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Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
 

Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary

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    Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary Presentation Transcript

    • English 565 Introduction to Adult/University TESOL Serpil Sonmez
    • Before we begin…
      • Pygmalion Effect (Rosenthal & Jacobsen Study)
      • Jane Elliot’s experiment
    • Teaching Grammar
      • Larsen-Freeman Model
      • All three are inter-related
      • Grammaring: Teaching grammar is not memorizing a set of rules but a skill to be mastered .
    • The Learning Process
      • Not linear: Learning is a gradual process. Not error-free
      • Backsliding may occur
      • Learners rely on their L1 knowledge
      • Teachers don’t have to teach everything about a structure
      • Different learning processes are responsible for different aspects of language
    • The Teaching Process
      • Recasting errors as they occur (Nabei & Swain (2002) study)
      • Enhancing input (Sharwood-Smith)
      • Explicit feedback to increase consciousness about certain rules
      • “ Garden path” – Explaining rules partially and correcting only when needed/overgeneralization occurs.
      • Encouraging output production (Swain IIO Model)
      • Collaborative Dialogues (Donato, 1994)
    • Teaching…
      • Form/Structure
      • Opportunities for meaningful practice
      • Don’t forget having fun! (e.g. information gap activities)
      • Consider Memory Constraints: Limit practicing to 2-6 items at a time. (Asher, 1996)
      • Semantics/Meaning
      • Activities that use props/mime/physical activities (Remember Suggestopedia? TPR?)
      • Pragmatics/Use
      • Role-Plays
    • Feedback
      • Recasts
      • Explicit or Implicit Feedback
      • Alternative: (Aljaafreh & Lantolf (1994)
      • 13-Point Regulatory Scale)
    • Teaching Vocabulary
      • Explicit feedback is important
      • 2000-6000 words for beginners make up to 80% of most texts)
          • Word lists (e.g., General Service List of English words; Academic Word List)
          • Word families: (e.g. talk, talks, talking, talked)
    • Vocabulary Teaching Activities
      • Explicit Learning
      • Implicit (Incidental Learning)
      • Explicit Learning
      • Semantic mapping & word association activities
      • Sugested: pair matching activities for vocabulary items to transfer into long-term memory.
      • Through reading (Explicit learning till 2000 words, then most vocab learning is incidental.
    • Strategies to learn Vocabulary
      • Guessing Strategy (Clark & Nation, 1980)
      • Mnemonic Devices (Word-object associations)
      • Vocabulary notebooks (noting new words, frequency of them- Schmitt (1990)study
      • Focusing on cognates in L1 & L2 (e.g. night, nacht)
      • Focusing on collocations & lexical phrases –Remember Lexical Approach?