Seffah iess11 keynote the human side of service science
The Human Side of Service Science, Engineering and Management Challenges and Justifications for A User-Centric Quality Model of Services and Service Systems Ahmed Seffah Keynote talk for the Second International Conference on Exploring Services Sciences, Geneva, February 16, 2011
Human-Centric Quality ModelFor today, how/for what and not why?
Agenda Quality attributes and model of services and service systems Implications on/for human-centric service design Persona, measures and patterns as design tools
Motivations Software and service Service as a software Service systems and software systems Service-oriented engineering Where previously objects were linked to compose software systems, We now see the emergence of independent services that can be put together dynamically at run time to form a system of services
Motivations Service SystemsTechnology side Service Systems SOA, Web services such as directory Serviceservices, description languages, andinvocation standards, Universal ServiceDescription, Discovery and Integration(UDDI), Web Services Description ServiceLanguage (WSDL), and the Simple ObjectAccess Protocol (SOAP) HumanHuman side The interfaces and interactions between Humanthe services, service systems and/orservice developers, providers, brokers,users consumers and the many other Humanstakeholders
What is service systems quality?A service system is a configuration of hardware, software, information, technology and organizationalnetworks designed to deliver servicesthat satisfy the needs and aspirations of customers.
The back and front side of servicesystems quality
The front side: the human and themultiple user interfaces
Existing service quality modelSERVQUAL Service quality can be measured as the gap between the service that customers expect and the performance they perceive to have received. Respondents rate their expectations of service from an excellent organization, and then rate the performance they received Service quality is calculated as the difference in the two scores where better service quality results in a smaller gap (Landrum, Prybutok, Kappelman, & Zhang, 2008).
The 10 aspects of service quality inEVALQUAL Reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding or knowing the customer and tangibles Nyeck, S., Morales, M., Ladhari, R., & Pons, F. (2002). "10 years of service quality measurement: reviewing the use of the SERVQUAL instrument."
Other models Variants of SERVIQUAL such as SERVPERF Satisfaction questionnaire Key indicators performance (KPIs) ISO standards such as ISO 9000, ISO 9126, etc.
Drawbacks Traditional versus computerized (electronic or SasS) services Patterns of human experience and behaviors New factors are emerging Trust, privacy, universality, Predictive measures Assess frequently and as early as possible is better Lack of tools and standardized benchmarks for testing
Beside quality models, designpatterns … Proven solutions for well-known problems that occurs in several usage contexts and projects
TrustfulnessMcKnight & Chervany (1996) Trust is the extent to which and individual or an organization is willing to depend on something (e.g service or system) or somebody (human, organization) in a given context with a feeling of relative security and safety, even though negative consequences are possible.
Pattern of trustfulness Online shopping takes place between parties who have never transacted with each other before, in an environment The service consumer often has insufficient information about the service provider, and about the goods and services offered. E.g. The consumer generally has no opportunity to see and try products, i.e. to “squeeze the oranges”, before he buys. The service provider, on the other hand, knows exactly what he gets, as long as he is paid in money. Face to face communication patterns cannot be applied, call us, we will help you! Also does not work (Barnes et Vidgen, 2001a ; Bressolles, 2002a; Wolfinbarger et Gilly, 2002) proposed a design pattern If the consumer can not try the product or service in advance, he can be confident that it will be what he expects as long as he or she gets all the information online. The pattern indicate how much, when and how to make visible the information
Privacy Privacy is the ability of an individual or a group of people (an organization, a community) to stop information about themselves from becoming known to an individual, a group of people and organization other than those they choose to give the information to
Pattern of privacy and reputation It is difficult, if not impossible, to complete a transaction without revealing some personal data – a shipping address, billing information, or product preference. Users may be unwilling to provide this necessary information or even to browse online (Hafiz, 2006) suggeted four design patterns that can aide the decision making process for the designers of privacy protecting systems. These patterns are applicable to the design of anonymity systems for various types of online communication, online data sharing, location monitoring, voting and electronic cash management.
Universality Universality is the ability to supporting a broad range of hardware, software, and network access and accommodating users with different skills, knowledge, age, gender, handicaps, literacy, culture, income, while bridging the user knowledge gap between what users know and what they need to know
Patterns for universality Sorry, I do not have it yetPh.D thesis Designing a universal online service: investigating patterns for universal design Facebook, twitter, yahoo, etc. are good examples of universal services
But… We need to assess the quality of design patterns as well
The three legs of a user-centricquality model of services
When (Practices), What (Factors) and Who(Human) in the Design Loop Factors 1. Usability Human 2. Eﬀec4veness • End-‐Users 3. Eﬃciency • Indirect-‐users Prac%ces 4. Sa4sfac4on Stakeholders Usage • Human factors /HCI expert 5. Learnability • UI developers 6. Universality • Programmers Requirements • Analysts Design 7. Acceptability • Technical support Evolu4on 8. Adop4veness • Educators Maintenance • Managers 9. TrusPulness Management • Providers Governance 10. Safety • Brokers Deployment 11. Usefulness • Etc. Marke4ng 12. Privacy Quality assurance 13. Sustainability Process improvement 14. Comprehension 15. Accountability
Quality model components A set of factors 15 factors A list of criteria which are measurable sub-factors 30 criteria A large repository of measures both qualitative and quantitative Factors 50 measures Criteria The related techniques to collect Measure and analyze data Data are collected using final Data service, Final service or service system Design artifacts
Not just… Services Service systemsBut, Early design artifacts: prototypes, storyboards, sketches, Engineering documents: requirement portfolio, business plan
Understanding and modeling userand user experiences Identify and examine the different types of people who could play a role A persona contains information about a fictitious, archetypical person who holds an interest in the service. User Knowledge, skills, and abilities goals, motives, and concerns Usage patterns that a user would have of the system.
Human-centric service design: Thewhole picture Scenario + persona as a platform for human engagement and service consumer experiences modeling Patterns as a tool to derive service system from scenarios and persona Quality model to assess and predict quality in use of services and service systems
Conclusion Bridging the front and the back side in service design Closing the gap between disciplines as stated by SSME manifesto
Further reading Adding User Experience into the Interactive Service Design Loop: A Persona-Based Method, Behavior and Information Technology Journal P2P Mapper: A Tool for Modeling User Experiences and Deriving User-Experience Driven Designs. AIS Transaction on Human Computer Interaction
Join us… Special Session on HCI concerns in Service Engineering. First Conference on the Human Side of Service Engineering, Jan Jose, July 2011 Workshop on HCI concerns in Service Design and Engineering 2011 Edition - Software as a Service: A User Experience Design PerspectiveIn conjunction with IEEE SERVICES 2011 – The Seventh World Congress on Services, July 5-10, 2011, Washington DC, USA INTERACT 2011 – 13th IFIP-TC 13 Conference on Human Computer Interaction September 5-9, 2011, Lisbon, Portugal