Week 8 Lecture Slides
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Week 8 Lecture Slides Week 8 Lecture Slides Presentation Transcript

  • English 565 Fall 2008/Week 8 Serpil Sonmez
    • How do language learners read?
    • Who is a good reader?
    • Who is a fluent reader?
    • Is reading a language or thinking skill?
    • i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh?
    • Auidolingual Method- used to practice grammar+vocab+pronunciation
    • 1970s Goodman developed psycholinguistic model of reading suggesting:
    • Better readers:
    • monitor their reading comprehension
    • adjust their reading rates
    • consider reading objectives
    • Fluency is -simply- rapid and automatic word recognition.
    • Fluent readers don’t read all the words.
    • Fluency activities: read-aloud, repeated reading, flashcards, rapid and timed reading, word-recognition activities
    • Vocabulary Development: closely related to reading abilities. Vocabulary is a predictor of reading ability. However, reading only doesn’t help with vocab development – instruction is necessary (Graves, 2000; Stahl, 1999)
    • L1 students start with min. 5000-7000 words.
    • Frequently used words take up to 80% of most texts. Dolch or Sight words are used in instruction –particularly L1 and in adult ESL programs- to help reading.
    • Awareness of text structure is necessary
    • Steps:
    • Identify sentences that convey main ideas of the text
    • Examining headings and subheadings of the text
    • Adding info to partially completed outline
    • Underlining transition phrases
    • Examining an inaccurate outline and adjusting it so that it is correct
    • Reorganizing scrambled paragraphs
    • Creating headings for sets of paragraphs
    • Identifying clues that indicate patterns of organization (e.g. cause-effect, comparison, contrast, analysis)
    • Pre-reading activities
    • During-reading activities
    • Post-reading activities
    • (See handouts for samples)
    • Previewing the text
    • Skimming
    • Answering questions about information in the text
    • Exploring key vocabulary
    • Reflecting on previous texts related to the topic of the new texts
    • Outlining or summarizing ideas in a difficult section
    • Examining emotions and attitudes of key characters
    • Determining resources of difficulty and seeking clarification
    • Looking for answers to questions posed during pre-reading activities.
    • Writing down predictions for what will come next
    • See handouts for some examples:
    • Completing a graphic organizer
    • Expanding or changing a semantic map created earlier
    • Listening to a lecture and comparing info from the text and lecture
    • Ranking importance of info in the text
    • Answering listening comprehension questions
    • Use Graphic organizers
    • Strategic reading- reading with purpose
    • Common strategies:
    • Summarizing
    • Predicting what will come next in the text
    • Previewing a text
    • Using context to maintain comprehension
    • Recognizing text organization
    • Generating appropriate questions about the text
    • Clarifying text meaning
    • Repairing miscomprehension
    • Extensive Reading: Reading large amounts of texts for a an extended period of time.
    • Positive motivation for reading: look for ways to help students enconuter “flow” in their reading (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990)
    • Integrated teaching: reading & writing:
    • Examples:
    • Student journals- reactions to readings
    • Double-entry notebooks
    • Create graphic organizers for the main idea and write an explanation or critique based on the information on the graphic organizer
    • Write an alternative ending to a text
    • Conducting needs analysis (see handout for sample questions)
    • Planning the curricula based on needs analysis
    • Selecting appropriate text materials
    • Diversifying students’ reading experiences in and outside of classroom.
  •  
  • Flower, L. & Hayes, J. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32, 365-387.
    • 2 models:
    • 1. knowledge telling: retrieving content from memory- traditional schooling
    • 2. knowledge transforming model: reflective problems solving and goal setting.
    • Writing plays an important role in early reading. How would you plan early writing stage for students who uses a different writing system?
    • Early writing tasks:
    • Practice sound-spelling correspondence
    • Enhance letter recognition
    • Help learner move from letters and words to mean larger sentences
    • Sound-spelling correspondence activities
    • More Advanced Writing Tasks:
    • practical writing tasks - short writing tasks that serve a ‘real-world’ purpose (e.g., lists, messages)
    • emotive writing tasks - personal writing (e.g., letters, diaries); appropriate aspects of mechanics can be chosen as focus
    • school-oriented writing tasks
    • dialogue journals - can be used at even very beginning stages of writing (e.g., labeling activities)
    • Types:
    • Product oriented: grammar rules- not realistic/communicative goals.
    • Process- oriented
    • Janet Emig (1971)- developed think-aloud technique
    • Definition: cyclical, content-based, reader-dominated, etc.
    • Strategies (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990)
    • Brainstorming
    • Listing
    • Clustering
    • Freewriting
    • When to correct?
    • What types of errors to correct?
    • How to correct?
    • Responding to student writing (p. 227)
      • forms of response
      • written commentary
      • oral commentary
      • Peer reviews (Silva (1993) warns observers review at a superficial level.