SUBMITED BY : SYED SHABBIR HUSSAIN.SUBMITTED TO : MRS.NINA RAMACHANDRAN.SUBMITTED ON : 16-06-2012BATCH CODE : B1/AHS.CENTER : HIMAYAT NAGAR,HYDERABAD.YEAR : 2011 – 2012.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI am very grateful for the strong supportand guidance provided to me by myAviation teacher Mrs. Nina Ramachandran,who helped me to know all about thisindustry and also helped me in preparingthis project.
INDEX• Current scenario of Aviation Industry.• Comparison of Airbus A300 and A380.• The Exterior and Interior parts of the aircraft.• Parts and functions of an Aircraft.• Procedure for medical emergencies on board.• Different types of emergencies on board.• Duties and Responsibilities of an Cabin Crew on board.• In-flight meal service.• Procedure for embarkation/disembarkation of an UNM.• Emergency equipments used in emergency.• Fire in lavatory.• Cabin Crew routine.• Advantages & disadvantages of current scenario of Aviation Industry.• Impact on the economic growth.• Aviation Industry in the next 10 years.• Case study of an actual mishap of an air crash.• 10 latest plane crashes.• Bibliography.• Conclusion.
P1a (LO1 of unit 4)Briefly describe the Current Scenario with updates of current affairs in Aviation Industry.
CURRENT SCENARIO OF AVIATION INDUSTRY• Policy paralysis and a slowing economy a poor combination: India’s growth in FY2012/13 could possibly dip below 7%. This is a rate of expansion that most economies would envy, but it falls short of the Government’s own targets and of the growth needed to achieve the Government’s employment generation and poverty alleviation objectives.• Air India monopolising government attention. With no solution in sight, it is actually creating the problem: Air India has limited capability to operate new routes, meanwhile blocking private carriers from doing so. As has happened so many times before, the only winners in this scenario are the foreign airlines from whom Air India is being “protected”.• Government needs to focus on industry viability and safety: Rather than focusing on micro issues, the Ministry of Civil Aviation’s objective should be to create an environment which recognizes and supports industry viability and competitiveness. The sector must be in a position to operate safely and efficiently, delivering sustained and reasonable profits and covering its cost of capital.
• A new, dedicated Minister of Civil Aviation is a positive, but he faces a challenging task :On 18-Dec-2011 Ajit Singh took over Mr. Ravi’s civil aviation responsibilities. A dedicated minister is a positive development, but a change of leadership at this critical time means uncertainty will persist, especially in the absence of a clear strategic framework for the sector• Traffic is expected to continue to grow strongly, but financial recovery will be slow :Banks have become a critical pillar of the aviation sector...• Poor government policy means airports also face financial challenges :Meanwhile, private and state-owned airport operators continue to struggle. The operators of Delhi and Mumbai Airports have invested USD5 billion in modernising these facilities but the revenue collection has been less than expected due to the economic regulator not permitting a dual-till framework, while the Supreme Court ordered both airports to cease collection of Airport Development Fees from passengers, pending approval by the Airports Economic Regulatory Authority.
CURRENT SCENARIO• India is poised to be among the top five aviation nations in the world in the next 10 years. The Indian Aviation Industry is exploring opportunities to improve connectivity and is also looking at enhancing the number of Indian carriers to various countries. At the recently concluded International Civil Aviation Negotiation (ICAN) Conference 2011 during 17-22 October, 2011, it was stated that in the next 10 years domestic air traffic will touch around 160-180 million passengers a year, and the international traffic will exceed 80 million passengers a year. Though Demographics, Slow transit through road and rail infrastructure, Increasing Business and Leisure Travel and Government Policy remains the growth drivers but High aviation fuel (ATF) price, Hugh Debt Burden, Poor Infrastructure, Regional Connectivity and Excess Capacity has been seen as speed breakers to this sector.• Passengers carried by domestic airlines during January 2012 were 53.30 lakhs as against 49.36 lakhs during the corresponding period of previous year thereby registering a growth of 8.06%.
The current situation of the market is far from healthy. 2011-12 estimates aloss of $20 billion. This decline in the sector has been due to a number ofcauses, some of them mentioned below:• Lack of foreign investment due to stoppages by law. Lack of foreign investment robs the industry of easy capital, experience and expertise in the sector.• Excessive taxation on various aspects of the industry, such as aircrafts, fuel, aircraft bases, airport charges, air navigation charges, maintenance charges etc. Heavy taxation makes expansion and maintenance difficult.• Barricading the Import of fuel.(Although recently Kingfisher was allowed to do the above)• ATF(aviation fuel) amounts for about 40% of an airlines costing. Subsidisation and reduction/removal of taxes may help in reviving the industry.
• Kingfisher Airlines: Liquor Barron Vijay Mallya owned Premium airlines Kingfisher has been cash stripped for quite a while. Flights are being cancelled on a daily basis. It needs about Rs. 3000-4000 crore to come out of its financial crunch. It even owes roughly Rs. 60 crore to the Service Tax department. Even banks have asked promoters to infuse equity capital (provide funds) before they lend credit. Even the market share fell to 14% in December 2011 and is expected to fall further in near future. Unless Kingfisher finds an angel investor, survival may be difficult.• Indigo Airlines: The Indigo Airlines was the only profit making airlines in 2010-11, with a profit of about 700 crore Rs. It runs economy flights, which have helped it to capture a market share of 19.2%. It has an increasing fleet and it recently acquired license to fly international. Despite being charged to fail security standards, Indigo Airlines continues to dominate the low-fare market.
The market share of Indian carriers as on December 2011 in the domestic aviation market.
CRASHES• Pakistani passenger jet exploded in mid air during thunderstorm killing all 127 people on board on 20 April 2012.• 32-year-old former British Airways Jet crashed three miles from airport• Pilot made mayday call to report fuel tank had caught fire• Airline had just resumed operations after 11 years due to financial difficulties• Company boss blocked from leaving country as criminal investigation is launched
• Sukhoi SU95 crashed Near Jakarta, Indonesia on 9th May, 2012.• 37 passengers, 6 crew and 2 Sukhoi officials were onboard. All the 45 people onboard were killed.• The plane vanished from radar screens and lost contact with ground controllers after about 30 minutes of flight.• Weather data reported do no suggest poor visibility; however there is possibility of local cloud at Mount Salak that may have reduced the visibility.
