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Spider maps for location based services improvement

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  • 1. Spider  Maps  For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   Research  Team:   João  Mourinho     Teresa  Galvão  Dias   João  Falcão  e  Cunha   IESS’11   15  February,  Geneve  
  • 2. Night  buses  from  city  of  London  
  • 3. Background   Related  Work   Spider  Maps  for  Loca/on-­‐ Based  Services  Improvement   Point  Posi/oning  Enhancement  Strategies  Spider  Maps   Conclusions   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   3/28  
  • 4. 1   Background   •   Industrial  Revolu/on   -­‐   Changes  in  economy,  society   -­‐   Large  Urban  Areas   -­‐   Complex  Transporta/on  systems   •   People  are  concentra/ng  in  big  ci/es   -­‐   80%  of  the  world  popula/on  lives  in  urban  areas   -­‐    60%   of   the   European   popula/on   lives   in   urban   areas   •  Public   transporta/on   is   crucial   |   Sustainability   and   efficiency  in  mobility  |  High  quality  of  urban  life   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   4/28  
  • 5. 1   Background   •   Problem   -­‐    People   do   not   use   Public   Transporta/on   to   its   full   poten/al  |  Time  and  Money   •   Some  services  are  not  efficient   -­‐    Trip   planning   in   public   transporta/on   (PT)   currently   offered   through   the   use   of   paper   maps   at   transporta/on  network  hubs  and  stops   •  Tradi/onal  Maps  are  produced  manually  |  High  Cost   •  They  do  not  reflect  user  context    |  Inflexibility   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   5/28  
  • 6. 1   Background   Objec/ve:   ·∙  Develop  a  new  kind  of  map  |  “Spider  Map”   ·∙  Spider  Map   -­‐  Is  a  special  kind  of  Schema/c  Map   -­‐  Is  an  abstrac/on  and  simplifica/on  of  reality   -­‐  May  be  automa/cally  produced  by  computer   ·∙   We   have   researched   how   they   can   be   used   to   improve   quality  of  LBS  and  PT  ridership   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   6/28  
  • 7. Background   Related  Work   Spider  Maps  for  Loca/on-­‐ Based  Services  Improvement   Point  Posi/oning  Enhancement  Strategies  Spider  Maps   Conclusions   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   7/28  
  • 8. 2   Related  Work    Loca/on  Based  Services   -­‐   Informa/on  Systems,  Accessible   with  mobile  devices  through  a   network   -­‐   Make  use  of  the  loca/on  of  the   mobile  device   -­‐   Are  an  intersec/on  of   technologies   •  Two  way  communica/on  and  interac/on  |  user  tells  the   system  his  actual  context,  inten/on  and  preferences  (or  they   are  obtained  in  a  pervasive  way),  and  the  service  provider   delivers  informa/on  tailored  to  that  context   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   8/28  
  • 9. 2   Related  Work   •   LBS  Components   -­‐   Mobile  Device   -­‐   Communica/on  Network   -­‐   Posi/oning  Component   -­‐   Service  and  Applica/on  Provider   -­‐   Data  and  Content  Provider   •  LBS  User  Ac/ons   -­‐   Loca/ng   -­‐   Searching   -­‐   Naviga/ng   -­‐   Iden/fying   -­‐   Checking   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   9/28  
  • 10. 2   Related  Work   •  LBS  |  Importance  of  Context   -­‐   All  the  five  user  ac/ons  depend  on  the  context   •  Context  types   -­‐  Spa/al  Context  |  where  the  user  is   -­‐  Time  Context  |  when  he  is  using  the  service   -­‐  User  Context  |  what  is  he  using  the  service  for   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   10/28  
  • 11. 2   Related  Work   •  There  are  some  types  of  mobile  services  which  are   not  effec/vely  grasping  their  users  |  Public   Transporta/on   •  Different  dimensions  of  informa/on  quality  affect  consumer’s   sa/sfac/on  towards  mobile  services  and  their  acceptance   (Chae  et  al,  2002)   Connec/on  Quality   Content  Quality   User  Sa/sfac/on   Inten/on  to  use   Interac/on  Quality   Contextual  Quality   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   11/29  
