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Traditional Square of opposition
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Traditional Square of opposition

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Logics

Logics

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  • 1. Presented by Shah Abdul Azeem
  • 2. Opposition Standard form of categorical proposition having same subject term and same predicate term but differ from each other in Quality andQuantity is called opposition.
  • 3. Four types of Traditional square of opposition  Contradictories  Contraries  Sub-contraries  Sub-Altarnation
  • 4. One is the denial or negation of the others Both cannot be true Both cannot be false
  • 5. Example of Contradictories  All Judges are lawyers.  Some Judges are not lawyers.
  • 6. Two propositions having same subject term and same predicate term but differ in quality,but same in quantity. Both cannot be true but both can be false.
  • 7. Example of contraries  All poets are dreamers,  No poets are dreamers.
  • 8. When two propositions having same subject term and same predicate term and differ in quality but same in quantity. Both cannot be false but both can be true.
  • 9. Example of sub-contraries  Some diamonds are precious stones.  Some diamonds are not precious stones
  • 10. When two propositions having same subject term and same predicate term agree in quality but different in quantity.
  • 11. Example of Sub-Alternation  All Spiders are eight leged animal.  Some spiders are eight leged animal  No whales are fishes  Some wales are fishes
  • 12. 1) Super-altern 2) Sub-altern
  • 13. It is used for universal proposition
  • 14. It is used for particular proposition
  • 15. Thanku for your corporation