‬ َِ ْ َ precision bombing artillery fire ‫ﻓﺼﻴﻠﺔ اﻹﻋﺪام‬ ْ ِ َ firing squad ‫ﻗﺼﻒ ﻣﺪﻓﻌﻲ‬ ّ َِِْ ْ َ َّ َ ‫( ﻓﻚ‬u) to ransom, liberate ‫ﻗﻠﺪ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﻓﻜﺎك‬ َ ransom ‫ﻗﻨﺎع واق‬ ِ ِ gas mask (‫ﻓﻮج )ﻋﺴﻜﺮي‬ ّ َِ ْ َ َْ regiment َ ََْ ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻞ‬ to bomb ْ pl. (‫أﻓﻮاج)ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮب‬ َْ in a state of war ‫ﻓﻴﻠﻖ‬ ََْ army corps ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻴﺎﻟﻖ‬ to confer, award (a decoration) ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ‬ ُُْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺑﻞ‬ bomb, shell ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﺣﺎرﻗﺔ‬ ِ ُُْ incendiary bomb ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ذرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِّ َ A-bomb َ َ ‫ﻗﺎﺗﻞ‬ to fight ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﻘﻮدﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ْ ُ ُ ْ ُ cluster bomb ِ ‫ﻗﺎذﻗﺔ اﻟﺼﻮارﻳﺦ‬ ِ َّ rocket launcher gas shell ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪة ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َ ْ َ ِ ُُْ ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﻏﺎزﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ military base َّ ُُْ ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﻣﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ depth charge sniper ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﻣﺤﺮﻗﺔ‬ ِ ْ ُ ُُْ see ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﺣﺎرﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺠﺮة‬ ِ َُْ ُُْ high-explosion bomb ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﻧﻮوﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َ َ ُُْ nuclear bomb ِ ُُْ ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﻫﻴﺪروﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ hydrogen bomb ‫ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ ﻳﺪوﻳﺔ‬ ِّ َ َ ُُْ hand grenade to bomb ‫ﻗﻮات اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِْ ِ ّ ُ reserves 1. projectile, shell ‫ﻗﻮات اﻷﻣﻦ‬ ْ َ ُّ security forces ‫ﻗﺎﻧﺺ‬ ِ ُّ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﺎص‬ ‫ﻗﺎوم‬ ََ to resist َ ََ ‫( ﻗﺘﻞ‬u) to kill, murder ‫ﻗﺘﻴﻞ‬ َِ ََْ pl. ‫ﻗﺘﻠﻰ‬ ‫( ﻗﺬفَ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻨﺎﺑﻞ‬i) ِ َ ِ ََ casualty (dead) ‫ﻗﺬﻳﻔﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻗﺬاﺋﻒ‬ 2. detonator Army, ground forces ‫ﻗﺬﻳﻔﺔ اﻟﻠﻬﺐ‬ ََ ِ َّ ِّ َ ّ ُ ‫ﻗﻮات ﺑﺮﻳﺔ‬ flame thrower ‫ﻗﻮات ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ ّ ُ Navy ‫ﻗﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﻫﺎون‬ ُ َِ mortar bomb ُّ ‫ﻗﻮات اﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻒ‬ ُ َّ the Allied Forces ُّ ‫ﻗﻮات ﺟﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِّ َ Airforce ِْ ُّ ‫ﻗﻮات ﺣﻔﻆ اﻟﺴﻼم‬ َّ peacekeeping forces ‫ﻗﻮات ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ّ ُّ special forces ‫ﻗﺮاب‬ ِ pl. ‫أﻗﺮﺑﺔ ,ﻗﺮب‬ ُُ ِْ ‫ﻗﺸﻠﺔ‬ ْ َ َ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﺸﻞ‬ scabbard barracks
    • THE MILITARY ‫ﻗﻮة دﻓﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِ ّ ُ defence force ُّ ‫ﻗﻮات اﻟﺼﺎﻋﻘﺔ‬ ِ َّ commandos ‫ﻗﻮة ﻣﺘﻌﺪدة‬ ِّ َ َ ُ َّ ُ ‫اﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺎت‬ ِ ِْ multinational force ‫ﻣﺘﻔﺠﺮات‬ ‫ََُ ﱢ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻤﺮد‬ ِّ َ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺠﺰرة‬ َْ َ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺠﺎزر‬ ُّ ‫اﻟﻘﻮات اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ the armed forces َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺠﻨﺪ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ ُّ ‫ﻗﻮات ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ‬ engineering corps ‫ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮات‬ َ ُ ‫ﻗﻮة ﻣﺪرﻋﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ ّ ُ tank corps ‫ﻗﻮس‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻗﻮاس‬ ْ 133 explosives rebel, insurgent massacre recruit, conscript intelligence service, secret service bow ‫ﻣﺪاﻓﻊ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ‬ ْ َ ِ َ heavy artillery ‫ﻣﺪﻓﻊ‬ َِْ cannon, gun pl. ‫ﻣﺪاﻓﻊ‬ ُ َ َ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺢ‬ َ َ to combat ‫ﻣﺪﻓﻊ رﺷﺎش‬ ّ َ machine gun ‫( ﻛﺒﺖ‬i) َ ََ to crush, repress ‫ﻣﺪﻓﻊ ﻫﺎون‬ ُ mortar battalion ‫ﻣﺪﻓﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ artilleryman ‫ﻣﺪﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ ِ artillery ‫ﻣﺪﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺎدة‬ ُ َّ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ َّ anti-aircraft artillery ‫ﻛﺘﻴﺒﺔ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺋﺐ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻛﻠﺔ‬ َُ 1. see ‫ﺟﻠﺔ‬ pl. ‫ﻛﻠﻞ‬ َُ 2. shell, grenade َّ ِّ ُ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺤﺮب‬ َْ military academy ‫ﻣﺪﻣﺮة‬ ِّ َ ُ destroyer (ship) ambush ‫ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ civilian ‫ﻣﺮدَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َّ َ to revolt, rebel against ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ِ ُ adjutant ‫ﻛﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻤﻨﺎء‬ َ ُ ‫( ﻟﻐﻢ‬a) َََ ‫ﻟﻐﻢ‬ ُْ ْ ُْ pl. ‫ﻟﻐﻢ ,أﻟﻐﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻮاء‬ ِ to mine mine 1. general (rank) 2. flag ‫ﻣﺄذوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِ ُ َْ ‫ﻣﺎرد‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاد ,ﻣﺮدة ,-ون‬ ََ َُ leave, furlough see ‫ﻣﺘﻤﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺪس‬ َّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ revolver ‫ﻣﺴﺮح اﻟﺤﺮب‬ َْ َْ َ theatre of war ‫( اﻟﻤﺸﺎة‬pl.) ُ the infantry ‫ﻣﺼﺮع‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎرع‬ ُ ِ َ battleground ‫ﻣﻈﻠﺔ‬ َّ ِ ‫ﻣﺎرﺷﺎل‬ marshal ‫ﻣﺒﺎﻏﺘﺔ‬ َ ُ surprise attack ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮع‬ ِّ َ َ ُ volunteer parachute ‫ﻣﻈﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِّ َ ِ paratrooper ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻘﻞ‬ ََْ ُ concentration camp pl. ‫-ات‬
    • 134 ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎرك‬ ُ ِ ََ ‫ﻣﻌﺴﻜﺮ‬ َ ْ َُ pl. ‫-ات‬ THE MILITARY battle ‫ﻣﻴﺪان اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ َِّ َ َْ َّ َ ُ ُ ُ ِ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﺟﻨﻮد ﻣﺪرﻋﺔ‬ military camp field of operations armoured personnel carrier (APC) َّ ِ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ aircraft carrier ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺎت‬ ِ َْ ُ morale ‫ﻧﺰاع‬ ِ conflict ‫ﻣﻔﺮ‬ ََّ escape ‫( ﻧﺰعَ اﻟﺴﻼح‬i) ِّ ََ to disarm ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺗﻞ‬ ِ ُ ‫ﻧﺰع اﻟﺴﻼح‬ ِّ َْ disarmament fighter ‫ﻣﻘﺪم‬ ََُ lieutenant colonel ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ‬ َ ُ struggle, combat pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎر‬ ُّ َ ‫ﻣﻼزم‬ ِ ُ second lieutenant ‫ﻣﻼزم أول‬ َّ ِ ُ first lieutenant ‫ﻣﻠﺠﺄ‬ َْ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻼﺟﻰء‬ ‫ﻧﺴﻴﻔﺔ‬ ِ َ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺎب‬ ِ torpedo hilt, handle (of weapon) ُ ُ pl. ‫ات ,ﻧﺼﺐ‬‫ﻧﺼﻞ‬ ْ َ blade ِ pl.‫ﻧﺼﺎل‬ shelter, dugout ‫ﻣﻠﺠﺄ ﻣﻀﺎدّ ﻟﻠﻐﺎرات‬ َ َْ َّ ‫اﻟﺠﻮ‬ ‫َ ِّﻳﺔ‬ air-raid shelter ‫ﻧﻀﺎل‬ ِ struggle ‫ﻧﻔﺎﺛﺔ‬ َّ َ jet (plane) ‫ﻣﻨﺎورة‬ َ ُ manoeuvre ‫ﻧﻔﺮ اﻟﻘﺮﻋﺔ‬ ُْ ََ pl. -‫أﻧﻔﺎر‬ َْ ‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮر‬ ُ َْ conqueror ‫( ﻧﻔﻰ‬i) ََ to exile, banish ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺣﻈﺮ ﺟﻮي‬ ّ ِّ َ ْ َ َ ْ ِ no-fly zone ‫ﻧﻘﻴﺐ‬ َِ captain ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ِ َ ِْ ِْ ‫اﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ اﻟﻨﻮوﻳﺔ‬ ّ ِ َ َّ nuclear-free zone ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﻘﺘﺎل‬ ِ َ ِْ combat zone ‫ﻣﻨﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﻮل‬ ُّ َ َ ْ َ curfew ‫ﻣﻨﻔﻰ‬ ً َْ place of exile ‫ﻣﻬﺎدﻧﺔ‬ َ ُ truce negotiations draftee pl. ‫ﻧﻘﺒﺎء‬ ُ َُ ‫ﻧﻬﺎب‬ ََ plunderer ‫ﻧﻮط‬ َْ medal ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻧﻴﺎط ,أﻧﻮاط‬ ‫ﻧﻮوي‬ ّ ََِ nuclear ‫ﻧﻴﺸﺎن‬ ِ decoration ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺷﻴﻦ‬ َّ َ ُ ‫ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬the military ِّ َ ْ َ ‫ﻫﺎدن‬ َ َ to conclude a truce with ‫ﻣﻴﺪان اﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ‬ َِْ َْ ‫( ﻫﺠﻢ‬i) ََ َ to attack ‫ﻫﺠﻮم‬ ُ ُ attack ‫ﻫﺠﻮم إرﻫﺎﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ُ ُ terrorist attack drill ground ُ ِ َ pl. -‫ﻣﻴﺎدﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪان اﻟﺤﺮب‬ َْ see ‫ﻣﺴﺮح اﻟﺤﺮب‬
    • ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE ‫ﻫﺠﻮم ﺑﺮي‬ ّ ِّ َ ُ ُ ground offensive ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻤﺔ‬ َِ ‫ﻫﺠﻮم ﻣﻀﺎد‬ ّ ُ ُ ُ counter-offensive 135 ُ َ pl. ‫ﻫﺰاﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺪف‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻫﺪاف‬ ْ target ‫ﻫﺪﻧﺔ‬ ُْ truce ‫( ﻫﺮب‬u) َ ََ to flee ‫ﻫﺮب ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ِْ َ َّ ِ َ ْ َ ‫اﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫( ﻫﺰم‬i) َََ desertion, draft dodging to rout, defeat ‫ﻫﻠﻴﻜُﺒﺘﺮ‬ َْ َِ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ْ َ pl. ‫وﺣﺪات‬ َ َ ‫ورﻃﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫وراط ,ورﻃﺎت‬ ََ ِ ْ َْ ‫وﻗﻖ إﻃﻼق اﻟﻨﺎر‬ َّ defeat see ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة ﻋﻤﻮدﻳﺔ‬ unit critical situation ceasefire Economics and commerce ‫اﺗﻔﺎق‬ ِّ ِ contract ‫اﺗﻔﺎق ﺗﺠﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ ِّ ِ trade agreement ‫اﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ِ ِّ ِ see ‫اﺗﻔﺎق‬ ‫أﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ‫اﺣﺘﻜﺎر‬ ِْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ monopoly ‫اﺣﺘﻜﺮ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to monopolize basic, fundamental ِْ ِ ‫اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎت اﻟﻨﻘﺪ‬ ْ َّ ‫اﻷﺟﻨﺒﻲ‬ ّ َِْ َ foreign currency reserves ‫إﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ transfer, conveyance ‫اﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ْ ِ statistician ‫إﺟﺎزة‬ licence, permit ‫اﺧﺘﺮاع‬ ِْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫أﺟﺮ‬ ْ pl. ‫أﺟﻮر‬ ُ ُ salary, wages invention َ َ َْ ِ ‫اﺧﺘﺮع‬ to invent ‫أﺟﺮ اﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬ َْ fare (coach, etc.) ‫إدﺧﺮ‬ َ َ َّ to save, put by ‫إﺟﺮاﺋﻲ‬ ّ ْ operational (‫ارﺗﻘﻰ )اﻟﻰ‬ َْ ِ to be promoted (to) 1. rate ‫ارﺗﻬﻦ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to receive in pledge ‫اﺳﺘﺒﻀﻊ‬ َ َ َْْ ِ to trade ‫أﺟﺮة‬ ْ ُ 2. fare (taxi) ‫أﺟﺮة اﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ ْ َّ transport charges ‫إﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ total, gross ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎر‬ ِْْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to charge (money) for ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬ َ َ َْْ ِ investment to invest
    • 136 َّ َ َ ْ ِ ‫ا ﺳ ﺘﺤ ﻖ‬ ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE to deserve (‫اﺻﻄﻠﺢَ )ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ََ ْ ِ 1. to agree on 2. to adopt ‫اﺳﺘﺮد‬ َّ َ َ ْ ِ to reclaim ‫اﺳﺘﺮداد‬ ْ ِْ ِ refund ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺮض‬ َ َ َ َْ ِ to examine, inspect ‫اﺳﺘﻐﺎﺛﺔ‬ ِْ ِ appeal for aid ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻞ‬ َّ َ َ ْ ِ to exploit ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎد ﻣﻦ‬ َْ ِ َ ‫أﺿﺎع‬ to benefit from ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺮار اﻷﺳﻌﺎر‬ ْ َ ِْْ ِ price stability ‫إﺿﺮاب‬ ْ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻠﻒ‬ َ ََْ ِ to borrow ‫أﺿﺮب‬ َ َْ to strike ‫اﺳﺘﻠﻢ‬ َ ََْ ِ to receive ‫إﺿﻄﻠﻊ ب‬ َ ََ ْ to be skilled in ‫اﺳﺘﻤﺎرة ﻃﻠﺐ‬ ََ ِْ ِ application form ‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬ ِْ ِ consumption ‫اﻃﺎر‬ ِ ُ ُ pl. ‫أﻃﺮ ,-ات‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬ َ َْ َْ ِ to consume ‫إﻋﺎدة ﺟﺪول اﻟﺪﻳﻮن‬ ُ ُّ َ ْ َ debt restructuring ‫اﺳﺘﻮدع‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to store ‫إﻋﺎدة اﻹﻋﻤﺎر‬ ْ reconstruction ‫اﺳﺘﻮرد‬ َ َ ْ َْ ِ to import ‫إﻋﺎﻧﺔ‬ subsidy ‫أ ﺳﺲ‬ َ َّ to set up, establish ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ِْ ِ credit ‫أﺳﻨﺪَ إﻟﻰ‬ َْ to entrust to ‫إﻋﻼن‬ ْ advertisement ْ ‫أﺳﻮاق اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ْ َّ exchange markets ‫أﺳﻮاق اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ْ ُ ْ ‫اﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ َِّْ ‫اﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ ِ artificial ‫اﺻﻄﻨﻊ‬ َ ََ ْ ِ to manufacture ‫أﺻﻞ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫أﺻﻮل‬ asset see ‫ﺑﺪد‬ strike framework pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻦ‬ َ َْ to advertise foreign currency markets ‫إﻏﺎﺛﺔ‬ aid ‫اﺷﺘﺮاء‬ ِْ ِ purchase ‫اﻏ ﺘ ﺶ‬ ‫ِ َْ ﱠ‬ to be cheated, duped ‫اﺷﺘﺮاك‬ ِْ ِ subscription ‫أﻏﻨﻰ‬ َْ to enrich (s.o.) َ َ َْ ِ ‫اﺷﺘﺮك‬ to subscribe ‫إﻓﺎدة اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ‬ ِ ْ َّ acknowledgement of receipt ‫اﺷﺘﺮى‬ َ َْ ِ to buy ‫اﻓﺘﻘﺮ‬ َ ََِْ to become poor َ َ َْ ِ ‫اﺷﺘﻐﻞ‬ to work ‫أﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ precedence, priority ‫أﺷﺮفَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َْ to supervise ‫إﻓﻼس‬ ْ bankruptcy, insolvency ‫إﺷﻬﺎر‬ ْ advertising, publicity ‫أﻓﻠﺢ‬ َ َْ to thrive
    • ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE 137 ‫أﻓﻠﺲ‬ َ َْ to be(come) bankrupt ‫إﻳﺼﺎل‬ receipt, voucher َ ‫أﻗﺎل‬ to dismiss َ ‫( ﺑﺎع‬i) to sell ‫اﻗﺘﺮاح‬ ِِْ proposal ‫ﺑﺎع ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺰاد‬ َ to sell at auction ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ِِْ economy ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ْ َ ِِْ economy of scale ‫ﺑﺎﺋﻊ ﻣﺘﺠﻮل‬ ِّ َ َ ُ travelling salesman 1. economist ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻂ‬ ِ َْ ِ in instalments ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬ ْ ُ ِ wholesale ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ َْ ِ on credit ‫ﺑﺪد‬ َ َّ َ to squander ‫ﺑﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ِ merchandise ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ّ ِ ِِْ 2. economic ‫ﺑﺎﺋﻊ‬ pl. ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺔ‬ seller, salesman ‫اﻛﺘﺴﺐ‬ َ َ َْ ِ to acquire ‫إﻟﺘﻤﺎس‬ ِْ job application ْ ‫إﻟﻐﺎء اﻟﺪﻳﻮن‬ ُ ُّ debt cancellation ‫أﻣﺎﻧﺔ‬ deposit pl. ‫ﺑﻀﺎﺋﻊ‬ ُ َ concession, licence ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﺋﺘﻤﺎن‬ ِِْ ِ credit card ‫اﻣﺘﻴﺎز‬ ِْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻲ‬ ِ َ َ ِ retail ‫أﻣﻢ‬ َ َّ to nationalize ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺋﺔ‬ ِ per cent ‫أﻣﻦ‬ َ َّ to insure ََ ‫ﺑﺪل اﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬ َ َّ travelling expense ِ ‫أﻣﻴﻦ اﻟﺼﻨﺪوق‬ ُ ْ ُّ treasurer ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻟﺔ‬ َ unemployment ‫إﻧﺘﺎج‬ ْ production ْ ‫إﻧﺘﺎج ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺴﻴﺮ‬ ْ َّ assembly line production ‫ﺑﻨﺪر‬ َ َْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﺎدر‬ ‫أﻧﺘﺞ‬ َ َْ to produce, result in ‫ﺑﻨﻚ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﻮك‬ ُُ ‫اﻧﺪﻣﺎج‬ َ ِْ merger, amalgamation ‫ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬ ِّْ َ ُْ infrastructure ‫اﻧﺪﻣﺞ‬ َ َ َ ِْ to amalgamate, merge ‫ﺑﻮرﺻﺔ‬ ْ ُ Stock Exchange, Bourse ‫إﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ humanitarian ِ ُ ‫ﺑﻮﻟﻴﺴﺔ اﻟﺸﺤﻦ‬ ْ َّ bill of lading ‫إﻧﺸﺎء‬ ْ foundation, establishment ‫ﺑﻴﺖ اﻟﻤﺎل‬ َْ Treasury ‫أﻧﻔﻖ‬ َ َْ to spend ‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎر‬ ِ ِْ ‫ﺑﻴﻊ‬ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻴﻮع ,ﺑﻴﻮﻋﺎت‬ ُُ ُُ crash ‫أﻫﺪى‬ ْ to give as a present ‫ﺗﺎﺟﺮ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺗﺠﺎر‬ ّ ُ commercial centre bank sale trader, merchant
    • 138 ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE َّ َ ُ ِ ‫ﺗﺎﺟﺮ اﻟﻤﻔﺮق‬ retailer ‫ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ‬ ِ َْ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻻﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎق‬ ْ ْ ِ ِ due date (e.g. repayment) ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﺮاﺧﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻢ‬ ِ َْ nationalization ‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬ َِْ promotion (position) ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ insurance ‫ﺗﺮوﻳﺞ‬ َِْ promotion (marketing) ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺿﺪَ اﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‬ َِ ِ fire insurance ‫ﺗﺴﺪﻳﺪ‬ ِْ َ settlement of a debt ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺿﺪّ اﻟﺤﻮادث‬ ِ َ ِ accident insurance ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻒ‬ ِْ َ credit ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة‬ َ life assurance ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ‬ ِْ َ delivery َ َ َ ‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬ to barter َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻮغ‬ to take a lease on s.thing ‫ﺗﺒﺎدل ﺗﺠﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ ُ َ trade exchange ‫ﺗﺴﻮق‬ ُّ َ َ shopping ‫ﺗﺒﺮع‬ َ َّ َ َ to donate َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻮل‬ to beg ‫ﺗﺒﺮع‬ ُّ َ َ donation ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ِْ َ settlement ‫ﺗﺒﻀﻊ‬ َ َّ َ َ to shop ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻎ‬ ِْ َ leasing ‫ﺗﺠﺎرة‬ ِ trade, commerce ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ‬ ِْ َ marketing (of merchandise) ‫ﺗﺠﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ commercial َ َ َ ‫ﺗﺸﺎﻏﻞ‬ to pretend to be busy ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻴﺪ اﻷﻣﻮال‬ ْ ِ ْ َ freezing of assets ‫ﺗﺤﺮش‬ َ َّ َ َ see ‫ﺿﺎﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﻦ‬ َ َّ َ َ to improve (intrans.) َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺤﻮل‬ to change (intrans.) ‫ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎت‬ ِ ِْ َ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ِْ َ transfer, remittance (money) ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ آﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِْ َ storage َ َ َ ‫ﺗﻀﺎءل‬ to dwindle ‫ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ‬ َْ َ reduction (‫ﺗﻀﺨﻢ )ﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ‫َ َ ﱡ‬ inflation ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ َ َّ َ َ to develop (intrans.) pl. ‫-ات‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ‬ ِْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﺼﺎرﻳﺢ ,-ات‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ‬ ِْ َ authorization, concession official permit 1. liquidation 2. clearance (sale) settlement of accounts computer-aided design (CAD) ‫ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ِ ِْ َ devaluation ‫ﺗﺪاول‬ ُ َ circulation (money) ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺗﺬﺑﺬب‬ َ َ َْ َ to fluctuate ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞَ ﻣﻊ‬ َ َ to do business with ‫ﺗﺮاوحَ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ َْ َ َ to range between ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ‬ َِْ tariff development
    • ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE 139 ‫ﺗﻌﻴﺶ‬ َ َّ َ to earn a living ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻊ‬ ‫ََ ﱡ‬ expansion ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎت اﻟﺪﻓﻊ‬ َْ ِْ َ payment instructions ‫ﺗﻮﻇﻒ‬ َ َّ َ َ to be employed ‫ﺗﻌﻬﺪَ ب، ل‬ َّ َ َ to commit oneself ‫ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬ ِ َْ employment, appointment ‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬ َِْ damages, compensation َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻰ‬ to undertake ‫ﺛﺮوة‬ َْ wealth pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ‬ َ َّ َ َ see َ‫ﺗﺤﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﻴﺶ‬ َِْ inspection ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻔﺎﺗﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺛﻤﻦ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﺛﻤﺎن‬ ْ price ‫ﺟﺒﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ‫ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ‬ َِْ proxy, power of attorney ‫ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ‬ َْ ُ َِْ general power of attorney ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺿﻰ‬ َ َ to claim, demand payment ‫ﺗﻘﺎﻋﺪ‬ ُ َ pension ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ َِْ estimate, valuation ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ‬ ِْ َ imitation ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ّ ِ ِِْ ُ َ economic integration َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻒَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ to spend (money) on ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ‬ ِْ َ cost, expense fiscal ‫ﺟﺪد‬ َ َّ َ to modernize ‫ﺟﺮد‬ َْ stocktaking, inventory ‫ﺟﻤﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to freeze (e.g. assets) ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ society, association ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺎوﻧﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ َ َّ cooperative society َّ ِ ْ َ َّ ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺧﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ charitable organization ‫ﺟﻨﻴﻪ‬ َُْ pl. ‫-ات‬ pound (Egyptian currency) ‫ﺟﻨﻴﻪ اﺳﺘﺮﻟﻴﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِْ ِ َُْ pound sterling ‫ﺟﻬﺎز اﻟﻜﺴﺐ‬ َ َ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ cash cow ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َ to charge for (s.thing) ‫ﺗﻤﺴﻚ‬ ُّ َ َ IOU ‫ﺗﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ِْ َ financing, funding ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬ ُ َ competition ‫ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻼت‬ ِ َْ sales (shops) ‫( ﺣﺠﺰ‬u, i) ََ َ to seize, confiscate ُّ َ َ َّ ‫ﺗﻬﺮب ﻣﻦ اﻟﻀﺮاﺋﺐ‬ tax evasion ‫ﺣﺠﺰ‬ ْ َ seizure, confiscation ‫ﺗﻬﺮﻳﺐ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ْ ُ َِْ currency smuggling volume of trade ‫ﺗﻮﺗﺮ‬ ُّ َ َ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة‬ ِّ ْ َ stress ‫ﺣﺮب ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ِ ْ َ trade war ‫ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ‬ َِْ distribution ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ََ ﱡ‬ mediation ‫ﺣﺮﻓﺔ‬ ِْ َِ pl. ‫ﺣﺮف‬ ‫ﺗ ﻮﺳﻊ‬ َ َّ َ َ to expand (intrans.) ‫ﺣﺮﻓﻲ‬ ّ ِِْ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫-ات ,ﺣﻮاﺻﻞ‬ product profession, craft craftsman
