Strategic Business Planning Part 2


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Strategic Business Planning Part 2

  1. 1. Welcome! Session 2 – July 13, 2004 Instructor - Kevin Hawley [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Wharton SBDC is part of Wharton Entrepreneurial Programs and the Sol C. Snider Entrepreneurial Research Center. The Wharton Small Business Development Center is in part financed by a grant from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Community and Economic Development. The Wharton SBDC is funded under Cooperative Agreement No. 4-603001-2-0040-24 by the U.S. Small Business Administration. The support given by the U.S. Small Business Administration through such funding does not an expressed or implied endorsement of any of the co-sponsors’ or participants’ opinions, findings, conclusions, recommendations, products, or services. </li></ul><ul><li>All SBDC programs are non-discriminatory and open to the public. Reasonable arrangements for persons with disabilities will be made if requested at least two (2) weeks in advance. Please contact Dr. M. Therese Flaherty, Director, Wharton Small Business Development Center, University of Pennsylvania, 433 Vance Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 898-8635. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda – Session 2 <ul><li>Recap from Session 1 and Handouts </li></ul><ul><li>Value Proposition Interview Results </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Industry and Competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Projections and Marketing Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for Next Session and Homework </li></ul>
  4. 4. Recap – Session 1 <ul><li>The Executive Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 1-2 page high-level overview of your business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically the last part of the business plan to be completed! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Mission Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief – Flexible – Memorable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market – Contribution - Distinction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product and Service Descriptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are you selling? Who wants to buy it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits and features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing and Testing Your Value Proposition </li></ul>
  5. 5. Session 1 Homework Review <ul><li>Revise and refine the Executive Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Finish drafting your Product/Service descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Finish writing your questions to test your Value Proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews - test your assumptions with customers and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Draft your Business Description </li></ul><ul><li>Draft your Management Team Overview </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interview Results: Field Testing Assumptions About Your Value Proposition <ul><li>Interview your customers to validate your assumptions about the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do your customers purchase from you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they perceive as your “value add” to the purchase? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your value differentiated when compared to other providers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long will you be able to maintain that distinction? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interview your suppliers to validate your assumptions about the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why will customers purchase from you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will they perceive as your “value add” to the purchase? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will your value be differentiated or unique when compared to other providers or substitute products/services? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long will you be able to maintain that distinction? Why? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Discussion: Interview Results <ul><li>Perception vs. Reality vs. Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your perceptions about the business model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer and supplier perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did the interviews reveal a different reality for your customers and suppliers? </li></ul><ul><li>Has your vision for the business changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Refining your Value Proposition </li></ul>
  8. 8. Refining Your Value Proposition <ul><li>From the perspective of your target market: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your plan solve a problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your plan save money? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your plan create new efficiencies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your plan present a more attractive alternative to current options? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From the perspective of your suppliers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your plan present strong competitive advantages? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your plan appear to be sustainable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you come up with a strong set of features that create the benefits customers in today’s market want? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. - 10 Minute Break -
  10. 10. Analyzing Your Industry <ul><li>Who Defines Your Industry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Competition, the Government, and Wall Street </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>professional associations, guilds/unions, trade publications, conventions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>licensure and/or certification requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAICS (North American Industry Classification System) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyst research, tracking, and reporting categories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Metrics and Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are companies compared to one another in your industry? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are you using comparable metrics in developing your business plan? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the most significant financial and operational measurements for your industry and plot the trends over the last 5-10 years – insight? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Concentrations of Effort and Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic locations and trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisitions and divestitures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent innovations, new business lines, product/service changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which customer groups are regarded as most valuable? Least valuable? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Michael Porter’s “Five Forces” Model <ul><ul><li>This is a general model of the environment in which companies operate that suggests what factors strategists should monitor. They key factors are buyers, suppliers, competitors, new companies that might enter the market, and new products or technologies that might replace those on which your organization depends. The model is defined in Michael Porter's book Competitive Strategy. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Analyzing Your Competition <ul><li>Competitors Inside and Outside Your Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For competitors in your industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those who operate in the same location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those who could (and may be likely to) begin operating in your location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential new competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Companies currently serving the same group of customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Companies currently working with the same group of suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “kids in the garage”, “profit hounds”, and corporate venturing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Location, Customers, Size, Strength, Agility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many other companies are there within the same geographic area you expect to attract your customers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many customers in total are in that defined area? What, when, and how much do they buy? How are new customers created? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is market share divided among existing competitors? Is market share relatively stable or has it shifted in recent years? How does market share relate to revenue and profit in this industry and location? How would customers describe the reputations of the top competitors? Examine the competition’s current “actual” mission statements and value propositions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How quickly have competitors responded to changes in the past? Are they positioned to innovate or adapt their business models as new opportunities and challenges arise? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Building the Business Model Cost Projections Sales Projections Pro Forma Financial Statements Operating Plan Marketing Plan Financial Plan What will it cost to produce your product or service? What will it cost to sell any given amount of your product or service? How will your business make money? How much? For how long? Risks?
