Some hypotheses about child labor in guadalajara, méxico
S OME HYPOTHESES ABOUT CHILDLABOR IN G UADALAJARA , M EXICO : Patricia Murrieta Cummings Profesor Investigador, Universidad de Guadalajara February 2010
G ENDER DISPARITIES “Gender disparities exist before birth and become wider through the school-age and adolescent years” (Kurz & Prather, 1995) Youngest age group: mortality rates, health care and nutrition School-age group: Social and cultural vulnerability increases greatly (increased work responsibilities, time spend in domestic chores, pregnancy, gender violence, etc.) Disparity reduction between boys and girls, as “a mayor strategy for the achievement of the goals for children and development (…)” UNICEF, 1991
T HE NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF W ORK INSTEAD OF SCHOOL It impacts children’s long term ability to satisfy their needs through a more effective use of personal resources (Behrman, 1989) Decreases the possibility of having a good income. In México a person with 6 years of schooling earns almost 100% more than someone without studies. The difference with someone who completed secondary school is of 170% (López, 2005:91). Child labor contributes to create a poverty trap as households substitute education by child work, in an attempt to increase daily income within the household. (Ravallion, et.al, 2000; Ureña, 2008) Is a constraint to human capital , and therefore, to economic growth and development (Udry, 2006; Glewwe & Hacoby, 1994). Boys and girls that go to school at the same time that work decrease their learning competence because of the lack of time for studying and because of being tired (Heady, 2000) Can be hazardous (UNICEF, 1991; Kurz & Prather, 1995; López, 2005; OIT, 2004)
W HY DO CHILDREN WORK ? In Latin America and in many developing countries, many children work and study (López, 2005; Blanco, 2009; Gustafsson-Wright, 2000). Economic development and child labor are strongly correlated (Edmonds, 2005) Poverty is seen as one of the main causes (López, 2005; Basu y Van, 1998; Ureña, 2008; Canagarajah, et.al., 1997; Heady 2000; Edmonds, 2005) Household well-being (Dar et.al. 2002)
¿Q UÉ PASA EN M ÉXICO ? Poor people High risk: Walking through the cars, exposed to severe weather conditions, subject to agression from drivers, accidents. 20.7% working children are exposed to risk (Módulo de Trabajo Infantil, ENOE, 2007) *Without including street children, therefore percentage should be higher. 2007, 549 children working on the streets and city markets. 67% boys. (Estudio municipal sobre trabajo en la calle, DIF Guadalajara, Coordinación de Protección a la Infancia, 2007b) Worst forms of child labor: slavery, exposition to health problems and dangerous situations, risks linked to personal security. (Organización Internacional del Trabajo y Unión Interparlamentaria UIP, 2002:15)
G UADALAJARA Data shows: More boys than girls work on the streets Reports at world-wide level (Kurz & Prather, 1995; UNICEF, 2006; Blanco Allais, 2009) and data at local level (Consejo Estatal de Población, 2009; Consejo Nacional de Población, 2009; Coordinación de Protección a la Infancia, 2007; Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres, 2007) show greater social and cultural vulnerability for women than for men, even though there is a higher presence of girls attending school than boys. Girls work less than boys Attend school in a higher proportion
R ESEARCH Q UESTIONWhy even when girls have a greater presence atschool, and a minor participation in child labor,they are more vulnerable than boys? ¿por qué a pesar de que hay una mayor presencia de niñas en la escuela primaria, y una menor participación en el trabajo infantil, la calidad de vida de las mujeres es inferior a la de los hombres?
F ILLING THE GAP ? Few studies about Schooling and child labor in Mexico All of them based on the ENOE: statistic. Main variable: income What is behind income? Costs of schooling and parents decision Impact of culture on parents decission about schooling Case study: Families that work on the street of Guadalajara City
W HAT I DO IN THIS PART OF MY RESEARCH I try to explain how the minor presence of girls working on the streets can be understood as the result of an exclusion process strongly embedded in a culture in which women’s tasks and responsibilities are socially defined and limited in such a way that an important part of their work is not visible. CULTURE HELPS TO HIDE ABUSIVE SITUATIONS Situations in which children rights are not respected
O BJECTIVE To show how, even within the most vulnerable population, women tend to reproduce more easily what Charles Tilly (1998) called “durable inequalities”. Inequalities that result from subtle forms of segregation that are reproduced from one generation to the other.
M AIN A IM To understand how a culture, strongly rooted in social roles that tend to differentiate girls from boys, helps to reproduce inequalities from one generation to the other; perpetuating in this way the disparity in the development and well being of boys and girls.
M AIN A RGUMENT Child labor and school attendance can and Justify better needs to be explained from a gendernourishment perspective of boys The decision about sending (or not) a child to school is determined by the perceived cost of Support of schooling (Udrey, 2006), and by culturalworkboys’ aspects related to gender roles in which prejudice about children’s capacity to study influence decisions about investing in Perceived cost ofor not. And that Gender education School definitions about gender(earning do both, (1) roles schooling roles attendance influence parent’s opportunity) of boys’ work and (2) supportPrejudice aboutchildren’s capacity justify better nourishment of boys based onto study their need to work.
