Departamento de Lenguajes y
Sistemas Informáticos

Multidimensional Modeling using
UML and XML
Sergio Luján-Mora
(sergio.l...
Departamento de Lenguajes y
Sistemas Informáticos

Multidimensional Modeling using
UML and XML

Sergio Luján-Mora
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Contents
• Introduction
•
•
•
•
•

OO Multidimensional Modeling
UML Extension...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Introduction
• Multidimensional (MD) modeling  Data
warehouses, MD databases...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Introduction
• UML  Standard OO modeling
language for software systems
• Min...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Introduction
• UML extension for MD modeling based
on an object-oriented appr...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Introduction
• MD models are stored in XML
documents  XML Schema defines the...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Introduction
UML extension for MD
MD models
XML documents

XSLT stylesheet

X...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Contents
• Introduction

• OO Multidimensional Modeling
•
•
•
•

UML Extensio...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

OO MD modeling
• The MD modeling approach represents
both the structural and ...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

OO MD modeling
Sales

Shared
aggregation
Dimension
class

{OID}: ticket_num
q...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

OO MD modeling
{inventory is (AVG,MIN,MAX) along Time}
Sales
{OID}: num_ticke...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

OO MD modeling
{inventory is (AVG,MIN,MAX) along Time}
Sales
{OID}: num_ticke...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

OO MD modeling
Time

*

1

…

{OID}: cod_time
{D}: day_of_week

*

*
1
Week

...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

OO MD modeling
Time

*

{OID}: cod_time
{D}: day_of_week

1

…
{dag}

*

*
1
...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

OO MD modeling
Time

*

{OID}: cod_time
{D}: day_of_week

1

…
{dag}

*

*
1
...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

OO MD modeling
Product
{OID}: cod_prod
{D}: description

Food

type

family

...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Contents
• Introduction
• OO Multidimensional Modeling

• UML Extension for M...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

UML Extension for MD Modeling
• UML extensible language  Extension
mechanism...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

UML Extension for MD Modeling
• Stereotype: a new model element that
speciali...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

UML Extension for MD Modeling
• Extension summary:
– 8 stereotypes:
• Class: ...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

UML Extension for MD Modeling
• Facts and dimensions  Fact and
Dimension ste...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

UML Extension for MD Modeling
• Name: Fact
• Base class: Class
• Description:...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

UML Extension for MD Modeling
• Constraints:
– All attributes of a Fact must ...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Contents
• Introduction
• OO Multidimensional Modeling
• UML Extension for MD...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

MD Modeling in Rational Rose
• Rational Rose is one of the most well-known
vi...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

MD Modeling in Rational Rose
• Our add-in customizes:
– Stereotypes  Stereot...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Contents
•
•
•
•

Introduction
OO Multidimensional Modeling
UML Extension for...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

MD Models in XML
• XML is being adopted as a standard
syntax for the intercha...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

MD Models in XML
• Main advantages of XML Schema over
DTD:
– They are written...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

MD Models in XML
• Goal: provide different presentations of
MD models in the ...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

MD Models in XML
• XSLT is the best method: it is a
language for transforming...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

MD Models in XML
FACT CLASS 1
FACT CLASS 2

XML document
containing
MD model
...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Contents
•
•
•
•
•

Introduction
OO Multidimensional Modeling
UML Extension f...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Conclusions and Future Work
• UML extension for MD modeling: allows
us to rep...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Conclusions and Future Work
• MD models are stored in XML
documents  We prov...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Conclusions and Future Work
• PhD: define a methodology for MD modeling
• Unt...
Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

Departamento de Lenguajes y
Sistemas Informáticos

Multidimensional Modeling ...
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Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

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12th Workshop for PhD Students in Object-Oriented Systems (PhDOOS 2002), 16th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2002), p. 48-49: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2548, Málaga (Spain), June 10-14 2002. 