LOW COST AIRLINES• A low cost carrier of low cost airline is an airline that offers generally low fares in exchange for eliminating many traditional passengers services.• It is also known as a no-frills or discount carrier airline.• The concept originated in the United States before spreading to Europe in the early 1990s and subsequently to much of the rest of the world.
Name Head Heads Fleet Slogan QuartersJet Airline Mumbai Naresh Goyal Boeing777 The joy of flyingGo Airline Mumbai Yateesh P Airbus A-320 Fly smartIndigo Haryana Mr. Aditya Ghosh Airbus A-320 Go indigoAirlineJet lite New Delhi Maun Vonlueders Boeing 737 The joy of flyingAirlineSpice Jet New Delhi Samyukh Boeing 737 Flying for everyoneAirline SridharanParamount Chennai Mr. Thiagarajan A-320 A world of differenceAirline.
LIST OF LOW COST AIRLINES1. Indigo Airline.2. Go Airline.3. Spice Jet Airline.4. Air India.5. Jet Lite Airline.6. Paramount Airline.7. Jet Airline.
DOMESTIC AIRLINES IN INDIA
SOME DETAILS ABOUT THE DOMESTIC AIRLINESIndigo Airlines: Indigo Airlines commenced operations on 4thaugust 2006 with a service from Delhi to Imphal via Guwahati. Ifyoure looking to fly with a low cost airline, Indigo offers goodvalue for money. It has 11% of market share.Spice jet airlines: Spice jet is a low-cost airline based in Newdelhi,India. It began service in May 2005. Earlier known asRoyal Airways. Spice jet marked its entry in service with Rs-99fares for the first 99 days and there were 9000 seats availableat this rate .
Go Air airlines: Go Air is a small privately owned, low cost airlinethat started operating in late 2005. It has almost a 5% marketshare.Jet lite:Jet Lite used to be Air Sahara until Jet Airways successfullytook the company over in mid 2007. The low cost airline focusesOn Providing flights that connect Indias capital cities and it has a7% share of the market.Jet airlines:Jet Airways is widely regarded as Indias biggest andbest airline. Its a privately owned, full service airline thatcommenced operating in mid 1993. Its now capture mostal23%of the market.
P1b P3a,b,c (LO2 & 3 of unit 4)State the technical advancements of Airbus A380 compared to A300. Identify and describe the functions of the parts shown to you.a) Cockpitb) Cargoc) Exterior Partsd) Interior Partse) Slide Raftf) Cabin Inter Communication Systemg) Passenger Service Unith) Jump Seat
• The Airbus A300 is a short- to medium-range wide body aircraft.• Launched in 1972 as the world first twin-engined wide body.• The Beluga is capable of carrying loads of just over 1,500m³ or up to 47t (103,616lb) over a distance of 900 nautical miles.• Lighter loads are transported over longer distances, for example, 40t to 1,500 nautical miles and 26t to a range of over 2,500 nautical miles.• A-380 The 555 seat Airbus A380-800, with a non-stop range of 8,000nm, was launched in December 2000.• The A380 maximum operating speed is Mach 0.89 and the range is 15,000km.“• The A380 has twin-aisle cabins on the upper and lower decks, with 49% more floor space for 35% higher seating capacity.“• The A380 is equipped with four 70,000lb thrust engines“.• The aircraft can complete a 180° turn within a width of 56.5m, within the 60m width dimension of standard runways.• Comparing A-300 with latest technology
• The new airbus A-380 is a double-deck wide body.• Four engine airline manufacture by Europe.• The large passenger airline in the world, it designed to carry 555 passenger in the class configuration A-380 is a also termed as the “super jumbo” of aviation industry.• A380 provides more than 80% of the floor place than A300,A380 also possess some luxury area as the gymnasiums, bar, beauty salon, etc for more passenger comfort. Lower fuel consumption .• Noise level is lower of any existing aircraft. Window is also bigger, provide more natural light.• Wireless Network Will Provides Wireless Broad Band Internet
LATEST TECHNOLOGY• Airbus partners employed the latest technology, some derived from the Concorde . On entry into service in 1974, the A300 was very advanced and influenced later subsonic airliner designs. The technological highlights include:• supercritical air foil section for economical performance.• advanced aerodynamically efficient flight controls.• 222-inch diameter circular fuselage section for 8-abreast passenger seating and wide enough for 2 LD3 cargo containers side-by-side.• Structures made from metal billets , reducing weight.• First airliner to be fitted with wind shear protection.• Advanced autopilots capable of flying the aircraft from climb-out to landing.• Electrically controlled braking system.• Later A300s incorporate other advanced features such as:• 2-man crew by automating the flight engineer & apos; s functions, an industry first.• Glass cockpit flight instruments.• Centre-of-gravity control by shifting around fuel.• Wingtip fences for better aerodynamics (first introduced on the A310-300 ).
COMPARISON OF A300 AND A380 A 300 A 380• Overall length- 63.6m • Overall length-75.3 m.• Height- 16.85 m. • Height- 17.3 m.• Fuselage diameter -5.64 m. • Fuselage diameter -5.64 m.• Maximum cabin width-5.28 m. • Maximum cabin width- 5.28 m.• Cabin length-50.35 m. • Cabin length -60.98 m.• Wingspan- (geometric) 60.3 m. • Wingspan-(geometric) 63.45 m.• Wing area (reference) 361.6 m. • Wing area (reference) 439.4 m• Wing sweep (25% chord) 30 • Wing sweep (25% chord) 31.1 degrees 30 degrees degrees 31.1 degrees• Wheelbase 25.6 m. • Wheelbase- 32.89 m.• Wheel track 10.69 m. • Wheel track -10.69 m.
CABIN LAYOUT OF A 300
CABIN LAYOUT OF A 380
• The Airbus A300 is a short- • The Airbus A380 is a long- to medium-range wide body to-medium range wide body aircraft. aircraft.• Single deck, twin - engined • Double-deck, four-engine• First flight-28 October 1972 • First flight-27 April 2005• Introduction-30 May 1974 • Introduced-25 October with Air France 2007 with Singapore• Primary users Airlines FedEx Express • Primary users UPS Airlines Singapore Airlines American Airlines Emirates Airline Japan Airlines Qantas• Variants:-A 300-B1,A 300- • Variants:-Future variants B2,A300-B4,A300-600 & A A380-900 300-B10.
