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Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary
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Teaching Grammar & Vocabulary

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  • 1. English 565 Introduction to Adult/University TESOL Serpil Sonmez
  • 2. Before we begin… <ul><li>Pygmalion Effect (Rosenthal & Jacobsen Study) </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Elliot’s experiment </li></ul>
  • 3. Teaching Grammar <ul><li>Larsen-Freeman Model </li></ul><ul><li>All three are inter-related </li></ul><ul><li>Grammaring: Teaching grammar is not memorizing a set of rules but a skill to be mastered . </li></ul>
  • 4. The Learning Process <ul><li>Not linear: Learning is a gradual process. Not error-free </li></ul><ul><li>Backsliding may occur </li></ul><ul><li>Learners rely on their L1 knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers don’t have to teach everything about a structure </li></ul><ul><li>Different learning processes are responsible for different aspects of language </li></ul>
  • 5. The Teaching Process <ul><li>Recasting errors as they occur (Nabei & Swain (2002) study) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing input (Sharwood-Smith) </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit feedback to increase consciousness about certain rules </li></ul><ul><li>“ Garden path” – Explaining rules partially and correcting only when needed/overgeneralization occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging output production (Swain IIO Model) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Dialogues (Donato, 1994) </li></ul>
  • 6. Teaching… <ul><li>Form/Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for meaningful practice </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget having fun! (e.g. information gap activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider Memory Constraints: Limit practicing to 2-6 items at a time. (Asher, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics/Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Activities that use props/mime/physical activities (Remember Suggestopedia? TPR?) </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics/Use </li></ul><ul><li>Role-Plays </li></ul>
  • 7. Feedback <ul><li>Recasts </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit or Implicit Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative: (Aljaafreh & Lantolf (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>13-Point Regulatory Scale) </li></ul>
  • 8. Teaching Vocabulary <ul><li>Explicit feedback is important </li></ul><ul><li>2000-6000 words for beginners make up to 80% of most texts) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word lists (e.g., General Service List of English words; Academic Word List) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word families: (e.g. talk, talks, talking, talked) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. Vocabulary Teaching Activities <ul><li>Explicit Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit (Incidental Learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic mapping & word association activities </li></ul><ul><li>Sugested: pair matching activities for vocabulary items to transfer into long-term memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Through reading (Explicit learning till 2000 words, then most vocab learning is incidental. </li></ul>
  • 10. Strategies to learn Vocabulary <ul><li>Guessing Strategy (Clark & Nation, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Mnemonic Devices (Word-object associations) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary notebooks (noting new words, frequency of them- Schmitt (1990)study </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on cognates in L1 & L2 (e.g. night, nacht) </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on collocations & lexical phrases –Remember Lexical Approach? </li></ul>

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