KyungSik Kim-Department of Game Dev, Hoseo University, Korea
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KyungSik Kim-Department of Game Dev, Hoseo University, Korea

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"Improving Cognitive Function for the Elderly" ...

"Improving Cognitive Function for the Elderly"

Research has maintained that playing games via internet or video games can be utilized as a major leisure activity among the elderly and help improve their certain cognitive functions such as memory, concentration, a sense of vitality, etc. Korea is one of the rapidly aging societies, and a serious game for the elderly named 멠aldokangsan2?has been developed in Korea in 2012 as the next version of 멠aldokangsan 1?which was a walking game for two people using controllers of armrests and footboards with PC. As for 'Paldokangsan 2', walking while remembering/choosing healthy food was implemented as game activities in the same game prototype of 멠aldokangsan 1?

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KyungSik Kim-Department of Game Dev, Hoseo University, Korea KyungSik Kim-Department of Game Dev, Hoseo University, Korea Presentation Transcript

  • Improving Cognitive Function for the Elderly (Development of Serious Games for Cognition Improvement for the Elderly) Aug. 22, 2013 KyungSik Kim Dept. of Game Development, Hoseo University Rep. of Korea (kskim@hoseo.edu) 2013-08-22 1Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)
  • 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) 2 Hoseo University DigiPen/ KeyMyung SGSC14 IlSan,Kintex
  • Background • 2008.11-2012.10 Hoseo 2030 projects for world class (100,000 USD/yr for 4 years) • Title: A Research on Serious Games for the Elderly toward Human Service • 4 Dept. joined: Game, Senior Welfare, Electronics, Nersury (12 professors) • Result: walking games ‘Paldokangsan’ • Win(2011): 1M USD government project to develop arcade games to improve cognition functions for the elderly 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) 3
  • Content 1.Need for Serious Game 2.Elderly Cognitive Problem 3.Proj#1. Rejuvenesce Village - Game Design & Experiments 4.Proj#2. Paldokangsan - Game Design & Experiments 5.Conclusion 4 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)
  • Introduction  Fast Aging Society: -Social alienation -Biological aging -Lower cognition with depression 5 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)  Serious Game: -Effective for repeated training -Provoke active participation -Customizable to the player
  • 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) 6 Dementia Ratio in Korea (ages>=65) / B.Statistics (2011) 2005 2010 2020 8.3% 8.6% 9%(E) Improving Cognitive Function and Satisfaction of Life Healthy Life Without Dementia Qualified Life with Entertainment Development of Silver Game Improving Cognitive Function Health and Entertainment
  • Government Project • Province of Seoul and KOCCA announced to support to develop a serious game to improve cognition related to ‘dementia’ on arcade platform with 1 Million USD in 2011. • Uniana – Hoseo consortium with Seoul Asan Hospital won the competition. • Finished successfully at Dec. 2012. • The machines produced were installed in 25 senior community centers in Seoul. 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) 7
  • 8 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Rejuvenesce Village
  • Game Overview Improving Cognitive Function 9 Objective Improvement of cognitive function and life satisfaction as well as remission of depression Control Screen touch , Ball button touch Target user Main Over 65 years old, risk of dementia, mild cognitive impairment in elderly Sub middle-age who wants cognition training Expect Improvement of cognitive function and hand-eye co-ordination exercise function game treatment - remission of depression Player 1 Person Playtime 60 minutes when full-functional training 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Rejuvenesce Village
  • 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) 10 Training Cognitive Elements Using touch interface with the vision and sound Arcadegamewithcoincidencereaction Game Contents GUI(Game User Interface) Difficulty Level 5 Levels in 9 stages for repetition Improve or Maintain Cognitive Function (To avoid dementia & activate brain) Game Design Concept Familiarvisualwithcolors,traditionalelements
  • Rejuvenesce Village – Game Contents 11 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)
  • Rejuvenesce Village – Game Preview Attention - Agility 1 Hide and Seek 1.Reads word on the speaker to remember 2.Push button for the following words If it was the remembered one, press “green” Else press “red”. Auditory Reaction Effectness Activate the sense of hearing 12 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)
  • When the traffic light gets on, the player should press the same colored button before the light disappear. 2 Traffic LightVision Reaction Rejuvenesce Village – Game Preview 13 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Attention - Agility Effectness Activate the sense of sight
