The term reference is traditionally used in semantics for the relationship which holds between a word and what it points to in the real world. The word “chair” referring to something that made of wood, use to sit, etc
Instead of denoting a direct relationship between words and extra linguistics objects, reference is limited here to the relationship of identity which holds between two linguistics expression. “Mrs. Thatcher has resigned. She announced her decision this morning”
“Mrs.Thatcher has resigned. She announced her decision this morning”The pronoun “She” points to Mrs. Thatcher within the textual words itself.
The most common reference items in English and a large number of other languages are pronouns. Apart from personal reference, English also uses items such as the, this, and those to establish similar links between expression in the text.
Mrs. Thatcher has resigned. This delighted her opponents.In this sentence, the reader has to go back to the previous stretch of discourse to establish what This refers to.
So,reference is a device which allows the reader/the hearer to trace participants, entities, events, etc in a text.
Some languages, unlike English, prefer to use proper names to trace participant through a discourse. So, where English would normally use a pronoun refer to a participant who has already been introduced, Hebrew is more likely to repeat the participant‟s name, it is also happened in Brazilian Portuguese language.
In some languages, such as Japanese and Chinese, pronouns are hardly ever used and once a participant is introduced, continuity of reference is signalled by omitting the subject of following clauses So, different preferences exist across language for certain general patterns of reference
Substitution and ellipsis are grammatical rather than semantic relationship. In substitution, an item is replaced by another item
I like movies And I doIn the example above, do is a substitute for like movies.Items commonly used in substitution in English include do, one, the same.
You think Joan already knows? – I think everybody does. (Does replaces knows) My axes is too blunt. I must get a sharper one (One replaces axes) A: I‟ll have two poached eggs on toast, please. B: I‟ll have the same. (The same replaces two poached eggs on toast)
Ellipsisinvolves the omission of an item. In other words, in ellipsis, an item is replaced by nothing Joan brought some carnations, and Catherine some sweet peas. (elliptic item: brought in second clause).
The operation of substitution and ellipsis in English are not the same with other languages, for example Arabic. Every language has its own battery of devices for creating links between textual elements. Arabic uses a number of devices which cannot be easily represented in back translation.
Unlikethe Arabic grammatical system, the English system makes very few distinctions in term of number, gender, and verb agreement
Conjunction involves the use of formal markers to relate sentences, clauses and paragraphs to each other. Unlike reference, substitution, and ellipsis, of conjunction does not instruct the reader to supply missing information either by looking for it elsewhere in the text or by filling structural slots.
involves the use of formal markers toConjunction :relate sentences, clauses and paragraphs to eachother. Unlike reference, substitution, andellipsis, theuse of conjunction does not instructthe reader to supply missing information eitherby looking for it elsewhere in the text or byfilling structural slots. Instead, conjunctionsignals the way the writer wants the reader torelatewhat is about to be said.
a. additive: and, or, also, in addition, furthermore, besides,similarly, likewise, by contrast, for instance.b. adversative: but, yet, however, instead, on the other hand.c. causal: so, consequently, it follows, for, because, underthe circumstances, for this reasone. continuatives now, of course, well, anyway, surely, after all
a. English, a temporal relation may be expressedby means ofverb such asfollow or precede, and a causalrelation is inherent in the meanings of verbssuch ascause and lead to. b. a temporal relation may be expressed by meansof a verb such asfollow or precede, and a causalrelation is inherent in the meanings of verbssuch ascause and lead to. c. conjunctive relations do not justreflect relationsbetween external phenomena, but may also be set uptoreflect relations which are internal to the text orcommunicative situation.
temporal relations are not restricted to sequence in real time;they may reflect stages in the unfolding text. A good example is the use offirst, second, and third in this paragraph. whether conjunctions which occur within sentences can be considered cohesive, since cohesionis considered by some linguists to be a relation between sentences ratherthan within sentences .
For example : After they had fought the battle, it snowed. by afterward They fought a battle.Afterwards, it snowed. Compared to Arabic, English generallyprefers to present information in relativelysmall chunks and to signal the relationshipbetween.
The following is an example of a fairly freetranslation into Arabic.The translated version conforms more toArabic than to English norms ofcohesion. Notin particular, the use of typical. for example : the use of typical Arabicconjunctions: wa(roughly: „and‟),5 hatha-wa(literally: „this and‟), and kama (roughly:„also‟/
conjuction in englishEnglish: Today (temporal); so (causal); because ( causal) but(adversative ) and yet (additive + adversative), howeve (adversative); and finally (additive + temporal);
German: Today (temporal); so (causal); on the one hand (additive, comparison), but on the other hand (adversative + additive, comparison); finally (temporal); now (continuative, with additional force of adversative); yet (adversative), because (causal); and then (adversative), for this purpose (causal); lastly (temporal); now (continuative or concession – see below); however/in any event (adversative); There are noticeably fewer conjunctions in the English text (eight) than in the German (twelve). German seems to be generally more conjunctive thanEnglish7 The use of explicit conjunction.
Lexical cohesion refers to the role playedby the selection of vocabulary inorganizingrelations within a text. lexical cohesion into two main categories: reiteration and collocation.
Reiteration : as the name suggests, involvesrepetitionof lexical items. A reiterated item may be repetition of anearlier item, a synonym or near-synonym, a superordinate, ora general word. Example of Reiteration : There‟s a boy climbing that tree. a. The boy is going to fall if he doesn‟t take care.(repetition) b. The lad’s going to fall if he doesn‟t take care.(synonym) c. The child’s going to fall if he doesn‟t take care.(superordinate) d. The idiot’s going to fall if he doesn‟t take care.(general word)
Collocation, as a sub-class of lexical cohesionwhich involves a pair of lexical items that areassociated with each other in the language insome way.
- Various kinds of oppositeness of meaning: e.g. boy/girl; love/hate; order/obey. - Associations between pairs of words from the same ordered series: e.g.Tuesday/Thursday; August/December; dollar/cent. - Associations between pairs of words from unordered lexical sets: e.g.part–whole relations: car/brake; body/arm; bicycle/wheel; - Part–part relations: mouth/chin; verse/chorus;co- hyponymy: red/green (colour); chair/table (furniture). - Associations based on a history of co-occurrence (collocation proper)