    • 140 ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﺒﻴﻊ‬ َْ ََ turnover ‫ﺣﺮﻣﺎن‬ ِْ deprivation, dispossession ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ‬ ِْ ََ pl. ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎت‬ service ‫ﺧﺮج‬ َْ outlay, expenditure ‫ﺧﺰﻧﺔ ﻣﺤﺼﻨﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ ْ َ safe (n.) ‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ 2. bill, invoice ‫ﺣﺴﺎب ﺟﺎري‬ ّ ِ current account ‫ﺣﺴﺎب ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬ َِْ savings account ِ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﺠﻤﺪ‬ َّ َ ُ frozen account ‫ﺣﺴﻦ‬ َ َّ َ to improve (trans.) ‫ﺣﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﺑﺢ‬ ْ َّ dividend َ َّ َ ‫ﺣﺼﻞ‬ 1. to collect (payment) ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﺼﻮم‬ 2. to levy (taxes) ‫ﺧﺼﻮم‬ ُ ُ liabilities ‫ﺧﻂّ اﻟﻔﻘﺮ‬ َْ َ poverty line ‫ﺣﺼﻴﻠﺔ‬ ِ َ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺣﺼﺎﺋﻞ‬ 1. account (e.g. bank) yield, income ‫ﺧﺴﺎرة‬ َ ْ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﺴﺮان‬ loss ‫( ﺧﺴﺮ‬a) َِ َ to incur losses ‫ﺧﺼﺺ‬ َ َّ َ to privatize ‫ﺧﺼﺨﺼﺔ‬ َ ْ َ privatization ‫ﺧﺼﻢ‬ ْ َ discount ‫ﺣﻈﺮ‬ ْ َ embargo, ban ‫ﺧﻔَﺾ‬ َ َّ to lower (e.g. prices, taxes) ‫ﺣﻈﺮ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ّ ِ ِِْ ْ َ economic boycott ‫ﺧﻼﻓﺎت‬ ِ differences ‫ﺣﻈﺮ ﺗﺠﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ َ trade embargo ‫ﺧﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﺒﻴﻊ‬ َ َْ market stall َِ pl. - ‫ﺧﻴﻢ‬ 1. to realise, achieve ‫داﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻘَﻖ‬ َ َّ 2. to verify ‫ﺣﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ‬ ِ ْ َّ ْ َ marketing campaign ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﺔ‬ َّ 1. bill of exchange 2. promissory note ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﺔ ﺳﻔﺮ‬ ََ َّ َ َّ َ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ traveller’s cheque 1. to transform, change (trans.) 2. to change (money) 3. to transfer, remit (money) ‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬ ِْ experience ‫ﺧﺒﻴﺮ‬ ِ َِ expert ُ َُ pl. ‫ﺧﺒﺮاء‬ ‫( ﺧﺪم‬i, u) َََ َّ َ ‫دﺟﺎل‬ ِ َ pl. ‫دﺟﺎﺟﻠﺔ ,-ون‬ swindler, cheat َ َ َ ‫( دﺟﻞ‬u) to deceive, dupe, cheat ‫دﺧﻞَ ﺣﻴﺰ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ِ ْ َّ ِّ َ َ َ to come into effect ‫دﺟﻞ‬ ْ َ deceit, trickery ‫دﺧﻞ‬ ْ َ income, revenue ‫درﻫﻢ‬ َ ِْ dirham (currency) ُِ َ pl. ‫دراﻫﻢ‬ ‫دﻓﺘﺮ‬ ََْ ِ َ pl. ‫دﻓﺎﺗﺮ‬ ‫دﻓﺘﺮ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ to serve creditor ledger, register 1. account book 2. bankbook
    • ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE 141 ‫دﻓﺘﺮ اﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎت‬ ِّ cheque book ‫راﺋﺞ‬ in demand (product) ‫دﻓﺘﺮ اﻟﺼﻨﺪوق‬ ُ ْ ُّ cashbook ‫رﺑﺎء‬ ِ usurious interest ‫دﻓﺘﺮ اﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ journal ‫( دﻓﻊ‬a) َ ََ to pay ‫رﺑﺢ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أرﺑﺎح‬ ْ ‫دﻓﻊ‬ َْ payment ‫رﺑﺢ إﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ِْ gross profit shop, store ‫رﺑﺢ ﺻﺎف‬ ٍ ِْ net profit ‫( رﺑﺢَ ﻣﻦ‬a) َِ to profit from ‫رﺑﻮى‬ ّ ِ َِ usurious َّ ُ ‫دﻛﺎن‬ pl. ‫دﻛﺎﻛﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫دول ﻣﺘﺨﻠﻔﺔ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ َ ُ underdeveloped (lit. ‘backward’) countries profit countries ‫رﺟﻞ آﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ َ ُّ ِ ِ pl. ‫رﺟﺎل آﻟﻴﻮن‬ ُِ ‫دول ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ developing countries ‫رﺟﻞ اﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ْ ُ َ businessman َْ ‫دوﻟﺔ اﻟﺮﻓﺎه‬ َّ welfare state ‫رﺧﺎء‬ َ prosperity ‫دول ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ َ ُ ‫دوﻻر‬ pl. ‫ات‬‫دﻳﻦ‬ َْ pl. ‫دﻳﻮن‬ ُُ developed dollar debt ‫دﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻖ‬ ّ َ َْ ُ َْ outstanding debt َّ َ ُ ْ َ ‫دﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺣﺪ‬ dinar ‫رد‬ َّ ‫رأس ﻣﺎل‬ َ pl. ‫رؤوس أﻣﻮال‬ ْ ُُ ‫رأﺳﻤﺎل‬ pl. ‫رﺳﺎﻣﻴﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ reimbursement ‫رﺳﻢ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫رﺳﻮم‬ ُ ُ 1. customs duty (tax) 2. charge 3. regulation capital see ‫رأس ﻣﺎل‬ import duty export duty ‫رﺳﻢ ﻗﻴﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ َ ad valorem duty ‫رﺳﻮم اﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ََ ُ ُ municipal tax ‫( رﺻﺪ‬i) ََ َ to monitor ‫رﺻﺪ‬ َ َّ َ lucrative ‫رﺳﻢ دﺧﻮﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ ُ ْ َ ‫رﺳﻢ اﻟﺼﺎدر‬ ِ َّ pl. ‫دﻧﺎﻧﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫راﺑﺢ‬ ِ cheap ُُ pl. ‫ردود‬ consolidated debt ‫دﻳﻨﺎر‬ ِ ‫رﺧﻴﺺ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫رﺧﺎص‬ ُ robot to allocate (funds) ‫رأس ﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ capitalist ‫راﻗﺐ‬ َ َ to supervise ‫رﺻﻴﺪ‬ ِ َ ِ ْ pl. ‫أرﺻﺪة‬ ‫راﻫﻦ‬ ِ mortgager (‫رﻋﻰ )ﻳﺮﻋﻰ‬ َ َْ َ َ to sponsor ‫راوحَ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ َ َْ َ to fluctuate between ‫( رﻓﻊ‬a) َ ََ to raise (e.g. prices, taxes) 1. balance 2. stock
    • 142 ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE ‫رﻓﺎﻫﺔ‬ َ luxury ‫ﺳﺎﻫﻢَ ﻓﻲ‬ َ to contribute to ‫( رﻗﻲ‬a) َ َِ to rise to (rank) ‫ﺳﺎوم‬ ََ to haggle ‫رﻗﻰ‬ َّ to promote ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to cause supervisor ‫( ﺳﺤﺐ‬a) َ َ َ to withdraw (e.g. money) ‫ﺳﺪدَ دﻳﻨﺎ‬ ً ْ َ َّ َ to settle a debt ‫رﻗﻴﺐ‬ َِ ُ َُ pl. ‫رﻗﺒﺎء‬ ‫رﻛﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to assemble ‫( رﻛﺪ‬u) ََ َ to stagnate ‫ﺳﻌﺮ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺳﻌﺎر‬ ْ ‫رﻛﻮد‬ ُ ُ 1. sluggishness, stagnation ‫ﺳﻌﺮ اﻟﺒﻴﻊ‬ َْ ْ ِ retail price 2. recession exchange rate ‫رﻣﺰﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ِ ْ َّ logo ‫ﺳﻌﺮاﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َّ ْ ِ running cost ‫( رﻫﻦ‬a) َ َ َ 1. to pawn ِْ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ْ َّ see ‫ﺳﻌﺮ اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ 3. to mortgage ‫ﺳﻌﺮ اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪة‬ ْ interest rate 1. mortgage ‫ﺳﻜﺮﺗﻴﺮة‬ ِِ ْ ِ secretary ‫ﺳﻠﻊ اﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ْ ِْ ِ َِ consumer goods ‫ﺳﻠﻌﺔ‬ ِْ commodity 2. to deposit as security ‫رﻫﻦ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫,رﻫﻮن‬ ُ ُ ‫رﻫﺎن ,رﻫﻮﻧﺎت‬ ُ ُ ِ 2. pledge, security see ‫ﺛﻤﻦ‬ ‫رﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬ ِْ َ mortgage (deed) ‫رواج‬ َ marketability ‫ر وج‬ َ َّ َ to bring on the market ‫ﺳﻠﻒ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﺳﻼف‬ ْ riyal (currency) ‫ﺳﻠﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to lend (‫ﺳﻠﻢَ )إﻟﻰ، ل‬ َّ َ to deliver (to s.o.) ‫رﻳﺎل‬ ِ pl. ‫ات‬‫زاﻳﺪ‬ ََ to outbid someone ‫زﺑﺎﻧﺔ‬ ِ clientele ‫زﺑﻮن‬ َُ customer, client ‫زﻣﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫زﻣﻼء‬ advance payment ‫ﺳﻤﺴﺎر‬ ْ ِ broker ِ َ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﺎﺳﺮ ,ﺳﻤﺎﺳﺮة‬ regular customer colleague ‫زود‬ َ َّ َ to distribute ‫زﻳﺎدة‬ ِ increase ‫ﺳﻤﺴﺮ‬ ََ ْ َ to act as a broker ‫ﺳﻤﺴﺮة‬ َ ْ َ ُ ََ pl. ‫,زﺑﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫زﺑﺰن داﺋﻢ‬ َُ pl. ‫ﺳﻠﻊ‬ َ َِ brokerage ‫ﺳﻦّ اﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪ‬ ُ َّ ِ pensionable age ‫ﺳﻨﺪ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﺳﻨﺎد ,-ات‬ ْ ‫ﺳﻬﻢ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺳﻬﻢ‬ ُْ 1. document 2. bond, debenture share
    • ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE 143 ‫ﺳﻬﻢ اﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ‬ ِ ْ َّ founders’ share ‫ﺳﻮء اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ْ ِْ ِ ُ misuse, abuse ‫ﺳﻮﺑﺮﻣﺎرﻛﺖ‬ ِ ُ supermarket ‫ﺷﻐﻞ‬ ُ pl. ‫أﺷﻐﺎل‬ ْ market َ َّ َ ‫ﺷﻐﻞ‬ see ‫وﻇﻒ‬ ّ ‫ﺷﻐﻞَ رأﺳﻤﺎﻻ‬ ً ْ َ َّ َ to invest capital ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ُ pl. ‫أﺳﻮاق‬ ْ ‫ﺷﻌﺎر‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺷﻌﺮة ,ﺷﻌﺮ‬ ُُ ِْ 1. slogan, motto 2. badge, emblem work, occupation, profession ‫اﻟﺴﻮق اﻟﺤﺮة‬ ُّ َّ ُ duty free (market) ‫اﻟﺴﻮق اﻟﺴﻮداء‬ َْ the black market ‫اﻟﺴﻮق اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮ ﻛﺔ‬ َ َْ ُ the Common Market ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ اﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎز‬ ِْ ِ ِ concessionaire َّ ‫ﺳﻴﺎرة ﻣﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ armoured car ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ َ َ ِ employer ‫ﺳﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬ ِّ َ َ ُ ْ َ assembly line ‫ﺻﺎدرات‬ ِ exports ِ ‫ﺳﻴﺮة ذاﺗﻴﺔ‬ َّ curriculum vitae ‫ﺻﺎف‬ ٍ net ‫ﺳﻴﻮﻟﺔ‬ ُُ liquidity ‫ﺻﺎﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺒﻠﻎ‬ ََْ ِ net amount ‫ﺷﺎﻏﺮ‬ ِ vacant (pl. ‘vacancies’) pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺷﺎور‬ ََ ‫ﺷﺤﻦ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺷﺤﻮن‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺷﺮاﻛﺔ‬ َ ‫ﺷﻴﻚ‬ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻧﻊ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺻﻨﺎع‬ َّ ُ manufacturer to consult ‫ﺻﺪر‬ َ َّ َ to export freight ‫ﺻﺮاف‬ َّ َ 1. banker, money changer 2. cashier partnership (‫( ﺻﺮفَ )ﻋﻠﻰ‬i) ََ 1. to spend (money) (on) 2. to pay (for) ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ َِ company ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻦ‬ ِ َّ insurance company ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ trading company ‫ﺻﻤﻢ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت ﺻﻐﻴﺮة و‬ َِ small- and medium- ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ِ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ َّ َ َ ُ cheque ‫ﺻﻔﻘﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺻﻔﻘﺎت‬ ََ deal, bargain to plan, design 1. industry 2. manufacturing sized companies ُ ُْ ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬ ِ ْ َّ savings bank limited liability company ‫ﺻﻨﻊ‬ َْ production, workmanship ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ َ ُ joint-stock company ‫( ﺻﻨﻊ‬a) َ ََ to make, manufacture ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻚ‬ َِ partner ‫ﺻﻨﻊ اﻟﻴﺪ‬ َ َْ handwork ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺔ‬ َْ craftsmanship ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ ُْ َ َّ ِ ْ َ (‫)اﻟﻤﺴﺆوﻟﻴﺔ‬ pl. ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎء‬ ُ َُ
    • 144 ‫ﺻﻨﻒ‬ ِْ ْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺻﻨﻮف ,أﺻﻨﺎف‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬ ِ ‫ﺿﺎرب‬ َ َ ‫ﺿﺎﻳﻖ‬ َ َ ‫ﺿﺮر‬ ََ pl. ‫أﺿﺮار‬ ْ َ ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺿﺮاﺋﺐ‬ ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE category ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻖ‬ ِ pending, remaining ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ 1. worker maintenance ّ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﻤﺎل‬ 2. manual worker, labourer ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ اﻹﻏﺎﺛﺔ‬ ِ aid worker ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ‬ ِ ُ immigrant worker ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺪة‬ return (fin.) to speculate (e.g. Stock Exchange) to harass damage ُ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺪة‬ return (on investment), dividend tax ‫ﻋﺠﺰ‬ ْ َ deficit ‫ﻋﺠﺰ ﺗﺠﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ َ trade deficit ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ اﻷرﺑﺎح‬ َْ َِ ‫اﻟﺮأﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َّ capital gains tax ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬ ْ ِْ ِ َِ value added tax (VAT) َّ َ ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ اﻟﺘﺮﻛﺎت‬ ِ َّ inheritance tax ‫ﻋﺮض و ﻃﻠﺐ‬ ََ َْ supply and demand َِ ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ْ َّ income tax َ ََ ‫( ﻋﺰل‬i) to dismiss (s.o.) َّ ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ energy tax ‫ﻋﺼﺮ اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ industrial age ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ِ َِ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ُ see ‫ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎن‬ َ 1. guarantee, warranty 2. collateral, security ‫( ﺿﻤﻦ‬a) َ ِ َ ‫ﻃﺮز‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻃﺮوز‬ ُُ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ ُُ pl. ‫ﻃﺮق ,ﻃﺮاﺋﻖ‬ ‫( ﻃﻠﺐ‬u) َ ََ to guarantee ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻮن‬ ُْ ُ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺮاﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻄﺎء‬ َ pl. ‫ات‬َ ِ َ ‫( ﻋﻄﻞ‬a) ‫ﻋﻄﻠﺔ‬ ْ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﻄﻞ‬ down payment offer, tender to be unemployed holiday, vacation brand َّ ِ ْ َ ُ ‫ﻋﻄﻠﺔ رﺳﻤﻴﺔ‬ public holiday ‫ﻋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ِ َ gift method َ pl. ‫ﻋﻄﺎﻳﺎ‬ 1. to demand 2. to order ‫( ﻋﻘﺪ‬i) َََ to hold (a meeting) ‫ﻋﻘﺪ ﺻﻔﻘﺔ‬ َْ to conclude a bargain contract, agreement ‫ﻃﻠﺐ‬ ََ pl. ‫-ات‬ 1. demand ‫ﻋﻘﺪ‬ َْ 2. order ُُ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﻮد‬ ‫ﻃﻮر‬ َ َّ َ to develop (trans.) ‫ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﻊ‬ َ sales contract ‫ﻋﺎﻃﻞ‬ ِ unemployed ‫ﻋﻘﺪ إﻳﺠﺎر‬ lease
    • ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE ‫ﻋﻘﻴﻢ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺎم ,ﻋﻘﻢ‬ ُُ ِ ineffective, unproductive ‫ﻓﺎﺗﻮرة‬ ُ 145 invoice pl. ‫ﻓﻮاﺗﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ِِْ ُُ economic sanction ‫ﻓﺎوض‬ َ َ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ِ َ trading link َّ ِ ِ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬ trade mark ‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪة‬ pl. ‫ﻓﻮاﺋﺪ‬ ُ َ َ ِ َ ‫( ﻋﻤﻞ‬a) to work ‫ﻓﺎﺋﺾ‬ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻮاﺋﺾ‬ trade, craft ‫ﻓﻌﺎل‬ َّ َ effective ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َّ َ effectiveness ‫ﻓﻘﺮ‬ َْ poverty ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﻋﻤﺎل‬ ْ to negotiate benefit, advantage surplus ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ َ َ teamwork ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِّ َ ُ َ َ volunteer work ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ practical ‫ﻓﻘﻴﺮ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻓﻘﺮاء‬ ُ َُ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻳﺪوي‬ ّ ََِ َ َ manual work ‫ﻓﻜﺔ‬ ّ َ change (money) ‫ﻋﻤﻠﺔ‬ ْ ُ currency َ َّ َ ‫ﻓﻠﺲ‬ to declare bankrupt ‫ﻋﻤﻠﺔ زاﺋﻔﺔ‬ ْ ُ counterfeit money ‫ﻓﻮض‬ َ َّ َ to authorize ‫ﻋﻤﻠﺔ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ‬ َْ ْ ُ soft currency ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎوض‬ ُ َّ ِ negotiable ‫ﻋﻤﻠﺔ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ‬ َْ ْ ُ hard currency ‫ﻗﺎﻃﻊ‬ َ َ to boycott ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻟﺔ‬ ُ ُ ‫ﻗﺎﻓﻠﺔ اﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ْ َ ِ food convoy commission ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻜﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ُ ُ ‫ﻗﺪر‬ َ َّ َ to estimate, value bank charges ‫ﻋﻨﻮان ﺑﺮﻳﺪي‬ ّ ِ َِ َْ mailing address َّ َ ‫ﻋﻮضَ ﻋﻦ‬ َ to compensate for ‫ﻗﺪرة ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُ َ ْ ُ competitiveness ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ِّ َ sample ‫ﻗﺪم‬ َ َّ َ to present ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻰ‬ َِْ in kind (payment) ‫ﻗﺪمَ ﻋﻄﺎء‬ َ َّ َ to make an offer ‫ﻏﺎﻟﻲ‬ ِ expensive َّ ِ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬ Chamber of Commerce ‫ﻏﻨﻲ‬ َِ ِْ pl. ‫إﻏﻨﻴﺎء‬ rich ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ َ َّ َ see ‫ﺣﻮل‬ َّ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺆﻫﻞ‬ ‫َْ ُ َ ﱠ‬ unqualified ‫ﻗﺪر‬ َْ pl. ‫أﻗﺪار‬ ْ ‫ﻗﺮش‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻗﺮوش‬ ُُ ‫ﻗﺮض‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻗﺮوض‬ ُُ poor see ‫ﻣﺒﻠﻎ‬ piaster (Egyptian currency) loan ‫ﻗﺴﻂ‬ َ َّ َ to pay in instalments ‫ﻗﺴﻂ‬ ْ ِ instalment pl. ‫أﻗﺴﺎط‬ ْ
    • 146 ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE ‫ﻗﺴﻢ اﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬ ِ ْ َّ ْ ِ personnel department ‫ﻗﺸﻮر‬ ُ ُ formalities, trivialities ُ َ ‫ﻣﺄﻣﻮر اﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ َّ official receiver, liquidator ‫ﻣﺎﻫﺮ‬ ِ skilful pl. ‫ﻣﻬﺮة‬ ََ ‫ﻗﻄﺎع ﺧﺎص‬ ّ ِ private sector ‫ﻗﻄﺎع ﻋﺎم‬ ّ ِ public sector ‫ﻗﻠﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to imitate ُّ ‫ﻗﻮات اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ُّ market forces ‫ﻗﻮة اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ِّ ُّ purchasing power ‫اﻟﻘﻮى اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ِ َُ see ‫اﻟﻴﺪ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ِ value ‫ﻣﺒﻠﻎ‬ ََْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻎ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to cause (losses, damage) ‫ﻣﺘﺪاول‬ َ َُ in circulation, common ‫ﻛ ﺜﻒ‬ َ َّ َ to consolidate (e.g. loans) ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻛﻢ‬ َّ َ ْ ُ accumulated ‫( ﻛﺴﺐ‬i) َ َ َ 1. to gain, earn ‫ﻣﺘﺴﻮل‬ ِّ َ َ ُ beggar َّ َ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺘﺸﺮد‬ homeless person ‫ﻣﺘﻌَﺪ‬ َ َُ contractor ‫ﻣﺘﻘَﺎﻋﺪ‬ ِ َُ pensioned, retired ‫ﻣﺜﻤﺮ‬ ِ ُْ productive 2. to acquire ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ْ َ earnings ‫ﻛﺴﻞ‬ َ َ idleness ‫ﻛﺸﻚ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻛﺸﺎك‬ ‫ﻛﻔﻴﻞ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻛﻔﻼء‬ ُ َُ ‫ﻛﻠﻒ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﻛﻠﻔﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻛﻠﻒ‬ َُ ‫ﻟﻘﻄﺔ‬ ُْ ‫ﻟﻴﺮة‬ َْ stall, stand sponsor ‫ﻣﺎل‬ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻮال‬ ‫ﻣﺎل اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ initiative ‫ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮ‬ َ َُْ new, original ‫ﻣﺒﻀﻊ‬ ِ ُْ limited partner ‫ﻣﺒﻌﺜﺮ‬ َْ َُ scattered, widespread ‫ﻣﺒﻌﺰق‬ ِ ْ َُ squanderer ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ amount field, domain to cost ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎ‬ ً َ َ free (of charge) cost ‫ﻣﺠﺮب‬ َّ َ ُ experienced, practised ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻹدارة‬ ِْ َ board of directors bargain, lucky find ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ُ ْ َ conglomerate pound (currency of Syria, ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ِ ُ accountant ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ َ ُ accounting ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻛﺎة‬ ُ imitation ُ ‫ﻣﺤﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪ‬ ُ َّ pensioner ‫ﻣﺤﺘﺮف‬ ِ َْ ُ professional (adj.) Lebanon) َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺎرﻛﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎدرة‬ َ ُ registered trade mark assets, wealth reserve fund
    • ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE 147 ‫ﻣﺤﻞّ رﻫﻮﻧﺎت‬ ُ ُ َ َ pawn shop ‫ﻣﺴﺎوﻣﺔ‬ َ ُ haggling ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ِ ُ risk taker ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬ ِ َْْ ُ investor ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺒﺮ‬ ََْ ُ laboratory ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺠﺪات‬ ّ ِ َْ ُ innovations ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ُِ director, manager ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻋﺎم‬ ّ general manager ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ِ ُ deputy director/manager ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻦ‬ َِ debtor ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻮن‬ ُْ َ indebted ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ُْ َ indebtedness ‫ﻣﺮاب‬ ِ ُ usurer ‫ﻣﺮاﺳﻠﺔ‬ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪث‬ َ ْ َْ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ novelty, innovation ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻴﺮ‬ ِ َْ ُ borrower ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ‬ َِْ ُ beneficiary ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻠﻢ‬ َِْ ُ recipient ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬ ِْ َْ ُ consumer ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮدع‬ َ ْ َْ ُ warehouse correspondence /‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻌﻴﺶ‬ َْ َ َْ ُ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬ َِ living standard ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ِ ُ supervisor, foreman ‫ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﻮد‬ ُ ُّ َّ َ ُ till, cashbox ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺔ‬ َ ُ supervision ‫ﻣﺴﻚ اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎت‬ ِ ْ َ accountancy ‫ﻣﺮﺑﺢ‬ ِْ ُ profitable ‫ﻣﺴﻚ اﻟﺪﻓﺎﺗﺮ‬ ِ َ ْ َ book-keeping ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻬﻦ‬ ِ َْ ُ 1. mortgagee ‫ﻣﺴﺆﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ responsibility ‫ﻣﺴﻲء إﻟﻰ‬ َ ِ ُ harmful to ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮ‬ ٍ َْ ُ purchaser ‫ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎت‬ َّْ ُ derivatives 2. pawnbroker ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ َ َْ centre ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ اﻹدارة‬ ِ َ َْ head office ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺗﺠﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ َ َْ emporium ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰي‬ ّ َِ َْ central ‫ﻣﺰاد‬ َ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺴﺎءة‬ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎوىء‬ ُ ِ َ auction shortcoming ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪات ﻏﺬاﺋﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ food aid ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻢ‬ ِ ُ shareholder ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ َ ُ corporation ‫ﻣﺸﺮوع‬ ُْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎرﻳﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺸﻐﻮل‬ ُْ َ ‫ﻣﺸﻮار‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎوﻳﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺸﻮرة‬ َْ َ ‫ﻣﺼﺮوف‬ ُْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎرﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻊ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ project busy errand consultation expenditure factory
    • 148 ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE manufactured product َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻘﺪم‬ advance, deposit ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ َْ َ office ‫ﻣﻀﺎرب‬ ِ ُ speculator ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎرﺑﺔ‬ َ ُ speculation ‫ﻣﻜﺸﻮف‬ ُ ْ َ uncovered ‫ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﺔ‬ َ ُ adjustment ‫ﻣﻠﺘﻤﺲ‬ ِ َُْ applicant ‫( ﻣﻠﻚ‬i) َ ََ to own ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ِّ ْ ِ ِّ ُ intellectual property ‫ﻣﻤﻮل‬ ِّ َ ُ financier ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬ ِ ُ competitor ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ َ ُ see ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺼﺔ‬ َ ُ public invitation for tender ِْ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﺔ اﻟﺴﻜﻨﻰ‬ َ ْ ُّ housing benefit ‫ﻣﻨﺸﺄة‬ َ ُْ installation, plant ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻮع‬ ُْ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎش‬ َ 1. livelihood pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺷﺔ‬ 2. pension (payment) ‫ﻣﻌﺎش ﻣﺒﻜﺮ‬ ِّ َ ُ َ early retirement ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ِ ُ trader (Stock Exchange) ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ َ ُ transaction ‫ﻣﻌﺎون‬ ِ ُ assistant ‫ﻣﻌﺮض ﺗﺠﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ َِْ trade fair ِّ ِ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎرضُ ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ْ َ َ َْ research institute ‫ﻣﻌﻮﻧﺔ‬ َُ see ‫إﻏﺎﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺮ‬ ُِ lender ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ِ ُ reactor ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻌﻞ‬ َ َُْ forged, fabricated ‫ﻣﻔﺮق‬ َّ َ ُ retail (adj.) ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺲ‬ ِْ ُ pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻟﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ bankrupt, insolvent ‫ﻣﻔﺎوض‬ ِ ُ negotiator ‫ﻣﻔﺎوﺿﺔ‬ َ ُ 1. negotiation 2. partnership (Islamic law) ‫ﻣﻔﻮض‬ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪ‬ ُِ ‫ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ‬ ً َُْ َ َُْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎت‬ see ‫وﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ َ ِْ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ industrial zone ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُ َْ َ ِْ disaster area ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺧﻴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻬﺎرة‬ َ ‫( ﻣﻬﺮ‬u, a) َََ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬ َّ َ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻬﺎم‬ ّ َ charitable organization, charity skilfulness, expertise to be skilful, proficient, experienced duty authorized agent ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬ ِْ profession useful, beneficial, ‫ﻣﻬﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ِ vocational ‫ﻣﻮادّ ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ َ commercial articles ‫ﻣﻮادّ اﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ ْ ِ َ consumer goods ‫ﻣﻮادّ ﺧﺎم‬ َ raw materials advantageous ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﺼﺐ‬ ِ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺻﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ boycott requirement
