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Presentation 9 conditionals other ways to express unreality

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  • 1. Conditionals; Other Ways to Express Unreality Experiences of an International Traveler 9 Focus on Grammar 5 Part IX, Unit 23 By Ruth Luman, Gabriele Steiner, and BJ Wells Copyright © 2006. Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Tired Traveler If only I had found a taxi. I wish I could brush my teeth right now. If the airport hadn’t lost my luggage, I wouldn’t have been delayed. If I had more money, I would stay at better hotels.
  • 3. Real Conditionals Real conditionals are sentences that describe situations that occur regularly or are likely or possible in the future. If we don’t get to the station on time, the train will leave without us. In present-time situations, use the simple present in both clauses to describe habitual or regularly occurring actions. In future-time situations, use the simple present in the if clause and the future with will or be going to in the result clause. If I don’t put sunscreen on, I get a bad sunburn.
  • 4. Unreal Conditionals Unreal conditionals are sentences that describe situations that are untrue, unlikely, or impossible in the present or the past. In present-time situations, use the simple past in the if clause and would, could, or might plus the base form of the verb in the result clause. If I had enough money, I would visit Paris. She doesn’t have enough money and she won’t visit Paris.
  • 5. Present Unreal Conditionals He didn’t travel with a map, so he got lost. Use the simple past in the if clause. If the verb is be , use were for all persons. Use could , might , or would + base form in the result clause. If I were a better planner I wouldn’t travel without a map. Where’s my wallet? If he were more careful, he would notice that his wallet was missing.
  • 6. Past Unreal Conditionals Use the past unreal conditional for past unreal, untrue, imagined, or impossible conditions and their unreal results. Use the past perfect in the if clause. Use could , might , or would + have + past participle in the result clause. If I had looked at a map, I wouldn’t have gotten lost. He didn’t look at a map, so he got lost. Where’s my wallet? If he had been more careful, he might have noticed his wallet was missing.
  • 7. Practice 1 Look at the chart and complete the conditionals with your own ideas. Examples: If I had enough money, … If I have enough money, … If I had had a lot of money,… I would travel to Asia . I will travel to Asia. I would have traveled to Asia. 1. If I visit Europe, … 2 . … , I might not have gotten sick. 3. If we took an airplane,… 4. If we had made reservations, … 5. … , I would learn Russian. If + past perfect AND would/could/might + have + past participle verb If + simple past AND would/could/might + base form verb If + simple present AND will + base form verb If + simple present AND simple present Past Unreal Unreal Real
  • 8. Wish 1 Use wish + could / would + base form to express a wish about the future. I wish that baby would stop crying. This is what he wants, but he is not sure if the baby will change his behavior.
  • 9. Wish 2 Use wish + the simple past to express a wish about the present. I wish I caught an earlier flight. I wish I had more leg room.
  • 10. Wish 3 I wish I hadn’t eaten that airplane food. The man ate the airplane food. Use wish + the past perfect to express a wish about the past.
  • 11. Hope and Wish Don’t confuse hope and wish . I hope I get to the plane on time. I wish (that) I didn’t have so much luggage. Use hope to express a desire about events that are possible or probable. Use wish to express regrets about things that are unlikely or impossible to change.
  • 12. If Only If only can also be used to express wishes. If only they wouldn’t leave me here for the rest of my life. If only they could see me. Present Future
  • 13. Practice 2 Use the pictures to make statements using wish and if only . Make statements about the present, future, and past. I wish I could take the bus. Example: If only I’d make my flight. 1. 2. 3.
  • 14.
    • Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education and its licensors. All rights reserved.
    References