  • 12. 2   Related  Work   Schema/c  Maps   Famous  Schema/c  Map    -­‐  London  Underground    Diagram  (Beck,  1933)   • Innova/ve  |  Line  Orienta/on  and    Distor/on   • Controversial..  But  successful!   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   12/28  
  • 13. 2   Related  Work   Schema/za/on  Process   -­‐   Reduces  unimportant  details  through  abstrac/on   -­‐   May  use  distor/on  and  other  visual  techniques   -­‐    Nowadays  executed  by  a  handful  of  skilled  designers   and  cartographers   Automa/on  of  the  Schema/za/on  Process:   Output   -­‐Align  to  G Phase  I  S  chema/c   rid   Input  M-­‐ap/Sketch  Map   I    Op/miza/on   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   13/28  
  • 14. 2   Related  Work   Challenges   -­‐   Algorithms  |  Mul/criteria  combinatorial  op/miza/on  problem,   ooen  with  conflic/ng  variables   -­‐    There  is  some  research    but  considering  only  isolated  parts  of   the  problem   -­‐    A   true   mul/disciplinary   approach   is   needed   |   Informa/on   Systems   |   Transporta/on   Services   |   Opera/ons   Research   |   Human  Computer  Interac/on  |  Cogni/ve  Psychology  |  Arts   Current  main  issues   -­‐    Algorithm   Performance   |   Real   /me   for   complex   maps   not   achieved  yet     -­‐    Visual  Presenta/on  |  Aesthe/cs  |  Labeling  |  Node  Conflicts  in   dense  maps   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   14/28  
  • 15. Background   Related  Work   Spider  Maps  for  Loca/on-­‐Based   Services  Improvement   Point  Posi/oning  Enhancement  Strategies  Spider  Maps   Conclusions   Automated  Schema/c  Maps   Point  Posi/oning  Enhancement  Strategies   15/28  
  • 16. 3   Spider  Maps   Defini/on   -­‐  Are  a  special  type  of  Schema/c  Map   -­‐   As   with   Schema/c   Maps,   stops   and   lines   correspond   to  ver/ces  and  edges   Enhancements     -­‐  Spider  architecture       -­‐  Pay  special  aqen/on     to  context   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   16/28  
  • 17. 3   Spider  Maps   Example  |  Porto  São  João  Hospital  Area  Spider  Map   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   17/28  
  • 18. 3   Spider  Maps   Electronic  Spider  Maps   -­‐  Spider   Map   advantages   can   only   be   fully   materialized  if  they  are  automa/cally  generated   -­‐  An   electronic   map   can   be   regenerated   much   faster   than  a  paper  map  |  Fit  to  different  contexts     -­‐   Context   variables   could   be   obtained   pervasively   (sensors)   and   influence   the   genera/on   of   electronic   spider  maps   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   18/28  
  • 19. 3   Spider  Maps   Our  team  designed  a  sooware  framework   •  Generates  spider   Maps  automa/cally,   In  real  /me   •  It  is  a  research  lab   for  our  Algorithms   •  Can  be  used  as  an     engine  to  power  LBS   •  Already  in  use  with     Success!   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   19/28  
  • 20. 3   Spider  Maps   Algorithms  Researched:   -­‐   Fisheye  algorithm  |  Done   -­‐   GRASP  (Greedy  Randomized  Adapta/ve  Search  |  Done,  in  use   -­‐  “HPPO  –  Heuris/c  Point  Posi/oning  Op/miza/on”)  has  already   shown  promising  results  in  the  Framework  tests   -­‐   Enhanced  Tabu  Search|  Is  being  finished   Innova/on   -­‐   Spider   Maps   generated   through   our   framework   are   already   being  used  in  Porto  and  Lisbon  since  the  end  of  2010   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   20/28  
