i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh?
Auidolingual Method- used to practice grammar+vocab+pronunciation
1970s Goodman developed psycholinguistic model of reading suggesting:
monitor their reading comprehension
adjust their reading rates
consider reading objectives
Fluency is -simply- rapid and automatic word recognition.
Vocabulary Development: closely related to reading abilities. Vocabulary is a predictor of reading ability. However, reading only doesn’t help with vocab development – instruction is necessary (Graves, 2000; Stahl, 1999)
L1 students start with min. 5000-7000 words.
Frequently used words take up to 80% of most texts. Dolch or Sight words are used in instruction –particularly L1 and in adult ESL programs- to help reading.
Awareness of text structure is necessary
Identify sentences that convey main ideas of the text
Examining headings and subheadings of the text
Adding info to partially completed outline
Underlining transition phrases
Examining an inaccurate outline and adjusting it so that it is correct
Reorganizing scrambled paragraphs
Creating headings for sets of paragraphs
Identifying clues that indicate patterns of organization (e.g. cause-effect, comparison, contrast, analysis)
(See handouts for samples)
Previewing the text
Answering questions about information in the text
Exploring key vocabulary
Reflecting on previous texts related to the topic of the new texts
Outlining or summarizing ideas in a difficult section
Examining emotions and attitudes of key characters
Determining resources of difficulty and seeking clarification
Looking for answers to questions posed during pre-reading activities.
Writing down predictions for what will come next
See handouts for some examples:
Completing a graphic organizer
Expanding or changing a semantic map created earlier
Listening to a lecture and comparing info from the text and lecture
Ranking importance of info in the text
Answering listening comprehension questions
Use Graphic organizers
Strategic reading- reading with purpose
Predicting what will come next in the text
Previewing a text
Using context to maintain comprehension
Recognizing text organization
Generating appropriate questions about the text
Clarifying text meaning
Extensive Reading: Reading large amounts of texts for a an extended period of time.
Positive motivation for reading: look for ways to help students enconuter “flow” in their reading (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990)
Integrated teaching: reading & writing:
Student journals- reactions to readings
Create graphic organizers for the main idea and write an explanation or critique based on the information on the graphic organizer
Write an alternative ending to a text
Conducting needs analysis (see handout for sample questions)
Planning the curricula based on needs analysis
Selecting appropriate text materials
Diversifying students’ reading experiences in and outside of classroom.
Flower, L. & Hayes, J. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32, 365-387.
1. knowledge telling: retrieving content from memory- traditional schooling
2. knowledge transforming model: reflective problems solving and goal setting.
Writing plays an important role in early reading. How would you plan early writing stage for students who uses a different writing system?
Early writing tasks:
Practice sound-spelling correspondence
Enhance letter recognition
Help learner move from letters and words to mean larger sentences
Sound-spelling correspondence activities
More Advanced Writing Tasks:
practical writing tasks - short writing tasks that serve a ‘real-world’ purpose (e.g., lists, messages)
emotive writing tasks - personal writing (e.g., letters, diaries); appropriate aspects of mechanics can be chosen as focus
school-oriented writing tasks
dialogue journals - can be used at even very beginning stages of writing (e.g., labeling activities)
Product oriented: grammar rules- not realistic/communicative goals.
Janet Emig (1971)- developed think-aloud technique
Definition: cyclical, content-based, reader-dominated, etc.
Strategies (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990)
When to correct?
What types of errors to correct?
How to correct?
Responding to student writing (p. 227)
forms of response
Peer reviews (Silva (1993) warns observers review at a superficial level.