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Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary

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Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary Presentation Transcript

  • English 565 Introduction to Adult/University TESOL Serpil Sonmez
  • Before we begin…
    • Pygmalion Effect (Rosenthal & Jacobsen Study)
    • Jane Elliot’s experiment
  • Teaching Grammar
    • Larsen-Freeman Model
    • All three are inter-related
    • Grammaring: Teaching grammar is not memorizing a set of rules but a skill to be mastered .
  • The Learning Process
    • Not linear: Learning is a gradual process. Not error-free
    • Backsliding may occur
    • Learners rely on their L1 knowledge
    • Teachers don’t have to teach everything about a structure
    • Different learning processes are responsible for different aspects of language
  • The Teaching Process
    • Recasting errors as they occur (Nabei & Swain (2002) study)
    • Enhancing input (Sharwood-Smith)
    • Explicit feedback to increase consciousness about certain rules
    • “ Garden path” – Explaining rules partially and correcting only when needed/overgeneralization occurs.
    • Encouraging output production (Swain IIO Model)
    • Collaborative Dialogues (Donato, 1994)
  • Teaching…
    • Form/Structure
    • Opportunities for meaningful practice
    • Don’t forget having fun! (e.g. information gap activities)
    • Consider Memory Constraints: Limit practicing to 2-6 items at a time. (Asher, 1996)
    • Semantics/Meaning
    • Activities that use props/mime/physical activities (Remember Suggestopedia? TPR?)
    • Pragmatics/Use
    • Role-Plays
  • Feedback
    • Recasts
    • Explicit or Implicit Feedback
    • Alternative: (Aljaafreh & Lantolf (1994)
    • 13-Point Regulatory Scale)
  • Teaching Vocabulary
    • Explicit feedback is important
    • 2000-6000 words for beginners make up to 80% of most texts)
        • Word lists (e.g., General Service List of English words; Academic Word List)
        • Word families: (e.g. talk, talks, talking, talked)
  • Vocabulary Teaching Activities
    • Explicit Learning
    • Implicit (Incidental Learning)
    • Explicit Learning
    • Semantic mapping & word association activities
    • Sugested: pair matching activities for vocabulary items to transfer into long-term memory.
    • Through reading (Explicit learning till 2000 words, then most vocab learning is incidental.
  • Strategies to learn Vocabulary
    • Guessing Strategy (Clark & Nation, 1980)
    • Mnemonic Devices (Word-object associations)
    • Vocabulary notebooks (noting new words, frequency of them- Schmitt (1990)study
    • Focusing on cognates in L1 & L2 (e.g. night, nacht)
    • Focusing on collocations & lexical phrases –Remember Lexical Approach?