  • 21. 3   Spider  Maps   How   can   Spider   Maps   enhance   LBS   and   increase   PT   ridership?   -­‐   Quality   of   informa/on   has   a   direct   effect   on   user   sa/sfac/on  on  mobile  services   -­‐   Spider   Maps   present   enhanced   features   which   improve   informa/on   quality   in   all   its   four   dimensions   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   21/28  
  • 22. 3   Spider  Maps   Improving  Context  Quality   -­‐   Spider   map,   due   to   its   innova/ve   design   and   features,   is   well   suited   to   include   context   informa/on   |   Where   am   I   and   where   can   I  go  to?     -­‐   The   hub   intui/vely   depicts   the   space   context   where   the   user   is   at   the  present  /me  with  higher  detail  |  Replaces  the  “you  are  here”   tag  used  in  tradi/onal  maps   -­‐  The  lines  flowing  from  the  hub  only  represent  the  lines  available   from  the  user’s  current  loca/on,  not  the  en/re  network  |  Reduces   informa/on  overload  and  learning  /me   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   22/28  
  • 23. 3   Spider  Maps   Improving  Context  Quality   -­‐  If   produced   automa/cally,   it   can   change   its   presenta/on   in                 seconds   to   accommodate   different   /me   contexts   (ex:   special   event,   unpredicted   disrup/on   of   service   at   one   line)   -­‐  Can  be  tailored  to  specific  users  in  real  /me  (ex:  colorblind   people,  children,  etc)   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   23/28  
  • 24. 3   Spider  Maps   Improving  Content  Quality   -­‐  Spider   maps   allow   the   user   to   locate   (through   the   hub),   to   search   (improve   searching   by   elimina/ng   superfluous   informa/on),  to  navigate  (user  can  easily  know  how  to  go   to  one  des/na/on  through  its  simplified  layout)   -­‐  Spider   maps   can   be   extended   to   allow   iden/fying   and   checking   (although   those   are   not   the   main   objec/ves   of   PT)   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   24/28  
  • 25. 3   Spider  Maps   Improving  Interac/on  Quality   -­‐  The   spider   architecture   mimics   the   graphic   organizer   spider   maps   |   used   in   K-­‐12   schools   in   United   States   to   improve  learning   -­‐  Spider  architecture  represents  knowledge  in  a  similar  way   human   brain   does   |   Maps   easier   to   use,   require   less   learning  /me  and  cause  less  user  errors  and  frustra/on   Improving  Connec/on  Quality   -­‐         Spider   maps   do   not   have   an   effect   here   |   But   being   produced  in  real  /me  decreases  wai/ng!   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   25/28  
  • 26. 3   Spider  Maps   As  Koivumaki  studies  show  (Koivumaki  et  al,  2008)   -­‐  there   is   a   posi/ve   rela/onship   between   the   four   informa/on  quality  dimensions  and  user  sa/sfac/on   and   between   user   sa/sfac/on   and   the   inten/on   to   use  the  service   As   Spider   Maps   improve   all   the   informa/on   quality   dimensions,   they   will   improve   user   sa/sfac/on   and   consequently  increase  the  inten/on  to  use  the  service.   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   26/28  
  • 27. 4   Conclusions   •      Spider   Maps   are   a   highly   adequate   vehicle   to   communicate   transport   network   informa/on   in   mobile   services   |   higher   informa/on   quality   in   comparison   with   normal   or   schema/c   maps   •    Their   automated   produc/on   in   soo   real   /me   makes   them   capable   of   responding   in   real   /me   to   changes   in   context     suppor/ng  adapta9ve  services.   •    Future   work   needs   to   be   directed   to   test   spider   maps   in   real   LBS   of   a   PT   service,   to   support   the   evidence   that   spider   maps   increase  inten/on  to  use  LBS  and  PT  ridership.   Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   27/28  
  • 28.    Thank  you!    |  Ques/ons  ?  Spider  Maps   For  Loca/on-­‐Based  Services  Improvement   28/28