A LOOK ATANAESTHESIAMax, Jennifer, Rebecca, Samira
WHAT ISANAESTHESIA?Drugs that cause reversible loss ofsensationUsed during surgery, and othermedical procedures to negate painContrast with painkillers toeliminate painDiﬀerent types of anaesthetics
HISTORYWhen surgery was on the rise, there was a complete lack ofanaesthesiaIt was an excruciatingly painful process, and people in needwould avoid it at all costsDr. Crawford Long discovered ether to numb the pain ofsurgery
BEFORE ANAESTHESIADoctors would attempt to get patients drunk, or use drugs such ascocaineDoctors would need to operate as quickly as possible (5 minutesmax)Surgery was a form of entertainment for the general public, freakshows.Amputations were gruesome, performed with large knives, limbshacked oﬀDeath or infection was inevitable
MODERN ANAESTHESIATechnology is very advanced, andextensive education is requiredAnaesthesia extremely eﬀectiveMortality rate less than 1 out of100,000Because of modern anaesthesia,surgeries such as brain surgery,cosmetic surgery, amputation, etc.
THE PROCESSStep 1 Induction: LosingconsciousnessStep 2 Maintenance: Ensuring thatthe anaesthesia is still activeStep 3 Emergence: Anaesthesia isstopped and diﬀerent drugs areadministered so that the patientregains consciousnes
TYPESLocal: Numbs a speciﬁc part of the body. Usually an injectionUsed for pain relief and reducing blood lossOver the counter local anaesthetics are also availableEpidural: Numbs the trunk or torsoUsed primarily for childbirth and major surgeriesGeneral: Used to put the patient to sleep during surgery
ADVANTAGESReduces patient awareness and recall, making the experience more relaxed andpainlessAllows muscle relaxation for long periods of timeFacilitates complete control of patients breathing an circulationCan control the duration of how long the patient is unconcious
DISADVANTAGESIncreases complexity of care, and costRequires preparation before handCauses many side eﬀectsAdvantages outweigh the disadvantages!
SIDE EFFECTSPain and discomfort: Usually a feeling of pain after surgery, can be corrected withpainkillers.Drowsiness: Patients feel tired or drowsy upon waking upNausea and vomiting: Patients may feel sick and vomit after waking up fromanaesthetics
CONCLUSIONAnaesthesia is an eﬀective method of numbing pain duringsurgeryBefore it, patients would die or refuse the proceduresMany diﬀerent types used for diﬀerent operationsMany advantages to being sedated