    • ECONOMICS AND COMMERCE 149 ‫ﻣﻮادّ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ُْ َ manufactured goods ‫ﻧﺸﻂ‬ َ َّ َ to stimulate ‫ﻣﻮارد اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ َْ ِ َ government revenues ‫ﻧﺸﻴﻂ‬ ِ َ lively, dynamic ‫ﻣﻮدع‬ َُِ depositor ‫ﻧﻈﻢ‬ َ َّ َ to organize ‫اﻟﻤﻮدع ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ َ ُ consignee ‫( ﻧﻔﻊ‬a) َ َِ to be useful income, revenue ‫ﻧﻔﻘﺎت‬ ََ expenses ِ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬ َّ ُ trade union ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ُِ َ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ َ َّ ُ 1. establishment 2. organization, business ‫ﻧﻘﺪ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻧﻘﻮد‬ ُُ money ‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ُ ﱢ‬ indicator ‫ﻧﻘﺪا‬ ً َْ in cash َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ‬ employee ‫ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ cash َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ اﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل‬ ِْْ ِ receptionist ‫ﻧﻤﻮ‬ ُ ُ growth, development َ َّ َ ‫ﻣﻮل‬ to finance ‫ﻫﺪاﻳﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻫﺪاﻳﺎ‬ َ ‫ﻣﺆﻧﺔ، ﻣﺆوﻧﺔ‬ َُ ُْ pl. ‫ﻣﺆن‬ َُ provisions, supplies see ‫ﻋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻮاء‬ ََ amateur ‫ﻣﺆﻫﻞ‬ ‫َُ ﱠ‬ qualified ‫ﻫﻮاﻳﺔ‬ َ amateurism ‫ﻣﺆﻫﻞ‬ ‫ُ ﱢ‬ qualification (training) ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﻫﻴﺎﻛﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻴﺪان‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻴﺎدﻳﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ see ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ structure ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻲ‬ ّ َِ َْ structural ‫ﻣﻴﺰان ﺗﺠﺎري‬ ّ ِ ِ ِ trade balance ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺗﻤﻮﻳﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ َ َ َْ financial institution َّ ِ ِ ‫ﻣﻴﺰاﻧﻴﺔ‬ budget ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻮﻧﺔ‬ َُ َْ aid organization ‫ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‬ َ َ to invite bids (for projects) ‫واﺟﻬﺔ‬ ِ shop window ‫ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ُِ deputy director ‫وادع‬ ِ depositor ‫ﻧﺪوة‬ َْ symposium ‫واردات‬ ِ imports َ َ ‫واﻟﺲ‬ to double-cross َ ََ ‫( ودع‬a) to deposit ْ ِ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ِ ْ َّ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِّ َ َ local content ratio َّ ِ َ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ percentage ‫ﻧﺴ ﻖ‬ َ َّ َ to coordinate ‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬ َ pl. ‫أﻧﺸﻄﺔ ,-ات‬ ِ ْ activity ‫ودﻳﻌﺔ‬ َِ pl. ‫وداﺋﻊ‬ ُ َ ‫ورﺷﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫ورش ,-ات‬ َِ deposited amount workshop
    • 150 AGRICULTURE AND FARMING ‫ورﺷﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﻠﻴﺢ‬ ِ ْ َّ repair shop َّ ِ ‫وﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ vacancy ‫ورﻗﺔ ﺑﻨﻚ‬ َْ َ َ bank note ‫وﻓﺎء‬ َ loyalty ‫وزع‬ َ َّ َ to distribute ‫وﻛﺎﻟﺔ‬ َ representation, agency ‫وﺳﻊ‬ َ َّ َ to expand (trans.) ‫وﻛﺎﻟﺔ اﻹﺷﻬﺎر‬ ْ َ advertising agency ‫وﺳﻴﻂ‬ ِ َ middle man َ َّ َ ‫وﻛﻞ‬ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫وﺳﻄﺎء‬ ‫وﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬ ِ َ ُ َ pl. ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻂ‬ ‫وﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ُ َ ‫وﻇﻒ‬ َ َّ َ ‫وﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫وﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ُ َ to appoint someone as an agent means see ‫وﺳﻴﻄﺔ‬ to hire, employ post, position ‫وﻛﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ representative, agent ُ َ ُ pl. ‫وﻛﻼء‬ ‫اﻟﻴﺪ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ِ َ the workforce ‫ﻳﻮرو‬ ُ ُ Euro (currency) pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻳﻮم اﻟﺤﺴﺎب‬ ِ َْ settlement day Agriculture and farming ‫إﺑﺎﻟﺔ‬ bale (e.g. hay) ‫ﺑﻴﻄﺎر‬ َْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻃﺮة‬ ‫اﺟﺘﻨﺎء‬ ِْ ِ harvest (yield) (esp. fruit) ‫اﺣ ﺘ ﺶ‬ ‫ِ َْ ﱠ‬ to mow ‫أراض ﺑﻮر‬ ُ fallow land ِْ pl. ‫أﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫إﺻﻄﺒﻞ‬ َْ ْ stable َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ََ cattle farming ِْ َ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﺤﻞ‬ ْ َّ beekeeping ‫ﺗﺮﻋﺔ‬ ُْ canal veterinarian ‫ﺗﺒﻦ‬ ِْ pl. ‫-ات‬ straw ‫ﺗﺮاب‬ ُ soil ‫أﻗﻄﻊ‬ َ َ ْ to allot (land) ‫آﻟﺔ اﻟﺠﺮ‬ َّ tractor َُ pl. ‫ﺗﺮع‬ ‫ﺑﺪاﻟﺔ‬ ََ culvert ‫ﺗﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ‬ ِْ َ ُْ drainage canal ‫( ﺑﺬر‬u) َََ to sow ‫ﺗﺮﻋﺔ اﻹﻳﺮاد‬ ُْ irrigation canal ‫ﺑﺮج اﻟﻤﻴﺎه‬ ِ ُْ water tower ‫ﺟﺚّ اﻟﺤﺮاج‬ ِ َ deforestation َّ َ ‫ﺑﻘﺎر‬ cowhand ‫( ﺟﺬر‬u) َََ to uproot
    • AGRICULTURE AND FARMING َّ َ ‫( ﺟﺮ‬u) ‫ﺟﺮاﻓﺔ‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ﺟﺮارﻳﻒ ,-ات‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺟﺮن‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﺟﺮان‬ ْ 151 to pull, tow ‫ﺧﺼﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to make fertile (soil) rake, harrow ‫ﺧﺼﺐ‬ ْ ِ fertility ‫ﺧﺼﻴﺐ‬ ِ َ fertile threshing floor ‫ﺧﻨﺪق‬ َ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺧﻨﺎدق‬ trench ‫ﺟﻔﺎف‬ َ drought ‫( ﺟﻨﻰ‬i) ََ to pick ‫ﺣﺎرث‬ ِ ploughman ‫ﺣﺠﺮ اﻟﺮﺣﻰ‬ َ َّ َ َ millstone pl. ‫رﻋﺎة‬ ُ َّ َ ‫ﺣﺪاء‬ camel driver ‫رﺑﺎ‬ َّ َ to breed (animals) ‫( ﺣﺮث‬i) َ ََ to plough, cultivate (land) ‫( ردم‬i) َََ to fill up with earth (e.g. pond) ‫ﺣﺮﺛﺔ‬ َْ arable land ‫( رﻋﻰ‬a) َ َ to graze ‫ﺣﺼﺎد‬ ِ harvest (time) ‫ري‬ ّ ِ irrigation َّ َ ‫ﺣﺼﺎدة‬ mower ‫ﺣﺼﺎدة دراﺳﺔ‬ َّ َ َّ َ combine ‫رﻳﻒ‬ ِ pl. ‫أرﻳﺎف‬ ْ ‫( ﺣﺼﺪ‬u, i) ََ َ to harvest, reap ‫زارع‬ ِ sower harvest (yield) (esp. wheat) ‫زراﻋﺔ‬ ِ agriculture, farming ‫زرب‬ َ ََ to corral, pen ‫ﺣﺼﻴﺪة‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺣﺼﺎﺋﺪ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺣﻄﺎب‬ َّ َ ‫ﺣﻈﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ lumberjack ‫ﺣﻔﺮة‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﺣﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻞ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﻘﻮل‬ ُُ greenhouse َ ‫دﻟﻮ اﻟﺮي‬ ّ َّ watering can ٍ ‫راع‬ shepherd َ ََ ‫( زرع‬a) to dig pit, hollow countryside 1. to plant 2. see ‫ﺑﺬر‬ enclosure, coop, pen pl. ‫ﺣﻈﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫( ﺣﻔﺮ‬i) َََ ‫دﻓﻴﺌﺔ‬ َِ ‫زرع‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫زروع‬ ‫زرﻳﺒﺔ‬ َِ plantation cattle pen pl. ‫زراﺋﺐ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺳﺒﻠﺔ‬ َْ manure, dung َ ََ ‫( ﺳﺮح‬i) field to graze ‫( ﺣﻠﺐ‬u) َ ََ to milk ‫ﺣﻤﺎر‬ َّ َ donkey driver ‫ﺳﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ِ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻮاق‬ ‫( ﺧﺼﺐ‬i) َ َ َ to be fertile (soil) ‫( ﺳﻘﻰ‬i) ََ water wheel to water, irrigate
    • 152 ‫ﺳﻤﺎد‬ َ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﺳﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺪ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺻﻬﺮﻳﺞ‬ ِِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺻﻬﺎرﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺿﻴﻌﺔ‬ َْ AGRICULTURE AND FARMING fertilizer ‫ﻗﺤﻂ‬ ْ َ drought ‫ﻗﺎدوس‬ ُ water-wheel bucket to fertilize pl. ‫ﻗﻮادﻳﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ cistern, water tank ‫ﻗﻄﺎف‬ ِ harvest (picking) (fruit) ‫( ﻗﻄﻒ‬i) َ َ َ to pick (flowers, fruit) country estate ِ pl. ‫ﺿﻴﺎع‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺣﻮن‬ ُ mill ِ َ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاﺣﻴﻦ‬ َّ ُ ‫ﻛﺪاس‬ pl. ‫ﻛﺪادﻳﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻛﺮم‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻛﺮوم‬ ُُ stack (grain) vineyard ‫ﻃﺎﺣﻮن اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ َ windmill ‫ﻃﺎرد اﻟﺤﺸﺮات‬ َ َ ِ insect repellent ‫( ﻃﺤﻦ‬a) َ َ َ to mill, grind ‫ﻣﺒﻴﺪات اﻟﺤﺸﺮات‬ َ َ ُِ insecticides ‫( ﻋﺰق‬i) َ ََ to dig (up) ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻋﺔ‬ َ famine ‫ﻋﻘﻴﻢ‬ َِ barren ‫ﻣﺤﺮاث‬ ْ ِ plough ‫( ﻋﻠﻒ‬i) َ ََ to feed (cattle) ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎرﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻒ‬ ََ fodder, forage ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮل‬ ُ ْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺻﻞ ,-ات‬ ْ ِ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﻠﻮﻓﺔ ,ﻋﻼف ,أﻋﻼف‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺑﺔ‬ forest ‫ﻏﺮاﺳﺔ‬ ِ cultivation َّ َ ‫( ﻏﻞ‬u) to yield crops ‫ﻏﻠﺔ‬ ََ crop ِ pl. ‫ﻏﻼل‬ ‫ﻏﻴﻂ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻏﻴﻄﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﺄس‬ َ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻓﺆس ,ﻓﺆوس‬ field axe ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﺔ‬ ِ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاش‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﺔ‬ ْ ِ َ ِ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻰ ,ﻣﺨﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺬود‬ َِْ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺬاود‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﺷﻴﺔ‬ ِ ِّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻂ‬ َْ َ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺮج‬ َْ cattle, livestock crop (yield) nosebag manger cattle breeder stud farm meadow pl. ‫ﻣﺮوج‬ ُُ ‫ﻣﺮﻋﻰ‬ ً َْ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاع‬ ‫ﻓﺰاﻋﺔ‬ َّ َ scarecrow ‫ﻓﻼح‬ َّ َ farmer ‫( ﻓﻠﺢ‬a) َ ََ to cultivate (land) ‫ﻣﺰرﻋﺔ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻣﺰارع‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻓﻴﻀﺎن‬ ََ flood, inundation ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻷراﺿﻲ‬ ِ َ ِ pasture farm acreage
    • NATURAL RESOURCES َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺴﻤﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺰﻗﺔ‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎزق‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻌﻮل‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎول‬ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻐﺮس‬ َِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻐﺎرس‬ ّ ُِ ‫ﻣﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﻞ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺟﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ َ ‫ﻣﻮاد ﻛﺮﻳﻬﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ‫ﻧﺎﻋﻮرة‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﻋﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ 153 fertilizers ‫ﻧﺎف‬ yoke hoe ‫( ﻧﺒﺬ‬i) َ ََ to press (grapes) ‫ﻧﺤﺎل‬ َّ َ beekeeper ‫ﻧﻘﺐ‬ َ َّ َ to drill (e.g. oil) ‫( ﻧﻤﻰ‬i) َ َ to grow ‫ﻧﻮرج‬ ََْ thresher pick (tool) grove (olives) fertile, productive (land) ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﻮارج‬ weedkiller noria ‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ اﻟﺮي‬ ّ ِّ َ َْ irrigation engineering َّ ِ ِ ‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ زراﻋﻴﺔ‬ agronomy ‫واﻓﺮ‬ ِ abundant ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺲ‬ ِ dry ‫ﻳﺒﺲ‬ ُْ sickle see ‫ﺟﻔﺎف‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻮﺗﻮﻳﻮم‬ plutonium Natural resources ‫إﺳﺒﻴﺪاج‬ ِْ white lead, ceruse ‫اﺳﺘﻴﺎﺗﻴﺖ‬ ِ ِْ ِ steatite, soapstone ‫أﻛﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ِ ِ ْ oxygen ‫أﻣﻄﺎر ﺳﻮداء‬ َْ ْ black rain ‫أﻟﻤﺎس‬ ْ ُّ َ ْ َّ ِ ‫ﺑﻠﻮر، ﺑﻠﻮر‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ crystal ‫ﺑﻠﻮر ﺻﺨﺮي‬ ّ ِْ َ َ rock crystal diamond ‫ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِ َْ petrol, gasoline ‫أﻟﻮﻣﻨﻴﺎ‬ ِْ ُ aluminium ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺶ‬ ََْ amethyst ‫أوزون‬ ُ ozone ‫ﺑﺨﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to evaporate ‫ﺑﺮج اﻟﺘﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ ِ َْ ْ ُ cooling tower ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ُّ َ َ pollution ‫ﺑﺮج اﻟﺤﻔﺮ‬ َْ ُْ derrick, oil rig َّ ِ ‫ﺟﺎذﺑﻴﺔ‬ gravitation ‫ﺑﻼﺗﻴﻦ‬ platinum ‫ﺟﺎذﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﺜﻘﻞ‬ ْ ِّ َّ gravitational force ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬ ِ plastic ‫ﺟﺰع‬ َْ onyx ‫ﺑﺌﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﻂ‬ ْ َّ ِ pl. ‫ﺑﺌﺎر ,آﺑﺎر‬ oil well
    • 154 ‫ﺟﺰىء‬ َُ pl. ‫-ات‬ NATURAL RESOURCES ‫ﺟﻴﺎر‬ َِ unslaked lime ‫ﺟﻴﺮ‬ ِ lime ‫ﺣﺎﻣﺾ اﻟﻔﺤﻢ‬ ْ َ ِ carbonic acid ‫ﺣﺎﻣﺾ ﻛﺒﺮﻳﺘﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِْ ِ sulphuric acid ‫ﺣﺠﺮ‬ َ َ stone pl. ‫ﺣﺠﺎر ,ﺣﺠﺎرة ,أﺣﺠﺎر‬ ْ ِ ِ ‫رﻣﻞ‬ ْ َ sand ‫زﺑﺮﺟﺪ‬ َ ْ ََ molecule chrysolite ‫زرﻧﻴﺦ‬ ِْ ِ arsenic ُّ ُ ُ ‫زﻣﺮد‬ emerald ‫زﻧﺠﻔﺮ‬ ُْ ُْ cinnabar ‫زﻧﻚ‬ ِْ zinc ‫زﺟﺎج‬ ُ glass ‫ﺣﺠﺮ ﺛﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ precious stone ‫زﻧﺠﺎر‬ ِْ verdigris َّ َ َ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ‬ silver nitrate ‫زﻳﺒﻖ‬ َِْ mercury, quicksilver ‫ﺣﺠﺮ اﻟﺠﻴﺮ‬ ِ limestone ‫ﺣﺠﺮ اﻟﺴﻤﺎﻗﻲ‬ ّ ِ َّ ُّ porphyry ‫زﻳﺖ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫زﻳﻮت‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ اﻟﺸﺎذﻧﺔ‬ ِ َ haematite ‫زﻳﺖ ﺣﻠﻮ‬ ُْ َْ sweet oil ‫ﺣﺠﺮ اﻟﻘﻤﺮ‬ َ َ selenite, gypsum ‫زﻳﺖ ﺧﺎم‬ crude oil ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬ َِ iron ‫زﻳﺖ اﻟﻐﺎز‬ َْ kerosene ‫ﺣﺎﻣﺾ ﻛﺒﺮﻳﺘﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِْ sulphuric acid ‫( ﺳﺒﻚ‬i, u) َ ََ to found, cast (metal) ‫ﺣﻄﺐ‬ َ َ firewood ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻜﺔ‬ َِ ingot ‫ﺣﻘﻞ اﻟﻨﻔﻂ‬ ْ َّ ْ َ oil field pl. ‫ﺳﺒﺎﺋﻚ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ اﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ِ ِ environmental protection ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻜﺔ ذﻫﺐ‬ َ َ َِ gold bullion ‫ﺣﻤﺾ‬ َ َّ َ to oxydize ‫ﺳﻠﺒﻰ‬ َِْ negative (el.) acid ‫ﺳﻠﻔﺎت‬ ُْ sulphate raw material ‫ﺷﻤﻊ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻤﻮع‬ ُ ُ ‫ﺣﻤﺾ‬ ْ َ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﻤﺎض‬ ‫ﺧﺎم‬ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﺧﺸﺐ‬ َ َ ْ pl. ‫أﺧﺸﺎب‬ oil wax ‫ﺻﺎج‬ sheet iron ‫ﺻﺎج ﻣﻀﻠﻊ‬ َّ َ ُ wood corrugated iron ‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬ ُْ steel ‫ﺻﻤﻎ‬ ْ َ gum, resin َّ َ ‫ذرة‬ atom ‫ذﻫﺐ‬ َ َ gold ‫رﺧﺎم‬ ُ marble pl. ‫ﺻﻤﻮغ‬ ُ ُ ‫رﺻﺎص‬ َ lead ‫ﺻﻤﻎ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ gum arabic
    • NATURAL RESOURCES 155 ‫ﻓﻴﺮوز‬ ُ َْ turquoise metallurgic industry ‫ﻗﺼﺪﻳﺮ‬ ِْ َ tin ‫ﺻﻮدا‬ ُ soda to filter ‫ﺻﻮدا ﻛﺎوﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ َ َّ َ caustic soda ‫ﻗﻄﺮان‬ ْ َ tar ‫ﺻﻮدﻳﻮم‬ ِ ُ sodium ‫ﻛﺎدﻣﻴﻮم‬ ِ ْ cadmium ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬ energy ‫ﻛﺒﺮت‬ َ َ َْ to vulcanize ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺮﻳﺢ‬ ِّ wind energy ‫ﻛﺒﺮﻳﺖ‬ ِ ِْ sulphur َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺷﻤﺴﻴﺔ‬ solar energy ‫ﻛﺮر‬ َ َّ َ to refine, filter ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻧﻮوﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ nuclear power َ َّ َ ‫ﻛﻠﺲ‬ to whitewash, calcify ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ اﻷوزون‬ ََ ozone layer ‫ﻛﻠﻮر‬ chlorine ‫ﻃﻔﻞ‬ َْ potter’s clay ‫ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎء‬ ََْ electricity ‫ﻃﻴﻴﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ natural ‫ﻛﻬﺮﻣﺎن‬ ََْ amber ‫ﻋﺎج‬ ivory ‫ﻛﻴﺮوﺳﻴﻦ‬ ِ ُ ِ kerosene ‫ﻋﺮق اﻟﻠﺆﻟﺆ‬ ُ ُ ِْ mother-of-pearl ‫ﻻزورد‬ َُْ lapis lazuli carnelian ‫ﻟﻤﺎع‬ ّ َ glistening, sparkling ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺔ‬ ْ ُ gleam, glow element pl. ‫ﻟﻤﺎع ,ﻟﻤﻊ‬ َ ُ ِ ‫( ﻟﺆﻟﺆ‬coll.) ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻵﻟﺊ‬ ِ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺳﺒﻚ‬ َْ ِ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدن‬ ِ َ ‫( ﻋﻘﻴﻖ‬coll.) َِ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺎﺋﻖ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ُ ُْ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫ﻋﻴﺎر‬ ِ 1. standard (gold, silver) pl. ‫-ات‬ 2. carat (gold) ‫ﻏﺎز‬ gas ‫ﻟﻴﻦ‬ ِّ َ pl. ‫أﻟﻴﻼﻧﺔ ,-ون‬ ْ ‫ﻏﺎز ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِِ natural gas ‫ﻟﻴﻦ‬ ِ coal ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ َّ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ّ َ ‫( ﻓﺤﻢ‬coll.) ْ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺤﻮﻣﺎت‬ ُ ُ ‫ﻣﺤﺠﺮ‬ ِ ْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺟﺮ‬ ُِ َ pearls soft, flexible softness, flexibility material ‫ﻓﺤﻢ ﺣﻄﺐ‬ َ َ ْ َ charcoal ‫ﻓﺤﻢ ﻛﻮك‬ ُ ْ َ coke ‫ﻓﻀﺔ‬ َّ ِ silver ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ِ ْ َ َّ َ َ ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء‬ َِْ ‫ﻓﻮﺳﻔﺎت‬ ْ ُ phosphate َّ ِ َ َ َّ َ َ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ ﻧﻮوﻳﺔ‬ nuclear power plant ‫ﻓﻮﺻﻔﻮر‬ ُ ُ phosphorus َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺨﺼﺐ‬ enriched (material) stone quarry power station
    • 156 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ‬ ‫َُ ﱠ‬ gilded ‫ﻣﺮﺟﺎن‬ ُْ coral ‫ﻣﺴﺒﻚ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺑﻚ‬ ُ ِ َ foundry ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ‬ َ ُ positive (el.) ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ َِْ resource ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‬ ِ fine, smooth َْ َ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ َّ energy source ‫ﻧﺤﺎس‬ ُ copper َّ َ ‫ﻣﻄﺎط‬ rubber ‫ﻧﺤﺎس أﺻﻔﺮ‬ َْ ُ brass mineral َ ‫ﻧﻔﺎﻳﺎ ﻧﻮوﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ nuclear waste ‫ﻧﻔﻂ‬ َْ petroleum ‫ﻣﻌﺪن‬ َِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎدن‬ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻌﺪن‬ miner ‫ﻧﻔﻂ ﺧﺎم‬ َْ crude oil ‫ﻣﻌﺮوض ﻧﻔﻄﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ َُْ oil supply ُّ َ َ ُْ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬ freezing point ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺘﻜﺮﻳﺮ‬ ِْ َ َ َْ refinery ‫ﻧﻴﺘﺮوﺟﻴﻦ‬ nitrogen ‫ﻣﻐﻨﻄﻴﺲ‬ ِ َْ َ magnet ‫ﻧﻴﻜﻞ‬ ِ nickel ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻧﻮوي‬ ّ ََِ ِ ُ nuclear reactor ‫ﻫﻴﺪروﺟﻴﻦ‬ ِ ِ hydrogen mine ‫وﻗﻮد‬ َُ fuel ‫وﻟﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to generate (energy) ‫ﻣﻨﺠﻢ‬ َ َْ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺟﻢ‬ َ ‫ﻣﻮادّ أوﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َّ base materials ‫ﻣﻮادّ ﺧﺎم‬ raw materials ‫ﻣﻮادّ ﻣﻠﺘﻬﺒﺔ‬ ِ َُْ combustible materials ‫ﻳﻮراﻧﻴﻮم‬ ِ uranium ‫ﻣﻮارد ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َِ ِ َ natural resources ‫ﻳﻮراﻧﻴﻮم ﻣﺨﺼﺐ‬ َّ َ ُ enriched uranium ‫آﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﻴﺎﻛﺔ‬ ِ power loom ‫آﻟﺔ اﻟﺨﻴﺎﻃﺔ‬ ِ sewing machine ‫آﻟﺔ ﻛﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ِ compressor ‫آﻟﺔ ﻟﺤﺎم‬ ِ soldering iron ‫آﻟﻲ‬ ِ mechanical, mechanized ‫( ﻳﺎﻗﻮت‬coll.) pl. ‫ﻳﻮاﻗﻴﺖ‬ ِ َ ruby Tools and equipment ‫إزﻣﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ chisel pl. ‫أزاﻣﻴﻞ‬ ُ ِ ‫إﺷﻔﻰ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺷﺎف‬ ٍ ‫آﻟﺔ‬ awl 1. machine 2. tool, instrument
    • TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ‫أﻧﺒﻮب‬ ُُْ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬ ُ ِ pipe, tube ‫راﻓﻌﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫رواﻓﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( رﺣﻰ‬f.) ً َ 157 hoist quern, hand mill ‫ﺑﺮادة‬ ُ iron filings َّ َ ‫ﺑﺮاﻣﺔ‬ drilling machine ‫( ﺑﺮد‬u) َََ to file ‫رﻓﺶ‬ َْ pl. ‫رﻓﻮش‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﻤﺔ‬ ِّ َ auger, gimlet َّ َ ‫زﺣﺎﻓﺔ‬ leveller (agriculture) ‫ﺑﺮﺷﻤﺔ‬ َ ُْ rivet ‫زردﻳﺔ‬ َّ ْ َ pliers ‫ﺑﻜﺎرة‬ َّ َ pulley ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻞ‬ ُّ َ َ defect, flaw ‫ﺗﻜﺴﺮ‬ َ َّ َ َ to become broken َ ُ ِ ْ pl. ‫أرﺣﻴﺔ ,رﺣﻲ ,أرﺣﻰ‬ ‫( ﺳﺪ‬u) َّ َ ‫ﺳﺪاد‬ ِ َّ ِ pl. ‫أﺳﺪة‬ turbine ‫ﺳﻠﻚ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺳﻼك‬ ْ ‫( ﺛﻘﺐ‬u) َ ََ to drill, pierce ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ِ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻼﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺦ‬ َ َّ َ to sharpen, whet ‫ﺟﻠﺦ‬ َْ whetstone ‫ﺗﻮرﺑﻴﻦ‬ ِ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ ِْ ‫ﺣﺒﻞ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﺣﺒﺎل‬ device, appliance sealing wax ‫ﺧﻼﻃﺔ اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬ َ ْ َّ َ concrete mixer ‫ﺧﻮذة‬ ُ safety helmet ‫دﺑﻮس رﺳﻢ‬ ْ َ ُّ َ pl. - ‫دﺑﺎﺑﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫دﻟﻮ‬ َْ thread, string, cable plug, stopper wire chain ladder ‫( ﺳﻦ‬u) َ َ to sharpen, whet ‫ﺳﻨﺪان، ﺳﻨﺪان‬ ِْ َْ anvil ‫ﺳﻴﺦ‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺳﻴﺎخ‬ ْ thumb tack bucket skewer net ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ََ ََ ِ ُُ pl. ‫ﺷﺒﻮﻛﺎت ,ﺷﺒﺎك ,ﺷﺒﻚ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬ َِ pl. ‫أﺷﺮﻃﺔ ,ﺷﺮاﺋﻂ‬ ُ َ ِْ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ اﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎس‬ ِْ ِ ْ ِ ْ pl. ‫أدﻻء ,دﻻء ,أدل‬ َّ َ ‫دوارة‬ to plug up ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻨﺎدﻳﻦ‬ rope ‫ﺧﺘﺎم‬ ِ ‫ﺧﻴﻂ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺧﻴﻮط‬ ُ ‫ﺳﻠﻢ‬ َُ pl. ‫ﺳﻼﻟﻴﻢ ,ﺳﻼﻟﻢ‬ ُِ َ ُ ِ َ shovel, spade ‫ﺻﻔﻴﺤﺔ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺻﻔﺎﺋﺢ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺻﻤﺎم‬ ِ tape, string measuring tape can valve pl. ‫ات‬vane ‫ﺻﻤﺎم اﻷﻣﺎن‬ safety valve