A300 A380COCKPIT COCKPIT
COCKPITA cockpit or flight deck is the area,usually near the front of anaircraft, from which a pilotcontrols the aircraft.Most modern cockpits are enclosed,except on some small aircraft, andcockpits on large airliners are alsophysically separated from the cabin.From the cockpit an aircraft iscontrolled on the ground and in theair.
CARGOUsually provided on the underside of the aircraft for storageof passengers baggage and fright.Cargo compartments on aircraft comes in four types:Class A: Pressurized, not compartmentalized andwithin easy reach of cabin attendants. Think closets,galley storage, etc.Class B: Pressurized, reachable by crew, butcompartmentalized. Fluffy rides here.Class C: Pressurized or not, compartmentalized, hasa fire suppression system. Passenger luggage isusually placed in a non-pressurized class C compartment.Class D: Not pressurized, compartmentalized, generallydo not have fire suppression systems (except for thelack of air at altitude). This is where the mail goes,along with most other paying cargo, spare parts the airlineIs lugging back and forth, etc.Not all aircraft have all four types of cargo areas, but most decentsized jets will have a B and a C.
The Exterior Parts Of The Aircraft
Describe The Exterior Parts• FUSELAGE : It is the central body potion of a plane designed to carry fuel, passengers, freight & mail. The part of the aircraft, which is streamlined, and the wings and the tails are attached to it. It is made up of Duralium i.e. an alloy of Aluminium, nickel & cobalt.• COCKPIT:A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft , from which a pilot controls the aircraft. It is a place where from which flight is controlled on the ground and in the air.• CABIN: An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which passengers travel, often just called the cabin. The portion of enclosed airplane intended for transporting passengers or freight.• WINGS :The parts of the plane that provide lift & support the weight of the plane, its passengers, crew & cargo while the plane is in flight.• FLAPS: The movable portion of the wings closest to the fuselage. These are control surfaces installed on the trailing edge of a wing and used to increase the amount of lift generated by the wing at slower speeds.
• AILERONS :Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft .The ailerons are used to control the aircraft in roll.• RUDDER :The rudder is one of three primary flight control surfaces found on an airplane. It is a movable surface hinged to the fixed surface that is located at the rear of the aircraft called the vertical stabilizer, or fin. The rudder controls movement of the airplane about its vertical axis and causes the airplane & apos;s nose to move to the right or left and point in a different direction.• HORIZONTAL STABILIZER :This is the horizontal part of the tail assembly, the small wings at the rear of an aircraft‟s fuselage. It balances the lift forces generated by the main wings further forward on the fuselage. The stabilizer also usually contains the elevator.• UNDERCARRIAGE :It is located underneath the plane, it allows the plane to land and supports it while it is on ground. It also has the mechanism to reduce and absorb the shock of landing to acceptable limits.• SPOILER :Spoilers are small, hinged plates on the top portion of wings. Spoilers can be used to slow an aircraft, or to make an aircraft descend, if they are deployed on both wings. Spoilers can also be used to generate a rolling motion for an aircraft, if they are deployed on only one wing.
The Interiors Parts Of The Aircraft
Describe The Interiors Parts• Aisle: A passage between two sections of seats, comprising of horizontally placed rows that is located from the nose to tail of the aircraft without any obstruction.• Bulkhead: Partitions or walls in the fuselage to make compartments for different purposes.• Doghouse: A small cupboard, placed on the floor of the aircraft on casters, usually behind the last row of seats in every zone of the plane used for storage purposes.• Overhead : Medium sized compartments placed along the sidewall of the aircraft, fitted with a door, meant for stowage of the carry-on baggage of the passenger during flight.• Emergency Exits: Doors & Windows used specially in case of emergency besides being used as normal exits.• Galley: The „kitchen‟ of the aircraft is called the galley.• Lavatory: All lavatory are similar in design, though size and contour may very depending on its location.
SLIDE RAFT• An evacuation slide is an inflatable slide used to evacuate an aircraft quickly. An escape slide is required on all commercial (passenger carrying) aircraft where the door sill height is such that, in the event of an evacuation, passengers would be unable to "step down" from the door uninjured.• Escape slides are packed and held within the door structure inside the slide bustle, a protruding part of the inside of an aircraft door that varies in size depending on both the size of the aircraft and the size of the door.• Many, but not all slides are also designed to double as life rafts in case of a water landing.
CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION SYSTEMCIDS (Cabin Intercommunication Data System) isthe core digital cabin management system used inall Airbus aircraft. The system controls and displayscabin functions for passengers and crew. Theseinclude cabin lighting, cockpit/cabinannouncements, door status indication,emergency signals, non-smoking/fasten seatbeltsigns, smoke detectors, cabin temperature,water/waste tank capacity and various other cabinfunctions, some of which are critical for safety.The system consists of a central computer, thedirector, the director interface board, one or moreflight attendant panels and a data network foraudio transmission in the cabin.
PASSENGER SERVICE UNIT (PSU)PSU is an abbreviationin aviation for Passenger ServiceUnit. This aircraft component issituated above each seat row in theoverhead panel above thepassenger seats inthe cabin of airliners. Amongst otherthings a PSU contains reading lights,loudspeakers, illuminated signs andautomatically deployed oxygenmasks and also louvers providingconditioned air.
JUMP SEATThe passenger cabin jump seats areused by the cabin crew, especiallyduring takeoff and landing. Thesejump seats are normally located nearto emergency exits so that flightattendants can quickly open the exitdoor for an emergency evacuation.The passenger cabin jump seatsusually fold out of the way when notin use to keep aisles, workspaces, andemergency exits clear.
P1a & b (LO1 & LO2 of unit 4) In a medical emergency on flight justify how would you communicate on board asking for help? Demonstrate the first aid procedure for the following:a) Fractureb) Epilepsy (Fits)
BASIC RULES OF FIRST AID• Rules discussed in this slide are applicable to all types of first aid.• Keep calm and determine the injuries or sudden cause of illness. Find out exactly what happened. Information may be obtained from the friends, family or witnesses.• If passenger’s condition appears serious, do not hesitate to use the P.A. and request medical assistance from a doctor that may be on board.• Treat injuries in order of their importance.• Act quickly and deal with the urgent conditions first.1. Breathing2. Bleeding3. Broken bones4. Burns• Loosen tight clothing around neck and waist.• Reassure passenger by telling him what you are doing and what it will do for him.• Do not give liquids to an unconscious customer.• Maintain communication with flight deck.• Inform to senior most.
