The endocrine

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The endocrine

  1. 1. ENDOCRINE GLANDS The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  2. 2. Definition of Terms • Glands - an organ in the human or animal body that secretes particular chemical substances for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings. • Target cells - a cell that bears receptors for a hormone, drug, or other signaling molecule, or is the focus of contact by a virus, phagocyte, nerve fiber, etc. • Receptor - an organ or cell able to respond to light, heat, or other external stimulus and transmit a signal to a sensory nerve. • Corpus luteum - a hormone-secreting structure that develops in an ovary after an ovum has been discharged but degenerates after a few days unless pregnancy has begun. The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  3. 3. Definition of Terms • Spermatogenesis - the production or development of mature spermatozoa. • Ovarian follicles - a fluid-filled structure in the mammalian ovary within which an ovum develops before ovulation. • Biorhythms - a recurring cycle in the physiology or functioning of an organism, such as the daily cycle of sleeping and waking. The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  4. 4. Posterior pituitary gland • (or neurohypophysis) Comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system. The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  5. 5. Secreted Hormones Oxytocin Location: • Uterus • Mammary glands Function: • Stimulates contraction • Stimulates milk ejection The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  6. 6. Secreted Hormones Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Location: Kidneys Function: Stimulates reabsorption of water; conserves water The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  7. 7. Anterior Pituitary Gland • Also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior • The glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe, that makes up the pituitary gland . The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  8. 8. Secreted Hormones Growth hormone (GH) Function: • Stimulates growth by promoting protein synthesis and fat breakdown The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  9. 9. Secreted Hormones Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Location: Adrenal cortex Function: • Stimulates secretion of adrenal cortical hormones such as cortisol The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  10. 10. Secreted Hormones Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Location: Thyroid gland Function: • Stimulates thyroxine secretion The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  11. 11. Secreted Hormones Luteinizing hormone (LH) Location: Gonads Function: • Stimulates ovulation and corpus luteum formation in females; stimulates secretion of testosterone in males The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  12. 12. Secreted Hormones Prolactin (PRL) Location: Mammary glands Function: • Stimulates milk production The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  13. 13. Secreted Hormones Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Location: Gonads Function: • Stimulates spermatogenesis in males; stimulates development of ovarian follicles in females The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  14. 14. Secreted Hormones Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Location: Skin Function: • Stimulates color change in reptiles and amphibians; unknown function in mammals The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  15. 15. Thyroid Gland • The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage (which forms the laryngeal prominence, or "Adam's apple") The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  16. 16. Secreted Hormones Thyroxine (thyroid hormone) Location: Most cells Function: • Stimulates metabolic rate; essential to normal growth and development The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  17. 17. Secreted Hormones Calcitonin Location: Bone Function: • Lowers blood calcium level by inhibiting loss of calcium from bone The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  18. 18. Parathyroid Glands • Small endocrine glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  19. 19. Secreted Hormones Parathyroid hormone Location: • Bone • Kidneys • Digestive tract Function: • Raises blood calcium level by stimulating bone breakdown; stimulates calcium reabsorption in kidneys; activates vitamin D The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  20. 20. Adrenal Medulla • Part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  21. 21. Secreted Hormones Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) Location: Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, blood vessels Function: • Initiate stress responses; raise heart rate, blood pressure, metabolic rate; dilate blood vessels; mobilize fat; raise blood glucose level The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  22. 22. Adrenal Cortex • Mediates the stress response through the production of mineral ocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  23. 23. Secreted Hormones Aldosterone Location: Kidney tubules Function: • Maintains proper balance of Na+ and K+ ions The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  24. 24. Secreted Hormones Cortisol Location: Many organs Function: • Adaptation to long-term stress; raises blood glucose level; mobilizes fat The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  25. 25. Pancreas • A glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  26. 26. Secreted Hormones Insulin Location: Kidney tubules Function: • Lowers blood glucose level; stimulates storage of glycogen in liver The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  27. 27. Secreted Hormones Glucagon Location: Liver, adipose tissue Function: • Raises blood glucose level; stimulates breakdown of glycogen in liver The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  28. 28. Ovary • An ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female repro ductive system The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  29. 29. Secreted Hormones Estradiol Location: General Functions: • Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics in females Location: Female reproductive structures Functions: • Stimulates growth of sex organs at puberty and monthly preparation of uterus for pregnancy The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  30. 30. Secreted Hormones Progesterone Location: Uterus Function: • Completes preparation for pregnancy Location: Mammary glands Function: • Stimulates development The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  31. 31. Testis • The primary functions of the testes are to produce sperm(spermat ogenesis) and to produce androgens, primarily testosterone. The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  32. 32. Secreted Hormones Testosterone Location: Many organs Functions: • Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics in males and growth spurt at puberty Location: Male reproductive structures Functions: • Stimulates development of sex organs; stimulates spermatogenesis The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  33. 33. Pineal Gland • Also known as the pineal body, conarium or epip hysis cerebri • A small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  34. 34. Secreted Hormones Melatonin Location: Gonads, pigment cells Functions: • Function not well understood; influences pigmentation in some vertebrates; may control biorhythms in some animals; may influence onset of puberty in humans The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  35. 35. Target Cells The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  36. 36. What is target cells? The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  37. 37. Three actions are defined to be able to describe how the signal is distributed for a particular hormonal pathway: • Endocrine action • Paracrine action • Autocrine action The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
  38. 38. Two important terms are used to refer to molecules that bind to the hormone-binding sites of receptors: • Agonists • Antagonists The Endocrine System | Bachelor in Political Science II-1
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