    • 158 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ‫ﺻﻤﻮﻟﺔ‬ ُ ُ nut ‫ﻋﺘﻠﺔ‬ ََ crowbar ‫ﻋﺪة‬ َّ َ ََ pl. ‫ات ,ﻋﺪد‬َّ َ َ َ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﺔ ﻗﻼﺑﺔ‬ ‫( ﻋﺼﺎ‬f.) َ pl. ‫أﻋﺺ ,ﻋﺼﻰ‬ ِ ُ ٍ ْ َ ‫ﻋﻘﺪة‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﺮاب‬ ُ wheelbarrow tool, instrument tipcart cane, stick knot blade (hatchet) sieve plane ‫ﻗﺒﻀﺔ‬ َْ grip ‫ﻗﻄﺐ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻄﺎب‬ pincers ‫ﻟﻮح‬ َْ board, plate ‫ﻣﺎﻟﺞ‬ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻟﺞ‬ trowel file, rasp pl. ‫ﻣﺒﺎرد‬ ُِ َ ‫ﻣﻄﺮﻗﺔ‬ َْ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎرق‬ hammer َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻌﻄﻞ‬ broken, out of order ‫ﻣﺜﻘﺐ‬ َِْ drill ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﺎرة‬ ‫ﻗﺬاﺣﺔ‬ َّ َ ‫ﻛﻤﺎﺷﺔ‬ َّ َ ‫ﻣﺒﺮد‬ َ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻏﺮاﺑﻴﻞ‬ ُّ َ ‫ﻗﺪوم‬ ُ َ ُُ pl. ‫ﻗﺪم ,ﻗﺪاﺋﻢ‬ to break ْ pl. ‫أﻟﻮاح‬ ِْ ُْ ِْ pl. ‫أﻏﺮﺑﺔ ,أﻏﺮب ,ﻏﺮﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﺎل‬ ِْ crank ‫( ﻛﺴﺮ‬i) ََ َ ََ pl. ‫ﻋﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ اﻟﻴﺪ‬ َ َ َ ‫ﻛﺮﻧﻚ‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ adze ‫ﻣﺜﻘﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻮاء‬ َ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻐﻮﻃﺔ‬ ُْ َ pneumatic drill ‫ﻣﺠﺰ‬ َّ ِ shears ‫ﻣﺨﺮﻃﺔ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺨﺎرط‬ ُ ِ َ lighter ‫ﻣﺪﻗﺔ‬ َِّ pivot lathe ‫َ ﱡ‬ pl. ‫ﻣﺪاق‬ َِ ‫ﻣﺪقّ اﻟﺮﻛﺎﺋﺰ‬ َّ mortar (cf. pestle) piledriver ‫ﻗﻄﺐ ﺳﺎﻟﺐ‬ ِ cathode ‫ﻗﻄﺐ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ‬ َ ُ anode َّ َ ‫ﻗﻼب‬ skip َ ‫ﻗﻼب ﺧﻼط‬ َّ َ rotary mixer ‫ﻗﻼووظ‬ ُ َ screw ‫ﻣﺴﺤﺎة‬ ْ ِ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎح‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻮظ‬ َ َ َْ to screw together ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻔﺔ‬ َْ ِ harrow ‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ‬ َ cable ‫ﻣﺴﻤﺎر‬ ْ ِ nail ‫ﻛﺒﺮﻳﺖ‬ ِ ِْ matches pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻣﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻌﺔ‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﻓﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺮوﺣﺔ‬ َِْ ُ ِ ََ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاوح‬ crane fan spade
    • TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ‫ﻣﺸﻌﻞ‬ َْ َ torch pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻋﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻜﺒﺲ ﻣﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ‫ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ‬ َ ِْ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻼزم‬ 159 hydraulic press vice, clamp ‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎح ﻣﻔﻠﻮر‬ ِ َْ ُ ْ ِ fluorescent lamp ‫ﻣﻀﺨﺔ‬ َّ َ ِ pump ‫ﻣﻀﺨﺔ راﻓﻌﺔ‬ ِ َّ َ ِ suction pump ‫ﻣﻨﺠﻞ‬ َ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺟﻞ‬ mallet ‫ﻣﻨﺠﻠﺔ‬ َ َْ vice ‫ﻣﻨﺸﺎر‬ ِْ saw ‫ﻣﻀﺮب‬ َْ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻀﺎرب‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪ‬ َُّ pl. ‫-ات‬ equipment, appliance scythe pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺷﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻨﺼﺒﺔ‬ َ ِْ trestle ‫ﻣﻴﺰان‬ ِ scales ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح ﺻﻤﻮﻟﺔ‬ ُ ُ ِْ spanner ‫ﻣﻔﺮاك‬ ِْ twirling stick pl. ‫ﻣﻮازﻳﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ screwdriver ‫ﻣﻴﺰان ﻃﺒﻠﻰ‬ َِْ weighbridge ‫ﻣﻴﺰان اﻟﻤﺎء‬ spirit level ‫ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‬ ِ faulty scissors ‫( ﻧﻔﺦ‬u) َ ََ to inflate ‫ﻧﻮل‬ َْ loom gauge pl. ‫أﻧﻮال‬ ْ ‫ﻣﻔﻚ‬ ّ َِ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﻘﺒﺾ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﺾ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻘﺺ‬ ّ َِ ّ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎص‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس‬ ِْ handle pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻫﺎون‬ ُ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ َّ ammeter ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﻬﺪ‬ َْ voltmeter ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺰواﻳﺎ‬ َ protractor َّ َ ْ َ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ electrometer ‫ﻣﻜﺒﺲ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﻜﺎﺑﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ 1. press 2. piston mortar ََ ‫ورق اﻟﺴﻨﻔﺮة‬ َ ْ َّ emery paper, sandpaper ‫وﺻﻠﺔ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫وﺻﻞ ,-ات‬ َ ُ ‫وﻧﺶ‬ ِْ joint winch pl. ‫أوﻧﺎش ,-ات‬ ْ ‫ﻳﺪ اﻟﻬﺎون‬ َ pestle
    • 160 TIME Time General ‫ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﻈﻬﺮ‬ ْ ُّ َْ afternoon 2. always ‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬ َْ ُ shortly after ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ َْ during ‫ﺑﻜﺮة‬ ْ ُ tomorrow َّ (‫أﺟﻞَ )إﻟﻰ‬ to postpone (until) ‫ﺑﻜﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ early ‫أﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ‬ ً ْ sometimes َّ ُ َْ ‫ﺑﻨﺪول اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ pendulum ‫أﺧﺮ‬ َ َّ 1. to delay ‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﻓﺘﺮة و أﺧﺮى‬ َْ ُ َْ now and then 2. to set back (clock) ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ََْ while, during ‫أﺧﻴﺮ‬ ِ last, recent to be delayed, lag behind ‫أﺧﻴﺮا‬ ً ِ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺮ‬ َ َّ َ at last ‫ﺗﻘﺪم‬ َ َّ َ َ to run fast (clock/watch) ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬ َِْ calendar ‫أﺑﺪا‬ ً َ ‫أﺳﺒﻮع‬ ُْ ُ ِ pl. ‫أﺳﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫أﺳﺒﻮﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُْ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﺮق‬ َ َ ْ َْ 1. never (on its own; with negation) week ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻘﺎوﻳﻢ‬ weekly (adj.) to take, last (an amount of time) ‫أﺿﺎع اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ َْ to waste time ‫أﻵن‬ now ‫أﻣﺲ‬ ِ ْ yesterday ‫آن‬ time pl. ‫آوﻧﺔ ,أوان‬ ِ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺟﺮﻳﻨﺘﺶ‬ َِْ Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ِ second ٍ َ pl. ‫ﺛﻮان‬ ‫ﺛﻠﺚ‬ ُْ twenty minutes to/past the hour َّ ُ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ then ‫ﺟﻴﻞ‬ ِ generation ْ pl. ‫أﺟﻴﺎل‬ ‫آﻧﻔﺎ‬ ً ِ formerly ‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ‬ ِ present ‫أﻧﻘﻀﻰ‬ َ َْ to pass, elapse (time) ‫ﺣﺎﻻ‬ ً immediately ‫أول أﻣﺲ‬ َّ the day before yesterday ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ present, current ‫ﺑﺈﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ْ ِْ ِ continuously, constantly ‫ﺣﺘﻤﺎ‬ ً َْ definitely, inevitably ‫ﺑﺮﻫﺔ‬ ُْ a short time َّ َ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ until ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ََْ after ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ َِ recent, modern ‫ﺑﻌﺪَ ذﻟﻚ‬ َ ِ َْ afterwards pl. ‫ﺣﺪاث‬ َ
    • TIME ‫ﺣﻴﻦ‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺣﻴﺎن‬ ْ time َّ ِ َ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ َ َ 161 last year Year in the Christian era ‫ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ‬ ٍ َ ِ at that time, then ‫ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ َ ِ whenever ‫ﺳﻨﺔ ﻫﺠﺮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ َ year in the Muslim era (A.H.) ‫ﺧﺎﻃﻒ‬ ِ fleeting ‫( ﺷﺮق‬u) َ ََ to rise (sun) ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ِ see ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺷﺮوق‬ ُُ sunrise ‫( دام‬u) َ to last ‫داﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ‬ َْ ُُ ُْ pl. ‫أﺷﻬﺮ ,ﺷﻬﻮر‬ permanent ‫داﺋﻤﺎ‬ ً always ‫( دق‬i) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to strike (clock) ‫دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ َِ pl. ‫دﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬ ُ َ minute َْ ‫رأس اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ َّ New Year’s Day ‫راﻫﻦ‬ ِ see ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫رﺑﻊ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ُْ quarter of an hour ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ِ previous, former ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‬ ً ِ formerly ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ hour ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ‬ clock ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻴﺪ‬ watch ‫( ﺳﺒﻖَ ﻟﻪ أن‬i, u) ََ (A.D.) month ‫ﺷﻬﺮي‬ ّ َِْ monthly ‫ﺻﺒﺎح‬ َ morning ‫ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎ‬ ً َ in the morning ‫ﺻﺒﺎح ﻏﺪ‬ َّ َ tomorrow morning ‫ﺻﺒﺎح اﻟﻴﻮم‬ َْ this morning ‫ﻃﻮراً ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﻮر‬ َ َْ time and again ‫ﻇﻬﺮ‬ ُْ midday ْ pl. ‫أﻇﻬﺎر‬ ً ِ ‫ﻋﺎﺟﻼً أو آﺟﻼ‬ ِ sooner or later ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ًَ usually ‫ﻋﺎم‬ pl. ‫ات ,ﻋﻮام‬ْ ‫ﻋﻘﺮب‬ ََْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺎرب‬ see ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ hand (watch/clock) to have experienced . . . (perf.) before ‫ﻋﻘﺮب اﻟﺜﻮاﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ second hand ‫ﺳﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ early dawn ‫ﻋﻘﺮب اﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬ َ minute hand ‫ﺳﻠﻔﺎ‬ ً ََ beforehand ‫ﻋﻘﺮب اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎت‬ َ hour hand year ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺪى اﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‬ َِ ََ ََ in the long term ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺪى اﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬ َِ ََ ََ in the short term ‫ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ْ ُ age (person) ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻨﻮن ,ﺳﻨﻮات‬ ََ ِ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ِ َ next year ‫ﺳﻨﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺴﺔ‬ َِ َ leap year ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻤﺎر‬
    • 162 ‫ﻋﻬﺪ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻋﻬﻮد‬ TIME َ ِ ‫ﻋﻴﺪ رأس اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ َّ New Year ‫ﻏﺮة اﻟﺸﻬﺮ‬ ْ َّ َّ ُ first day of the month ‫( ﻏﺮب‬u) َ ََ to set (sun) ‫ﻏﺮوب‬ ُُ sunset ‫ﻏﺴﻖ‬ َ َ dusk, twilight ‫( ﻓﺎت‬u) َ to elapse, pass (time) ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ َْ interval of time ‫ﻓﺠﺄة‬ ً ُ suddenly ‫ﻓﺠﺮ‬ ْ َ dawn ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻓﺼﻮل‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬ ً َِ soon ‫( ﻗﻀﻰ‬i) َ َ era, age to spend (time) ُّ َ ‫ﻗﻂ‬ never (with negative verb) ‫ﻗﻠﻤﺎ‬ َ َّ َ rarely ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎد‬ ُْ as usual ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮا‬ ً َِ often ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ َّ ُ whenever ‫ﻻﺣﻘﺎ‬ ً ِ afterwards ‫ﻟﺤﻈﺔ‬ ْ َ moment ‫ﻟﻴﻞ‬ َْ night (< > ‫)ﻧﻬﺎر‬ ً َْ ‫ﻟﻴﻼ‬ by night season ‫ﻓﻮر‬ ََْ ‫ﻟﻴﻠﺔ‬ َْ ِ َ pl. ‫-ات ,ﻟﻴﺎل‬ as soon as ‫اﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ َ َْ tonight ‫ﻓﻮرا‬ ً َْ immediately ‫ﻟﻴﻠﺔ أﻣﺲ‬ َْ last night ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ ِ past ‫ﻣﺒﻜﺮا‬ ً ِّ َ ُ early in the morning ‫ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮ‬ ِّ َ ُ late ‫ﻣﺘﻰ‬ ََ when ‫ﻓﻲ أﺳﺮع وﻗﺖ‬ َْ َْ َ ِ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﻓﻲ أﻋﻘﺎب‬ ْ َ ِ as soon as possible in the wake of ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ََْْ ُ ِ ‫اﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬ َِ in the near future ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ َْ ِ subsequently ‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ َْ َْ at the same time ‫ﻗﺎدم‬ ِ see ‫ﻣﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬ existing َ َْ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ before (prep.) ‫ﻗﺒﻞ اﻵن‬ َْ previously ‫ﻗﺒﻴﻞ‬ َُْ shortly before ‫ﻗﺮن‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻗﺮون‬ ُُ century ‫ﻣﺴﺎء‬ َ ِ ْ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﺴﻴﺎت ,أﻣﺴﺎء‬ night (< > ‫)ﻳﻮم‬ evening ً َ ‫ﻣﺴﺎء‬ in the evening ‫ﻣﺴﺎء اﻟﻴﻮم‬ َْ َ this evening ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ََْْ ُ future ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ّ ِ َْ ُ continuous, continual ‫ﻣﺼﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ outcome (‫ﻣﻔﻜﺮة )ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ ِّ َ ُ diary ‫ﻣﻘﺒﻞ‬ ُِْ forthcoming
    • TIME ‫ﻣﻦ اﻵن و ﺻﺎﻋﺪا‬ ً ِ ِ from now on ‫ﻣﻨﺒﻪ‬ ِّ َ ُ alarm clock pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎر‬ َ pl. ‫أﻧﻬﺮ‬ ُْ 163 day (<> night) ‫ﻧﻬﺎرا‬ ً َ by day imminent ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬ َْ َ َُْ midnight ‫وﺷﻴﻚ‬ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ُ ُْ since ‫ﻣﺆﺧﺮا‬ ً ِّ ُ lately, recently ‫وﻗﺖ‬ َْ pl. ‫أوﻗﺎت‬ ْ ‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬ َّ َ ُ temporary ‫وﻗﺖ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﺘﺎ‬ ً ‫ُُﱠ‬ temporarily ‫ﻧﺎدرا‬ ً ِ seldom, rarely ‫ﻳﻮم‬ َْ َ pl. ‫أﻳﺎم‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ْ ِ half an hour ‫اﻟﻴﻮم‬ ََْ today ‫ﻧﺼﻒ أﺻﺒﻮﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُْ ْ ِ biweekly (twice weekly) ‫ﻳﻮﻣﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ daily (adj.) ‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺷﻬﺮي‬ ّ َِْ ْ ِ biweekly (fortnightly) ‫ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎ‬ ًِّ ْ َ daily (adv.) time to set a time day Days of the week ‫)ﻳﻮم( اﻷﺣﺪ‬ َ Sunday ‫)ﻳﻮم( اﻟﺨﻤﻴﺲ‬ ِ َ Thursday ‫)ﻳﻮم( اﻹﺛﻨﻴﻦ‬ َْْ Monday ‫)ﻳﻮم( اﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ‬ ْ ُ Friday َّ ‫)ﻳﻮم( اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎء‬ Tuesday ‫)ﻳﻮم( اﻟﺴﺒﺖ‬ ْ َّ Saturday ‫)ﻳﻮم( اﻷرﺑﻌﺎء‬ ْ Wednesday The seasons ‫اﺻﺘﺎف‬ َ ْ ِ to spend the summer ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻒ‬ َِ autumn ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺻﻴﻔﻲ‬ ّ َِْ َِْ daylight-saving time ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻔﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ autumnal ‫رﺑﻴﻊ‬ ِ ‫ﺷﺘﺎء‬ ِ winter spring ِْ ُِ pl. ‫ﺷﺘﻲ ,أﺷﺘﻴﺔ‬ summer ‫ﺷﺘﻮي‬ ّ ِ َْ wintry ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻆ‬ scorchingly hot ‫ﻗﻴﻆ‬ َْ summer heat ‫ﺻﻴﻒ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺻﻴﺎف‬ ْ ‫ﺻﻴﻔﻲ‬ ّ َِْ summery
    • ‫461‬ ‫‪TIME‬‬ ‫‪Months‬‬ ‫‪Gregorian‬‬ ‫‪N Africa‬‬ ‫‪Middle East‬‬ ‫‪January‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﻔﻲ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫‪February‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻔﺮي‬ ‫ﻓﺒﺮاﺋﺮ‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﺎط‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫‪March‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎرس‬ ‫ﻣﺎرس‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫آذار‬ ‫‪April‬‬ ‫أﻓﺮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﺑﺮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺎن‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪May‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﻮ‬ ‫أﻳﺎر‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪June‬‬ ‫ﺟﻮان‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻳﺮان‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫‪July‬‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻳﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻮز‬ ‫َ ّ‬ ‫أوت‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ِِْ ِْ‬ ‫أﻏﺴﻄﺲ‬ ‫ُ ْ ُ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ِِْ ِْ‬ ‫آب‬ ‫أﻳﻠﻮل‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫‪October‬‬ ‫أﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‬ ‫ْ ِ‬ ‫أﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‬ ‫ْ ِ‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫ِ ِْ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ اﻷول‬ ‫‪November‬‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ُ ِ ِْ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ُ ِ ِْ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫َ ِ ِ ِْ‬ ‫‪December‬‬ ‫دﺳﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ِ ِ ِْ‬ ‫دﺳﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ِ ِ ِْ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮن اﻷول‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫‪August‬‬ ‫‪September‬‬ ‫‪Islamic‬‬ ‫َ َّ‬ ‫ﺷﻮال‬ ‫.01‬ ‫رﺟﺐ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫.7‬ ‫رﺑﻴﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ّ ِ‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫.4‬ ‫ُ َ َّ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺮم‬ ‫.1‬ ‫ذو اﻟﻘﻌﺪة‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫.11‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺎن‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫.8‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎدى اﻷوﻟﻰ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫.5‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫.2‬ ‫‪ (month‬ذو اﻟﺤﺠﺔ‬ ‫ِ َّ‬ ‫.21‬ ‫‪ (month of‬رﻣﻀﺎن‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫.9‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎدى اﻷﺧﻴﺮة‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫.6‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫رﺑﻴﻎ اﻷول‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫.3‬ ‫)‪fasting‬‬ ‫)‪of the pilgrimage‬‬ ‫)‪Coptic (Egypt‬‬ ‫ﺑﺆوﻧﺔ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫.01‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﻬﺎت‬ ‫َْ ََ‬ ‫.7‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻬﻚ ,ﻛﻴﻬﻚ‬ ‫ِ َ َِ َ‬ ‫.4‬ ‫ﺗﻮت‬ ‫.1‬ ‫أﺑﻴﺐ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫.11‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﻮدة‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫.8‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫.5‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫.2‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺮى‬ ‫ِ َْ‬ ‫.21‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻨﺶ‬ ‫َ َْ‬ ‫.9‬ ‫أﻣﺸﻴﺮ‬ ‫ْ ِ‬ ‫.6‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﻮر‬ ‫.3‬
    • GEOGRAPHY 165 Geography Natural geography ‫أﺟﻮف‬ َْ f. ‫ ,ﺟﻮﻓﺎء‬pl. ‫ﺟﻮف‬ َْ ُ ‫أﺣﻔﻮر‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﺣﺎﻓﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ ‫أرﺧﺒﻴﻞ‬ َِ ْ ‫أرض‬ ْ pl. ‫أراض‬ ‫أﻓﻖ‬ ُْ pl. ‫آﻓﺎق‬ ‫إﻗﻔﺎر‬ ْ fossil earth (planet) َّ ِ ْ َّ ِ ‫ﺟﺎذﺑﻴﺔ أرﺿﻴﺔ‬ gravity horizon ‫ﺟﺒﻞ‬ ََ pl. ‫ﺟﺒﺎل‬ ِ desolateness ‫ﺟﺪول‬ ََْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺟﺪاول‬ isthmus volcano pool brook, rivulet cliff, precipice ‫( ﺟﺰر‬i, u) َََ to ebb ebb ‫ﺟﺰﻳﺮة‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺟﺰاﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ island ‫ﺟﻨﻮب‬ َُ south ‫ﺣﺠﺮ ﺟﻮي‬ ّ ِّ َ َ َ meteor ‫ﺣﻔﺮ‬ َْ excavation (archaeology) ‫ﺣﻔﺮة‬ َُْ َُ pl. ‫ﺣﻔﺮ‬ pit remoteness ‫ﺑﺌﺮ‬ well ‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ِ the outside world ‫( ﺧﺮ‬i, u) َّ َ to purl (water) ‫ﺧﻂّ اﻻﺳﺘﻮاء‬ ِْ ِ َ plain, flatland ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﺑﺌﺎر ,آﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﺟﺮف‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﺟﺮاف ,ﺟﺮوف‬ ُُ mountain ‫ﺟﺰر‬ َْ lake land (< > sea) ‫ﺑﻄﺤﺎء‬ ْ َ ِ َ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻄﺤﻮات ,ﺑﻄﺎح‬ hillock sand dune ‫ﺑﺮ‬ َّ ‫ﺑﺮﻛﺔ‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﺑﺮك‬ َِ ّ َ ‫ﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻞّ رﻣﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِْ َ full moon ‫ﺑﺮﻛﺎن‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﻛﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ desertification archipelago ‫ﺑﺪر‬ َْ ‫ﺑﺮزخ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﺑﺮازخ‬ ُ ِ َ tsunami ِ pl. ‫ﺗﻼل‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ sea ِ ُ ُ ْ pl.‫أﺑﺤﺎر ,ﺑﺤﻮر ,ﺑﺤﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻴﺮة‬ َْ ُ pl. ‫ﺑﺤﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻧﺎﻣﻲ‬ ِ ‫ﺗﺼﺤﺮ‬ ‫َ َ ﱡ‬ hollow (adj.) the Equator ‫ﺧﻠﻴﺞ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺧﻠﺠﺎن‬ ُْ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ َِ gulf, bay the Persian Gulf
    • 166 GEOGRAPHY ‫اﻟﺪﻟﺘﺎ‬ ْ َّ the Nile Delta ‫ﺷﺮق‬ َْ east ‫دوار‬ ََ whirlpool, vortex ‫ﺷﻤﺎل‬ َ north ‫ﺷﻤﺲ‬ ْ َ sun ‫رأس‬ ُ pl. ‫رؤوس‬ cape ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺷﻤﻮش‬ ‫راﺳﺐ ﻏﺮﻳﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ ِ alluvial deposit ‫رﻣﺎد‬ ُ ash ‫رﻣﻞ‬ ْ َ ‫زﻟﺰﻟﺔ‬ َ َْ ‫ﺳﺎﺣﻞ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺪ‬ َّ to pour forth (water) ‫ﺻﺤﺮاء‬ ْ َ desert sand َ َ ِ َ َْ َ pl. ‫ﺻﺤﺮوات ,ﺻﺤﺎر ,ﺻﺤﺎرى‬ froth (sea) ‫ﺻﺨﺮ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺻﺨﻮر‬ ُ ُ earthquake ‫( ﺻﺪف‬coll.) ََ ْ pl. ‫أﺻﺪاف‬ ِ pl. ‫رﻣﺎل‬ ‫زﺑﺪ‬ ََ ْ pl. ‫أزﺑﺎد‬ ‫( ﺻﺐ‬i) َّ َ shore, coast ‫ﺿﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﺿﻮاح‬ ٍ َ rock, cliff seashells surroundings dam ‫ﺿﺤﻀﺎج‬ ْ َ shallow ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ْ َ ‫ﺿﻔﺔ‬ َّ َ bank (river) surface ِ pl. ‫ﺿﻔﺎف‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ْ َ sea level ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ َِ nature foot (mountain) ‫ﻃﻤﻰ‬ ْ َ alluvial mud mountain chain ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ َ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻮن‬ ْ pl. ‫أﺳﺪاد‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺢ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺳﻔﻮح‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ اﻟﺠﺒﺎل‬ ِ ِ ِْ ‫ﺳﻤﺎء‬ َ َ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﻮات‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻞ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺳﻬﻮل‬ ُُ ‫ﺷﺎﻃﺊ‬ pl. ‫ﺷﻮاﻃﺊ‬ ُ َ sky plain ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‬ ِ inhabited ‫ﻋﻘﻴﻖ‬ َِ gorge, ravine َِ pl. ‫أﻋﻘﺔ‬ peninsula ‫ﺷﺒﻪ ﻗﺎرة‬ َْ subcontinent ‫ﺷﻼل‬ َّ َ waterfall ‫ﻏﺎﺑﺔ‬ forest ‫ﻏﺮب‬ َْ shore, beach ‫ﺷﺒﻪ ﺟﺰﻳﺮة‬ َِ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ world west ‫ﻏﻮط‬ َْ cavity, depression ْ ُ ِ ِ pl. ‫ﻏﻴﻄﺎن ,ﻏﻴﺎط ,ﻏﻮط ,أﻏﻮاط‬ ‫ﻓﺮع‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻓﺮوع‬ ُُ tributary (river)
    • GEOGRAPHY 167 ‫ﻓﻮقَ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ ْ َ َْ above sea level ‫ﻣﺎء ﻋﺬب‬ َْ fresh water ‫ﻓﻴﻀﺎن‬ ََ flood ‫ﻣﺎء ﻣﺎﻟﺢ‬ ِ salty water ‫ﻗﺎرة‬ continent ‫ﻣﺠﺮى‬ ‫َ ْ ﹰ‬ pl. ‫ﻣﺠﺎر‬ ٍ َ current (stream) ‫ﻗﺎع‬ bottom (e.g. sea) ِ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻮاع ,أﻗﻮع ,ﻗﻴﻌﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂ‬ ِ ُ ocean ‫ﻗﺎع اﻟﻨﻬﺮ‬ ْ َّ river bed ‫ﻣﺪ‬ َّ rise (water) ‫ﻗﺎع اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ sea bed ‫ﻣﺪار اﻟﺠﺪى‬ َْ َ Tropic of Capricorn ‫ﻗﺮارة‬ َ depression َ ‫ﻣﺪار اﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ َ َّ Tropic of Cancer village ‫ﻣﺬﻧﺐ‬ َّ َ ُ comet ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺎت‬ ََْ ُ heights ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬ َ area, surface ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻗﺮى‬ ‫ُ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺐ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫أﻗﻄﺎب‬ ْ pole ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺐ اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ َُ the South Pole ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺐ اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َّ the North Pole ‫ﻗﻔﺮ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻗﻔﺎر‬ ِ َّ ِ ‫ﻗﻤﺔ‬ pl. ‫ﻗﻤﻢ‬ َ ِ ‫ﻗﻤﺮ‬ َ َ pl. ‫أﻗﻤﺎر‬ ُ ْ ‫ﻗﻨﺎة‬ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﻮات‬ ََ wasteland ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻘﻊ‬ ََْْ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ summit (mountain) ‫ﻣﺸﺮق‬ ِْ َ moon ‫ﻣﺼﺐ‬ ّ َ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎب ,-ات‬ ّ َ canal ‫ﻣﻀﻴﻖ‬ َْ َ ُ َ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻀﺎﻳﻖ ,ﻣﻀﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺛﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ِّ َِ ِ natural disaster ‫اﻟﻜﺮة اﻷرﺿﻴﺔ‬ َِ ْ َُ the globe ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺐ‬ َِ dune pl. ‫ﻛﺜﺒﺎن ,ﻛﺜﺐ ,أﻛﺜﺒﺔ‬ ِْ ُُ ُْ ‫ﻛﺴﻮف‬ ُ ُ ‫ﻛﻬﻒ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻛﻬﻮف‬ ‫ﻣﺎء‬ pl. ‫ﻣﻴﺎه‬ ِ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎوف ,-ات‬ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻄﺮح‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎرح‬ ُ ِ َ distance marsh, swamp East mouth (river) strait, isthmus location, site ‫ﻣﻐﺮب‬ َِْ West ‫ﻣﻘﻔﺮ‬ ُِْ deserted, forsaken ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس رﻳﺨﺘﺮ‬ َْ ِ ِْ the Richter scale eclipse, solar eclipse cave water ‫ﻣﻨﺤﺪر‬ َ َ ُْ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ َ َْ َّ ِ ِ َ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮُ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ slope landscape