FRACTUREA partial or complete breakage of a bone is knownas fracture.Signs And Symptoms :• Pain at the spot of fracture and around it.• Tenderness i.e. pain on gentle pressure over injured spot.(Do not press hard).• Swelling of the area and disclouration.• Loss of normal movements of the part.• Deformity of Limb : The limb may loss it normal shape. Sometimes the muscles will pull up the lower free ends, causing apparent shortening of the limp.• Irregularity of the bone.• Crepitus (grating) :When one end of the broken bone moves against the other, a crackling sound is heard, which is known as crepitus.• Unnatural movement at the spot of fracture can be felt.
THE ROLE OF FIRSTAIDERA partial or complete breakage of a bone is known as fracture.• Steady and support the injured part immediately, so that no movement is possible. This stops further injury and helps to stop the bleeding. Moreover the danger of the broken ends of bone damaging arteries, nerves and muscles is prevented.• Immobilize the fracture area and the joints on both sides of fracture(above and below fracture side).• Do not apply bandage over the area of fracture.• The bandaging should be fairly firm so that there is no movement of the fractured ends; but not too tight in which case circulation of blood to the area will be stopped. If there is further swelling of the injured area, the bandage is too tight, therefore loosen the bandages slightly.• Always place padding material between the ankles and knees and other hollows, if they have to be tied together, so that when limbs are bound together they are comfortable and steady.• As the patient will be lying down the bandage should be passed through the natural hollows like the neck, the lower part of trunk, knees and just above the ankles, so that the patient body is not jarred.• Always tie knots on the sound side.
EPILEPSY (FITS)Epilepsy is a disease of the youngusually in the begging the attackof convulsions are rare, but theybecome more and more frequentlater. The casualty hurts himselfwhen he falls down.
THE ROLE OF FIRSTAIDER• Just keep the casualty under control; do not use force to stop the convulsion.• Remove objects that may cause injury.• Prevent biting of tongue by inserting a spoon wrapped in a handkerchief near the back teeth, when the jaws are relaxed.• Wipe froth from the mouth.• Follow the general rules for treating unconsciousness.• Watch the recurrence, if any. Leave the casualty after making sure he is aware of his surroundings. Advise him to see a doctor.
P3a (LO3 of unit 4) Imagine a Passenger has collapsed with heart attack. Explain the single personprocedure & 2 people CPR procedure done on casualty.
HEART ATTACK• A heart attack occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked. If blood flow isnt restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die.• If someone has a cardiac arrest or heart attack, there may be only a few minutes to act before it is too late. It is vital to know what to do beforehand.• Immediately attend the patient and identify the problem.• Inform the other crew and senior most.• With the help of other crew make the patient in recovery position.• If the patient is unconscious check the pulse and breathing.• If breathing is absent give him CPR. Until pulse is found.• Inform captain, he will inform to nearest ATC and will make an emergency landing if necessary.• Assist the patient till certified doctor come.• Hand over the patient to doctor or ground staff.
HEART ATTACKRescue Breathing (Adult/child/Infant)• Check for consciousness.• Gently shake and shout, "Are you okay?"• Call for help.• Flight Attendant bring POB, CPR masks, and gloves• Notify the Captain• If victim is in seat, place on floor, face up• Open airway• Head tilt/Chin lift (infant-neutral position)• Check for breathing (5 seconds)• Look, Listen and Feel• Give 2 breaths (infant-puffs), if no breathing,• Give breaths slowly and stop when you see chest starting to rise• Check for pulse/breathing (5 seconds)• Adult/Child - Carotid artery (neck)• Infant-Brachial artery (inside of upper arm)
• The first Rescuer administering CPR become exhausted, a 2nd Rescuer can relieve them. The first Rescuer should complete at least 4 cycles of CPR before attempting to "change over“• The " change over should occur after the completion of a compression/breath cycle.• The first Rescuer will start the cycle with compressions by stating, Change, 2, 3, 4, 5...1 5. Give 2 breaths. Recheck pulse/breathing.• The 2nd Rescuer should kneel next to the victim on the opposite side of the first Rescuer and position hands to start chest compressions.• If NO PULSE/NO BREATHING, the 2nd Rescuer should continue CPR starting with compressions.• If victim HAS PULSE/NO BREATHING, the 2nd Rescuer will continue first aid with Rescue Breathing.
P2 a & b (LO1, LO2 of unit 4) Perform any 2 role play of different types of emergency on board.a) Oven fire drillb) Lavatory fire drillc) Land evacuationd) Decompressione) Ditchingf) Bomb Scareg) Hijacking
DITCHINGPreparation for an Evacuation on Water: In a prepared ditching, the cabin,passengers and cabin crew preparation involve the same procedures as withan emergency landing, except for the following:• Passenger should be informed over PA about the ditching procedure.• Cabin crew should demonstrate the donning of life vests, brace position, point out the exist, and finally, show the safety instruction cards.• Cabin crew should make sure that passengers have correctly donned with life vests (including infant’s life vests), and understand how to inflate them.• Passengers should be reminded to inflate life vest only after leaving the aircraft.The same basic rules apply for ditching as for crash landing. Water isnot soft surface and considerable damage to the fuselage should beexpected.
Evacuation at Sea: The following are suggested items for the crew to considerwhen preparing to evacuate the aircraft following a sea ditching:• Determine the water level outside the aircraft.• Determine the water level inside the craft.• If water level is close to the doorsill, slide/rafts can be detached and moved to a useable exit.• Non-overwater equipped aircraft should include the following floatation equipment: Crew life vests. Passenger seat cushions. Slides.• Partially overwater equipped aircraft should include the following floatation equipment: Crew life vests. Passenger life vests. Passenger seat cushions. Slides.
