Week 7 Lecture Slides


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Week 7 Lecture Slides

  1. 1. English 565 Serpil Sonmez Week 7
  2. 2. http://www.flat33.com/bzzzpeek/html/bzzzpeek.html
  3. 3. <ul><li>Listening skill is used x2 speaking, x4 read, x5 write (Rivers, 1981; Weaver, 1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Until 60’s not much attention is paid to listening. It was regarded as a “passive” skill (Situational Approach, and Audiolingual Methods did not pay much attention to it other than grammar and pronunciation drills and learners’ imitation of dialogues and discriminating sound patterns and pronunciation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Listening is a language act. (It’s not passive) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Comprehension is an act of information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Listening comprehension is a multilevel interactive process of meaning creation. </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken communication serves 2 linguistic functions: interactional & transactional </li></ul><ul><li>The cognitive processing of spoken language involves simultaneous activation of top-down and bottom-up processing. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Listening & Repeating </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction: Drills/ Repeating/Dialogue Memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Students are able to recognize conversation patterns, imitate pronunciation patterns. Addresses to lower level cognitive processing . </li></ul><ul><li>Listening & Answering Comprehension Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction: Ss listen to an oral text and answer primarily factual questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss can manipulate discrete pieces of info. Can increase Ss block of vocab units and grammar constructions and bottom-up processing strategies. ot communicative, doesn’t encourage authentic use of language. </li></ul><ul><li>Task Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction: Ss listen & “do” (follow directions, complete a task, take notes, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Task-oriented. Engage learners in using the information content presented in discourse. Emphasizes functional use of lx. To help Ss develop cognitive and metacognitive strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Lx use tasks b. Lx analysis tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction: Communicative/Competence oriented (Linguistic competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence, and strategic competence. Listening-thinking-speaking model. Interactive oral/aural development of skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss participate in discussion activities that would develop 3 phases of speech act: decoding spoken discourse, critical analysis & synthesis, instant response encoding appropriate to the situation. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Bidirectional: </li></ul><ul><li>Unidirectional </li></ul><ul><li>Autodirectional (listening to the self) </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional: message oriented, conveying factual or propositional information. Transactional language is used for explaining, giving instructions, describing, comprehension checks, requesting, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactional: Social type talk, establishing social relationships. </li></ul>Functions of Listening
  7. 8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgRlBrw2PPw
  8. 9. <ul><li>Discriminate between emotional reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Get the main idea of a passage </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Use knowledge of topic to predict the content of the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Use introduction to the lecture to predict its content and focus </li></ul><ul><li>Predict what comes next in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize point of view </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Use features of sentence stress and intonation to identify important info for note taking </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of sentence fillers in informal speech </li></ul><ul><li>Become aware of organizational cues in text. </li></ul><ul><li>Become aware of lexical markers for definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify specific points of information. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Use speech features to see if speech is formal or informal </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize a familiar word and relate it to a category </li></ul><ul><li>Compare information in memory with incoming information </li></ul><ul><li>Compare information that you hear with your own experience. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Purpose of listening is transactional or interactional? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of background knowledge can be applied to the task? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s listeners’ familiarity with the topic? </li></ul>Bottom-up 1: Listening closely to a joke (interactional) to know when to laugh 3. Listening to instructions (transactional ) during a driving lesson. Top-down 2.Listening to cocktail party talk (interactional) 4. Listening to air safety instructions on a plane (transactional) Richards’s Functions Chart
  12. 13. <ul><li>Cognitive: used to manipulate information </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive: planning, monitoring, and evaluating comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Sociaoaffective: negotiation of meaning in bidirectional conversations. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Increase listening time </li></ul><ul><li>Use listening before other activities (beginnig & low-interm) </li></ul><ul><li>Include both global (get the gist of the text) and selective listening (pay attention to form) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage top-down and bottom-up processing at every proficiency level </li></ul><ul><li>Develop conscious listening strategies. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>1. Relevance : Lesson content & outcome need to be relevant. Relevant to real-life situations- getting and holding learner attention. Ts can adapt materials to create relevant learning activities. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Transferability : applicability value both in and out of class. (i.e. news broadcasts) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Task-orientation : </li></ul><ul><li>Lx Use Tasks : Sts listen for information and immediately do something with it. (i.e. Simon Says, listening & drawing a map, real-life spatial problems, summarizing, asking questions (see C-M p.78 for more) Increases vocab, help build a repertoire of familiar top-down networks of background knowledge and build schemata (mental frameworks of knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Lx Analysis Tasks: Give Ss opportunities to analyze selected aspects of lx form and use. Develop personal strategies to facilitate learning. Goal is consciousness raising about the lx. (i.e. analysis of “fast-speech”, phrases, sociolinguistic dimensions, communicative episodes, comm. Strategies. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Outcome Type Activities Listening & Performing Drawing a picture Locating routes on a map Simon Says Operating equipment (i.e. camera) Carrying out steps in a process. Listening & Transferring Info Taking a message over the phone Filling blanks in a gapped story game Completing a chart Summarizing/reporting gist of a story Taking notes in a lecture Listening & Solving Problems Word & number games Class versions of jeopardy Mystery stories Short descriptions of court cases –listeners are asked to make a decision and defend it. Field trips to grocery store Listening, Evaluating & Manipulating Information Evaluating arguments in order to take a position Making predictions from the info received Interactive Listening & Speaking (Negotiation of meaning through Questioning/Answering. Repetition/paraphrasing/verification/clarification/elaboration/extension/challenge questions. Listening for enjoyment, pleasure & sociability Interactional listening activities Talk about hobbies, plans for future.
  16. 17. <ul><li>Canale & Swain (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate: </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic Competence (rules for expression and understanding of appropriate social meanings and grammatical forms in different contexts) </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse competence (how texts are constructed and how sentence elements are tied together) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Competence: a repertoire of strategies that help with a variety of communication difficulties. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>negotiation of meaning is a goal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use of integrated skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strategy training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>students are responsible for their own learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluency (Hedge, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to link units of speech together without hesitation </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation of meaning, where overt correction is minimized. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><ul><ul><li>discussions (based on readings, video material, etc. or discussion activities found in textbooks) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>speeches (planned or impromptu) - can overtly teach hesitations in this kind of activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>role plays - focus on speech acts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conversations - recording and analyzing natural conversations to raise students’ metalinguistic awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oral dialogue journals - recorded dialogue journals can be used to give students feedback on fluency and accuracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In EFL contexts there are other issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large classes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>native culture which discourages speaking out in class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>students speak same L1 </li></ul></ul></ul>