C HARLES T ILLY, 1998 In most households, when families are confronted by limited amounts of food, decisions about which family member is going to be well nourished are continuously being taken. A significant amount of literature about discrimination and gender, presents enough evidence about unequal treatment among men and women in many parts of the world (Tilly, 1998).
W HAT I’ M PRESENTING HERE Hypotheses based on data of child labor in Mexico and specifically, in the municipality of Guadalajara. Descriptive work based on: Data sets from the Sistema de Atención a la Familia, DIF Guadalajara, Semi-structured interviews with 65 families that work on the streets Informal conversations with families working on the streets
W HAT I’ M PRESENTING The city The Families: Mixtecos with a long tradition of migration and work on the streets Mixtecos recently arrived “Tapatios” I argue that each of these groups has a particular culture that influence the way in which children participate in the labor market and the decision about sending them to school or not. Characteristics of children who work on the streets Present five preliminary hypotheses
L A ZONA METROPOLITANA DE GU ADALAJARA 76% of the population in México lives in urban areas. Guadalajara is the second largest city in the country. It is estimated that currently has 4 million habitants (Consejo Nacional de Población, 2009). Mostly women, 28.98% under 15 years old. (>1’200, 000 minors) at least 400,000 living in the municipality of Gudalajara. Population density gives place to more than 80 thousand people living in extreme poverty, 160 thousand in pobreza de capacidades and more than half million in poberty of partimonio
I MPLICATIONS FOR CHILD LABOR High contrast among the population makes employment as domestic worker easy and facilitates the existence of an informal market on the streets. I sell, you buy…
C HILD LABOR AND CULTURE : THE FAMILIES (2007) At least 1165 persons working on the streets of the municipality of Guadalajara. Which represent approximately 250 families. At least 40 of them are mixtecos that live in the poorer zones of Guadalajara.
Mixtecos Mixtecos Mixtecos Tapatios FAMILIESCol. Ferrocarrilera Col. Ferrocarrilera El Embarcadero2nd generation Recently arrived Recently arrived Born in the city or sorroundingsA family member owns a Place of their own, Irregular settlement, Rent a place for theirplace to live previously from a relative share the place with other family. (don’t have papers, but families Lease or borrow a room feel as if their own) in a relative’s house.1 or 2 households in the Mostly 1 household per 2 or more households in Mostly 1 household persame property place of residence the same property place of residenceChildren under 5 are still Children under 5 are still Children under 5 are still Children need to go tosmall for attending school small for attending school small for attending school school since they are 3 years oldBoth men and women can Men are mainly Men are mainly Both men and women cansell on the streets gardeners; women sell on gardeners; women sell on sell on the streets, but the streets the streets they are mainly “franeleros”Both parents try to learn Few adults speak Spanish. Few adults speak Spanish. Spanish speakersSpanish or know itTrying to improve living Not really interested in The poorest of all. Trying to improve livingconditions. Strong interest changing their way of life conditions. Strong interestin children’s education. Do and no much interest in in children’s education. Donot want a 3rd generation children’s school. not want their childrenof street vendors. working on the streets. All of them share the lack of opportunities because of education level
C HILDREN WORKING ON THE STREETS OF G UADALAJARA More than 335 boys and girls working on the streets of the muncipality. 58% are boys and 42% girls. Most girls: between 7 and 12 years old. Most boys: between 13 and 17 years old. More boys studying than girls. Most girls are companions, ask for coins or sell candies. Older girls clean windshields. Few girls sell artcrafts on the streets. Boys prefer to clean windows or sell candies. Smaller boys are almost always accompanying an adult—it is easier to receive money if you are with a small child than by yourself. It is more common to find boys as clowns than girls.
T HE MARKETS An important amount of children do their activities in the main city markets. (2007) Were found 212 minors working on the 3 main markets of the municipality Strong presence of boys: 80% Most boys are carriers (“diableros”). Girls: Sell candies, juices or take care of small brothers and sisters. More common to find minors working and studying. Given the possibility of being employed in the small stores, it is more common to find children with middle school completed, and a high presence of adolescents. Is not common to find indigenous population employed in the markets. Indigenous women prefer to be selling candies and artcrafts on the streets.
EL TRABAJO OCULTO Domestic work is hard to see or measure. Many families do not recognize domestic work or care of small brothers and sisters as child labor… it is meant to be a girl’s responsibility. Even some adults that work on the streets, consider that girls presence on the streets is just a result of the need to take care of siblings, and do not report such as child labor.
P RELIMINARY FINDINGS AND H YPOTHESESRango de edades Trabaja Si NoDe 4 a 6 Hombre 16.7 % 83.3 % Mujer 27.3 % 72.7 %De 7 a 12 Hombre 41.7 % 58.3 % Mujer 52.9 % 47.1 %De 13 a 15 Hombre 52.6 % 47.4 % Mujer 16.7 % 83.3 % During adolescence theDe 16 a 18 Hombre 77.8 % 22.2 % percentage of girls who work decreases; while Mujer 60.0 % 40.0 % the percentage of boys increases with age.