Over water equipped aircraft should include thefollowing floatation equipment: Crew life vests. Passenger life vests.• Extra life vests.• Child life vests. Passenger seat cushions. Slide/life raft combination. Survival Kit. Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
BOMB SCARE• If a bomb is found on the board in aircraft, assume you are dealing with life device, than notify the captain immediately.• The captain is in complete and full command. His judgment and decisions are absolutely final.• It is upto him weather the device should be lifted or kept untouched. If it is left in place use the following procedure:
• Move passengers as far away from the device as early as possible, if there are empty seats, readjust the seating.• Don’t cut any string or tape which is under tension.• Don’t open any close containers which are suspectable.• Don’t disconnect or cut any wire or electrical connections.• Keep the device in the exact place and in the attitude in which it is found. Stabilize it in this position so it will not be able to move during descent.• Carefully pile blankets and pillows around the device.• Deplane passengers following the instruction of the captain.• Captain may return to base station or nearest destination. He coordinates with the senior most or the ground staff after landing.• The aircraft will proceed in the remote area.• Follow bomb threat aircraft manicuring on ground procedure.• Once off the aircraft, the crew members should not make any statement to press. Crew and the passengers follow the instructions of local authorities.
P2 a & b (LO1, LO2 of unit 4) Demonstrate various duties andresponsibilities of Cabin Crew on board.
CABIN CREWThe role of an air cabin crew member is to provideexcellent customer service to passengers while ensuringtheir comfort and safety throughout the flight.They are trained to deal with security and emergencySituations which may arise and can administer first aid topassengers.
QUALITIES OF A CABIN CREW1) TECHNICHAL KNOWLEDGE2) MATURITY3) ADAPTABILITY4) JUDGEMENT5) TACT6) GROOMING7) POSSITIVE THINK8) FRIENDLY9) EMPATHETIC10) SINCERE11) POSITIVE ATTITUDE12) DEDICATED13) GOOD LISTENER14) A GOOD COMMUNICATOR
• GROOMING: A well groomed person is only approachable in airlines. A cabin crew should maintain their level of hygiene and should be presentable to the customers.• POSITIVE ATTITUDE: A cabin crew with positive attitude is sure of himself, assured, confident. A positive attitude leads to the development of all other traits and also has a overall winning personality.• EMPATHY: A cabin crew should be empathetic towards the passengers because once people feel you are totally understanding their feelings and needs they are more willing to understand you.• GOOD LISTENING SKILL: Having a Good listening skills makes a cabin crew more productive. It helps to build rapport with the customers. Helps to work better in a team based environment. Mainly it helps to resolve problems of the customers.• DEDICATED: A cabin crew should be dedicated and work to attain 100% satisfaction of the passenger. A dedicated person always achieves success in life.• SINCERITY: A sincere person is generally understood to be truth in word and act. A cabin crew should be sincere towards the job. A sincere person is always serious towards the work given.
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A CABIN CREW• The main responsibility of a cabin crew is safety of the passengers, The second responsibility is passenger comfort.• The crew must have some qualities to do their work properly.• The crew on board is as much as the ambassador of the company because he/she represents the company.• The crew should be well groomed, The crew must have pleasant personality, charming voice quality and ability to solve problems of passengers.
• The primary functions of a crew – Safety – Service – Uniforms and presentation• Safety Responsibilities – The majority of a flight attendants duties are safety related. – Prior to each flight, the crew have to check all the equipment‟s working properly, – The flight can not go even if any one equipment is not working properly, – The crew demonstrates use of the equipment‟s in any emergency to the passengers.
• Service – The main function of a crew on board is safety but the second function is to provide proper service to the passengers. – The service includes distribution of food and beverages to the passengers. – Distribution of the magazines and newspapers to the passengers – Distribution of games to the kids. – Helping the passengers if they require the help.• Uniforms & Presentation – Their standards of Grooming, Behaviour, & their wearing of the uniform to acceptable standards must reflect this. – They are recruited to a specification, which will require a minimum standard. – Female Attendants are expected to use Appropriate cosmetics. – All attendants must have very high level of personal hygiene.
P2 d (LO4 of unit 4)In-Flight Meal Service
IN-FLIGHT MEAL SERVICEBreakfast Service:• After that announcements for breakfast.• Firstly table cloths are kept on the opened table.• A glass of water is served to all the passengers and then the MENU card is provided.• According to the passengers choice, • Cereals • Main dish with bread • Fruits • Tea/Coffee are served in order.• At last the trays are collected, table cloths are removed and tables are kept in upright position.
P3 b (LO3 of unit 4) Demonstrate the correct procedure forembarkation/disembarkation of any one of the special handling pax along with related documents.
EMBARKATION AND DISEMBARKATION PROCEDUREEMBARKATION PROCEDURE• First the passenger enters the airport and proceed to the ticket counter.• Ground staff executive will check in the passenger baggage and tags the slip to boarding pass.• If the passenger have any excess baggage they need to pay extra amount according to the airline fares.• If it is domestic destination, passenger need not to go through customs and immigration check.• If it is international the passenger need to go through the customs and immigration check.• After customs and immigration the passenger proceeds to security check.• Then the passenger boards the aircraft.
DISEMBARKATION PROCEDURE:For domestic passenger disembarkation, they directly proceed tobaggage counter and collects their baggage.And they leave the airport.International passengers collects the disembarkation form fromcrew on board.• Then they proceed to customs and immigration check.• After customs and immigration they proceed to baggage counter to collect.• And they leave the airport.
UNM Passenger• Unaccompanied minor.• A passenger who is below the age of 18 travelling alone is classified as unaccompanied minor (UNM).
UNM PASSENGER FORM
Procedure forEmbarkation/Disembarkation of an UNM• This passenger is boarded first and deplaned last.• The ground staff hands over the minor to the crew who is in charge of the section where unm is seated.• Emergency procedures such as fastening of seats belts, usage of oxygen mask is told to unm.• Crew gives toys,books to unm to keep them occupied.• The unm is to be served first.• Unm is accompanied with assistant.• The seat of unm is closer to the galley.
• The airlines take the details of unm and who is going to receive him/her.• The ground staff hands over the unm to the crew and documents also handed over to them.• And if they have any problem or allergy from something they take it and crew have to check it.• When they reach the destination the crew hands over the unm to ground staff and they hand over them to the person who is going to receive him in that destination as the detail given.
P4 b (LO4 of unit 4) Describe the following emergency equipments used in emergency.a) Smoke Hoodb) Oxygen Bottlec) Fire Axed) Asbestos Glovese) Fire Extinguisherf) Oxygen Maskg) Mega Phoneh) ELTi) Life Jacket
SAFETY EQUIPMENTS IN AIRCRAFT1.Oxygen Mask 2.Life Jacket Automatically inflatable vests found underPlaced in overhead cabins to manipulate every seats on board to help in floatationdecompression in the cabin for every during ditching. Children's life vests arepassengers. also present in smaller sizes. Pre-flight check: Randomly check under the passenger seat for the availability of life jacket.