  • 3 Sugar Cookie Touch the same shape in left side among other 3 shapes in right side 2D Operation Rejuvenesce Village – Game Preview 14 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Visuo-Spatial Attention Effectness Recognition of 2D plain
  • Select the same cracker of the left side among 3 ones of the right side (those of the right side were in rotated shape. scracker of the left side can be rotated by finger) 4 Correct CrackerSpace Control Cognition Rejuvenesce Village – Game Preview 15 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Visuo-Spatial Attention Effectness Recognition of 3D object
  • 5 Picture Cards Sorting 3 pictures and sequences of the right side should be revived after being collected with no sequence on the left side. Move picture of the left side with finger to right side. Topological Memory Rejuvenesce Village – Game Preview 16 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Memorization Effectness Improve phase memorization
  • Remember things in upper area in a few sec. After being disappeared, anything appear in lower area moving from left to right. If it was in the first upper area, press “green” button, else “red” button. 6 Stuff ReminderFigural Memory Rejuvenesce Village – Game Preview 17 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Memorization Effectness Improve figural memory
  • Fill the box with the number to satisfy the sequence 7 Word Memory 8 Linking Numbers (A.I. Game)Digital span test Effectiveness Improve memory of words Improve memory of digital span Memory of Words Rejuvenesce Village – Game Preview 18 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Memorization Effectiveness Remember words in upper area in a few sec. After being disappeared, a word appears in lower area moving from left to right.If it was in the first upper area, press “green” button, else “red” button.
  • 9 Shopping at Market Looking the shopping lists, player should buy them in time limit. The player can move arround by pressing arrows as well as stairs Effectiveness Combination of attention and memorization Exercise Function Rejuvenesce Village – Game Preview 19 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Judgement (Executive)
  • • Location: Seoul Asan Hospital Clinical Examination Center • Period: Jul. ~ Nov. in 2012 • Permission: Seoul Asan Hospital IRB 100 elderly people (>=65) with no problem in hearing, vision and conversation - Score of Cognition (test: MMSE-K) >= 24 Questionaire Survey before and after the game (about 1 Month) to get cognition score as well as depression, vitality and satisfaction t-test and ANOVA test Analysis of interpolation with multiple regression (다중공선성 진단 후 회귀분석) Target 1 2 Statistics 20 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Experiments
  • Pre-test (Before) Treatment (two 1-hr work/week) Post-test (After 1 Month) Group1 (Jul): 20명 E X F Group2 (Aug): 20명 E X F Group3 (Sep): 20명 E X F Group4 (Oct): 20명 E X F Group5 (Nov): 20명 E X F Tests E(Entering test): Cognition, Depression, Satisfaction, Vitality F(Finishing test): Cognition, Depression, Satisfaction, Vitality 21 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Experiments
  • Analysis Score of MMSE-K(average of 100 elders): (before the game) 27.6 (± 1.70) (after the game) 28.1 (± 1.75) significant (t=-3.32, p=.001). range Before – After the Game t p Average SD MMSE-K men -0.48 1.62 -1.61 .119 women -0.51 1.47 -2.90 .005 total -0.5 1.51 -3.32 .001 -Satisfaction of Life: statistically significant relationship to the game -Depression, Vitality by Tool: not significant relationship to the game 22 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Experiments
  • IRB Photos 23 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)
  • IRB Photos 24 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)
  • 25 Installation of Final Products on 25 sites in Seoul 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)
  • 26 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)
  • Purpose To provide the elderly with game-aided lifestyles and entertainment Controller Hand buttons and footboards as game controllers Target User Main Elderly individuals wishing to walk Other Individuals wishing to exercise with visual effects Expected Effect 1. Vicarious satisfaction 2. Game therapy for the elderly Player Two individuals (2 sets of controllers ) Play Time Approx. 7-10 minutes Hoseo University Game Eng. Kyung Sik 27 / 15 Paldokangsan 1 (2011)
  • - 28 - Title: “Paldogangsan” enjoy favorites in house = Sightseeing on foot Focus: Game-Aided Human Life The most popular leisure activity of more than 50s in Korea: -walking around -hiking mountains (survey of 1st year of WC2030) 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Paldogangsan1 – Game Design
  • 1-1. Armrest / hand button to control arms of avatar 2. Foodboard / smart shoes to control legs of avatar Mixed Reality Interface (combination of chair + shoes) Paldogangsan1 – Game Design