  14. 14. Operating Plan <ul><li>What will it cost to produce your product/service? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Plant, property, and equipment” costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For simplification, include costs related to where you will work and the durable equipment you need to perform the work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management and Employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other recurring expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging, storage, shipping, distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel and entertainment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting, taxation, and legal services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other expenses specific to your business? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory fees, permits, or licenses? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal fees? </li></ul></ul></ul>Start thinking about the timing of these expenses – are they every month? Fixed or variable costs? Lease vs. buy? Do the costs fluctuate or are they generally stable? Start with narrative overview – assign numbers to the narrative as a 2 nd step!!
  15. 15. Sales Projections <ul><li>How many units of your product/service do you plan to sell? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding volume and fully-allocated unit costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Given the number of units you can produce in your first 3/6/9/12 months, what are your unit costs expected to be? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total fixed and variable expenses from operating plan, divided by the projected number of units you will sell in your first 3/6/9/12 months </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the effects of pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Price elasticity and current pricing ranges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning and target markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Go back to your value proposition! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative strengths and weaknesses, pro’s and con’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic basis for selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonality? Business cycles? Geography? Demographics? </li></ul></ul>Start thinking about how you will explain and defend the numbers In your sales projections – remember to test your assumptions wherever possible!
  16. 16. Sales Projections <ul><li>- Using the Sales and Cost Assumptions Worksheet </li></ul>
  17. 17. Marketing Plan <ul><li>What will it cost to sell any given amount of your product/service? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule #1 – Don’t confuse marketing with sales! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing builds awareness and acceptance of your product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong sales strategy has to back up each marketing initiative! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who exactly needs to be made aware of your product/service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market research – how do these customers prefer to be reached? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct mail? Email? Via retail outlets and promotion? Television or radio advertising? Print ads in magazines? Articles in the WSJ? Relative CPM? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response rates and conversion to sale ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate costs relative to their ROI and prioritize accordingly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion and Public Relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to develop public awareness of your Value Proposition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote the benefits, not the features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always suggest the next step for your customer! </li></ul></ul></ul>The weakest assumptions in most plans are those about what will be effective in reaching customers – choose a strategy, test the results, then determine your next steps. Remember – every marketing initiative needs a strong follow-up sales effort!
  18. 18. Timing Example - Operations, Marketing, and Sales Interactions in the Financial Statements Operating Expenses Marketing Expenses Revenues (Sales) January February March April May June Fictional example for illustration purposes only! Sales Related Operating Expenses Fulfillment Related Operating Expenses
  19. 19. Homework Assignments <ul><li>Develop a draft of your Operating Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with the narrative overview and move into estimates of expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a month-by-month estimate of operating expenses for the next three years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop a draft of your Sales Projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define units of sale, unit costs, and explain your pricing strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a month-by-month estimate of sales (# of units and price) for the next three years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop a draft of your Marketing Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research your industry’s metrics – how do established companies in this industry spend money to reach customers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a month-by-month estimate of marketing expenses for the next three years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions about the assignments? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Next Session (Session 3) <ul><li>Developing the Financial Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing the operating, marketing, and sales plans together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyzing Your Sales Projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What bankers, investors, and MBA’s will do with your plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding and Describing Cash Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or, how much money you really need to start your business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparing to Write the Actual Business Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to put all of the pieces together from Sessions 1-3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See You Next Week! </li></ul>