3.Portable Oxygen Bottle 4. MegaphoneOxygen may be classified as an element, a Hand held loudspeakers used by crew togas, and a drug. Oxygen therapy is the enable them to direct emergencyadministration of oxygen at concentrations evacuation procedures by being heardgreater than that in room air to treat or over various sounds associated with theprevent hypoxemia (not enough oxygen in emergency.the blood). Pre-flight check: Correct location.Pre-flight check: In correct location, secured Secured with strap. Press the push to talkwith strap. Mask should be available. Needle button to hear a click sound.on the pressure gage should be in greenzone.
5.ELT 6.Fire ExtinguisherThe ELT (Emergency Locator Transmitter) is Devices used to contain & overcomedesigned to Emergency signal on 121.5MHz. fire. They are of two types : halonand 243.0MHz. automatically on impact by the and water.use of a "G" switch or by manual activation.With ELT’s, Search and Rescue teams may Pre-flight check: Correct location.more easily pinpoint the exact location of Secured with strap. Safety pin intact.downed Aircraft. ELT’s are now also enhanced Needle on the pressure gage shouldby Satellite detection. be between 1500-2000 PSI. Check the expiry date.
7.Smoke Hood 8.Fire Axe Fire axes are provided to obtain emergencyA smoke hood is a protective device access to areas and parts roof the airplanesimilar in concept to a gas mask. which are not easily accessible (e.g. behindA translucent airtight bag seals around sidewall, electrical or ceiling panels). Thethe head of the wearer while an air handle is insulated to protect against electricfilter held in the mouth connects to the shock. In the past, fire axes might be found in the flight deck and in the passenger cabin butoutside atmosphere and is used to on most carriers, in compliance with anti-breathe. Smoke hoods are intended to terrorism regulations and procedures, axes areprotect victims of fire from the effects no longer carried in the passenger/cargoof smoke inhalation. compartment. Pre-flight check: Usually in the cockpit.Pre-flight check: Correct location. Secured with strap.
9.Asbestos Gloves 10.Smoke Goggles 9.Asbestos Gloves These gauntlet-type gloves are kept in the Smoke goggles may be found in the flight flight deck and/or in the cabin to protect deck for use with PBE. Some aircraft are the user against heat/fire. They can also equipped with oxygen masks with integral be used to handle hot or sharp objects. smoke goggles. Furthermore they will provide protection from evaporative cooling at the portable Pre-flight check: Usually in cockpit. fire extinguisher nozzle during discharge. Pre-flight check: Usually in the cockpit.
P4 b (LO4 of unit 4)Imagine there is a fire in the lavatory. Explain how you would contain fire with the help of all available fire fighting equipments on board.
FIRE IN LAVATORYImmediately advise the PIC, other cabin crew members and triplavatory circuit breakers (if possible). Get back-up.Simultaneously, feel the door with the back of hand todetermine fire intensity:If the door is cool:• Open door and locate source of fire.• Discharge fire extinguisher.• Douse with water to prevent re-ignition.
If the door is hot: (fire is severe and at a critical stage)• Put on PBE.• Ensure additional extinguishers available with back-up.• Crouch down to minimize fire and smoke threat.• Open door slightly, enough to insert fire extinguisher nozzle, using door as protection.• Discharge one fire extinguisher inside and close door.• Open door and locate source of fire.• Discharge second fire extinguisher, if required.• Saturate with water to prevent re-ignition.The same procedure applies to wardrobes with doors andoverhead bins.
MERIT-A (unit 4)Describe a Cabin Crew routine for an flight from sign in time until sign out.
CABIN CREW ROUTINE Preparation for the flight on the before day:• Airlines: Jet Airways• Sector: Goa/Delhi/Goa• Flight Time: 9:00 am (Departure from Goa) 11:00 am (Arrival at Delhi) 12:00 pm (Dep. from Delhi) 2:00 pm (Arr. at Goa.)• Work position: 2rd Senior.The things which I keep ready for the flight are:• Night kit (Uniform, Shoes, Toiletry etc.,)• Briefcase (Documents, Announcement book, Manuals, Passport, Both ID Cards)
REPORTING FOR DUTYOn the day of flight:Sign In.I will Report to the Moment Control at 7:45 am. ( 1hour, 45 minutesbefore the flight time).• Then I will Check Departure board. The Details which I checked and saw are: • Captain name: Ali • Senior most crew: Pavan Kumar • Flight no.: IX 323 • Registration no.: VT EAS • Departure time: 9:00 am • Arrival time: 2:00 pm
BRIEFING AT AIRPORTIn the briefing room, Chief will check my: • Knowledge about safety & first-aid. • Documents. • Grooming. • Usage of Emergency equipments and features.
EMBARKATION PROCEDURE• Formalities of a cabin crew at the time of embarkation are: • Check in your baggage.(If any) • ID checking. • Boarding. • Security checking.• I proceed to the aircraft after my security check.• Crew should embark at least 45minutes before the departure (If Domestic).• And as we enter the aircraft according to my work position, I will go to the mid galley.
PRE-FLIGHT CHECK AND DUTIES• I will check all the emergency equipments and emergency features.• I will also check the Cabin dressing, Lavatory dressing.• I will make sure that the galley is prepared with all the beverages and meals.
SERVICE ON BOARDWhile the passengers board the aircraft, we welcome and greet themand help them in finding their seat. After all the passengers are onboard.Before/During Take-Off:• We start with our services..• After all the galleys are prepared we start our ground service first.• I serve passengers with the sweets, Hot Towels and Welcome drinks.• In the mean while welcome announcement and demonstrations are also done.• Now we make sure that Cabin secure for take off.On board service:• All the particular announcements like before take off, before meal service, before landing, after landing, safety measures are said.
Meal Service:• We announce for a meal service and start the service.• We go to the cabin along with the trolley with preset trays and served to the passengers.• The main dish is served according to the passenger choice.• After that Tea/Coffee service is done.• The trays are collected.Preparation for landing:Clearance:• We check the Cabin to be secured.• We check the lavatory clear and keep galley secured.• Senior most Informs commander.• As per the commanders order, We sit in our crew station for landing.• Then the flight is landed.After landing:• Airport specific announcement is done.• We help the passengers in removing baggage, Thank them for choosing our airlines, and wish a good day.• The crew disembark the passengers.
