History is a science, no more and no less.---------J. B. BuryJohn Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927), known as J. B. Bury,was an eminent Irish historian, classical scholar, Byzantinist andphilologist.
If you would understand anything, observe its beginning and its development.---------Aristotle Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, m usic, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, g overnment, ethics, biology, and zoology.
The history of English grammars begins late in the sixteenthcentury with the Pamphlet for Grammar by William Bullokar. In the early works, the structure and rules of Englishgrammar were contrasted with those of Latin. A more modernapproach, incorporating phonology, was introduced in thenineteenth century.
BRIEF HISTORY ON EVOLUTION OF ENGLISH GRAMMARThe Dutch tradition of writing English grammars, which began with ThomasBassons The Conjugations in Englische and Netherdutche in the same year—1586—as William Bullokars first English grammar (written inEnglish), gained renewed strength in the early 20th century in the work ofthree grammarians: Hendrik Poutsma, Etsko Kruisinga, and ReinardZandvoort. Poutsmas Grammar of late modern English, published between1904 and 1929 and written for "continental, especially Dutch students,"selected all its examples from English literature Thomas Basson
A sentence is a group of words thatexpresses a complete meaning. 1) Assertive sentences 2) Interrogative sentences 3) Imperative sentences 4) Exclamatory sentences
1. Assertive (or declarative) sentences: These sentences are statements. They stateor declare something. It can make either a positive or a negative statement.
2. Interrogative sentences: These sentences ask questions. They end with a question mark.
3. Imperative sentences: These sentences expresses orders, requests and advice. They end with the full stop.
4.Exclamatory sentences: These sentences expresses strong or sudden feelings. They begin with what or how. They end with the mark of exclamation.
It is a person or a thing we talk about in a sentence. It is the doer of the action denoted by the verb. It is what we say about the subject in a sentence. It must have a finite verb.EXAMPLE: I stand across Gilbert
1.Noun A part of speech (also a word class,2.Adjective a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a3.Pronoun linguistic category of words (or more4.Verb precisely lexical items), which is generally5.Adverb defined by the syntactic or6.Preposition morphological behaviour of the lexical item7.Conjunction in question.8.Interjection
A noun is the name of a person, a place, an animal or a thing.Kinds of Nouns: Proper nouns Common nouns Collective nouns Material nouns Abstract nouns
•A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place or thing.•Eg: Hitler was a great leader. Harry Potter is awesome.
•A proper noun is the name common to every member of a class or akind.•Eg: A good book on your shelf is a friend that turns its back on youand remains a friend.
•A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things taken together.•Eg: A herd of cattle is passing . The jury found the prisoner guilty.
•A collective noun is the name of a material of which a thing is made.•Eg: Dont miss all the beautiful colors of the rainbow looking for that pot of gold. We play cricket with willow wood.
•An abstract noun is the name of a quality, an action or a state.•Eg: I love all the stars in the sky, but they are nothing compared to theones in your eyes. Since you get more joy out of giving joy to others, you should put agood deal of thought into the happiness that you are able to give. - Eleanor Roosevelt
An adjective is a word that describes a noun. It is usually put before the noun.Kinds of Adjectives: Adjectives of quality Adjectives of quantity Numeral adjectives Distributive adjectives Demonstrative adjectives Interrogative adjectives Possessive adjectives
They tell us about the quality or kind of a person or thing we aretalking about.Eg: Janaki has a sweet voice The tiger is a fierce animal
They denote how much of a thing is meant.Eg: There is no rum in the bottle. He gave some money to the beggar.
They show how many persons or things are meant, or the order inwhich persons or things stand.Eg: There are seven eggs on the plate.
They denote each one of a number.Eg: They gave a pen to each boy.Some other distributive adjectives are: every, neither, either. These adjectives point out which person or thing is referred to: Eg: What are you reading these days? This watch does not belong to me.
These adjectives are used with nouns to ask questions.Eg: Whose turn is it? What time is it?
The words my, our, you, his her, its, there are possessiveadjectives. These are used with nouns to show who possessessomething. These words are also called pronouns.Eg: Our teacher did not come today. Do your homework!