  • - 30 -  Winner of Korean Gaming Award in Academic Area Paldogangsan1
  • - 31 - ● Average age was 75.1 year. ● Men / Women ratio: 22.5%, 77.5% ● Optimal play time(survey): 7.6 min. (full course required about 1,200 steps)  309 people participated (for 8 days in Sept. 2011) Paldogangsan 1– experiment
  • - 32 -  Easiness: Footboard, display, and play [ Total] [ Men ] [ Women ] •Footboard: 52% answered easy to use (men: 40%, women: 56%) •Many answered to change the location of sensor and its sensitivity. •Total play: 76% felt no problem (men: 71%, women: 77%) Experiments (Green: positive, Red: normal, Blue: negative)
  • - 33 -  Response from their physical condition [Total] [ Strong ] [ Normal] [ Weak] Experiments (Green: positive, Red: normal, Blue: negative)
  • - 34 -  Fun of the game Intention to play again? 3.8 3.85 3.9 3.95 4 4.05 4.1 4.15 4.2 평균 남자 여자 흥미도 4.14 3.94 4.19 게임의 흥미도 (5점 만점) 91.7% Fun of the game: 4.14 average (full: 5) Intention to play the game again: 91.7% Reason: “can forget trivial thought”, “interesting”, “effective physical exercise” Experiments
  • Objective senior entertainment and welfare Controller hand buttons and foot boards Target User main 50’s and later who needs walking and improving me morization ability sub all who needs walking with vision attention Expected Effects 1. physical exercise (walking) 2. memorization abilities of good foods for 5 diseases (Osteoporosis, Melancholia, Dementia, Hypertension, Diabetes) Player 1 player Play time 1. main: 5-10min. (3 levels) 2. healing game: 2-5 min. 3. mini games: 5-10 min. Paldokangsan 2 (2012)
  • - 36 -  ‘Paldogangsan (Season 2)’ Field Of View Game • For the game to improve the multi-signal processing capabilities within a field of view Merit of FOV Game • Select enhance the reaction rate • Position memory speed improvements • Distributed memory improve concentration • Selective focus > Processing speed Feature of FOV Game • For the game to improve the multi-signal processing capabilities within a field of view for exercise Paldogangsan2 – Game Design
  • - 37 -  Two objectives combined to “mall walking” 1. Brain-training 2. Exercise Paldogangsan2 – Game Design
  • - 38 -  Game interface (3 kinds) Paldogangsan2 – Game Design
  • - 39 -  Walking in 60th ~ 70th market place in Korea  Mission: remembering good foods  Buy those items for the foods Paldogangsan2
  • - 40 -  Healing game – upgrading of ver. 1  As 2 players walk on, grass and tree grows fast  Sound: classic music with bird sound Paldogangsan2
  • - 41 -  2 Minigames for players who can’t walk  Memorizing good and bad foods for 5 diseases  Select foods for some period (30 ~ 50 sec)  Score: good choice with bad choice Paldogangsan2
  • 309 people participated (for 4 days in Sept. 2012) 42 ● Average age was 74.9 year old. ● Men / Women ratio: 32%, 68% ● Optimal play time(survey): 13.1 min. Experiments
  • Comparison of proper walking time for ages 43 Experiments
  • Comparison of memorization effects for ages (unit: %) Memorization negative neutral positive M a i n I can remember good foods after game total 19.2 18.7 61.6 < 75 11.2 20.6 68.2 >=75 27.0 17.1 55.9 It’s helpful for my memory total 18.8 18.8 62.4 < 75 11.2 19.6 69.2 >=75 26.1 18.0 55.9 M i n i I can remember good foods for deseases total 21 20.5 58.4 < 75 14 25.2 60.7 >=75 27.7 16.1 56.3 I can remember good foods for me total 21 21 58 < 75 13.1 24.3 62.6 >=75 28.6 17.9 53.6 Experiments
  • Comparison of concentration effects for ages (unit: year, %) 45 Concentration negative neutral positive M a i n I could concentrate while playing game total 7.8 8.7 83.1 < 75 3.7 11.2 85 >=75 11.7 6.3 82 I could erase other thoughts via game play total 11 9.6 79.5 < 75 7.5 9.3 83.2 >=75 14.3 9.8 75.9 Experiments
  • Comparison of vitality effects for ages (unit: year, %) Vitality negative neutral positive M a i n I feel tired and exhausted after playing game(reverse coded) total 10 12.3 77.6 < 75 9.3 14 76.6 >=75 10.7 10.7 78.6 I feel refreshed after playing game total 6.4 22.8 70.3 < 75 4.7 26.2 69.2 >=75 8.1 19.8 72.1 Experiments
  • 47 •Serious games for cognition training: -One of good solutions to improve cognitive function -Satisfaction of life to the elders •Rejuvenesce Village: - Showed improvement of cognition with the game - Satisfactory participation of the testing volunteers -25 Senior Community Centers are under operation •Paldokangsan 1, 2: -Looking for business out of Korea 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) Conclusion
  • Many thanks for attending Serious Games & Social Connect (SGSC14) May 23rd-25th, 2014 KINTEX, IlSan, Korea www.seriousgamesconference.org Serious Game Center in Hose University: http://seniorgame2030.hoseo.ac.kr Prof. KyungSik Kim Dept. of Game Development, Hoseo University Rep. of Korea (kskim@hoseo.edu) 2013-08-22 48Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ)
  • 2013-08-22 Improving Cognition(Hoseo Univ) 49 SGSC2014: Kintex (Korea) 23rd(Fri)~ 25th(Sun) May, 2014