Artifical intelligence

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Artifical intelligence

  1. 1. Presented by, Shahabaj Dange
  2. 2. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE • Intelligence: “ability to learn, understand and think” (Oxford dictionary) • AI is the study of how to make computers make things which at the moment people do better. • Examples: Speech recognition, Smell, Face, Object, Intuition, Inferencing, Learning new skills, Decision making, Abstract thinking.2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 3
  3. 3. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
  4. 4. Intelligence Behavior
  5. 5. Specific characteristics of intelligent behavior: – Learn from experience and apply the knowledge acquired from experience. – Handle complex situations. – Solve problems when important information is missing. – Determine what is important. – React quickly and correctly to a new situation. – Understand visual images. – Process and manipulate symbols. – Be creative and imaginative. – Use heuristics.2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 6
  6. 6. 4 Views of AI Think like humans Think rationally Act like humans Act rationally2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 7
  7. 7. Turing Test(developed by Alan Turing, a British Mathematician) attempts to determine whether the responses from a computer with intelligent behavior are indistinguishable from responses from a human.
  8. 8. Games 1950 Claude Shannon published a paper describing how a computer could play chess. 1952-1962 Art Samuel built the first checkers program 1957 a chess program was written by Alex Bernstein at MIT for an IBM 704. Newell and Simon predicted that a computer will beat a human at chess within 10 years. 1967 MacHack was good enough to achieve a class-C rating in tournament chess. 1994 Chinook became the world checkers champion 1997 Deep Blue beat Kasparpov 2007 Checkers is solved 2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 9
  9. 9. The difference between Natural and Artificial Intelligence Attributes Natural Artificial Intelligence Intelligence (Human) (Machine) The ability to use sensors (eyes, ears, touch, smell) HIGH LOW The ability to be creative and imaginative HIGH LOW The ability to learn from experience HIGH LOW The ability to be adaptive HIGH LOW The ability to afford the cost of acquiring intelligence HIGH LOW The ability to use a variety of information source HIGH HIGH The ability to acquire large amount of external information HIGH HIGH The ability to make complex calculations LOW HIGH The ability to transfer information LOW HIGH The ability to make a series of calculations rapidly and accurately LOW HIGH2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 10
  10. 10. Major Branches of AI – Perceptive system • A system that approximates the way a human sees, hears, and feels objects – Robotics – Vision system – Natural language processing – Neural network – Expert system – Learning system Schematic2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 11
  11. 11. Major Branches of Artificial Intelligence VISION LEARNING SYSTEMS SYSTEMS ROBOTICS EXPERT SYSTEMS NEURAL NATURAL LANGUAGE NETWORKS PROCESSING2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 12
  12. 12. Major Branches of Artificial Intelligence 1. Robotics Involve developing mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks requiring a high degree of precision or that are hazardous for humans.2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 13
  13. 13. 2. Vision Systems Include hardware and software that permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures.2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 14
  14. 14. 3. Natural language processing Computers understand and react to statements and commands made in a “natural” language, such as English. 4. Learning system Computer changes how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback. 5. Neural network Computer system that can act like or simulate the functioning of the human brain. 6. Expert Systems Consists of hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a human expert.2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 15
  15. 15. What if Technology goes beyond control ?• The Matrix (Series)• Terminator (Series)• Transformers (Series)• Robot• Startrek2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 16
  16. 16. Laws of Robots• stated by Isaac Asimov• First Law: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.• Second Law: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.• Third Law: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 17
  17. 17. Ethics of AI – People might lose their jobs to automation. – People might lose their sense of being unique. – People might lose some of their privacy rights. – The use of AI systems might result in a loss of accountability. – The success of AI might mean the end of the human race.2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 18
  18. 18. AI Applications AI techniques are used in many common applications; just a sample – Intelligent user interfaces – Search Engines – Spell/grammar checkers – Context sensitive help systems – Medical diagnosis systems – Regulating/Controlling hardware devices and processes (e.g, in automobiles) – Voice/image recognition (more generally, pattern recognition) – Scheduling systems (airlines, hotels, manufacturing) – Error detection/correction in electronic communication – Program verification / compiler and programming language design – Web search engines / Web spiders – Web personalization and Recommender systems (collaborative/content filtering) – Personal agents – Customer relationship management – Credit card verification in e-commerce / fraud detection – Data mining and knowledge discovery in databases – Computer games2/26/2013 Artificial Intelligence 19
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