    • 168 ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺔ‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻮاج‬ ‫( ﻧﺒﻊ‬a, i,u) ََ ‫ﻧﺠﻢ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﺠﻮم‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺮ‬ َْ ُْ pl. ‫أﻧﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎوﻳﺔ‬ ِ ‫ﻫﺎﺋﺞ‬ GEOGRAPHY wave ‫ﻫﻀﺒﺔ‬ ْ َ ِ pl. ‫ﻫﻀﺎب‬ hill to originate (river) ‫ﻫﻮاء ﻃﻠﻖ‬ َْ َ open air star ‫ﻫﺰة أرﺿﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ْ ّ َ earth tremor ‫واﺣﺔ‬ oasis river abyss rough (sea) ‫واد‬ ٍ pl. ‫ودﻳﺎن ,ودﻳﺎن‬ ِْ ِْ ‫وﺣﻞ‬ ْ َ valley mud ُ ُ ْ pl. ‫أوﺣﺎل ,وﺣﻮل‬ Urban geography ‫زﺣﺎم‬ ِ ‫ازدﺣﻢ‬ ََ َِْ to be crowded ‫أﻗﺎم‬ to reside, live ‫اﻛﺘﻈﺎظ‬ ِْ ِ overpopulation ‫زﻗﺎق‬ ُ pl. ‫أزﻗﺔ‬ َّ ِ tower ‫ﺳﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮج‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﺮاج‬ ‫ﺑﻠﺪ‬ ََ town pl. ‫ﺑﻼد‬ ِ َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﺑﻠﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﺎل‬ ْ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﺮ‬ ْ ِ municipality statue bridge ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺟﺴﻮر‬ ‫ﺷﺎرع‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻮارع‬ crowd alley, lane square street ‫ﺷﺎرع رﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ high street ‫ﺿﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ِ city outskirts, suburb pl. ‫ﺿﻮاح‬ ِ َ ‫ﺿﻴﻖ‬ ِّ َ ‫ﻋﺎﺻﻤﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﺻﻢ‬ ُِ َ narrow capital ‫ﺟﺴﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻖ‬ َّ َ ُ ْ ِ suspension bridge ‫ﺣﺪﻳﻘﺔ‬ َِ garden, park ‫ﻋﺎﺋﻖ‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﺋﻖ‬ zoo ‫ﻋﻄﻔﺔ‬ ْ َ side street, alley ‫ﻗﺮوي‬ ّ ََِ villager pl. ‫ﺣﺪاﺋﻖ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ََ ‫ﺣﻲ‬ ّ َ pl. ‫أﺣﻴﺎء‬ ْ ‫رﺻﻴﻒ‬ ِ َ ِ ْ pl. ‫أرﺻﻔﺔ‬ city district pavement ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺔ‬ َْ ‫ُ ﹰ‬ pl. ‫ﻗﺮى‬ obstacle village
    • TRAVEL AND MOBILITY region, country ‫ﻣﺰدﺣﻢ‬ ِ َُْ َ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺴﻜﺎن‬ َّ ُّ population density ‫ﻣﺼﺮف‬ ِْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎرف‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻻﻓﺘﺔ‬ ِ sign ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬ َ ُ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ْ َ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻄﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺮى‬ ‫َ ْ ﹰ‬ pl. ‫ﻣﺠﺎرى‬ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ َِ َ َْ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ َِ ُُ pl. ‫ﻣﺪن‬ sewer city centre city ‫ﻧﺎﻓﻮرة‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﻓﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻧﺠﻊ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺠﻮع‬ ُ ُ 169 overcrowded drain province fountain hamlet ‫واﺳﻊ‬ ِ wide to slow down َ َْ ‫أﻗﺒﻞ‬ to go near direction ‫أﻛﺪ‬ َ َّ to confirm (e.g. flight) ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺎق‬ ِْْ connections pull (door) ‫اﻧﺘﺒﻪ‬ َِِْ WATCH OUT! foreigner ‫اﻧﺘﺤﻰ‬ َ َِْ to turn ‫اﻧﺼﺮف‬ َ َ َ ِْ to leave, depart ‫اﻧﻘﻠﺐ‬ َ ََ ِْ to get knocked over ‫أوﺗﺎد اﻟﺨﻴﻤﺔ‬ َْ ْ tent pegs ‫( ﺑﺎت‬i) َ to spend the night ‫( ﺑﻄﺆ‬u) ُ َ to be slow Travel and mobility General ‫أﺑﻄﺎء‬ ْ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ِّ ِ pl. ‫ات‬‫أﺟﺬب‬ َْ ‫أﺟﻨﺒﻲ‬ ّ َِْ pl. ‫أﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ِ ‫اﺧﺘﺘﻢَ زﻳﺎرة‬ ًَ ِ ََْ ِ to conclude a visit ‫أدﻓﻊ‬ ََْ push (door) ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻼم‬ ْ ِْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ enquiry ‫اﺳﺘﻔﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ َ َ َْْ ِ to inquire about ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل‬ ِْْ ِ reception ‫اﺳﺘﻤﺎرة‬ ِْ ِ form َ ‫أﻃﻞَّ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ to look out onto (e.g. room) far ‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺑﻌﺎد ,ﺑﻌﺪان ,ﺑﻌﺪ ,ﺑﻌﺪاء‬ َُ ُْ ُْ ِ ‫إﻋﺎدة اﻟﻤﺎل‬ refund ‫( ﺑﻘﻰ‬a) َ َِ to stay, remain ‫إﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬ stay ‫( ﺑﻠﻎ‬u) َ ََ to reach ‫ﺑﻄﻰء‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻄﺎء‬ ِ slow
    • 170 TRAVEL AND MOBILITY َّ َْ ‫ﺑﻴﺖ اﻟﺸﺒﺎب‬ youth hostel َّ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬ nationality ‫ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬ َ delay ‫ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ أﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ َّ ْ ِ nationality at birth ‫ﺗﺄﺷﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ visa َ ‫ﺟﻮاز اﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬ َ َّ passport ‫( ﺗﺒﻊ‬u) َ ََ to follow ‫ﺟﻮﻟﺔ‬ َْ tour, journey َ َْ َ َ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﺮك‬ to declare (to customs) ‫( ﺣﺠﺰ‬u, i) ََ َ to reserve, to book ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ َ ْ َ underneath, below ‫ﺣﺠﺰ‬ ْ َ reservation ‫ﺗﺤﺬﻳﺮ‬ ِْ َ WARNING! ‫( ﺣﺬر‬a, i) ََِ to be cautious َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ to move, be in motion ‫ﺣﺬر‬ َِ cautious ‫ﺗﺨﻴﻴﻢ‬ ِْ َ camping ‫ﺣﺬر‬ ِْ caution, watchfulness souvenir ‫ﺣﺬارى ﻣﻦ‬ ِ َ BEWARE OF . . . َ َّ َ ‫ﺣﺮك‬ to move (trans.) ‫( ﺣﺰم‬i) َََ to tie up, bundle ‫( ﺣﺼﻰ‬coll.) ً َ pebbles ‫ﺗﺬﻛﺎر‬ َْ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮة‬ ِ َْ ticket pl. ‫ﺗﺬاﻛﺮ‬ ُِ َ َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻌﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ‬ ِْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ‬ to be in a hurry tradition ‫( ﺟﺎء‬i) to come ‫ﺟﺎء ب‬ ِ to bring conductor (bus) schedule porter َ َ َ ‫( ﺣﻤﻞ‬i) to carry ‫ﺧﺎرج‬ ِ outside (prep.) ‫ﺧﺎص‬ ّ private ٍ ‫ﺧﺎل‬ free, available ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ‬ ِْ service ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ اﻟﻐﺮف‬ َُ ِْ to head for ‫ﺟﺪول‬ ََْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺟﺪاول‬ suitcase ‫ﺣﻤﺎل‬ َّ َ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪَ إﻟﻰ‬ َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺟﺎب‬ ٍ pl. ‫ﺟﺒﺎة‬ ُ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ‬ َ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺣﻘﺎﺋﺐ‬ room service ‫ﺟﺮﺑﻨﺪﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ َ َ knapsack َ ََ ‫( ﺧﺮج‬u) to go out ‫( ﺟﺮى‬i) ََ to run ‫ﺧﺮوج‬ ُ exit ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ‬ َِ map ‫ﺟﻤﺮك‬ ُْ ُ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺟﻤﺎرك‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺲ‬ ِْ customs ُ َ pl. ‫ﺧﺮاﺋﻂ‬ sex ‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ َ َْ behind
    • TRAVEL AND MOBILITY ‫ﺧﻴﻤﺔ‬ َْ 171 pl.‫ﺧﻴﻢ‬ َِ َّ َ ُ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺨﻴﻢ‬ camp bed ‫ﺳﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺰدوج‬ َُِْ tent double bed ‫داﺧﻼ‬ ً ِ inside (adv.) ‫( دار‬u) َ to turn around َ َ َ ‫( دﺧﻞ‬u) to enter ‫دﺧﻮل‬ ُ entrance ‫اﻟﺪﺧﻮل ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎ‬ ً َ ُ ُّ free admission/access ‫ﺷﻜﻠﻴﺎت‬ ِْ َ formalities ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ََ class (e.g. train, plane) ‫ﺷﻤﺎل‬ ِ left (direction) َِ ‫دﻟﻴﻞ اﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬ َّ travel guide ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎن ,ﺳﺮاع‬ ِ ُْ ‫( ﺳﻔﺮ‬i) َََ ‫ﺳﻔﺮ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﺳﻔﺎر‬ ْ journey, trip 1. bag 2. rucksack, backpack ‫دﻟﻴﻞ اﻟﻌﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬ ِ َ address book ‫( ذﻫﺐ‬a) َ َ َ to go ‫ﺷﻘﺔ‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ﺷﻘﻖ‬ َِ explorer to travel ‫ﺷﻨﻄﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺷﻨﻂ‬ َُ ‫راﺋﺪ‬ pl. ‫رواد‬ َّ ُ quick flat (apartment) ‫( ﺻﺮف‬i) َ ََ to change (money) ‫راﺋﺪ اﻟﻔﻀﺎء‬ َ astronaut ‫( ﺻﻌﺪ‬a) َََ to climb ‫( رﺟﻊ‬i) َ َ َ to return َ ‫( ﺿﺎع‬i) to lose one’s way ‫رﺣﻠﺔ‬ َْ ِ journey ‫( ﻃﻠﻊ‬u) ََ to go up, ascend ‫رﺣﻠﺔ ﺻﻴﺪ‬ َْ safari ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ُ length ‫رﺳﻢ اﻟﺠﻤﺮك‬ ْ َ ُْ ُ customs duty ‫( ﻋﺎد‬u) َ see ‫رﺟﻊ‬ ‫( زﻟﻖ‬a) َ َِ to slip, slide ‫( ﺳﺎح‬u) َ to travel around ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺪ‬ ََ to help ‫ﺳﺎع‬ ٍ pl. ‫ﺳﻌﺎة‬ ُ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﺢ‬ ُ pl. ‫ﺳﻮاح ,ﺳﻴﺎح‬ َّ ُ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﺋﺪ ,-ات‬ ُ َ custom, habit tourist ‫( ﺳﺮع‬u) َ َُ to be quick, to hurry ‫ﺳﺮﻳﺮ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ْ َِ cot high ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻮد اﻟﺨﻴﻤﺔ‬ َْ tent pole ‫( ﻋﺒﺮ‬u) َ ََ to cross ‫( ﻋﺜﺮ‬u) َ ََ to stumble ‫ﻋﺜﺮَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ ََ delivery boy, porter ٍ ‫ﻋﺎل‬ to find, discover ‫ﻋﺠﺮي‬ ّ َِ َ pl. ‫ﻋﺠﺮ‬ َ َ gipsy
    • 172 TRAVEL AND MOBILITY ‫ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‬ َِ broad َّ َ ‫ﻟﻮحَ إﻟﻰ‬ to wave at (someone) ‫ﻋﺮض‬ َْ width, breadth ‫ﻟﻮﻛﺎﻧﺪه‬ َْ guesthouse ‫ﻋﺮﻳﻖ‬ َِ deep-rooted (e.g. tradition) ‫ﻣﺎء ﺷﺮب‬ ُْ drinking water luggage ‫ﻣﺒﻴﺖ‬ َِ overnight stay ‫ﻣﺤﺠﻮز‬ ْ َ reserved hand luggage ‫ﻣﺤﻔﻈﺔ‬ َْ َ wallet ّ َ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻗﻞ‬ َ at least ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ َْ َ at most ‫ﻋﻤﻖ‬ ْ ُ ‫ﻣﺨﻴﻢ‬ َّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ depth ‫ﻋﻔﺶ‬ َْ ُ pl. ‫ﻋﻔﻮش‬ ‫ﻋﻔﺶ اﻟﻴﺪ‬ َ َْ ‫ﻋﻤﻴﻖ‬ ِ َ deep ‫ﻏﺎدر‬ ََ to depart room َّ َ ‫( ﻣﺮ‬u) to pass ‫ﻣﺮاﻓﻖ‬ ِ ُ accompanying person ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺐ اﻟﺸﺎﻃﻰء‬ َ ِ ُ beach guard ‫ﻣﺮﺷﺪ‬ ِ ُْ guide ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ‬ ِ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻤﺎق‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ‬ ُْ َُ pl. ‫ﻏﺮف‬ campsite traveller َّ ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ dining room ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ َ ُ help, assistance ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻔﺮدة‬ َُْ single room ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ َْ ُ level ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺰدوﺟﺔ‬ َُِْ double room ‫( ﻣﺸﻰ‬i) َ َ to walk ‫( ﻏﺮق‬a) َ َِ to drown ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﻴﻢ‬ ُِ َْ non-resident ‫ﻓﻮق‬ َ َْ above, on top ‫ﻓﺮاش ﻫﻮاﺋﻲ‬ ّ َ ِ air mattress ‫ﻓﻨﺪق‬ ُ ُْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻓﻨﺎدق‬ ‫ﻓﻮج‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﻓﻮاج‬ hotel group ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‬ َِ close, near ‫( ﻗﻌﺪ‬u) َََ to sit ‫ﻛﻴﺲ اﻟﻨﻮم‬ ْ َّ sleeping bag ‫ﻣﺼﻌﺪ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎﻋﺪ‬ ُِ َ lift ‫ﻣﻄﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ َ َّ ِ ُ with a view of (room) ‫ﻣﻐﻠﻖ‬ َْ ُ CLOSED ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮح‬ َْ OPEN ‫ﻣﻘﻴﻢ‬ ُِ resident ‫ﻣﻜﺎن‬ َ place ِ ْ ُ ِ pl. ‫أﻣﺎﻛﻦ ,أﻣﻜﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ‬ ْ َ َْ َ ‫اﻟﻌﻔﻮش‬ ُ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ َْ َ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎت‬ ْ ِْ ِ left-luggage office information desk, enquiry office
    • TRAVEL AND MOBILITY ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ِّ َْ َ 1. travel agency 2. tourist agency ‫ﻧﺠ ﻮ‬ َْ َ َ ََ ‫( ﻧﺰل‬i) 173 towards 1. to descend َ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﺔ ﺟﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِّ َ aviation ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﺨﺮوج‬ ُْ َ ُُ NO EXIT ُْ َ ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﺘﺪﺧﻴﻦ‬ ِ ْ َّ NO SMOKING ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺗﺬﻛﺎري‬ ّ ِ َْ ْ َ monument ُّ َ َّ ُْ َ ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻖ‬ NO CLIMBING ‫( ﻧﻘﺬ‬u) َََ to save, rescue ْ َ ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬ ْ َّ NO PHOTOGRAPHS ‫( ﻫﺰ‬u) َّ َ to shake ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﺪﺧﻮل‬ ُ ُّ NO ENTRY ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ُ here ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع ﻗﻄﻴﻌﺎ‬ ً َ ْ َ STRICTLY FORBIDDEN َ ُ ‫ﻫﻨﺎك‬ there ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬ ْ َ ْ َ DO NOT TOUCH ‫وﺗﺪ‬ ََ tent peg etc.) ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ َِ ُْ low ‫ﻣﻨﺰل اﺳﺘﺮاﺣﺔ‬ ِْ ِ َ َْ resthouse َ ََ ‫( ﻣﻬﻞ‬a) to tarry ‫ﻣ ﻬﻼ‬ ً ََ slowly ِ َْ ‫ﻣﻮﻋﺪ اﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬ َ َّ pl. -‫ﻣﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ُِ َ َّ َ ُ ِ ْ َ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺨﻴﻢ‬ 2. to disembark (car, train, 3. to dismount (horse) pl. ‫أوﺗﺎد‬ ْ َ ‫وﺛﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬ ْ َّ َ pl. -‫وﺛﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫وﺳﻂ‬ َ َ ْ pl. ‫أوﺳﺎط‬ travel document middle camping site ‫وﺻﻞَ )ﻳﺼﻞ( إﻟﻰ‬ ُ ِ َ َ َ to arrive in ‫وﺻﻮل‬ َ departure time arrival ُ ُ pl. ‫وﺻﻮﻻت‬ (‫وﻗﻒَ )ﻳﻘﻒ‬ ُ َِ ََ to stop ‫ﻳﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ right (direction) 1. communication ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ َ ََ َْ ِ to ask for information 2. contact, connection َ ‫أﺷﺎع‬ to disseminate (news) ‫إﺗﺼﻞَ ب‬ َ َّ to telephone someone ‫إﻣﻀﺎء‬ ْ signature ‫أﺟﺮة اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ ْ ُ postage ‫أﻣﻀﻰ‬ َ ْ to sign ‫أﺧﺒﺮ‬ َ َْ to notify َ َ ْ ‫أوﺻﻞ‬ to put through (a phone call) َ َ ْ ‫أرﺳﻞ‬ to send (e.g. letter) َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺑﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬ telegram ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮرات‬ ُ َْ َّ ‫اﻟﺴﻜَﻨ‬ ‫َّ ِﻴﺔ‬ trailer park Communications َّ ‫إﺗﺼﻞ‬
    • 174 ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺑﺮد‬ ُُ TRAVEL AND MOBILITY post, mail ‫ﺧﻂ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ِ ُ ّ َ َ َ ‫راﺳﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﺠﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِّ َ air mail ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ‬ ِ َّ express mail ‫( رزم‬u) َََ ‫ﺑﺸﺮ‬ ْ َ good news, glad tidings ‫( ﺑﻌﺚ‬a) َ ََ ‫رزﻣﺔ‬ ِْ َِ pl. ‫رزم‬ to send, dispatch ‫ﺑﻠﻎ‬ َ َّ َ to inform َ َ َ ‫ﺗﺮاﺳﻞ‬ to exchange letters with one another ‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ registering (mail) ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫رﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ direct line to correspond, exchange letters to wrap parcel, package letter ِ ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺴﺠﻠﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ registered letter ‫رﻗﻢ اﻟﻬﺎﺗﻒ‬ ِ َْ telephone number ‫رﻗﻢ اﻟﻔﺎﻛﺲ‬ َْ fax number ‫رﻣﺰ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ ْ َ postal code, ZIP code َّ ِ ِ َ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ postal rates ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‬ ِْ َ commentary ‫ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮن‬ telephone ُ pl. -‫ﺳﻌﺎة‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮن ﻻﺳﻠﻜﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ cordless phone َ َّ َ ‫ﺳﺠ ﻞ‬ to register (a letter) ‫ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮن ﻣﺤﻤﻮل‬ ُ ْ َ mobile phone ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ َّ َ (telephone) receiver ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ‬ َِْ see ‫إﻣﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ااﻹﻣﻀﺎء‬ ْ ِ the undersigned ‫ﺛﻤﻦ اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻟﻤﺔ‬ َ ُ َ َ telephone call rate ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ ُ ُْ mailbox ‫ﺟﻮاب‬ َ reply ‫ﻃﺎﺑﻊ‬ ِ stamp pl. -‫رﻣﻮز‬ ُ ُ pl. ‫أﺟﻮﺑﺔ‬ ِْ money order ‫ﺧﺎﺑﺮ‬ ََ to contact s.o. ‫ﺧﺘﻢ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﺧﺘﻮم‬ news ‫ﻇﺮف‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ُُ ‫ﻃﺎﺑﻊ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻃﻮاﺑﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ envelope stamp postmark ‫ﺧﻂ ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ ِ ّ َ telephone line ‫ﻋﺎﺟﻞ‬ ِ urgent ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻮﻧﺎت‬ ِ ِّ ِ seal ‫ﺧﺘﻢ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ ِ َ َْ ِّ ُ ِ ِ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﻄﻮط ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ postman pl. ‫ﻃﻮاﺑﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ َّ ‫ﺧﺒﺮ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﺧﺒﺎر‬ ْ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ ِ telephonist ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِّ َ ِ technician ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ُْ address ُ ِ ََ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬
    • TRAVEL AND MOBILITY 175 ‫ﻋﻨﻮان ﺑﻴﺘﻲ‬ ّ َِْ ُْ home address َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺴﺠﻞ‬ registered ‫ﻋﻨﻮن‬ َ َ َْ to address (a letter) ‫ﻣﺸﻐﻮل‬ ْ َ busy (telephone), taken (seat) 1. fax machine ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻖ‬ ِّ َ ُ commentator ‫ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺒﺎت‬ َ ُ correspondence َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ telephone conversation َّ ِ ِ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﺧﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬ long-distance call ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺔ دوﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ُ international call ‫ﻓﺎﻛﺲ‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ 2. facsimile message ‫( ﻓﺮز‬i) َََ to sort ‫ﻗﺮص‬ ُْ pl. ‫أﻗﺮاص‬ ْ dial ‫ﻛﺎﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻮن‬ ِّ ِ telephone booth ‫( ﻟﺼﻖ‬a) َ ِ َ to stick َْ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ‬ ِ ْ َّ switchboard ‫ﻣﺬﻳﺎع‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﺬاﻳﻴﻊ ,-ات‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ َْ َ pl. - ‫ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ post office ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ َ َ ْ ِ postal area ‫ﻣﻮاﺻﻼت‬ َ ُ microphone communications ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ َّ َ ُ postal worker ‫ﻣﺮاﺳﻠﺔ‬ َ ُ correspondence ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻞ إﻟﻴﻪ‬ َ ُْ addressee ‫ﻣﺮﺳﻞ‬ ِ ُْ sender ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﺑﻪ‬ ِِ َُْ enclosed ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻘﺎت‬ َُْ enclosures ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺠﻞ‬ َ َ َْ ُ express ‫وﻛﻴﻞ ﻣﻜْﺘﺐ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ َِ َ َ ِ َ ُ َ ُ pl. ‫وﻛﻼء‬ ‫إﻗﻼع‬ ْ take-off ‫رﺣﻠﺔ‬ ْ ِ flight, journey ‫أﻗﻠﻊ‬ َ َْ to take off َِ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ‬ ِ َّ carrier ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺻﻌﻮد‬ ُ ِ boarding pass ‫ﺻﺎﻟﺢ‬ ِ valid ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﺠﺰ‬ ْ َ booking status ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة‬ aeroplane ‫ﺣﺠﺮة اﻟﻘﻴﺎدة‬ ِ ْ ُ cockpit ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة ﺷﺤﻦ‬ ْ َ cargo plane ‫ﺣﺰام اﻷﻣﻦ‬ ْ َ ِ safety belt َّ ِ ِ ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة رﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬ sports plane ُ ُ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط ﺟﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِّ َ airline ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة ﻣﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ water plane, sea plane ‫دوﻻب اﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﺐ‬ ََ ُ luggage locker ‫( ﻃﻠﻊ‬a, u) َ ََ to board ‫ﻫﺎﺗﻒ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻫﻮاﺗﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫وﺳﻴﻠﺔ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻼت‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ُ َ see ‫ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮن‬ means of communication postmaster Air
    • 176 TRAVEL AND MOBILITY َّ َ ‫ﻃﻴﺎر‬ pilot ‫ﻃﻴﺮان‬ َْ aviation ‫ﻃﻴﺮان ﺑﻬﻠﻮاﻧﻲ‬ ّ َْ َ َْ stunt flying ‫ﻃﻴﺮان ﺷﺮاﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ َْ glider flying ‫ﻋﻨﺪ اﻻﺿﻄﺮار‬ ِ ِ ِْ in case of an emergency ‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﻮن‬ ِ ARRIVALS ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬ ْ َّ departure hall ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺬ‬ ََْ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺬ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻮﺻﻮﻻت‬ ُ arrivals hall ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺬ اﻟﻬﺮوب‬ ُ ََْ emergency exit ‫ﻗﻨﺎع أﻛﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ِ ِ ْ ِ oxygen mask ‫ﻣﻬﺒﻂ‬ َْ َ landing strip ‫ﻣﺤﺮك‬ ِّ َ ُ pl. ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺑﻂ‬ ُ ِ َ engine ‫ﻣﻴﺰان اﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﺐ‬ َ ِ baggage scales runway ‫ﻧﺰول‬ ُ disembarkation ‫( ﻫﺒﻂ‬u, i) ََ to land, touch down ‫ﻫﺒﻮط‬ ُُ landing ‫ﻣﺪرج‬ ََْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺪارج‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎر‬ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎرات‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻴﻀﺔ‬ ُِ hostess ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺪ‬ ََْ seat ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻮن‬ َ airport ‫ﻣﻨﻀﺪة‬ َ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺿﺪ ,-ات‬ ُِ َ crew table, tray exit ‫ﻣﻈﻠﺔ‬ َّ َ ِ parachute ‫ﻫﺒﻮط اﻻﺿﻄﺮار‬ ِ ِ emergency landing ‫اﻟﻤﻐﺎدرون‬ ِ ُ DEPARTURES ‫وﺻﻮل‬ ُ arrival ‫أﺑﺤﺮ‬ ََ ْ to set sail ‫ﺑﻮﺻﻠﺔ‬ ُ compass ‫إﻗﻼع‬ ْ sailing, departure ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻴﻒ‬ ِْ َ stowage ‫أﻗﻠﻊ‬ َ َْ to sail ‫ﺟﺪول اﻷﺑﺤﺎر‬ ْ ََْ sailing schedule ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻤﻼﺣﺔ‬ َ ََ shipping traffic ِ ‫ﺣﺰام اﻟﻨﺠﺎة‬ َّ lifebelt Sea ‫ﺑﺤﺎر‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ون ,ﺑﺤﺎرة‬َّ َ ‫ﺑﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺑﺤﻮر ,ﺑﺤﺎر‬ ِ ُ ُ ‫ﺗﺤﻄﻢ‬ َ َّ َ َ ‫ﺑﻨﺪر‬ َ َْ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻨﺎدر‬ sailor sea to be wrecked seaport ‫ﺟﻨﺪول‬ ُ ُْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺟﻨﺎدﻳﻞ‬ gondola ‫ﺟﻨﺰﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺮﺳﺎة‬ ِْ ِ ِْ anchor chain ‫ﺣﻄﺎم‬ ُ shipwreck َّ َ ‫ﺣﻮاﻣﺔ‬ hovercraft