F o r m a n y p a r e n ts g i r l s fa c e m o r e r i s k s th a n b o ys ; b e c a u se o f th e ir la c k o f c a p a c ity to d e fe n d th e m se l ves a n d b e c a u se o f th e i r s e xu a l i ty H1: Parents are more apprehensive about older girls working on the streets, than boys or little girls. H2: Sometimes this same concern makes them decide not to send them to school. “No es lo mismo ser mujer que hombre en la calle. A nosotras nos molestanmás y sienten que si trabajamos en la calle es porque somos unas locas.Luego creen que estás buscando alguien con quien irte. A mi llegaron arespetarme porque me arrejunté con Gustavo, pero yo no dejaría que mi hijatrabajara en el crucero” (Mónica, octubre del 2009)
S OCIAL ROLES DEFINE WHAT A GIRL OR A BOY HAS TO DO . I N SOME CASES THESE ROLES AREIMPOSED , AND IN OTHERS LEARNED BY IMITATION . H3: As girls grow, their responsibility toward the household increases, with which child labor moves from the streets to their home. Women’s work (or not to do it) is a social act strongly embedded in an economic, social and cultural dynamic; as Beşpinar-Ekici argues, patriarchal values determine how women live their work experience and the general ideas and expectations about a women’s work. (Beşpinar-Ekici, 2007)
T IME SPENT ON DOMESTIC WORK , BY SEX Rango de edadSexo De 4 a 6 De 7 a 12 De 13 a 15 De 16 a 18 TotalHombre Media .0158 .4895 1.4150 3.7222 1.9590 Desviación .06882 .88647 1.89244 8.01994 5.80752 Estándar N 19 38 20 9 105Mujer Media .0909 .7559 1.9615 1.5300 2.7281 Desviación .30151 1.54904 2.84474 1.89388 6.75475 Estándar N 11 34 13 10 89
B OYS SPEND MORE TIME WORKING ON THE STREETS THAN GIRLS But, when you take into consideration both: work on the streets and domestic work, girls between 7and 12 years old, work more hours than boys. Girls have a double “jornada” that is not evident on existing statistics about child labor. Many work on the streets at the same time that they do domestic work and study: a triple “jornada”. During adolescence, girls work less than boys for payment. Some leave the streets to work as domestic workers or to help with the household needs so their mother can work. H4: In Mexico, ideas about what a girl is meant to do because sheis a women influence considerably in the double “jornada” theyhave to do when they are between 7 and 12 years old (elementaryschool girls)
S CHOOL ATTENDANCERango de edades Estudia Si No During adolescence, theDe 4 a 6 Hombre 52.9 % 47.1 % minor presence of girls in Mujer 40.0 % 60.0 % the labor market is still not Total 48.1 51.9 % reflected in schoolDe 7 a 12 Hombre 94.7 % 5.3 % attendance. Mujer 87.1 % 12.9 % Total 91.3 % 8.7% The higher proportion ofDe 13 a 15 Hombre 88.2 % 11.8 % girls attending school takes Mujer 76.9 % 23.1 % place during high school. Total 83.3 % 6.7 %De 16 a 18 Hombre 37.5 % 62.5 % The proportion of girls who Mujer 44.4 % 55.6 % drop school is less than that Total 41.2 % 58.8 % of boys
G ETTING OUT OF SCHOOL Based on studies about school attendance, it is common for boys to leave school because they do not get adapted or because they have a hard time studying (Rizzini, 2009).H5: Girls are more capable of adapting to school thanboys—it is less common for girls to get involved in schoolconflicts, than for boys. Although, the double “jornada”and the importance that is given to matternity and towomen’s responsibility of taking care of the house, givesplace to a lack of interest in school and a difficulty to dowell at school.
C ONCLUSIONS AND FINAL REMARKS Based on existing data, it seems that boys are subject to a greater negative impact than girls. Nevertheles, when we take into consideration the information obtained with working families (qualitative data), it seems that women suffer more of a double working day than boys and are left behind at school more easily than boys. The greatest negative impact for girls takes place during elementary school, because they do not have time for recreation and study, because they need to help their family. During adolescence, the negative impact has more to do with a consequence of their infancy—being left behind at school—and with the possibility of getting pregnant at a young age, than with the double “working day”.
L ACK OF CLARITY IN THE DIMENSION OF THE DISPARITY BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS DEVELOPMENT Apparently there are significant differences in terms os access to school and the need to work that should benefit women. Nevertheless, as I have tried to show, there are disparities that are hard to observe if we just base our analysis on statistics; and that have a significant impact on a long term. Disadvantages that if we do not observe, can give place to mothers of children with a minor life expectancy during their first years of life; and as Kurz and Prather argue, it is probable that those who survive would have worst health, lower education level and be less confident, with which the poverty cycle and the lack of guarantee to human rights would continue. (Kurz y Prather, 1995: 1)If we want to guarantee human rights, we need take into considerationgender differences