RETURN SECTOR FOLLOWS THE SAME PROCEDURE
POST FLIGHT DUTIESAfter all the passengers deplane:• We check the cabin for any left over passengers.• Also check lavatory, baggage bins and loose items for any personal belongings of passengers.Then I fill the documents to be filled:• I Complete the flight report by filling the remaining particulars.• I fill the catering check list.• I fill the Complain book.• I fill if any emergency equipment is used.
DISEMBARKATION PROCEDURE• I thank all the crew.• And then proceed to Moment Control.• Always cabin crew should deplane, after the Cockpit Crew.• At last again I go to Moment control and know my next days Sector from the Roster.
MERIT-B (unit 4)Prepare any one dummy safety equipment from the following:a) Oxygen Bottle.b) Fire Extinguisher.c) Oxygen Mask.d) Mega Phone.e) ELT.f) Life Jacket.
DUMMY SAFETY EQUIPMENT (LIFE JACKET)• Automatically inflatable vests found under every seats on board to help in floatation during ditching.• This is the dummy of life jacket made by me during my classes.
DISTINCTION-A (unit 4) Advantages and disadvantages of the current scenario of Aviation Industry.Also explain how the aviation industry hasan impact on the economic growth & how u would visualize the future of Aviation Industry in the next 10 years.
ADVANTAGES OF CURRENT SCENARIO OF AVIATION INDUSTRY• The biggest advantage is that its time saving.• Passenger get more comfort than any others do mode of transport.• Due to the emergency of the LCC (low cost carriers) even common man can now travel by air which was a rare scenario in the earlier days.• Development in economy.• Improves standard of living.• More job opportunity.• Improvement in business sector.• Improves technology.• Opportunity to visit different countries.• The aviation industry is one of the fastest growing industry in the world .• As earlier it used to take weeks to cross the ocean but now its just a matter of hours..• The growth rate of domestic and international sector has been more than 25% which is highest in he world.• As the jobs available in this industry are of high risk the salary paid to the crew is very high as compared to other industry.
DISADVANTAGES OF CURRENT SCENARIO OF AVIATION INDUSTRY• It utilizes a lot of resources to do its thing fuel, rubber, metals, etc. hence it is getting too expensive.• It brings air pollution and increase in air traffic.• Hijack, bomb threat and emergency landing.• As there has been a hike in fuel charges, the airlines have increased their fares .• The air tickets will not be affordable to the common man and it would be only for high class society people.• No new aircrafts will be purchased .• Some airlines had cancelled all flights on routes that are un economic.• Airline increased their extra charges such as baggage handling to cover over all increased cost.• For crew members Very risky.• Limited Flying Cannot choose Destination Shouting from Passenger.• Cleaning the Washroom and vomits.• Taking care of medical passengers.• Handling Drunk Passenger with Abusive behaviour.• No social life.• Fatigue.• Jet lag.
AVIATION INDUSTRY HAS AN IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTHHistorically, the Indian aviation sector has been a laggard relative toits growth potential due to excessive regulations and taxations,government ownership of airlines and resulting high cost of airtravel. However, this has changed rapidly over the last decade withthe sector showing explosive growth supported by structuralreforms, airport modernizations, entry of private airlines, adoptionof low fare – no frills models and improvement in servicestandards. Like elsewhere in the world, air travel is beentransformed into a mode of mass transportation and is graduallyshedding its elitist image.
Strong passenger traffic growth aided by buoyant economy, favorabledemographics, rising disposable incomes and low penetration levels.India aviation industry promises huge growth potential due to large andgrowing middle class population, favorable demographics, rapid economicgrowth, higher disposable incomes, rising aspirations of the middle class, andoverall low penetration levels (less than 3%). The industry has grown at a16% CAGR in passenger traffic terms over the past decade. With advent ofLCCs and resultant decline in yields, passenger traffic growth which averaged13% in the first half has increased substantially to 19% CAGR during 20062011. Despite strong growth, air travel penetration in India remains amongthe lowest in the world. In fact, air travel penetration in India is less than halfof that in China where people take 0.2 trips per person per year; indicatingstrong long term growth potential. A comparative statistic in United States,the world’s largest domestic aviation market stands at 2 trips per person peryear. We expect passenger demand to remain stable and grow between 12 -15% in the medium term, assuming a no major weakness in GDP growthgoing forward.
However domestic airlines operate under high cost environment; intensecompetition has constrained yields; aggressive fleet expansions haveimpacted profitability and capital structures.Despite reforms, the domestic aviation sector continues to operate under high costenvironment due to high taxes on Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF), high airport charges,significant congestion at major airports, dearth of experienced commercial pilots,inflexible labor laws and overall higher cost of capital. While most of these factors arenot under direct control of airline operators, the problems have compounded due toindustry-wide capacity additions, much in excess of actual demand. Intensecompetitive pressure from Low cost carriers (focusing on maximizing load factors) andNational carrier (looking to regain lost market share) have constrained yields fromrising in-sync with the elevated cost base. Besides, aggressive fleet expansions (LCCshave added aircrafts mainly on long-term operating leases; FSC’s have purchasedaircrafts – debt financed, most often backed by guarantees from the US EXIM Bank orEurope’s ECA) to leverage upon the anticipated robust growth and to supportinternational operations have significantly impacted the capital structure andweakened the credit profile of most domestic airlines.
AVIATION INDUSTRY IN NEXT 10 YEARS• Aviation today – Commercial aviation’s hub-and-spoke system is overloaded.• Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) – A transportation network that uses small aircraft and small airports is being built.• Highway In The Sky (HITS) – A graphical flight path system that will make flying as easy as – and safer than – driving a car.• The Moller Skycar – Will usher in a new era of personal airborne transportation.• C3D Aero – Builds Aviation Web Services that will help make the future a reality• Hub-and-spoke system. – Relies on a few large airports which do not have enough runways• 100 major commercial airports. – 20 are critical (O’Hare, LaGuardia, etc.)
Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS)• National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) goal: “Reduce door-to-door travel time by half in 10 years and two-thirds in 25 years.”• 98% of Americans live within a 30 minute drive of a small airport.• SATS will be an airborne transportation network that will use small aircraft and the nation’s 5,000+ small airports.