A pronoun is a word used in place of anoun. Personal pronouns Relative pronouns Interrogative pronouns Reflexive and emphatic pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Distributive pronouns Indefinite pronouns Reciprocal pronouns
Personal pronouns stand for three persons:First person(the person speaking):I,we,me,mine,us,ourSecond person(the person spoken to): you,yoursThird person(the person or thing spokenof):he,she,it,him,her,his,they ,them,theirs
Pronouns who, whose,whom,which and that are calledrelative pronouns when they are used to join sentences.
Pronouns who, what,which ,whom,whoseare calledinterrogative pronouns when they are used to askquestions.Eg: Where is the party tonight?
The wordsmyself, ourselves, yourself, herself, himself, itself,themselves are called reflexive pronouns.Sometimes theyare used for emphasis.Eg: The baby saw itself(the baby) in the mirror. I myself wrote to him.
The words this,that, these,those are calleddemonstrative pronouns when they are used to pointout the things and persons they refer to.Eg: That was a brilliant shot from Raina.
The words each,either,neither,everyone,everybodyare called distributive pronouns.They refer to personsor things one at a time.They are always singular.Eg: They were given a rupee each. You could buy either of the books.
The words given in the tabular column below arecalled indefinite pronouns.They do not refer to personor anything in particular.Eg: One must love one’s country.
The word each other and one another are calledreciprocal pronouns.Eg: The two brothers did not like .
A verb is a word which expresses an action, or states what a personor a thing is, or expresses what is done to a person or a thing, ortells what a person or a thing ‘suffers’. Transitive verb Intransitive verb
Transitive verb: A verb which requires an object to complete its meaning is called a transitive verb. Eg: Ram has broken the chair. They distributed sweets. Intransitive verb: A verb which does not require an object to complete its meaning is called a intransitive verb. Eg: The dogs are barking. Stars twinkle.
They tell us how, when, where , how often actions take place. KINDS OF ADVERBS: a) Simple adverbs b) Interrogative adverbs c) Relative adverbs
KINDS OF SIMPLE ADVERBS: 1. Adverbs of Manner-how 2. Adverbs of time-when 3. Adverbs of place-where 4. Adverbs of frequency-how often 5. Adverbs of degree-what extent 6. Adverbs of affirmation and negation 7. Adverbs of reason
Preposition is a word which shows therelationship of a noun or a pronoun withanother word in a sentence.
Timeline of English grammars1586. William Bullokar: Bref Grammar forEnglish.1594. Paul Greaves: Grammatica Anglicana.1617. Alexander Hume: Orthographie andCongruitie of the Britan Tongue.1619/1621. Alexander Gill: Logonomia Anglica.1634. Charles Butler: English Grammar.1640. Ben Jonson: The English Grammar.1646. Joshua Poole: The EnglishAccidence.653. John Wallis: GrammaticaLinguæ Anglicanæ.1654. Jeremiah Wharton: The EnglishGrammar.1662. James Howell: A New English Grammar.1669. John Newton: School Pastime for YoungChildren: or the Rudiments of Grammar.1669. John Milton: Accedence CommenctGrammar (a Latin grammar written inEnglish).1671. Thomas Lye: The Childs Delight.1685. Christopher Cooper: GrammaticaLinguæ Anglicanæ.1688. Guy Miège: The English Grammar.
1804. Noah Webster: A Grammatical Instituteof the English Language.1818. William Cobbett: A Grammar of theEnglish Language, In a Series of Letters.1850. William Chauncey Fowler: Englishgrammar: The English language in itselements and forms.1874 Eduard Adolf Maetzner, An Englishgrammar: methodical, analytical, andhistorical. With a treatise on theorthography, prosody, inflections and syntaxof the English tongue, and numerousauthorities cited in order of historicaldevelopment. (English translation of EnglischeGrammatik (1860–65)).1892/98. Henry Sweet: A New EnglishGrammar, Logical and Historical (Part 1:Introduction, Phonology, and Accidence; Part2: Syntax).1904–1929. H. Poutsma: A Grammar ofModern English (5 volumes).1909–1932. Etsko Kruisinga: A Handbook ofPresent-day English1909–1940. Otto Jespersen: A Modern English