    • TRAVEL AND MOBILITY ‫ﺣﻮض ﺟﺎف‬ ّ َْ pl. ‫أﺣﻮاض ﺟﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ْ َّ َ ‫ﺣﻮض ﻋﻮام‬ ْ pl. ‫أﺣﻮاض ﻋﻮاﻣﺔ‬ َّ َ dry dock ‫ﺷﺮاع‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺷﺮﻋﺔ ,ﺷﺮع‬ ِْ ُُ 177 sail floating dock ‫ﺷﺮم‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺷﺮوم‬ ُُ ََ ‫ﺧﻔﺮ اﻟﺴﻮاﺣﻞ‬ ِ َّ coastguard ‫ﺷﻤﻨﺪورة‬ ُ َْ َ ‫دراﺑﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِ ْ َ railing ‫دﻓﺔ‬ ‫َﱠ‬ helm ‫ﺻﺎرﻳﺔ ,ﺻﺎر‬ ٍ ِ pl. ‫ﺻﻮار‬ ٍ َ logbook ‫ﺻﺎرى اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ََ ِ flagpole ‫ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﻼﺣﺔ‬ َ ِ navigable ‫ﻃﺎﻗﻢ‬ ِ crew ‫ﻋﺒﻮر‬ َ crossing ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎدة‬ ِ َ َ steering wheel captain, skipper َْ ‫ﻋﺮض اﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ‬ ِ َّ beam ‫رﺣﻠﺔ‬ ْ ِ journey, crossing ‫ﻋﻘﺪة‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺪ‬ َُ ‫( رﺳﺎ‬u) َ to dock, to anchor ‫رﺳﻮم اﻹرﺳﺎء‬ ْ ُ ُ berthage ‫رﺳﻮم اﻹرﺷﺎد‬ ْ ُ ُ pilotage ‫رﺳﻮم اﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎء‬ ُ harbour dues ‫رﺻﻴﻒ اﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎء‬ َ quay ‫رﻓﺎس‬ ‫َﱠ‬ 1. propeller ‫دﻓﺘﺮ‬ ََْ pl. ‫دﻓﺎﺗﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫دوﺧﺔ‬ َْ seasickness ‫راﺑﻂ‬ َ َ to be moored (ship) ‫راﻛﺐ‬ ِ pl. ‫رﻛﺎب‬ َّ ُ ‫رﺑﺎن‬ ُّ ِ َ ِ ُّ pl. ‫رﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ,رﺑﺎﺑﻨﺔ‬ passenger 2. steamboat ‫ﺳ ﺘﻒ‬ َ َّ َ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻄﻮح‬ ُ ‫ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ‬ َ ُُ pl. ‫ﺳﻔﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ اﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ‬ َ ‫ﺷﺤﻦ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﺷﺤﻮن‬ to stow (goods) deck ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ََ inlet buoy mast knot flag pl. ‫أﻋﻼم‬ ْ ُ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻮل اﻟﺮﺻﻴﻒ‬ ِ َّ ‫ﻋﻨﺒﺮ‬ ََْ pl. ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺑﺮ‬ ُِ َ ‫( ﻏﺮق‬a) َ َِ ‫ﻓﻨﺎر‬ َّ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻗﺎرب‬ ِ alongside quay hold to founder lighthouse boat, skiff pl. ‫ﻗﻮارب‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻗﺎرب ﺷﺮاﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ sailing boat َّ ِ ‫ﻗﺎرب اﻟﻨﺠﺎة‬ lifeboat cargo ship ‫ﻗﺎﺋﺪ‬ helmsman cargo ُّ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاد‬ ship ‫ﻗﺒﻄﺎن‬ َْ see ‫رﺑﺎن‬
    • 178 ‫ﻗﻨﺎة‬ َ ََ pl. ‫ﻗﻨﻮات ,أﻗﻨﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ TRAVEL AND MOBILITY canal ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻳﺔ‬ َِْ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎد‬ ferry ‫ﻗﻮارﺑﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ boatman ِ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ merchant shipping ‫ﻗﻴﺪوم‬ ُ َْ bow (ship) ِ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﺔ داﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ inland shipping ‫ﻛﺒﻴﻨﺔ‬ َ َّ ِ ْ َ ِ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﺔ ﻧﻬﺮﻳﺔ‬ river traffic cabin ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺔ‬ َْ wave ‫ﻟﻨﺶ‬ َْ pl. ‫-ات‬ launch pl. ‫أﻣﻮاج‬ ْ ِ ‫ﻣﻴﺎء إﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ْ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻴﻔﺴﺘﻮ‬ ُ ِ ِ ship’s manifest ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻂ‬ َْ ِ hawser ‫ﻣﻴﻨﺎء‬ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮان‬ anchorage ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻧﻮاﻗﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺳﻰ‬ ً َْ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاس‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺳﺎة‬ ِ territorial waters port, harbour see ‫ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ اﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ اﻟﻨﻔﻂ‬ ْ َّ ِ anchor ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاس‬ oil tanker ‫ﻧﺴﻴﻢ‬ َ breeze ِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻢ ,ﻧﺴﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺷﺪ‬ ِ ُْ pilot ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬ َ َْ vessel, craft ‫ﻫﻠﺐ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﻫﻼب‬ ْ ‫ﻫﻮﻳﺲ‬ َِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﺐ‬ grappling iron, boathook (canal) lock pl. ‫أﻫﻮﺳﺔ‬ ِْ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﺳﺎﺣﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِِ coaster ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ اﻟﺼﻴﺪ‬ َْ fishing vessel ‫ﻳﺨﺖ‬ ْ َ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻳﺨﻮت‬ ‫أﻣﻨﻴﺒﻮس‬ ِْ omnibus ‫( رﺑﻂ‬i, u) َ ََ َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺨﻠﻒَ اﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ْ ِّ to interrupt the journey ‫رﺻﻴﻒ‬ َ ِ ْ pl. ‫أرﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮة ذﻫﺎب‬ َ ِ َْ one-way ticket ‫ ( رﻛﺐ‬i َ َ َ ‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮة ذﻫﺎب و إﻳﺎب‬ return ticket ‫ﺟﺪول اﻟﻘﻄﺎرات‬ ِ ََْ timetable yacht Rail ‫راﻛﺐ‬ ِ َّ ُ pl. ‫رﻛﺐ‬ passenger ) to brake (train) platform (train) to board (a train) َّ ِ ِ َ ِّ ِ ‫ﺳﻜﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬ َ َّ ِ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬ َِْ ُ elevated railway ‫ﺷﺒﺎك اﻟﺘﺬاﻛﺮ‬ ِ َ َّ ُ ticket office ِ َ pl. -‫ﺷﺒﺎﺑﻴﻚ‬ railways
    • TRAVEL AND MOBILITY 179 ‫ﻋﺮﺑﺔ‬ ََ carriage َّ ُ ‫ﻗﻄﺎر اﻟﺮﻛﺎب‬ passenger train ‫ﻋﺮﺑﺔ اﻷﻛﻞ‬ ْ buffet car ‫ﻗﻄﺎر ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ َ express train ‫ﻋﺮﺑﺔ اﻷﻣﺘﻌﺔ‬ ِْ luggage van ‫ﻗﻄﺎر ﻓﺎﺧﺮ‬ ِ ِ luxury train ‫ﻋﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﻨﻮم‬ ْ َّ sleeper ‫ﻗﻴﺎم‬ ِ departure (train) ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎر‬ ِِْ ُْ waiting room ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻞ‬ ِّ َ ُ conductor (tram, train, bus) ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to change (trains) َّ َ َ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ‬ station ‫ﻗﺎﻃﺮة‬ ِ locomotive ‫ﻣﺨﺰن اﻷﻣﺎﻧﺎت‬ َْ َ left-luggage office train ‫ﻣﻘﺼﻮرة‬ ُ َْ compartment ‫ﻗﻄﺎر إﻛﺴﺒﺮﻳﺲ‬ ْ see ‫ﻗﻄﺎر ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ َّ َ َ ِ ‫ﻧﺎﻇﺮ اﻟﻤﺤﻄﺔ‬ pl. - ‫ﻧﻈﺎر‬ ّ ُ ‫ﻗﻄﺎر اﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ِ freight train َ ََ ‫( ﻧﺰل‬i) to get off ‫ﻗﻄﺎر دوﻟﻲ‬ ّ َِ ُ international train ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ اﻟﺨﻂ‬ ّ َ ِ terminal (train) direction ‫ﺗﺎﻛﺴﻲ‬ see ‫ﺳﻴﺎرة اﻷﺟﺮة‬ bus ‫ﺗﺠﺎوز‬ ََ َ to overtake ‫ﻗﻄﺎر‬ ِ ُ ُ ُ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﻄﺮات ,ﻗﻄﺮ‬ station manager Road Traffic َّ ‫إﺗﺠﺎﻫﺠﺎه‬ ‫أﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ، ﺑﺎص‬ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻠﻴﺢ اﻟﻄﺮق‬ ْ َ ُ ُّ road repairs ‫إﺗﺠﺎه ﺟﺒﺮي‬ ّ ِ َْ diversion ‫ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬ ِ َ crossing, junction ‫إﺗﺠﺎه واﺣﺪ‬ one way ‫إﺷﺎرة اﻟﻤﺮور‬ ُ traffic lights ‫ﺣﺎدث‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺣﻮادث‬ pile-up ‫ﺣﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ِ ِ coach َ ‫ﺣﺪ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ْ ُّ speed limit ‫إﺻﻄﺪام‬ ِ ْ pl. ‫-ات‬ accident ْ َ ‫أﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﻄﺮق‬ ُ ُّ roadworks ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻤﺮور‬ ََ ُُ traffic ‫إﻟﺰم اﻟﻴﺴﺎر‬ َ َْ KEEP LEFT ‫ﺣﻖّ اﻟﻤﺮور‬ َ ُُ right of way ‫إﻟﺰم اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ َ KEEP RIGHT ‫ﺣﻮذي‬ ُ coachman ‫إﻧﺤﺪار‬ ِ ْ slope َ ِْ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺟﺮّ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرات‬ َّ breakdown/tow-away service ‫ﺑﺎب ﻟﻠﻄﻮارىء‬ ِ َّ ِ emergency exit ‫ﺧﻂّ اﻟﺒﺎص‬ َ bus route
    • 180 TRAVEL AND MOBILITY ‫ﺧﻂ ﺳﻴﺮ‬ َْ ّ َ lane (e.g. motorway) َّ ِ َ َ َ َ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﺔ ﺳﻜﻨﻴﺔ‬ caravan ‫ﺧﻄﺮ‬ َ َ danger َ َّ َ ‫ﻋﺮج‬ to zigzag ‫ﻗﺎﻓﻠﺔ‬ ِ convoy ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ ْ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﻄﺮ‬ dangerous ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﻓﻞ‬ ‫دراﺟﺔ‬ َّ َ bicycle ‫ﻗﺪ ﺳﻴﺎرﺗﻚ ﺑﺤﺬر‬ ْ ِ ِ َ ََ ُ DRIVE CAREFULLY ‫ذروة‬ ُْ peak (fig.) ‫ﻗﻒ‬ STOP ‫ُ ﹰ‬ pl. ‫ذرى‬ ‫رﺧﺼﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎدة‬ ْ ُ driving licence ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺮور‬ ُ َ Highway Code ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻢ‬ ِ safe ‫ﻛﺮوﺳﺔ‬ ُّ َ carriage, hansom َّ َ ‫ﺳﻮاق‬ driver ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻟﻤﺮور‬ ُ َْ traffic sign َّ َ ‫ﺳﻮاق ﺗﺎﻛﺴﻲ‬ ِ ْ taxi driver ‫ﻣﺎر‬ ّ passer-by ‫ﺳﻴﺎرة اﻷﺟﺮة‬ ْ َّ taxi ‫ﺷﺎﺣﻨﺔ‬ ِ lorry, truck ‫ﺷﺮﻃﺔ اﻟﻤﺮور‬ ُ ُْ traffic police ‫ﺻﺪام‬ ِ collision ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ َ pl. ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ُُ َ pl. un, ‫ﻣﺎرة‬ ¯¯ ٍ ‫ﻣﺎش‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎة‬ pedestrian ‫ﻣﺘﺮو‬ ُ ِ underground railway ‫ﻣﺘﺮج‬ ِّ َ ُ winding (road) ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬ ََْ ُ inclination roundabout road ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﺎص‬ ّ َ private road ‫ﻣﺮور داﺋﺮي‬ ّ ُ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ داﺋﺮي‬ ّ ِ َِ ring road َْ َ ‫ ﻣﺰﻟﻘﺎن ﺳﻜﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‬level crossing ّ َّ ِ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ رﻳﻔﻲ‬ ّ َ country road ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ رﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬ ّ َ َ main road pl. ‫-ات‬ َ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻠﺪراﺟﺎت‬ َ َّ َّ ِ bicycle lane ‫ﻣﻄﺐ اﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ْ ِ ّ َ َ speed bump ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ َ َ motorway ‫ﻣﻔﺮق‬ ََْ intersection, crossroads ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺪود‬ ْ َ َ cul-de-sac ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻔﺎرق‬ َّ ُ َ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺸﺎة‬ pedestrianized road ‫ﻣﻤﺮّ ﺳﻔﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ُ َ َ ‫ﻣﻄﺐ‬ ّ َ َ pothole 1. underpass 2. subway (pedestrians) َ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‬ َّ ُ temporary road ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ ﻧﺎرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ َ motorcycle ‫ﻋﺪاد وﻗﻮف‬ ُُ َّ َّ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎرات‬ zebra crossing ْ َ ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﺘﺠﺎوز‬ ُ َّ parking meter ‫ﻣﻤﺮّ اﻟﻤﺸﺎة‬ ُ َ َ DO NOT OVERTAKE ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﻤﺮور‬ ُُ NO THROUGH TRAFFIC
    • TRAVEL AND MOBILITY 181 ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﺒﺎص‬ َِْ bus stop ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﺘﺎﻛﺴﻲ‬ ِ َ َِْ taxi rank َّ َّ َِْ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرات‬ car park ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻟﻮﻗﻮف‬ ُ ْ َ NO PARKING ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع وﻗﻮف‬ ُ ْ َ ‫اﻟﺪراﺟﺎت‬ ّ َّ NO BICYCLE PARKING ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع رﻛﻮب‬ ُ َ َّ َّ ‫اﻟﺪ‬ ‫راﺟﺎة‬ NO BICYCLES َّ ِ َُْ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‬ central reservation ‫ﻣﻨﺤﺪر‬ ِ َ ُْ َّ ‫ﻫﺪئ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ْ ُّ sloping (road) ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ً َ ُْ bend ‫وﻧﺶ‬ ِْ pl. ‫ات ,أوﻧﺎش‬ْ ‫ﻧﻔﻖ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻧﻔﺎق‬ ْ tunnel DRIVE SLOWLY breakdown truck The car ‫أدارَ اﻟﻤﺤﺮ‬ ِّ ُ to start the engine ‫إﺳﺘﺮﻛﺎب‬ ْ ِْ hitch-hiking ‫أﺳﻄﻮاﻧﺔ‬ ُ ْ cylinder ‫إﺷﻌﺎل‬ ْ ignition ‫اﺻﻄﺪم‬ َََ ْ to collide 1. see ‫دوﻻب‬ ‫ﺗﺮس‬ ِْ pl. ‫ﺗﺮوس‬ ُ gear ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎت‬ ْ ِْ thermostat ‫ﺗﺸﺤﻴﻢ‬ ِ ْ َ greasing, oiling ِْ َ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻟﺰﻳﺖ‬ ْ َّ oil change ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ َ َ ِْ َ tyre change ‫إﻃﺎر‬ pl. ‫أﻃﺮ‬ ُ 2. rim (wheel) ‫ﺗﻜﻴﻒ‬ ِ َ air conditioning ‫إﻃﺎر داﺧﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِِ tube (tyre) ‫ﺗﻨﻚ اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ َْ َْ petrol tank ‫آﻟﺔ ﻛﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ِ compressor ‫ ﺗﻨﻜﺔ ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬jerrycan ّ ِ ِْ ِ َْ َْ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺧﺔ‬ َ nozzle ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ ْ َ ِ accumulator ‫ﺑﻄﺎرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ‫ﺑﻘﻌﺔ‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﺑﻘﺎع‬ ِ battery ْ ِ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة‬ َ َّ bodywork place (for passenger) ‫ﺟﻬﺎز اﻟﺘﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ ِ َْ ِ radiator ‫ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ َْ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز اﻷﺷﻌﺎل‬ ْ َ ignition petrol ‫ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﺎدي‬ ّ ِ ‫ﺣﻘﻦ اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ُُ َْ injection pump regular petrol ‫ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ ﻣﻤﺘﺎز‬ ْ ُ ‫ﺧﺮﻗﺔ‬ ِْ cloth four-star petrol ‫ﺧﺮم اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ َ َ ُْ puncture ‫ﺧﻔﺾَ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ْ ُّ َّ َ to decrease speed ‫ﺑﻮق‬ ُ pl. ‫أﺑﻮاق ,-ات‬ ْ horn ِ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرات‬ َّ َّ car insurance ‫دﺑﺮﻳﺎج‬ ِ َْ coupling ‫ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺔ‬ َِْ heating ‫دﻫﺎن‬ ِ paintwork
    • 182 TRAVEL AND MOBILITY َّ َ ‫دواﺳﺔ اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِ َْ throttle ‫ﺻﺪأ‬ َ rust ‫دواﺳﺔ اﻟﺪﺑﺮﻳﺎج‬ ِ َْ َّ َ clutch ‫ﺻﺪئ‬ َِ rusty, rust-covered ‫دواﺳﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻣﻠﺔ‬ َ َ َّ َ brake pedal ‫ﺻﻔﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬ ْ َ َ licence plate tyre َّ َ ‫ﺻﻤﺎم‬ valve ِ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرات‬ ّ َّ car industry ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻹﺳﻌﺎف‬ ْ ُ ُْ First Aid kit ُّ ُْ ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﺘﺮوس‬ gearbox ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﻌﺪد‬ َُ ُْ toolbox ‫ﺿﻐﻂ اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ َ َْ pressure (tyres) ‫ﺿﻮء‬ َْ light ‫دوﻻب‬ ِ pl. ‫دواﻟﻴﺐ‬ ‫دﻳﺰل‬ ِ diesel ‫دﻳﻨﺎﻣﻮ‬ ِ dynamo ‫رﻓﺮف‬ ََْ ِ َ pl. ‫رﻓﺎرف‬ wing ‫زادَ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ْ ُّ to increase speed ‫زﻧﺒﺮك، زﻧﺒﺮك‬ ُ ُُْ َ ََْ spring ‫زﻳﺖ‬ َ َّ َ to oil, lubricate َْ ‫زﻳﺖ اﻟﺘﺮوس‬ ُ ُّ gear oil ‫زﻳﺖ اﻟﻔﺮﻣﻠﺔ‬ َ َْ َْ brake oil ‫زﻳﺖ اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ِّ َ ُ َْ engine oil ‫زﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬ َ َ ِ hubcap ُُ ‫زﻳﻮت اﻟﺘﺸﺤﻴﻢ‬ ِ ْ َّ lubricants ‫( ﺳﺨﻦ‬u) َ ُ َ to overheat ‫ﺳﻘﻒ‬ َْ roof ‫ﺳﻠﻚ اﻷﺷﻌﺎل‬ ْ ِْ ignition cable ‫ﺳﻠﻨﺪر‬ َ ِِْ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﺳﻦ‬ ّ ِ pl. ‫أﺳﻨﺎن‬ ْ cylinder cog ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺿﻮاء‬ ٍ ‫ﺿﻮء ﻋﺎل‬ َْ headlight ‫ﺿﻮء ﻓﺤﺺ‬ ْ َ َ warning light ‫ﺿﻮء اﻟﻮﻗﻮف‬ ُ َْ parking light ‫ﺿﻮء وﻣﺎض‬ َّ َ َ blinkers (warning) ‫ﻃﺎرة اﻟﻔﺮﻣﻠﺔ‬ َ َْ brake drum (‫ﻃﻔﺎﻳﺔ )اﻟﻨﺎر‬ َ َّ َ fire extinguisher ‫ﻃﻠﻤﺒﺔ اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِ َْ ْ ُُ petrol pump َّ َ َ ِ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺤﻄﺔ ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ petrol station attendant ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻮد اﻟﻜﺮﻧﻚ‬ َْ َ ُ crankshaft ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬ َ َ wheel َّ ِ ِ ْ ِ َ َ َ ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬ spare wheel َ َ ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ أﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ front wheel َّ َ ‫ﺳﻴﺎرة‬ car rear wheel ‫ﺷﺤﻢ‬ ْ َ ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ َ َ grease ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎدة‬ ِ َ َ steering wheel ‫ﺷﺮارة‬ َ spark ‫ﻋﺪة‬ َّ ِ tool َّ ْ َ ‫ﺷﻤﻌﺔ اﻟﺸﺮارة‬ spark plug َِ pl. ‫ﻋﺪد‬
    • TRAVEL AND MOBILITY ‫ﻋﺸﻖَ اﻟﺘﺮس‬ ْ ِ َّ َ to engage gear ‫ﻋﻮادم‬ ِ َ exhaust fumes ‫ﻏﻄﺎء اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ِّ َ ُ َ bonnet ‫ﻏﻴﺮَ اﻟﺘﺮوس‬ ُ ُّ َّ َ ‫ﻓﺮﻗﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﻓﻰء‬ ِ َ ِْ ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻠﺔ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﻓﺮاﻣﻞ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺤﺮك‬ َّ َ ُ pl. ‫-ات‬ 183 engine ‫ﻣﺤﺮك ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ُ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻮار‬ ْ ِ two-stroke engine to change gear ‫ﻣﺤﺮك ﺧﻠﻔﻲ‬ ّ ِ ََ rear engine fire brigade ‫ﻣﺤﺮك رﺑﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻮار‬ ْ ِ four-stroke engine ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ْ َ َّ َ َ petrol station brake ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬ ْ ِّ َ َْ foot brake ‫ﻣﺤﻮر اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ َ َ َْ ِ axle ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻠﺔ ﻗﺮﺻﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ُ َ ْ َ disc brake ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻴﺪ‬ َ َ َْ hand brake ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ ﻗﻴﺎدة‬ ِ ََْ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة‬ َّ َّ driving school handle ِ ‫ﻣﺮآة ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ outside mirror ِ ‫ﻣﺮآة ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ rear-view mirror spare part ‫ﻣﺮﺷﺢ اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ َ ‫َُ ﱢ‬ air filter lock ‫ﻣﺮوﺣﺔ‬ َِْ ventilator ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺘﺔ‬ َْ َ oil can ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺖ‬ ِّ َ ُ oiled ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺮﻛﺐ‬ ِ ْ َْ ُ hitchhiker َْ ُ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﺰﻳﺖ‬ ْ َّ oil level ‫ﻗﺒﻀﺔ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻗﺒﺎض‬ ِ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻏﻴﺎرة‬ ِ ْ َ ‫ﻗﻔﻞ‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﻔﻞ اﻷﺷﻌﺎل‬ ْ ُْ ignition lock ‫ﻗﻤﻊ‬ ْ ُ funnel ‫ﻗﻴﺎدة‬ ِ steering ‫ﻛﺮﻧﻚ‬ َْ َ crank ‫ﻛﺮﻳﻚ‬ ِْ jack ‫ﻟﺤﻢ‬ َ َّ َ to weld, to solder ‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎح‬ ْ ِ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺑﺎب‬ َْ door panel ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺢ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ َْ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬ nationality sticker ‫ﻣﺼﺒﺎح ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ََْ ْ ِ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺎء ﻣﻘﻄﺮة‬ distilled water ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ِ ِْ petrol line ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة اﻟﻌﻮادم‬ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺸﻮار‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫ﻣﺸﺎوﻳﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺼﻬﺮ‬ َْ ِ pl. ‫-ات‬ stroke (internal combustion engine) lamp electrical lamp, torch fuse ‫ﻣﻀﺨﺔ اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ َ َّ َ ِ air pump exhaust pipe ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح اﻟﺸﺮارة‬ َ ِْ ignition key ِ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة‬ َّ َّ car owner َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺜﻠﺚ اﻟﺨﻄﺮ‬ ْ َ warning triangle ‫ﻣﻘْﺒﺾ اﻟﺒﺎب‬ ِ َ ُ ِ َ pl. -‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﺾ‬ door handle
    • 184 THE WEATHER ‫ﻣﻘﻄﻊ‬ ِّ َ ُ circuit breaker ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِ mechanic ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺪ‬ ََْ seat َ َْ ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة‬ َّ َّ chassis ِ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺰﻳﺖ‬ ْ َّ dipstick ‫واﻗﻴﺔ ﺻﺪﻣﺎت‬ َ َ َّ ِ bumper ‫ﻣﻜﺒﺲ‬ َْ ِ piston ‫واﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﺮد‬ ِّ َ ُ َّ radiator grid ُ ْ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻜﺒﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺴﺤﺔ زﺟﺎج‬ ُ َ ْ ِ windscreen wiper ‫واﻗﻴﺔ ﻫﻮاء‬ َ َّ windscreen ‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ُ ﱢ‬ indicator ‫وﻗﻮد‬ ُُ fuel ‫ﻣﻮزع ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ َ ْ َ َّ َ ُ distributor ‫وﻟﺪَ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎء‬ َ ْ َ َّ َ to generate power The weather َْ ‫أﺑﺮﻗﺖ اﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ْ ُّ there was lightning ْ ‫إرﺻﺎد ﺟﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِّ َ meteorological observations ‫أﺷﺮق‬ َ َْ 1. to shine (sun) ‫ﺑﻬﻴﺞ‬ َِ َ‫ﺗﺠﻤ‬ ‫َ َ ّﺪ‬ َ pleasant (weather) to freeze, become icebound ُّ َ َ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﺪ‬ frost 2. to rise (sun) ‫ﺗﺤﺖَ اﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬ ْ ِّ ْ َ below zero ‫إﻋﺼﺎر‬ ْ hurricane (‫ﺗﺪﻓﺄ )ب‬ َ‫َ َﱠ‬ to warm oneself (with) َْ ‫أﻏﺪقَ اﻟﺴﻤﺎء‬ َّ it’s raining cats and dogs ‫ﺗﻨﺒﺆ ﺟﻮي‬ ّ ِّ َ ُّ َ َ weather forecast ‫إﻧﺠﻤﺎد‬ ِ ْ ice formation ‫ﺛﻠﺞ‬ َْ 1. snow ُُ pl. ‫ﺛﻠﻮج‬ 2. ice ‫ﺟﺎف‬ ّ dry ‫ﺟﻔﺎف‬ َ dryness ‫ﺟﻮ‬ َّ 1. air ‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎر ﻃﻴﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ِ ِْ mudslide ‫ﺑﺎرد‬ ِ cold, cool ‫ﺑﺎﻫﻆ‬ ِ heavy, oppressive ‫( ﺑﺮد‬u) َََ to feel cold ْ ِ pl. ‫ﺟﻮاء ,أﺟﻮاء‬ 2. atmosphere ‫ﺑﺮد‬ ََ hail َّ َ ‫( ﺣﺮ‬u, i) to be hot ‫ﺑﺮدة‬ ََ hailstone ‫ﺣﺮ‬ َّ hot ‫ﺑﺮد‬ َْ cold (n.) ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ َ heat lightning ‫ﺧﺴﻮف‬ ُ ُ lunar eclipse ‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ َ ََ temperature ‫ﺑﺮق‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺑﺮوق‬ ُُ
    • THE WEATHER 185 ‫دفء‬ ِ warmth ‫ﺿﻐﻂ ﺟﻮي‬ ّ َّ َ ْ َ atmospheric pressure ‫( دﻓﺊ‬a) َِ to be warm ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺟﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ َّ ِ َ َ air layer ‫( رخ‬coll.) ّ َ shower (rain) ‫رذاذ‬ ِ drizzle ‫رﻃﻮﺑﺔ‬ ُ ُ humidity ‫رﻃﻴﺐ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻇﻮاﻫﺮُ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ َ ِ َ humid ‫( رﻋﺪ‬u) ََ َ to thunder shade, shadow ّ ِ ‫ﻇﻞ‬ ِ ُُ ْ pl. ‫أﻇﻼل ,ﻇﻠﻮل ,ﻇﻼل‬ ‫رﻋﺪ‬ ْ َ thunder ‫ﻇﻼم‬ َ it thundered ‫ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻮاﺻﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ wind ‫ﻋﺠﺎج اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ َ raging of the sea ‫( ﻋﺼﻒ‬i) َ َ َ to rage (wind) ‫ﻓﻮقَ اﻟﻔﺮ‬ ْ ِّ ْ َ above zero pl. ‫رﻋﻮد‬ ُ ُ َ َ ‫رﻋﺪت اﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ْ ُّ ‫( رﻳﺢ‬f.) ِ pl. ‫أرﻳﺎح‬ ْ ‫( ﺳﺤﺎب‬coll.) َ ُ ُ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺤﺎﺋﺐ ,ﺳﺤﺐ‬ clouds ‫ﻃﻘﺲ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻃﻘﻮس‬ ُُ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ ِ weather natural phenomenon darkness storm ‫ﺳﺨﻦ‬ ْ ُ warm ‫( ﻗﺼﻒ‬i) َ َ َ to rumble (thunder) ‫ﺳﺮاب‬ َ mirage ‫ﻗﻮس ﻗﺰح‬ َُ َْ rainbow sky ‫ﻛﺴﻮف‬ ُ ُ solar eclipse ‫ﻣﺸﻤﺲ‬ ِ ْ ُ sunny ‫ﺳﻤﺎء‬ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﻮات‬ َ َ ‫ﺳﻤﻮم‬ ُ َ pl. ‫ﺳﻤﺎﺋﻢ‬ ُ َ hot desert wind ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬ َِ strong (e.g. wind) ‫ﻣﻄﺮ‬ َ َ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﻄﺎر‬ ‫( ﺷﻤﺲ‬i, u) َ َ َ to be sunny (day) ‫ﻣﻄﺮ ﺣﻤﻀﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َ َ َ acid rain َّ ِ ْ َ ‫ﺷﻤﺴﻴﺔ‬ parasol ‫ﻣﻄﺮة‬ ْ َ downpour ‫ﺻﺎح‬ ٍ clear (sky) ‫ﻣﻄﺮت اﻟﺴﻤﺎء‬ َ ََ َ it rained ‫ﺻﺎﻋﻘﺔ‬ ِ thunderbolt ‫( ﺻﺤﺎ‬u) َ to be bright ‫ﻣﻈﻠﺔ‬ َّ َ ِ ّ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻈﺎل ,-ات‬ ‫ﺻﻘﻌﺔ‬ َْ frost, severe cold ‫ﻣﻈﻠﻢ‬ ِْ ُ dark ‫ﺿﺒﺎب‬ َ fog, mist ‫ﻣﻐﻴﻢ‬ ِّ َ ُ cloudy ‫ﺿﺪ اﻷﻋﺼﺎر‬ ْ ِّ anticyclone ‫ﻣﻤﻄﺮ‬ ِ ْ ُ rainy rain umbrella