• World War I era technology.• “Steam gauge” instruments: – Some rely on failure-prone vacuum pumps. – Icing can clog air pressure vents. – Each instrument was designed individually.• Lack of integration requires a pilot to do a lot of interpretation, mental visualization, and math in their head.• Making existing instruments electronic adds another layer of complexity.
• World War II era technology.• Radar – Can be inaccurate. – Minimum separation requirements: • 5 miles horizontal. • 1,000 feet vertical.• Radio – Inefficient. – Transmissions can be “stepped on” . – Human controllers hand off pilots from section to section.• Airspace – Confusing. – Becoming more segmented and complex. – Difficult for a pilot to tell exact location.
Highway In The Sky (HITS)• A graphical flight path system.• Flying will be as easy as – and safer than – driving a car.• Intuitive cockpit displays show: – Virtual path for aircraft to follow. – 3D representation of terrain and obstructions. – 2D moving map of other aircraft, weather conditions, restricted airspace, and airports.
HITS air traffic management• Pilot will select destination by either: – Clicking on a map display. – Speaking the name of the airport.• Aircraft will automatically access Aviation Web Services and use them to: – Obtain updates of weather, navigation, airport, and aircraft performance data. Note – Most information will already be cached in a database on the aircraft. – Plan the flight and navigate through the air. – Receive alerts and notifications. – Display current flight information.• Aviation Web Services. – Software components that can be run over the Internet and contain aviation data in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) format.
• Aircraft will be able to communicate information to other aircraft in the area.• Aircraft will broadcast their own Aviation Web Services to the National Airspace System (NAS): – Flight tracking information. – Local weather conditions (PIREPs). – Equipment performance data and failures. – Controller Pilot Communications Markup Language (CPCML).• Will use the Airborne Internet. – A private, secure, and reliable peer-to-peer aircraft communications network that uses the same technologies as the commercial Internet.
DISTINCTION-B (unit 4)Do a case study of any actual mishap of an air crash.
CASE STUDY-ACTUAL MISHAP OF AN AIR CRASHNew Delhi: The country woke up Saturday morning to one of thedeadliest air tragedies in Mangalore. Air India Express flight 812 fromDubai to Mangalore, carrying 166 passengers, got completely burnt,killing 158 people and eight miraculous survivors.Timeline of the mishapAt 2am on the 22nd of May the ill-fated Air India Express flight 812 tookoff from Dubai International Airport. Captain Glusica, a Serbian expat,was in charge. Its a four-and-a-half hour long flight to Mangalore. Theflight was scheduled to touch down at about 6.30 in the morning.There were 166 passengers on board -- 137 adults, 19 children, fourinfants and six crew members. Most of them were from Kerala, headingback from the Gulf, each with a date to keep with their loved ones.
As the narrow-bodied Boeing 737-800 approached the table-toprunway at Mangalore, the winds were calm, its a bit cloudy. Butvisibility was clear up to six kilometers. Captain Glusica and his co-pilotCaptain SS Ahluwalia were cleared by Mangalore airport to approachfor landing. About 10 miles short of the runway, the plane switched overto the Instrument Landing System.What happened next is a mystery at the moment. The aircraft hit thetarmac about 2000 feet beyond its touchdown point. That proved fatalfor the aircraft as it simply did not have enough runway left to break itsspeed. The plane hit a fence, broke through the airport boundary wall and fellinto the gorge beyond, breaking into two and catching fire on impact. Of the166 people on board, 158 perished but there is a miraculous escape for eightpassengers.Reports suggest that the Air Traffic Control received no distresssignal in the moments before landing. So the reason for one of the countrysworst aviation disasters is still a mystery.
10 LATEST PLANE CRASHESThis section present the 10 latest airplane events matching all thefollowing criteria:• The event involves at least one public transport airplane. A flight is considered as public transport when it carries, from point A to point B, passengers or cargo for commercial purposes. Public transport operators must hold a national air operator’s certificate and an operating license.• The event involved at least one airplane having a maximum take off weight equal or more than 12,000 lb (5,7 tons). This corresponds to the definition of a large aeroplane in the sense of the civil aviation regulation. Airplane that fit in that category must comply with more stringent regulations.• The event resulted in a hull loss of at least one public transport airplane. Hull loss means the airplane is damage beyond repairs.• A few events presented here may not match with those criteria, such as relevant events of flight tests aircraft, or military transport planes.
Date : 9th May, 2012Airline : SukhoiAircraft : Sukhoi SU95Location : Near Jakarta, IndonesiaFatalities : 45:45
Date : 20th April, 2012Airline : Bhoja AirAircraft : Boeing 737-236Location : Islamabad, PakistanFatalities : 127:127
Date : 2nd April, 2012Airline : UtairAircraft : ATR-72-201Location : Tyumen, RussiaFatalities : 31:43
Date : 15th March, 2012Airline : Royal Norwegian Air ForceAircraft : Hercules C-130JLocation : Tarfala, SuedeFatalities : 5:5
Date : 15th March, 2012Airline : Jet One ExpressAircraft : Convair CV-340Location : San Juan, Puerto RicoFatalities : 2:2
Date : 28th December, 2011Airline : Altyn AirAircraft : Tupolev Tu-134A-3Location : Osh, KyrgyzstanFatalities : 0:88
Date : 20th December, 2011Airline : Sriwijaya AirAircraft : Boeing 737-400Location : Yogyakarta, IndonesiaFatalities : 0:131
Date : 13th October, 2011Airline : Airlines PNGAircraft : DHC-8-102Location : Madang, Papua New GuineaFatalities : 28:32
MY OPINION• Aviation industry has increased India’s GDP a lot.• The Industry is improving day by day measures are taken to improve safety feature.• This improvement has changed the way a person looks at flying, it’s safety and it’s speed.
A PLACE FOR ME IN THE INDUSTRY• Aviation industry is growing very rapidly and more and more job opportunities.• As far as I’m concerned, I’m sure I will be recognized as a good Flight Steward in future in a good reputed airline.
CONCLUSION• It is quit difficult to conclude from my side. Im a learner, what I have experienced in learning, only I can share my happiness with the experiments practiced with self participation. I once again like to thanks my aviation teacher, Mrs. NINA RAMACHANDRAN who helped to know all about aviation industry and also helped me in preparing this project.