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Politics And Power  © 2006 R. Dunham / M. Maltarich
The Issues <ul><li>Comments on organizational politics and power </li></ul><ul><li>Managers’ beliefs about organizational ...
Comments on Politics & Power <ul><li>“ Power is America’s last dirty word.  It is easier to talk about money—and much easi...
Comments on Politics & Power  (Cont.) <ul><li>“…for many, the word “politics” has negative connotations associated with th...
Questions <ul><li>The existence of workplace politics is common to most organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Successful executi...
A Survey on Organizational Politics (Gandz and Murray) <ul><li>93%:  The existence of workplace politics is common to most...
Definitions: Organizational Politics <ul><li>Pfeffer:  “…organizational politics [is defined] as the exercise or use of po...
Means/Ends Combinations MEANS ENDS Prescribed Non- prescribed Prescribed Non- Prescribed Nonpolitical Using unsanctioned m...
Interpersonal Power <ul><li>Definition:  The ability to influence others and maintain control over your own fate </li></ul>
Bases Of Power Legitimate Reward Coercive Referent (charismatic) Expert Resource
Legitimate Power <ul><li>Exists when one person believes that another person has the right to influence him or her (author...
Reward Power <ul><li>Exists when one person believes another person can and will provide or withhold rewards </li></ul>
Coercive Power Exists when one person believes another person can and will provide or withhold punishment
Referent (Charismatic) Power <ul><li>Exists when one person finds another attractive and wants to be associated with or af...
Expert Power <ul><li>Exists when one person believes another person has desired expertise and is willing to share or withh...
Resource Power <ul><li>Exists when one person believes that another person has desired (nonexpert) resources and is willin...
Principles of Power <ul><li>Power is perception based </li></ul><ul><li>Power is relative </li></ul><ul><li>Power bases mu...
Organizational Power Management Empower to reward others Select & train for desired expertise Empower to punish others Ass...
Personal Power Management Acquire and make expertise known Show ability to provide or with-hold rewards Use & make authori...
The Constructive Politician  (Butcher) <ul><li>Ambition to influence organization through ceaseless pursuit of his/her own...
Management:  A Power Perspective (Pfeffer) <ul><li>Decide on your goals </li></ul><ul><li>Who is influential for achieving...
The Issues <ul><li>Comments on organizational politics and power </li></ul><ul><li>Managers’ beliefs about organizational ...
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  1. 1. Politics And Power © 2006 R. Dunham / M. Maltarich
  2. 2. The Issues <ul><li>Comments on organizational politics and power </li></ul><ul><li>Managers’ beliefs about organizational politics </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions of organizational politics </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of interpersonal power </li></ul><ul><li>The bases of power </li></ul><ul><li>Managing power & politics </li></ul>
  3. 3. Comments on Politics & Power <ul><li>“ Power is America’s last dirty word. It is easier to talk about money—and much easier to talk about sex—than it is to talk about power.” Kantor (1979) p. 65. </li></ul><ul><li>“… those who love laws and sausages should not watch either being made…. We honor leaders for what they achieve, but we often prefer to close our eyes to the way they achieve it.” Pfeffer (1992) p. 33. </li></ul><ul><li>“… the qualities required for leadership are not necessarily those that we would want our children to emulate—unless we wanted them to be leaders.” Pfeffer (1992) p. 33. </li></ul>Cont.
  4. 4. Comments on Politics & Power (Cont.) <ul><li>“…for many, the word “politics” has negative connotations associated with the misuse of power, secrecy and backroom deals. That of course may often be the reality, which only serves to obscure the idea of politics as a constructive organizational reality.” Butcher (2002) p. 40. </li></ul><ul><li>We must “… distinguish between constructive and destructive politics, or more exactly, selfless and selfish motives… and… the difference between ethical and unethical means of achieving political goals.” Butcher (2002) p. 41-42. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Questions <ul><li>The existence of workplace politics is common to most organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Successful executives must be good politicians </li></ul><ul><li>You have to be political to get ahead in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations free of politics are happier than those where there are a lot of politics </li></ul><ul><li>Politics in organizations are detrimental to efficiency </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Survey on Organizational Politics (Gandz and Murray) <ul><li>93%: The existence of workplace politics is common to most organizations </li></ul><ul><li>89%: Successful executives must be good politicians </li></ul><ul><li>70%: You have to be political to get ahead in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>59%: Organizations free of politics are happier than those where there are a lot of politics </li></ul><ul><li>55%: Politics in organizations are detrimental to efficiency </li></ul>Percent Agreeing with:
  7. 7. Definitions: Organizational Politics <ul><li>Pfeffer: “…organizational politics [is defined] as the exercise or use of power, with power being defined as a potential force” </li></ul><ul><li>Butcher: “Organizational politics, therefore, refers to the constructive reconciliation of competing causes, and is central to managing” </li></ul><ul><li>Mayes & Allen: “…the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through non-sanctioned influence means.” </li></ul>I’ll support your project if you support mine
  8. 8. Means/Ends Combinations MEANS ENDS Prescribed Non- prescribed Prescribed Non- Prescribed Nonpolitical Using unsanctioned methods to obtain sanctioned outcomes Using unsanctioned methods to obtain unsanctioned outcomes Using sanctioned methods to obtain unsanctioned outcomes
  9. 9. Interpersonal Power <ul><li>Definition: The ability to influence others and maintain control over your own fate </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bases Of Power Legitimate Reward Coercive Referent (charismatic) Expert Resource
  11. 11. Legitimate Power <ul><li>Exists when one person believes that another person has the right to influence him or her (authority) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reward Power <ul><li>Exists when one person believes another person can and will provide or withhold rewards </li></ul>
  13. 13. Coercive Power Exists when one person believes another person can and will provide or withhold punishment
  14. 14. Referent (Charismatic) Power <ul><li>Exists when one person finds another attractive and wants to be associated with or affiliated with that person </li></ul>
  15. 15. Expert Power <ul><li>Exists when one person believes another person has desired expertise and is willing to share or withhold it </li></ul>
  16. 16. Resource Power <ul><li>Exists when one person believes that another person has desired (nonexpert) resources and is willing to share or withhold them </li></ul>
  17. 17. Principles of Power <ul><li>Power is perception based </li></ul><ul><li>Power is relative </li></ul><ul><li>Power bases must be coordinated </li></ul><ul><li>Power is a double-edged sword (used and abused) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Organizational Power Management Empower to reward others Select & train for desired expertise Empower to punish others Assign to position of authority Select charismatic individual Provide resources to manage
  19. 19. Personal Power Management Acquire and make expertise known Show ability to provide or with-hold rewards Use & make authority known Show ability to provide or with-hold punishment Be a nice person Acquire and make resources known
  20. 20. The Constructive Politician (Butcher) <ul><li>Ambition to influence organization through ceaseless pursuit of his/her own agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing worthwhile causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulating organic change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stealth & nominal adherence to procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing upwards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External networking </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Management: A Power Perspective (Pfeffer) <ul><li>Decide on your goals </li></ul><ul><li>Who is influential for achieving your goals? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the views of the influential? How will they feel about what you want to do? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the relative power & power bases of the influential? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your power bases & what power can you develop? </li></ul><ul><li>What bases of power & specific strategies & tactics are appropriate given the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>Choose actions to achieve your goals </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Issues <ul><li>Comments on organizational politics and power </li></ul><ul><li>Managers’ beliefs about organizational politics </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions of organizational politics </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of interpersonal power </li></ul><ul><li>The bases of power </li></ul><ul><li>Managing power & politics </li></ul>
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