    • 186 ‫ﻣﻨﺎخ‬ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION climate ‫ﻧﺴﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻢ ,ﻧﺴﺎم‬ ِ ُ َ breeze ‫ﻣﻮاﺳﻢ ﻣﻤﻄﺮة‬ ِ ْ ُ ِ ُ rainy seasons ‫( ﻫﺐ‬u) َ َ to blow (wind) ُْ ‫ﻧﺪﻓﺔ اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ْ َّ snowflake ‫واﺑﻞ‬ ِ downpour ‫ﻧﺪى‬ ََ dew (‫وﺑﻞَ )ﻳﺒﻞ‬ ُ ِِ ََ to rain heavily Language and communication ‫إﺑﻬﺎم‬ ْ opaqueness (e.g. meaning) ‫اﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ََ ْ ِ proper noun ‫أﺟﺎب‬ to answer ‫إﺷﻜﺎل‬ ْ ambiguity ‫إﺧﺘﺼﺮ‬ َ َ َْ to abbreviate, abridge ‫إﺷﻜﺎﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ ambiguous ‫أداة اﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ِ ْ َّ definite article ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َْ ْ ِ concrete noun ‫أداة اﻟﻌﻄﻒ‬ ْ َ conjunction ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ِ ْ ِ active participle َ َ ْ ‫أدﺧﻞ‬ to insert ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ِْ ْ ِ infinitive ‫إدﻏﺎم‬ ْ assimilation (letter, sound) ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ‬ َ ُْ ْ ِ indefinite pronoun to assimilate (a letter with another one) ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮ‬ َْ ُ ْ ِ diminutive (‫أدﻏﻢَ )ﻓﻲ‬ َ ْ ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻤﻀﺎف‬ ُ ْ ِ first noun in genetive construction ‫إﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‬ ِْْ exception (‫إﺳﺘﺠﺎبَ )ل‬ ِْ to respond (to s.o.) ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ َْ َ ْ ِ abstract noun ‫اﺳﺘﻄﺮاد‬ ْ ِ ِ digression ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺻﻮل‬ ُ َْ ْ ِ relative pronoun noun ‫اﻧﺘﺤﺎل‬ ِِْ plagiarism ‫أﻧﺚ‬ َ َّ to put in the feminine form ‫أﻧﺜﻰ‬ َْ feminine َ َّ ‫أول‬ to interpret, explain ‫ﺑﺤﺮ‬ ْ َ metre (poetry) ‫اﺳﻢ‬ ْ ِ pl. ‫أﺳﻤﺎء‬ ْ ‫اﺳﻢ اﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم‬ ِْْ ِ ْ ِ interrogative noun ‫اﺳﻢ اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ْ ِ demonstrative pronoun ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ‬ ِ َْ ْ ِ elative ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬ ْ َ ْ ِ collective noun ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ََ ْ ِ numeral ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺑﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻏﺔ‬ َ rhetoric
    • LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION ‫ﺑﻴﺖ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺑﻴﺎت‬ ْ verse 187 ‫اﻟﺠﺮ‬ َّ genitive ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ْ َ plural ‫ﺗﺄﺗﺄ‬ to stammer ‫ﺟﻤﻊ اﻟﺘﻜْﺴﻴﺮ‬ ِ َّ broken (= irregular) plural ‫ﺗﺄﻧﻴﺚ‬ ِ َ the feminine form ‫ﺟﻤﻊ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ِ َ sound (= regular) plural ‫ﺗﺤﺪث‬ ُ َّ َ َ to speak ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻒ‬ ِْ َ mispronunciation ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫ﺟﻤﻞ‬ َ ُ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ِْ َ transformation َّ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ اﺳﻤﻴﺔ‬ nominal sentence ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻢ‬ ََ َْ to translate ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ إﺧﺒﺎرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ declarative sentence ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻓﻮرﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َ َ ْ َ interpreting ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ اﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ ْ ِ interrogative sentence َّ ِ َ ْ َ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ آﻟﻴﺔ‬ machine translation ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ‬ ُّ َ َّ exclamatory sentence ‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬ َِْ punctuation ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺣﺎل‬ ْ ُ circumstantial clause ‫ﺗﺼﺮف‬ َ َّ َ َ to be inflected (verb) َّ ِ ْ ِ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ verbal sentence ‫ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬ ِْ َ ‫ﺟﻮاب‬ َ answer diminutive ِْ pl. ‫أﺟﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻌﻴﻒ‬ ِْ َ doubling ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺣﺎل‬ ْ ُ see ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺣﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪدﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻰ‬ ِ َ ّ ِ ُّ َ polysemy ‫( ﺣﺬف‬i) َ ََ to elide ‫ﺗﻼوة‬ ِ recitation (Qur.) ‫ﺣﺮف‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺣﺮوف‬ ُُ ‫ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻴﻞ‬ ِ َ foot (verse) sentence letter ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮف‬ َْ ِ literally َّ َ َ ‫ﺗﻘﺪمَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ to precede ‫ﺣﺮف اﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم‬ ِْْ ِ interrogative particle ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻢ‬ َ َّ َ َ see ‫ﺗﺤﺪث‬ ‫ﺣﺮف ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‬ ِ consonant ‫ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ‬ ِ َْ abridgement, summary ِّ َْ ‫ﺣﺮف اﻟﻨﺪاء‬ interjection ‫ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬ ِْ َ specification ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ََ vowel ‫ﺗﻨﻐﻴﻢ‬ ِ َْ intonation ‫ﺣﻈﻮرة‬ ُّ َ riddle, puzzle ‫ﺗﻨﻜﻴﺮ‬ ِ َْ indefiniteness ‫( ﺣﻜﻰ‬i) َ َ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻴﻖ‬ ِ َْ ornamentation (style) ‫ﺗﻮﻛﻴﺪ‬ ِ َْ pleonasm ‫ﺛﺮﺛﺮ‬ َ َْ َ to prattle, chatter ‫ﺣﻴﺰ‬ َْ pl. ‫أﺣﻴﺎز‬ ْ ‫ﺧﺒﺮ‬ ََ to tell a story, give an account of scope, realm predicate (nominal clause)
    • 188 LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION 2. script ‫ﺻﻮﺗﻢ‬ َْ َ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﺻﻮاﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻂّ اﻟﻼﺗﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِِ َ Latin script ‫ﺿﻌ ﻒ‬ َ َّ َ ‫اﻟﺨﻂّ اﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎري‬ ّ ِ ْ ِ َ cuneiform ‫ﺧﻄﻲ‬ ّ ِّ َ handwritten ‫درﺟﺎت اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ َ ُ ََ degrees of comparison ‫دردﺷﺔ‬ ََْ prattle ‫اﻟﺮﻓﻊ‬ َْ nominative ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ّ َ 1. handwriting ‫ﺿﻤﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺿﻤﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻴﺮ اﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ‬ ِ َ to double (letter) personal pronoun resumptive pronoun third-person personal pronoun ‫ﺿﻤﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬ ِّ َ َ ُ ِ َ first-person personal pronoun ‫رﻗﻌﺔ‬ ُْ common cursive writing style ‫( رﻗﻢ‬u) َََ to add diacritic points to a text ‫( زﻋﻖ‬a) َ َ َ to shout, scream ‫زﻟﺔ اﻟﻠﺴﺎن‬ ِ َّ َ slip of the tongue َ َ ‫( ﺳﺄل‬a) to ask ‫ﺳﺆال‬ ُ pl. ‫أﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬ phoneme question ‫ﺿﻤﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺐ‬ َ ُ ِ َ second-person personal pronoun ‫ﺿﻤﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻔﻌﻮل‬ َُْ object suffix ‫( ﻃﻠﺐ‬u) َ ََ to demand, request ‫ﻃﻠﺐ‬ ََ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻇﺮف‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ُُ demand 1. adverb 2. particle ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ acoustic ‫ﻇﺮف اﻟﻤﻜﺎن‬ َ place adverbial ‫ﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎت‬ َّ ِ َ acoustics ‫ﻇﺮف اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ time adverbial ‫( ﺷﺎد‬u) َ to chant ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ colloquial language ‫( ﺷﺘﻢ‬i) َ ََ to insult ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ِ expression insult ‫ﻋﺪا‬ َّ to make transitive ‫ﻋﺪد أﺻﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ََ cardinal number ‫ﺷﺘﻴﻤﺔ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﺷﺘﺎﺋﻢ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺷﺪو‬ َْ chant, song ‫ﻋﺪد ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ َ َ َ ordinal number ‫ﺻﺮﺧﺔ‬ َْ scream, outcry ‫ﻋﺮف‬ َ َّ َ to make definite (noun) ‫( ﺻﺮف‬i) َ ََ to inflect (a word) ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ اﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎم‬ ِْْ ِ َ question mark ‫ﺻﺮف‬ َْ morphology َ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ‬ ُّ َ َّ exclamation mark ‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬ َِ adjective ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ اﻻﻗﺘﺒﺎس‬ ِِْ َ quotation mark ‫ﺻﻠﺔ‬ ِ relative clause ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻷﺻﻮات‬ ْ ِْ phonetics
    • LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION 189 ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﺔ‬ ِ comma ‫( ﻗﻮﺳﺎن‬dual) َْ (round) brackets ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﻃﺔ‬ َُْ ِ semi-colon ‫ﻗﻮﺳﺎن أﺧﺒﺎر‬ ْ َْ angular brackets clause ‫ﻗﻮﺳﺎن ﻛﺒﻴﺮان‬ َِ َْ square brackets ‫ﻓﺼﺎﺣﺔ‬ َ eloquence ‫( ﻛﺘﺐ‬u) َ ََ to write ‫ﻓﺼﻴﺢ‬ ِ َ eloquent ‫ﻛﻨﺎﻳﺔ‬ ِ metonymy verb ‫ﻟﺨﺺ‬ َ َّ َ to abridge, summarize ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ُ language ‫ﻟﻐﺔ اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ُ sign language ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ ِ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﻓﻌﺎل‬ ْ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ أﺟﻮف‬ َْ active subject in verbal hollow verb (‫ ي/و‬as second radical) ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ triliteral verb ‫ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﺎﻋﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ quadriliteral verb ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ‬ ِ sound verb ‫ﻓﻌﻞ اﻟﺸﺮوع‬ ُ ُّ inchoative verb ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ‬ ِ ُ geminated verb ّ َُ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺘﻞ‬ weak verb ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻬﻤﻮز اﻟﻔﺎء‬ ُ َْ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻬﻤﻮز اﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ َْ ُ َْ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻬﻤﻮز اﻟﻼم‬ ُ َْ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ‬ ِ ‫ﻗﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاف‬ ٍ َ َ ‫( ﻗﺎل‬u) ‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮس‬ ُ pl. ‫ﻗﻮاﻣﻴﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ verb with hamza as first radical verb with hamza as second radical verb with hamza as third radical defective verb (‫ و/ي‬as third radical) rhyme to say ‫ﻟﻔﻆ‬ َْ ْ pl. ‫أﻟﻔﺎظ‬ term ‫ﻟﻬﺠﺔ‬ َْ dialect, language variety ‫ﻟﻬﺠﺔ دارﺟﺔ‬ ِ see ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ ِ past tense َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ feminine ‫ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬ َ ُ exaggeration ‫ﻣﺒﺘﺪأ‬ َُْ subject (nominal clause) ‫ﻣﺒﻬﻢ‬ َ ُْ opaque, obscure ‫ﻣﺘﺼﺮف‬ َّ َ َ ُ inflected َّ َ َ ُ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻼزم ﻟﻔﻈﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ ِ َُ broken (speech in foreign language) collocation ِّ َْ ِ َُ pl. ‫ﻣﺘﻼزﻣﺎت ﻟﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ََ pl. ‫أﻣﺜﺎل‬ ْ saying, proverb َّ َ ُ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﻨﻰ‬ dual ‫ﻣﺨﺒﺮ‬ َْ َ dictionary intrinsic meaning ‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺳﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ lexicography ‫اﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ‬ َّ َ ُ masculine َّ َ ‫ﻗﻔﺎ‬ to put into rhyme, to rhyme ‫ﻣﺮادف‬ ِ ُ synonym
    • 190 ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻮع‬ َُْ LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION word in the nominative/ indicative ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬ َّ َ َ compound ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ َِْْ ُ future (tense) ‫ﻣﺴﺮد‬ َْ َ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎرد‬ glossary ‫ﻣﻔﺮد‬ َُْ singular ‫ﻣﻔﺮدات‬ َُْ vocabulary ‫اﻟﻤﻔﻌﻮل اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ‬ َْ ُ َُْ absolute object ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ َ ُ comparison ‫ﻣﻘﻄﻊ‬ َ َْ syllable ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻨﺪ‬ َْ ُ predicate ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻨﺪ اﻟﻴﻪ‬ َْ ُ subject ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ َْ َ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‬ pl. ‫-ات‬ 2. extract, essence verbal noun ‫ﻣﻤﻼة‬ ْ ِ dictaphone hemistich ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺤﻞ‬ ِ َُْ plagiarist ‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮب‬ ُ َْ in the accusative (word) ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع اﻟﻤﺠﺰوم‬ ُْ َ ِ ُ jussive pl. ‫-ات‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع اﻟﻤﺮﻓﻮع‬ َُْ ِ ُ imperfect ‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮ‬ َ َُ indefinite (noun) ‫ اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع اﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮب‬subjunctive ُ َْ ِ ُ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﻤﻖ‬ flowery (style) ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬ َْ ُ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﻞ‬ َ ُْ without diacritical points ‫ﻧﺎدى‬ to call ‫ﻧﺒﺮ‬ َْ stress (word) ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ْ َ 1. grammar ‫ﻣﺼﺮع‬ َْ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺼﺎرع‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻊ‬ َْ َ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺠﻢ‬ َ ُْ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺟﻢ‬ ُِ َ second noun in a genitive construction agreement, concord opening verse see ‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮس‬ 1. abridged, summarized 2. syntax ‫اﻟﻨﺤﻮ اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ َّ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﺪي‬ ّ ِ ِ َّ transformational generative grammar ‫ﻣﻌﺠﻤﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ ُ lexicology ‫ﻣﻌﺪود‬ َُْ countable ‫ﻣﻌﺮب‬ َُْ declinable ‫( ﻧﻔﺎ‬i) َ to negate (a sentence) ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮم‬ ُْ َ active voice ‫ﻧﻔﻲ‬ َِ negation meaning ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ َْ blank, omission ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ُْ 1. diacritical point ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮت‬ ُْ َ referent َُ pl. ‫ﻧﻘﻂ‬ 2. full stop ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬ ِّ َ ُ specified ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﺎن‬ َ ْ ُّ colon ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬ َْ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎن‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺖ‬ َْ pl. ‫ﻧﻌﻮت‬ ُُ attribute
    • RELIGION 191 ‫ﻧﻘﻂ اﺳﺘﺮﺳﺎل‬ ْ ِْ ِ َُ suspension points َ َ َ ‫( ﻫﻤﺲ‬i) to whisper, mumble ‫ﻧﻜﺮة‬ ِ َ indefinite noun ‫ﻫﻴﺮوﻏﻠﻴﻔﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ُ ِ hieroglyphic ‫ﻧﻤﻖ‬ َ َّ َ (‫وﺟﺰَ )ﻳﺠﺰ‬ ُِ َ َ َ to be brief to write in a highly ornate style ‫وﺟﺰ‬ ْ َ brief, succinct ‫إﺣﺴﺎن‬ ْ charity ‫ﺗﺪﻳﻦَ ب‬ ِ َّ َ َ to profess (a religion) ‫أﺻﻮﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ ُ fundamentalist ‫ﺗﺸﺎؤم‬ َ superstition َّ ِ ُ ُ ‫أﺻﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ fundamentalism ‫ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ‬ ِْ َ belief God, divinity ‫ﺗﻌﺼﺐ‬ ُّ َ َ fanaticism ‫ﺗﻘﻮى‬ ََْ devoutness, piety Religion General ‫إﻻه‬ ِ pl. ‫آﻟﻬﺔ‬ ‫إﻻﻫﻲ‬ ّ ِ divine َّ ‫اﻟﻠﻪ‬ God ‫إﻟﺤﺎد‬ ْ apostasy, heresy ‫ﺗﻬﻮد‬ َ َّ َ َ to become a Jew ‫أﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ‬ ِ ُُ divine power ‫ﺧﺎرق اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ِ َّ ِ the supernatural ‫أﻣﺎن ب‬ ِ َ to believe in ‫ﺧﺮاﻓﺔ‬ ُ fable, fairytale ‫اﻧﺘﻬﺎك‬ ِِْ desecration ‫ﺧﺮاﻓﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ mythical ‫اﻧﺘﻬﺎك اﻟﺤﺮﻣﺔ‬ ُْ ِِْ sacrilege ‫اﻧﺘﻬﻚ‬ َ َ َِْ to defile, desecrate ‫دﻳﻦ‬ ِ ْ pl. ‫أدﻳﺎن‬ ‫اﻧﻘﺎذ‬ ِْ salvation ‫دﻳﻨﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ‫ﺑﺮوﺗﺴﺘﺎﺗﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ Protestant ‫ﺑﺮوﺗﺴﺘﺎﻧﺘﻴﺔ‬ َّ Protestantism ‫ﺑﻮذا‬ ُ Buddha pl. ‫ﺷﺒﻮح ,أﺷﺒﺎح‬ ْ ُُ ‫ﺑﻮذي‬ ّ ِ ُ Buddhist َّ ِ ُ ‫ﺑﻮذﻳﺔ‬ Buddhism ‫ﺷﺮ‬ َّ pl. ‫ﺷﺮور‬ ُُ ‫ﺗﻘﻰ‬ َِ pl. ‫أﺗﻘﻴﺎء‬ ِْ ‫روح‬ ُ pl. ‫أرواح‬ ْ ‫ﺷﺒﺢ‬ ََ devout, pious religion religious soul ghost evil
    • 192 ‫ﺻﻬﻴﻮﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُْ َ َّ ِ ُ ْ َ ‫ﺻﻬﻴﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ RELIGION Zionist ‫ﻣﻌﺒﺪ‬ َْ َ Zionism ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺑﺪ‬ temple doctrine, dogma ‫ﻣﻠﺤﺪ‬ ِ ُْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻼﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻏﻔﺮان‬ ُْ forgiveness ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻦ‬ ِ ُ ‫ﻗﺪر‬ َْ fate ‫وﺛﻦ‬ ََ pl. ‫أوﺛﺎن ,وﺛﻦ‬ ُُ ْ being (noun) ‫وﺛﻨﻲ‬ ََِ pagan َّ ِ َ َ ‫وﺛﻨﻴﺔ‬ paganism ‫ﻳﻬﻮدي‬ ّ ِ َُ Jew ‫ﻋﻘﻴﺪة‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻋﻘﺎﺋﺪ‬ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﺪار‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺋﻦ‬ pl. ‫ﻛﻮاﺋﻦ‬ ُ َ ‫ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎت ﺣﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ living beings ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺼﺐ‬ َّ َ َ ُ fanatic, bigot ‫ﻣﺰار‬ َ pl. ‫-ات‬ shrine apostate, heretic faithful, believing graven image, idol َُ pl. ‫ﻳﻬﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻴﻬﻮدﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ َ Judaism ‫إﻣﺎم‬ imam Islam ‫إﺣﺮام‬ ْ state of ritual purity (‫)ﺣﺞ‬ ّ ‫اﻵﺧﺮة‬ ِ the hereafter ‫اﺧﺘﺘﻦ‬ َ ََْ ِ to be circumcised ‫أﺧﻼق‬ ْ morals pl. ‫أﺋﻤﺔ‬ َ ‫إﻣﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫آﻳﺔ‬ imamate 1. see ‫ﻣﻌﺠﺰة‬ 2. Qur. verse ‫أﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ّ ِ ْ moral (adj.) ‫اﺳﺘﺠﺎب ل‬ َ َْ ِ to answer a prayer ‫اﺳﺘﺸﻬﺎد‬ ْ ِْ ِ martyrdom ‫( أﺳﺘﺸﻬﺪ‬pass.) َ ِ ْ ُْ ُ faith َ َ ‫ﺑﺎرك‬ to bless ‫ﺑﺮﻛﺔ‬ ََ to die as a martyr, to be martyred ‫إﻳﻤﺎن‬ blessing َ َ ْ َ ‫ﺑﺴﻤﻞ‬ saying ‫ﺑﺴﻢ اﻟﻠﻪ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬ ْ ِ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ َ َْ َْ ِ to ask for forgiveness ‫أﺳﻠﻢ‬ َ َْ to become a Muslim ‫أﺻﻮل اﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ِّ ُ pillars of the faith ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻴﺪ‬ ِ ْ َ exclamation of ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﻪ‬ ْ َ ‫إﻓﻄﺎر‬ ْ meal after fast (Ramadan) ‫ﺗﺴﺒﻴﺢ‬ ِْ َ exclamation of ‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎنَ اﻟﻠﻪ‬ ُْ ‫أﻓﻄﺮ‬ ََ ْ to break the fast ‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬ ِْ َ the invocation ‫اﻟﻠﻪ أﻛﺒﺮ‬ َْ ‫ﺗﺠﺪﻳﻒ‬ َْ َ pl. ‫ﺗﺠﺎدﻳﻒ‬ ُ ِ َ blasphemy
    • RELIGION ُّ َ َّ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻮف‬ sufism ‫ﺗﻤﺬﻫﺐ‬ َ َ َْ َ to follow a religious school ‫ﺗﻮﺑﺔ‬ َْ repentance ‫ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪي‬ ّ ِ ِ َْ monotheistic ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻊ‬ ِ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺟﻮاﻣﻊ‬ mosque ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ َْ ‫دﻋﺎء‬ ُ pl. ‫أدﻋﻴﺔ‬ ِ ْ 193 mankind invocation of God ‫دﻧﻴﺎ‬ ُْ world ‫دﻧﻴﻮي‬ ّ ِ َُْ worldly ‫ذﻧﺐ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ذﻧﻮب‬ sin, guilt ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ pre-Islamic era َّ َ ‫ﺟﺪفَ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ to blaspheme (God) ‫( ﺟﻦ‬coll.) ّ ِ jinns, demons ‫( رﺣﻢ‬a) َِ َ to have mercy on َّ َ ‫ﺟﻨﺔ‬ paradise ‫رﻛﻮع‬ ُ ُ bending during prayer ‫ﺟﻬﺎد‬ ِ holy war, jihad َّ َ َ ‫ﺟﻬﻨﻢ‬ hell ‫زاﻫﺪ‬ ِ pl. ‫زﻫﺎد‬ ِ ‫ﺣﺎج‬ ّ ُ pl. ‫ﺣﺠﺎج‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﻆ‬ ِ َّ ُ pl. ‫ﺣﻔﺎظ‬ pilgrim one who knows the Qur’an by heart ‫( ﺣﺞ‬u) ‫َ ﱠ‬ to perform the pilgrimage ‫ﺣﺞ‬ ّ َ pilgrimage ‫ﺣﺮام‬ َ unlawful, sacred ‫ﺣﻼل‬ َ lawful ‫ﺧﺘﺎن‬ ِ circumcision ‫( ﺧﻄﺐ‬u) َ َ َ to preach ‫ﺧﻄﺒﺔ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫ﺧﻄﺐ‬ َ ُ Friday sermon ‫رب‬ ّ َ pl. ‫أرﺑﺎب‬ ْ ‫زاوﻳﺔ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫زواﻳﺎ‬ Lord ascetic Sufi lodge ‫زﻛﺎة‬ َ alms ‫زﻧﺪﻗﺔ‬ َ َْ atheism ‫زﻧﺪﻳﻖ‬ ِ ِْ ِ َ pl. ‫زﻧﺎدﻗﺔ‬ ‫زﻫﺪ‬ ْ ُ atheist 1. abstinence 2. asceticism ‫ﺳﺒﺤﺔ‬ ُْ ُُ َُ pl. ‫ﺳﺒﺢ ,ﺳﺒﺤﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﺠﺎدة‬ َّ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺠﺎﺟﺪ ,-ات‬ ِ َ ‫( ﺳﺠﺪ‬u) ََ َ prayer beads prayer carpet to bend one’s body (in worship) ‫( ﺧﻄﺊ‬a) ِ َ to sin ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬ ِ َ sin ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺐ‬ ِ َ preacher ‫ﺳﻮرة‬ ُ Qur’an chapter ‫( ﺧﻠﺪ‬u) َ ََ to be immortal ‫ﺷﺮك‬ ِْ idolatry ‫( ﺧﻠﻖ‬u) َ ََ to create (God) ‫ﺷﻬﺎدة‬ َ Islamic doctrinal formula ‫ﺳﺠﺪة‬ ْ َ pl. ‫ﺳﺠﺪات‬ َ َ prostration in prayer
    • 194 ‫ﺷﻬﻴﺪ‬ َِ RELIGION martyr ُ َُ pl. ‫ﺷﻬﺪاء‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻄﺎن‬ َْ pl. ‫ﺷﻴﺎﻃﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫( ﺻﺎم‬u) َ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻢ‬ َُ pl. ‫ﺻﻮام‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬ َ ‫ﺻﻼة‬ pl. ‫ﺻﻠﻮات‬ ََ scholar to fast one who fasts ‫( ﻋﺸﺎء‬f.) ِ evening prayer ‫( ﻋﺼﺮ‬f.) ْ َ devil afternoon prayer ‫ﻋﻔﺮﻳﺖ‬ ِِْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻋﻔﺎرﻳﺖ‬ imp ‫ﻋﻤﺮة‬ ْ ُ the companions of the Prophet ‫ﺻﻠﻰ‬ َّ َ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎء‬ َُ to pray prayer ‫ﺻﺮاط اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬ َِْ ُ ِ the Straight Path (Islam) ‫ﺻﻨﻢ‬ ََ idol minor pilgrimage to Mecca ‫ﻋﻴﺪ اﻷﺿﺤﻰ‬ َ ْ ِ sacrificial festival (10 ‫)اﻟﺤﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺪ اﻟﻔﻄﺮ‬ ْ ِ ِ end of Ramadan (1 ‫)ﺷﻮال‬ َ ‫ﻏﺴﻞ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻏﺴﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻮى‬ َ َْ ٍ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺘﺎو‬ ritual ablution (of the whole body) fatwa ‫( ﻓﺠﺮ‬f.) ْ َ morning prayer ‫ﻓﺪاء‬ ِ pl. ‫أﺻﻨﺎم‬ ْ redemption ‫ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ‬ َِ religious duty ‫ﺻﻮﻓﻲ‬ ِ ُ Sufi ‫ﺻﻮم‬ َْ fast ُ َ pl. ‫ﻓﺮاﺋﺾ‬ ‫ﺿﺤﻰ ب‬ ِ َّ َ to sacrifice ‫ﻓﻘﻴﻪ‬ َِ ُ َُ pl. ‫ﻓﻘﻬﺎء‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫ﺿﺤﻴﺔ‬ ِ َ َ pl. ‫ﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻫﺮ‬ ِ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ َِ ُ َ pl. ‫ﻃﺮاﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﻃﻘﺲ‬ َْ conscience ‫ﻗﺒﺔ‬ َُ sacrifice (noun) َّ َ ‫ﻃﻮاف‬ ‫( ﻇﻬﺮ‬f.) ُْ dome َُ pl. ‫ﻗﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻠﺔ‬ ِْ qibla (direction of Mekka) pure ‫ﻗﺪر‬ َْ destiny sect ‫اﻟﻘﺮآن اﻟﻜﺮﻳﻢ‬ َِ ُ the Holy Qur’an ritual ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺮ‬ ِ َّ ُ pl. ‫ﻛﻔﺎر‬ ritual purity َّ ُ ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺗﻴﺐ‬ pl. ‫ﻃﻘﻮس‬ ُُ ‫ﻃﻬﺎرة‬ َ faqih, legal scholar circumambulation of the Kaaba midday prayer ‫اﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ‬ ََ ‫ﻣﺄذﻧﺔ‬ َ َ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺎذن‬ unbeliever Qur’anic school the Kaaba minaret
    • RELIGION 195 ‫ﻣﺒﺎرك‬ َ ُ blessed ‫ﻣﺆذن‬ ِّ ُ muezzin ‫ﻣﺘﺪاﻳﻦ‬ ِ َُ devout ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻢ‬ ِ َْ (religious) feast ‫ﻣﺤﺮاب‬ ْ ِ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺤﺎرﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻮق‬ ُْ َ pl. ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺬﻫﺐ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﺬاﻫﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺴﺠﺪ‬ ِ ْ َ ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺟﺪ‬ prayer niche in mosque creature religious school (jurisprudence) Friday mosque ُِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻛﺐ‬ ِ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﻮاﻛﺐ‬ ُ ِ َ procession ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻦ‬ ِ ُ believer (Muslim) ‫ﻧﺒﻮة‬ َ ُُ prophecy ‫ﻧﺒﻮي‬ ّ ِ ََ prophetic ‫ﻧﺒﻲ‬ َِ ُ ِْ pl. ‫أﻧﺒﻴﺎء‬ prophet ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ِْ ُ Muslim ‫ﻧﺠﺎﺳﺔ‬ َ impurity ‫ﻣﺸﺮك‬ ِْ ُ idolater ‫ﻫﺪى‬ ‫ُ ﹰ‬ good guidance ‫ﻣﻌﺠﺰة‬ ِ ُْ miracle ‫( ﻣﻐﺮب‬f.) َِْ ‫واﻋﻆ‬ ِ ‫ُ ﱠ‬ pl. ‫وﻋﺎظ‬ prayer at sunset preacher ‫وﺣﻰ‬ ْ َ revelation ‫وﺿﻮء‬ ُ ُ ablution (prior to prayer) ‫وﻋﻈﺔ‬ ْ َ sermon ‫)رﺑﻴﻊ اﻷول‬ ّ ‫ﻳﻮم اﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‬ ِ َْ Judgement Day ‫اﺑﺘﻬﺎل‬ ِِْ supplication, prayer ‫اﺿﻄﻬﺎد‬ ِ ِ persecution َ َ َِْ ‫اﺑﺘﻬﻞ‬ to supplicate (God) ‫اﺿﻄﻬﺪ‬ َََ ِ to persecute ‫أﺑﻮ اﻻﻋﺘﺮاف‬ ِْ ِ ُ father confessor ‫اﻋﺘﺮاف‬ ِْ ِ confession َ ‫أﺣﺪ اﻟﺸﻌﺎﻧﻴﻦ‬ ِ َّ Palm Sunday ‫اﻋﺘﺮف‬ َ َ َْ ِ to confess ‫أﺳﺒﻮع اﻵﻻم‬ ُْ Passion Week ‫إﻓﺸﻴﻦ‬ ِ ْ pl. ‫أﻓﺎﺷﻴﻦ‬ ُ ِ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻚ‬ ِ ِْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﻚ‬ ceremony, ritual (esp. during ‫)ﺣﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﻟﺪ اﻟﻨﺒﻮي‬ ِ َ َّ ِ ْ َ the Prophet’s birthday (12 Christianity ‫أﺳﻘﻒ‬ ُْ ُ pl. ‫أﺳﺎﻗﻒ ,أﺳﺎﻗﻔﺔ‬ ِ ُ ِ bishop ‫أﻓﺼﺢ‬ َ َ ْ ‫أﺳﻘﻔﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ْ ُ bishopric ‫أﺻﺤﺎح‬ ْ Bible chapter ‫أﻗﻨﻮم‬ ُُْ pl. ‫أﻗﺎﻧﻴﻢ‬ ُ ِ litany to celebrate Easter hypostasis
