On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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• It is characterized by a chronic productive cough
lasting at least 3 months over a minimum of 2 years.
• Common among smokers
• Most have both emphysema & chronic bronchitis
• Early stages of the disease:
• Productive cough
• Mucoid sputum
• Charactirized by hypertrophy of bronchial mucinous
glands thus hypersecretion of mucus
• Increased thickness of mucus glands (Reid index
increases to >50%)
• Casing inflammation (CD8+, lymphocytes….
• In contrast with asthma there are no eosinophils
• Microbial infection often is present
• Large airways gross specimens:
• Swollen by edema fluid
• Covered by a layer of mucinous secretion
• Increase of goblet cells
• Histological examination of trachea & bronchi:
• Enlargement of mucus-secreting glands
• Inflammatory cells (mononuclear / mixed with