    • 196 RELIGION ُّ ‫أمّ اﻟﻨﻮر‬ the Virgin Mary ‫إﻧﺠﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ Gospel َّ ُ ‫ﺟﻨﺎز‬ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺟﻨﺎﻧﻴﺰ‬ funeral procession ‫( ﺣﺮم‬a) ََِ ُ ِ pl. ‫أﻧﺎﺟﻴﻞ‬ to excommunicate ‫إﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ‬ ُ icon ‫ﺣﺮوم‬ ُُ excommunication ‫اﻟﺒﺎﺑﺎ‬ the Pope ‫ﺣﻠﺔ‬ َّ ِ absolution patriarch ‫ﺣﻮاري‬ ِ َ apostle َ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻷﺑﺪﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ eternal life ‫ﺑﻄﺮك، ﺑﻄﺮﻳﺮك‬ ِْ َ َْ َ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﻄﺎرﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻛﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ْ َ patriarchate ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺊ‬ sinner ‫( ﺗﺎب‬u) َ to repent ‫ﺧﺪمَ اﻟﻘﺪاس‬ ُّ َِ to celebrate mass ‫ﺗﺄﻧﺲ‬ ‫َ ﱡ‬ incarnation ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺔ ، ﺧﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬ ِ َ ِ َ sin ‫ﺗﺒﺸﻴﺮ‬ ِ َْ preaching of the Gospel ‫ﺧﻼص‬ َ redemption ‫ﺗﺒﺸﻴﺮي‬ ّ ِ ِ َْ missionary (adj.) ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ِْ َ temptation ‫دﻳﺮ‬ َْ pl. ‫أدﻳﺎر ,أدﻳﺮة‬ ِْ ْ ‫ذﺧﻴﺮة‬ ِ َ ِ َ pl. ‫.ُ ﺗﺠﺎرب‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻫﺐ‬ َ ‫ََ ﱠ‬ to become a monk ‫ﺗﺮﻫﺐ‬ َ ُّ َ َ monasticism ‫ﺗﺴﺒﻴﺤﺔ‬ ِْ َ hymn, song of praise ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ َ َ to be exalted (God) ‫ﺗﻌﻤﺪ‬ َ َّ َ َ to be baptized ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺪ‬ ِ َْ baptism ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺲ‬ ََْ consecration ‫ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬ‬ ِ ِْ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺗﻼﻣﺬة‬ monastery relic pl. ‫ذﺧﺎﺋﺮ‬ ُ َ ‫راﻫﺐ‬ ِ pl. ‫رﻫﺒﺎن‬ ْ ُ ‫راﻫﺒﺔ‬ ِ ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ِ ُ َ pl. ‫رﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ monk nun calling (e.g. of a priest) ‫رﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﻗﺴﻮﺳﻴﺔ‬ َِ ُ ُ ِ disciple ordination ‫رﻋﻴﺔ‬ ِ َ parish (believers) ُّ ‫اﻟﺮوح اﻟﻘﺪس‬ ُْ the Holy Ghost ‫ﺳﺎدن‬ ِ ََ pl. ‫ﺳﺪﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎولَ اﻟﻘﺮﺑﺎن‬ ْ ُ َ ََ to receive Communion ‫ﺗﻨﺼﺮ‬ َ َّ َ َ to become a Christian ‫ﺗﻮﺑﺔ‬ َْ penance ‫( ﺟﺠﻴﻢ‬f./m.) ِ َ hell(fire) pl. ‫أﺳﺮار‬ ْ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ اﻟﺤﺰﻳﻨﺔ‬ َِ ْ ُ Good Friday ‫ﺳﻔﺮ اﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ِ ْ َّ ْ ِ sexton َْ ‫ﺳﺒﺖ اﻟﻨﻮر‬ ُّ Easter Saturday ‫اﻟﺴﺪة اﻟﺮﺳﻮرﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ َّ َّ ُّ the Holy See ‫ﺳﺮ‬ ِّ sacrament genesis
    • RELIGION ُّ ْ ِ ‫ﺳﻔﺮ اﻟﺮؤﻳﺎ‬ the Apocalypse ‫ﺳﻼق‬ َّ ُ ascension of Christ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ِْ communion ‫ﺷﻤﺎس‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ pl. ‫ﺷﻤﺎﻣﺴﺔ‬ ِ َ 197 Annunciation ُُ ‫ﻋﻴﺪ ﺣﻠﻮل اﻟﺮوح‬ ُّ ‫اﻟﻘﺪس‬ ُْ Whitsuntide ‫ﻋﻴﺪ اﻟﺼﻌﻮد‬ ُ ُّ Ascension Day ‫ﻋﻴﺪ اﻟﻐﻄﺎس‬ ِ deacon ‫ﻋﻴﺪ اﻟﺒﺸﺎرة‬ ِ Epiphany ُُ ‫ﺻﻌﻮد اﻟﺮب‬ ّ َّ Ascension ‫ﻋﻴﺪ اﻟﻘﺮﺑﺎن‬ ُْ Corpus Christi َّ ِ َّ َّ َ ‫اﻟﺼﻼة اﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ the Lord’s Prayer ‫ﻋﻴﺪ ﻛﻞّ اﻟﻘﺪﻳﺴﻴﻦ‬ ِ َّ ِ ُ All Saints Day ‫( ﺻﻠﺐ‬i) َ ََ to crucify ‫ﻋﻴﺪ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‬ ِ Christmas cross ‫ﻏﻔﺮان‬ ُْ forgiveness ‫ﻓﺼﺢ‬ ْ ِ Easter Lent pl. ‫ﻓﺼﻮح‬ ُ ُ monk’s cell َّ ُ ‫ﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻴﺐ‬ َِ ُْ pl. ‫ﺻﻠﺒﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮم اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬ َِ ْ َ ‫ﺻﻮﻣﻌﺔ‬ َ َْ pl. ‫ﺻﻮاﻣﻊ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻃﻘﺲ‬ َْ ُُ pl. ‫ﻃﻘﻮس‬ rite, liturgy ‫ﻗﺒﻂ‬ ِْ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﺒﺎط‬ dome Copt ‫ﻗﺒﻄﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ Coptic ‫ﻗﺪاس‬ َّ ُ mass godmother ‫ﻗﺪس‬ َ َّ َ to canonize ‫اﻟﻌﺸﺎء اﻟﺴﺮي‬ ّ ِّ ِّ َ the Last Supper ‫ﻗﺪمَ اﻟﻘﺮﺑﺎن ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ْ ُ َّ to read mass for someone ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬ ّ ِ َْ layman ُّ َ ‫اﻟﻘﺪوس‬ the Most Holy (= God) ‫ﻋﻤﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to baptize ‫ﻗﺪﻳﺲ‬ ِّ ِ saint ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮة‬ ُ ُْ Pentecost ‫ﻗﺮب‬ َ َّ َ to administer Communion ‫اﻟﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‬ َِ َْ the New Testament ‫ﻗﺮﺑﺎن‬ ُْ Eucharist ‫اﻟﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ َِ َْ the Old Testament ‫ﻗﺮﺑﺎﻧﺔ‬ ُْ Holy Communion ‫اﻟﻌﻮام‬ ّ َ the laity ‫ﻗﺴﻮﺳﺔ‬ ُ ُ priesthood ‫ﻋﻴﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to celebrate a feast ‫ﻋﻴﺪ‬ ِ feast ‫اﻟﻌﺬراء‬ َْ the Holy Virgin ‫ﻋﺮاب‬ َّ َ godfather pl. ‫ﻗَﺪادﻳﺲ‬ ُ ِ َ َّ َ ‫ﻋﺮاﺑﺔ‬ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﻴﺎد‬ َّ ِ ‫ﻗﺴﻴﺲ‬ priest, minister pl. ‫ﻗﺴﺎء ,أﻗﺴﺔ ,ﻗﺴﺎن ,ﻗﺴﺎوﺳﺔ ,-ون‬ ِ َ َ ّ ُ ّ ِ ّ ُ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﻣﺔ‬ ِ resurrection
    • 198 COLOURS َّ ِ ‫ﻛﺎﺛﺪراﺋﻴﺔ‬ cathedral ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻴﺢ‬ ِ the Anointed ‫ﻛﺎﺛﻮﻟﻴﻜﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ ُ Catholic ‫ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ َ Christian ‫ﻛﺎﺛﻮﻟﻴﻜﻲّ ﻣﻤﺎرس‬ ِ ُ practising Catholic ‫ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ َ Christianity ‫ﻛﺎرز‬ ِ preacher ‫ﻣﻄﻬﺮ‬ َْ َ purgatory diviner, soothsayer ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮدﻳﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ ْ َ baptism, baptismal feast ‫ﻣﻼك‬ َ angel ‫ﻛﺎﻫﻦ‬ ِ ََ َُ pl. ‫ﻛﻬﺎن ,ﻛﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎب اﻟﻤﻘﺪس‬ ََُ ِ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺴﺔ‬ َِ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻨﺎﺋﺲ‬ ُ َّ ِ ْ َ َِ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺴﺔ رﻋﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺨﺮة‬ َ ِْ pl. ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺧﺮ ,-ات‬ ُِ َ Holy Bible church َ َ pl. ‫ﻣﻼﺋﻜﺔ ,ﻣﻼﺋﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻼك ﺣﺎرس‬ ِ guardian angle parish church ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻮت اﻟﺴﻤﻮات‬ َ َ ُ ََ the Kingdom of Heaven censer, thurible ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻮﺗﻲ‬ ّ ِ ُ ََ heavenly, divine ‫ﻣﻨﺒﺮ‬ َِْ pl. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﺮ‬ ُِ َ pulpit ‫ﻣﺒﺸﺮ‬ ِّ َ ُ evangelist, missionary ‫ﻣﺠﺪ‬ َ َّ َ to glorify ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‬ ِ Nativity ‫ﻣﺨﻠﺺ‬ ِّ َ ُ redeemer ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬ َ َّ َ to convert to Christianity (trans.) psalm ‫اﻟﻮﺻﺎﻳﺎ اﻟﻌﺸﺮ‬ ْ َ َ the Ten Commandments ‫ﻳﺴﻮع‬ ُ َ Jesus ‫ﻳﻮم اﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ِّ ْ َ Judgement Day ‫أﺧﻀﺮ‬ َ ْ green ‫ﻣﺰﻣﻮر‬ ُ َْ pl. ‫ﻣﺰاﻣﻴﺮ‬ ُ ِ َ ‫ﻣﺴﺒﺠﺔ‬ َْ ِ ُ ِ َ َ pl. ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺑﺢ‬ rosary Colours ‫أﺑﻴﺾ‬ َْ white ْ َ ْ ُ f. ‫ ,ﺧﻀﺮاء‬pl. ‫ﺧﻀﺮ‬ f. ‫ ,ﺑﻴﻀﺎء‬pl. ‫ﺑﻴﺾ‬ َْ ِ ‫أﺣﻤﺮ‬ َ ْ f. ‫ ,ﺣﻤﺮاء‬pl. ‫ﺣﻤﺮ‬ ْ َ ْ ُ ‫أرﺟﻮان‬ ُ ْ purple ‫أزرق‬ َْ red blue َْ ُْ f. ‫ ,زرﻗﺎء‬pl. ‫زرق‬ ‫أﺣﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ‬ ِ َ ْ scarlet ‫أﺣﻤﺮ ﻗﺮﻣﺰي‬ ّ ِِ ِْ َ ْ crimson ‫أﺳﻔﻊ‬ َْ َْ ُْ f. ‫ ,ﺳﻔﻌﺎء‬pl. ‫ﺳﻔﻊ‬ dark brown
    • THE ZODIAC ‫أﺳﻤﺮ‬ َ ْ brown ‫ﺧﻤﺮي‬ ّ ِْ َ 199 reddish brown, wine-coloured ْ َ ُ f. ‫ .ﺳﻤﺮاء‬pl. ‫ﺳﻤﺮ‬ ‫داﻛﻦ‬ ِ dark(-coloured) ‫دﻟﻬﻢ‬ َ َْ deep black ‫ذﻫﺒﻲ‬ ّ َِ َ gold ‫رﻣﺎدي‬ ّ ِ ُ grey ‫ﺳﻤﻨﺠﻮﻧﻰ‬ ِ ُ َْ َ azure ‫ﺷﻔﺎف‬ َّ َ transparent ‫ﻏﺎﻣﻖ‬ ِ dark ‫ﻓﺎﺗﺢ‬ ِ light ‫ﻓﺎﻗﻊ‬ ِ bright ‫ﻓﻀﻲ‬ ّ ِّ ِ silver ‫ﻗﺮﻣﺰي‬ ِِ ِْ scarlet ‫ﻛﺤﻠﻲ‬ ّ ِْ ُ dark blue, navy ‫ﻛﺴﺘﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ َْ َ maroon 2. purple, violet ‫ﻟﻮن اﻟﺒﺸﺮة‬ ْ َ َْ skin-coloured ِّ ُ ‫ﺑﻨﻲ‬ coffee-coloured, brown َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻠﻮن‬ multi-coloured ‫ﺑﻴﺞ‬ َْ beige ‫وردي‬ ّ َِْ pink Leo ‫اﻟﺠﻮزاء‬ َْ Gemini sign (of the zodiac) ‫اﻟﺤﻮت‬ ُ Pisces ‫اﻟﺤﻤﻞ‬ َ َ Aries ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ اﻟﺒﺮوج‬ َِ ُُ horoscope ‫أﺳﻮد‬ َْ black َْ ُ f. ‫ ,ﺳﻮداء‬pl. ‫ﺳﻮد‬ ‫أﺷﻘﺮ‬ ََ 1. blond َْ ُْ f. ‫ ,ﺷﻘﺮاء‬pl. ‫ﺷﻘﺮ‬ 2. chestnut ‫أﺳﻮد ﻗﺎﺗﻢ‬ ِ َْ pitch black ‫أﺻﻔﺮ‬ َْ yellow َْ ُْ f. ‫ ,ﺻﻔﺮاء‬pl. ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫أﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻫﺖ‬ ِ َْ cream ‫أﻛﺤﻞ‬ َ ْ black (eye) ْ َ ْ ُ f. ‫ ,ﻛﺤﻼء‬pl. ‫ﻛﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻫﺖ‬ ِ pale, faded ‫ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ِ ُْ ُ orange ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﻲ‬ ِ َ ََْ 1. lilac The zodiac ‫اﻷﺳﺪ‬ َ ‫ﺑﺮج‬ ُْ pl. ‫ﺑﺮوج‬ ُ ‫ﺗﻨﺠﻴﻢ‬ ِ َْ astrology ‫اﻟﺜﻮر‬ َْ Taurus ‫اﻟﺠﺪي‬ َْ Capricorn ‫اﻟﺪﻟﻮ‬ ْ َّ ‫اﻟﺮاﻣﻲ‬ ِ َّ Aquarius Sagittarius
    • 200 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ‫زﺣﻞ‬ َ ُ Saturn ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ َْ the Universe ‫اﻟﺰﻫﺮة‬ ْ ُّ Venus َّ َ َ ‫ﻣﺠﺮة‬ galaxy, Milky Way ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ َ َّ Cancer ‫ﻣﺮﻳﺦ‬ ِّ ِ Mars ‫اﻟﻌﺬراء‬ َْ Virgo ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮى‬ ِ َْ ُ Jupiter ‫اﻟﻌﻘﺮب‬ ََْ Scorpio ‫ﻣﻨﺠﻢ‬ ‫َُ ﱢ‬ astrologer ‫ﻓﻀﺎء‬ َ cosmic space ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﺒﺮوج‬ ُ َ ِْ zodiac ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺰان‬ ِ Libra ‫ﻫﻼل‬ ِ new moon ‫ﻛﻮﻛﺐ‬ َ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﻛﻮاﻛﺐ‬ planet Weights and measures ‫أوﻗﻴﺔ‬ ِ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﻴﻞ‬ ِ َْ ُ ِ َ pl. ‫ﺑﺮاﻣﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺻﺔ‬ ُ ‫ﺗﺴﻊ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺗﺴﺎع‬ ‫ﺛﻘﻴﻞ‬ َِ ِ َُ pl. ‫ﺛﻘﻼء ,ﺛﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺛﻤﻦ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫أﺛﻤﺎن‬ ْ ounce barrel inch ‫( ذراع‬f./m.) ِ ‫ﺳﺪس‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﺳﺪاس‬ heavy ‫ﺳﻨﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ‬ eighth fifth cubit ُْ ُْ pl. ‫ذرﻋﺎن ,أذرع‬ ‫رﺑﻊ‬ ُْ pl. ‫أرﺑﺎع‬ ْ ‫ﺳﺒﻊ‬ ُْ ْ pl. ‫أﺳﺒﺎع‬ ninth light ‫ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‬ َِ ِ ْ َِ pl. ‫أﺧﻔﺎء ,أﺧﻔﺎف ,ﺧﻔﺎف‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺲ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﺧﻤﺎس‬ ‫رﻃﻞ‬ ْ َ pl. ‫أرﻃﺎل‬ ْ quarter ‫ﺷﺒﺮ‬ ِْ pl. ‫أﺷﺒﺎر‬ ْ ‫ﻃﻦ‬ ّ ُ rotl (variable Levantine measure) seventh sixth centimetre span of the hand ton ْ pl. ‫أﻃﻨﺎن‬ َّ َ ُ ُ ‫ﻃﻦّ ﻣﺴﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ْ ُ ْ pl. ‫أﻋﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﻈﻴﻢ‬ ِ َ ُ َ ُ ِ pl. ‫ﻋﻈﺎم ,ﻋﻈﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻏﺮام‬ register ton tenth great gram
    • WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ‫( ﻗﺎس‬i) َ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺪم‬ ََ ْ pl. ‫أﻗﺪام‬ ‫ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‬ ِ َ ِ pl. ‫ﻗﺼﺎر‬ to measure ‫ﻟﺘﺮ‬ ِْ fathom (6 feet) pl. ‫-ات‬ foot ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ِْ ْ pl. ‫أﻣﺘﺎر‬ litre metre ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِ comparable ‫ﻗﻴﺮاط‬ carat ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬ َِ big pl. ‫ﻛﺒﺮاء ,ﻛﺒﺎر‬ ِ َُ many, much ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ِ َْ ُ round ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬ َِْ ُ short little, few ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻗﻼل ,ﻗﻼﺋﻞ ,أﻗﻼء‬ ُ ِ ُ ِ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮ‬ َِ pl. ‫ﻛﺜﺎر ,-ون‬ ِ 201 straight ‫ﻣﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ‬ millimetre ‫ﻣﺤﻨﻰ‬ ِْ َ crooked, bent ‫ﻣﻴﻞ‬ ِ pl. ‫أﻣﻴﺎل‬ ْ ‫ﻣﻴﻞ ﺑﺤﺮي‬ ّ ِْ َ ِ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ْ ُ pl. ‫أﻧﺼﺎف‬ ْ ‫وزن‬ َْ ‫ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻏﺮام‬ kilogram kilometre (‫وزنَ )ﻳﺰن‬ ُ َِ ََ nautical mile half weight pl. ‫أوزان‬ ْ ‫ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ mile to weigh
    • 202 APPENDIX I Appendix I Arab regions, countries and capitals ‫اﻷردن‬ ّ ُُْ ‫ﻋﻤﺎن‬ َ َ Jordan Amman ‫آﺳﻴﺎ‬ ِ Asia ‫إﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬ Africa َّ ِ ِّ ‫إﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ َ ‫اﻻﻣﺎرات اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة‬ ِ َّ ُ ‫أﺑﻮ ﻇﺒﻲ‬ َِ ُ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ُّ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﻃﻮم‬ ُ َْ ‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬ ِ ُ ‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬ ِ ُ ‫اﻟﺠﺰاﺋﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰاﺋﺮ‬ َ ‫ﺳﻮرﻳﺎ‬ ِ ُ ‫دﻣﺸﻖ‬ ْ َ ِ ‫اﻟﺒﺠﺮﻳﻦ‬ َْ ْ َ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻣﺔ‬ َ ‫ﻋﻤﺎن‬ ُ North Africa ‫أﻟﺸﺮق اﻷوﺳﻂ‬ َ ْ ْ َّ the Middle East ‫اﻟﻌﺮاق‬ ِ Iraq ‫ﺑﻐﺪاد‬ َْ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ‬ ِ ْ َِ ‫رام اﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ َ َ The United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Sudan Khartoum Tunisia Tunis Algeria Algiers Syria Damascus Bahrain Manama Oman ‫ﻣﺴﻘﻂ‬ َْ َ Muscat ‫أﻟﺸﺮق اﻷدﻧﻰ‬ َْ ْ َّ the Near East ‫اﻟﺪوﺣﺔ‬ ْ َّ ‫اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬ َُ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻛﻮﻳﺖ‬ َ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎن‬ ُْ ‫ﺑﻴﺮوت‬ ُ َْ ‫ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ‬ ِ ِ (‫ﻃﺮاﺑﻠﺲ )اﻟﻐﺮب‬ َْ ُُ َ َ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ْ ِ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮة‬ ِ ‫اﻟﻤﻐﺮب‬ َِْ ‫اﻟﺮﺑﺎط‬ َّ َْ َ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ اﻟﺴﻌﻮدﻳﺔ‬ ّ ِ ُ َّ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺎض‬ َّ ‫اﻟﻴﻤﻦ‬ َ َ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺎء‬ َْ Baghdad Palestine Ramalla Qatar Doha Kuwait Kuwait City Lebanon Beirut Libya Tripoli (of the West) Egypt Cairo Morocco Rabat the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Riyadh The Yemen Sanaa
    • APPENDIX II 203 Appendix II Selected non-Arab regions, countries and capitals ‫إﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ِ ْ ‫ﻣﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫أﺳﺘﺮاﻟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺪﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻻرﺟﻨﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻳﻨﺲ أﻳﺮس‬ ‫أﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ِ ْ ‫ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ‬ ِْ َ Spain Madrid Australia Sydney Argentina Buenos Aires Germany Berlin ‫أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ُ َ South America ‫أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِّ North America ‫أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‬ َ ْ ُ ْ Central America ِ ‫اﻧﻜﻠﺘﺮا‬ َّ England ‫أوروﺑﺎ‬ Europe ‫إﻳﺮﻟﻨﺪا‬ Ireland ‫دﺑﻠﻦ‬ ‫إﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ اﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ‬ َ ْ ُ ‫ﻟﻨﺪن‬ َ َْ ‫ﺑﺮﺗﻐﺎل‬ ُْ ُ ‫ﻟﺸﺒﻮﻧﺔ‬ ْ ِ ‫ﺑﻠﺠﻴﻜﺎ‬ ِ ِ ‫ﺑﺮﻛﺴﻴﻞ‬ ِ ْ ُ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ‬ ِ ُْ ‫أﻧﻘﺮة‬ ْ Dublin Italy Milan Great Britain London Portugal Lisbon Belgium Brussels Turkey Ankara ‫ﺟﻨﻮبِ إﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬ ُ South Africa ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺘﻮرﻳﺎ‬ Pretoria ‫اﻟﺪاﻧﻤﺎرك‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺑﻮﻫﺎﻏﻦ‬ ‫روﺳﻴﺎ‬ ِ ُ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻮ‬ ُ ْ ُ ‫اﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ‬ ِ ُّ ‫إﺳﺘﻜﻬﻮﻟﻢ‬ ُ ْ ُْ ‫اﻟﺼﻴﻦ‬ ِّ ‫ﺑﻴﻜﻴﻦ‬ ِ ‫ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬ َْ َ ‫ﺑﺎرﻳﺲ‬ ِ ‫ﻓﻨﻠﻨﺪا‬ َِْْ ‫ﻫﻠﺴﻨﻜﻲ‬ ِ ِْ َْ ‫اﻟﻨﺮوﻳﺞ‬ ِ ْ ُّ ‫أوﺳﻠﻮ‬ ُْ ُ ‫ﻧﻤﺴﺎ‬ ْ ِ ‫ﻓﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﻟﻨﺪا‬ َْ Denmark Copenhagen Russia Moscow Sweden Stockholm China Beijing France Paris Finland Helsinki Norway Oslo Austria Vienna The Netherlands ‫أﻣﺴﺘﺮدام‬ Amsterdam ‫ﻻﻫﺎي‬ The Hague ِ ‫أﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة‬ ِ َّ ُ ‫اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ِ ‫وﺷﻨﻄﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻛﻴﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎن‬ ُ ‫أﺛﻴﻨﺎ‬ United States of America Washington Japan Tokyo Greece Athens
    • 204 APPENDIX III Appendix III International organizations َّ ِ ‫اﻻﺗﺤﺎد اﻷورﺑﻲ‬ ّ ُِ ُ the European Union (EU) ‫اﻻﺗﺤﺎد اﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ‬ ّ ِ ِْ ِ the African Union ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻷﻣﻢ اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة اﻷﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ‬ ّ ْ ِ َّ ُ َ ُ ِ ْ َ the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) َْ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ ُّ the World Bank ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰيّ اﻷورﺑﻲ‬ ّ َّ ُ ُ َِ َْ َْ the European Central Bank َْ ْ ّ ِ َ ُّ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ ﻟﻼﻧﺸﺎء و اﻠﺘﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ِ ْ َّ the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) ِ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻟﺪول اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ّ َ َ َ ُّ the Arab League ‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ اﻹﺧﻮان اﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ‬ ِ ِْ ُ ْ َ the Muslim Brotherhood َّ َ ‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺴﻼم اﻷﺧﻀﺮ‬ َ ْ َ Greenpeace َّ ِْ َ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ the General Assembly (UN) ِ ْ ُ َ ُّ ‫اﻟﺪول اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻂ‬ ْ َّ non-OPEC countries ‫ﻏﻴﺮ اﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﻓﻲ أوﺑﻚ‬ َ ُ ِ ْ َ َْ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ اﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ْ ِ َّ The Muslim League ‫راﺑﻄﺔ دول ﺟﻨﻮب ﺷﺮق آﺳﻴﺎ‬ ِ َْ َُ َ ُ ِ the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ُ ُْ ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﻨﻘﺪ اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ ُّ ْ َّ the International Monetary Fund (IMF) ‫اﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ اﻷوﻟﻤﺒﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ ِ ُ َّ ِ َ the International Olympic Committee (IOC) ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻷﻣﻦ‬ ْ the Security Council (UN) ِْ َ ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﺘﻌﺎون اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻲ‬ ّ ِ َِ ُ َّ the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬ ِ َ ُ ْ َ the G8 َ ْ َ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻟﺠﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ َ ُّ َّ ِ the International Criminal Court (ICC) َّ ِ َ ُّ ْ َ َ َ ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻟﻌﺪل اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ‬ the International Court of Justice َّ ِ ُ َّ ِ َّ َ ُ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ اﻷوروﺑﻴﺔ‬ the European Commission َّ ِ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﺆون اﻟﻼﺟﺌﻴﻦ‬ ِ ُ ُ َّ ِ the High Commission for Refugees َّ ِ ْ َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ و اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ‬ ِّ the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ‫و اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ َّ (ISESCO)
    • APPENDIX III َّ َ ُ ْ ِّ َ ُ َّ ِ َ َ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻷﻗﻄﺎر اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺼﺪرة ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻂ‬ ْ َّ 205 the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻷﻣﻢ اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة‬ ِ َّ ُ َ ُ َّ َ ُ ِّ ِ َّ ُ َ ُ َ َ ْ ُ ‫ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ اﻷﻣﻢ اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎرة و اﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َّ the United Nations (UN) the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) َّ َ ُ ِ َّ ُ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻷﻣﻢ اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ َّ ِ ْ َّ َّ ِْ (‫واﻟﻌﻠﻢ و اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ )اﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻜﻮ‬ ُ ْ ِ ُ ِ َّ ُ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻷﻣﻢ اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ َّ ِ ْ َّ َّ ِ َِّ the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO) the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ َّ ِ َ ُّ َّ ِ ْ َ the International Maritime Organization (IMO) ِّ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ َّ ِ َ the World Trade Organization (WTO) ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِ ْ ََ ِ ْ َّ َّ َ ُ the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺎون اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي واﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ َّ ِ ْ َّ ّ ِ ِ ْ ِ ُ َّ the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺣﻠﻒ ﺷﻤﺎل اﻷﻃﻠﺴﻲّ )ﻧﺎﺗﻮ‬ ِ َْ ِ ْ ِ َّ َ ُ the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺪول اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِ ْ َ ُّ the Organization of American States (OAS) َّ َ ُ ِّ َ ُ َ ُّ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺪول اﻟﻤﺼﺪرة ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻂ‬ ْ َّ the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) َّ ِّ َّ َ ُ َّ ِ َ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺼﺤﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ the World Health Organization (WHO) َّ َ ُ ْ َّ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻄﻴﺮان اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ واﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ ُّ ّ ِ َ َ the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) َّ َ ُ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ ُّ َ َ the International Labour Organization (ILO) َّ ِ َ َّ َّ َ ْ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻼرﺻﺎد اﻟﺠﻮﻳﺔ‬ َّ َ ُ the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻌﻔﻮ اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ ُّ ْ َ َّ َ ُ Amnesty International ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ اﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‬ ْ ِ ْ َ َْ ُ َّ َ ُ the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻮﺣﺪة اﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ‬ ِّ ِ ْ ْ َ َّ َ ُ the Organization of African Unity (OAU) ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ اﻟﻴﻬﻮديّ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ّ ِ َ ِ ُ ُ َ َْ ُ the World Jewish Congress (WJC) ‫اﻟﻬﻼل اﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬ َ ْ ِ the Red Crescent َْ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﺼﻠﻴﺐ اﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬ َ ْ َ ِ َّ the Red Cross َِ ‫اﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺬرﻳﺔ‬ َّ َّ ِ ُّ َّ ِّ َّ the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)