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http://gplsi.dlsi.ua.es/almacenes/ver.php?pdf=34

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  • {"38":"To conclude (kon’klu:d), let us present some conclusions (kon’klsu:shn) and future (’fiucha) work.\n","16":"The multiplicity (malti’plisiti) 1 and 1..* addresses the concepts of strictness and non-strictness.\nThe {completeness} (kom’pli:tness) constraint addresses the completeness of a classification hierarchy.\n","5":"On the other hand, the Unified Modeling Language has been widely accepted as the standard object-oriented (OO) modeling language for modeling various aspects of software systems.\nAny approach using the UML will minimize the effort of developers in learning new notations.\nThe UML is an extensible language: it provides mechanisms, such as stereotypes, tagged values, and constraints that allow introducing new elements for specific domains\n","33":"Here, we can see the presentation of the previous (’pri:vios) XML document (‘dokjument) in Microsoft Internet Explorer. The document is not presented in a “pretty” way.\n","11":"Fact classes are specified as composite (’kompozit) classes in shared aggregation relationships of n dimension classes.\n","17":"Finally, the categorization of dimensions is considered by means of generalization-specialization relationships.\n","6":"In this paper, we present a UML extension for MD modeling based on an object-oriented approach based on the UML, as it easily considers main MD properties at the conceptual level, such as the many-to-many relationships between facts and dimensions, degenerate (di’lleneret) dimensions, multiple (’maltipl) and alternative path classification hierarchies, and other features.\n","34":"Therefore, another relevant issue of our approach was to provide different presentations of the MD models in the web.\nHowever, nowadays only some web browsers (’brausars) partly (’pa:rtli) support XML.\nTherefore, we are currently forced to transform XML documents into HTML pages in order to publish them in the web. How can we achieve this goal?\n","12":"All measures in the fact class are considered additive. For non-additive measures, additivity rules (ru:l) are defined as constraints and are placed in somewhere around the fact class.\n","1":"Good morning to everybody, my name is Sergio Luján-Mora.\nThe paper I am going to present (pri’zent) is entitled (in’taitl) “Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML”. This work has been carried out in the “Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos” at the “Universidad de Alicante” in Spain.\n","40":"MD models are stored in XML documents. Because of this, we provide an XML Schema, that defines the correct structure of XML documents.\nFurthermore, we generate different presentations from the same MD model in HTML, thanks to the use of XSLT stylesheets.\n","18":"Now, I will present our UML extension for MD modeling.\n","7":"Furthermore, MD models are stored in XML documents (‘dokjuments). Then, we use the XML Schema to validate (’vaelideit) the XML documents.\nThen, we use XSLT stylesheets to automatically generate HTML pages that can represent different presentations of the same MD model.\n","35":"The best method to accomplish this task is the use of XSLT, a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents.\nXML documents can be tailored (filtered and reordered) to represent different presentations of the same MD model using XSLT stylesheets.\n","13":"Furthermore, derived measures are defined by means of derivation rules, that are also placed in somewhere around the fact class.\nOur approach also allows to define identifying attributes in the fact class by placing the constraint {OID} next to a measure name. In this way, we can represent degenerate dimensions.\n","2":"Good morning to everybody, my name is Sergio Luján-Mora.\nThe paper I am going to present (pri’zent) is entitled (in’taitl) “Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML”. This work has been carried out in the “Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos” at the “Universidad de Alicante” in Spain.\n","30":"Now, I will present how we use XML documents that represent (repre’zent) MD models and how we generate (llenereit) HTML pages from them.\n","8":"In short, this is work I am going to present today:\nI propose a UML extension for MD modeling\nThis extension allows us to design MD models\nThe MD models are stored in XML documents\nFinally, the XML documents are automatically (oto’matikli) transformed in HTML pages\n","36":"This figure illustrates the overall (ouver’ol) transformation process for a MD model composed of two fact classes sharing common dimensions. The MD model is stored in an XML document and an XSLT stylesheet is provided to generate different presentations of the MD model as different HTML pages.\n","25":"Now, I will show how we use our MD extension in Ration Rose.\n","14":"Moreover, an association of classes specified the relationships between two levels of a classification hierarchy.\nEvery classification hierarchy level is specified by a class called base (beis) class.\n","3":"I have divided my presentation into six main points.\nFirstly, I will start with a brief (bri:f) introduction to my work.\nThen, in the second section I will describe (di’skraib) the basis of our conceptual multidimensional modeling approach (a’proch) based on the UML.\nNext, I will show our proposal of UML extension for MD modeling.\nFollowing this proposal, I will show how we use our MD extension in Ration Rose.\nAnd then, I will go on to explain how we use XML documents (‘dokjument) to store multidimensional models and how we use XSLT stylesheets to automatically (oto’matikli) generate (llenereit) HTML pages from XML documents (‘dokjuments).\nFinally, I will end my presentation with the main conclusions and future work.\nLet us start with the first part of the presentation.\n","42":"Thank you very much for your time and attention (a’tenshon).\n","20":"The UML extension mechanisms are stereotypes, tagged values, and constraints.\n","9":"After this brief introduction, let us see the basis of our object-oriented conceptual multidimensional modeling approach.\n","37":"The resulting HTML pages allow us to navigate through the different presentations of the model on a web browser. All the information about MD properties of the model is represented in the HTML pages.\nFor example, this page shows the information about the selected fact class: name, measures, methods, etc. In this example, Sales contains four measures, ticket_number, qty (quantity), price, and inventory; and two methods, Destroy and New.\n","15":"The classes in a classification hierarchy must define a Directed (di’rektid) Acyclic (a’saiklik) Graph (DAG) rooted in the dimension class (constraint {dag} placed next to every dimension class).\nEvery classification hierarchy level must have an identifying attribute ({OID}) and a descriptor attribute ({D}).\n","4":"Multidimensional (MD) modeling is the foundation of data warehouses, MD databases, and OLAP applications. These systems provide companies with many years of historical information for the decision making process.\nDifferent approaches for the conceptual design of MD systems have been proposed in the last few years. Some of the most well-known are Golfarelli, Sapia, and Tryfona. These approaches provide their own graphical notations.\n","32":"We started our research using a DTD, but XML Schemas present some advantages (ad’vantichis) over DTD. For example, they are written (’riten) in the same syntax (’sintaks) as XML documents, they can define new data types, and the references are more precisely defined.\nWe have chosen a “Russian doll” design (also known as nested or anonymous (a’nonimas) complex types) because it allows us to define each element and attribute (a’tribju:t) within its context in an embedded manner. We find this design “more natural”.\n","21":"The summary of our UML extension is:\n","10":"The MD modeling approach represents both the structural (’strakcharol) and dynamic (dai’naemik) parts of MD modeling using the UML. In this work, I do not address the dynamic part.\nIn this approach, main MD modeling structural properties are specified by means of a UML class diagram.\nFacts and dimensions (dai’menshn) are considered by fact classes and dimension classes.\n"}
  • Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML

    1. 1. Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Sergio Luján-Mora (sergio.lujan@ua.es / @sergiolujanmora) Published in: 12th Workshop for PhD Students in Object-Oriented Systems (PhDOOS 2002), 16th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2002), p. 48-49: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2548, Málaga (Spain), June 10-14 2002. Download: http://gplsi.dlsi.ua.es/almacenes/ver.php?pdf=34
    2. 2. Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Sergio Luján-Mora
    3. 3. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Contents • Introduction • • • • • OO Multidimensional Modeling UML Extension for MD Modeling MD Modeling in Rational Rose MD Models in XML Conclusions and Future Work
    4. 4. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Introduction • Multidimensional (MD) modeling  Data warehouses, MD databases, OLAP applications • Many years of historical information • Different approaches for the conceptual design: – – – – Golfarelli et al Sapia et al Tryfona et al … Own graphical notations
    5. 5. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Introduction • UML  Standard OO modeling language for software systems • Minimize the efforts in learning new notations • Extensible language  Stereotypes, tagged values, and constraints • Allow introducing new elements for specific domains
    6. 6. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Introduction • UML extension for MD modeling based on an object-oriented approach (Trujillo et al, IEEE Computer 34, 2001): – Easily considers MD properties at the conceptual level: • • • • Many-to-many relationships Degenerate dimensions Multiple and alternative path hierarchies ...
    7. 7. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Introduction • MD models are stored in XML documents  XML Schema defines the correctness • Then, we use XSLT to automatically generate HTML pages that can represent different presentations of the same MD model
    8. 8. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Introduction UML extension for MD MD models XML documents XSLT stylesheet XSLT processor HTML Rational Rose 2000
    9. 9. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Contents • Introduction • OO Multidimensional Modeling • • • • UML Extension for MD Modeling MD Modeling in Rational Rose MD Models in XML Conclusions and Future Work
    10. 10. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML OO MD modeling • The MD modeling approach represents both the structural and dynamic parts of MD modeling using the UML • MD modeling structural properties are specified by means of a UML class diagram • Facts and dimensions are considered by fact classes and dimension classes
    11. 11. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML OO MD modeling Sales Shared aggregation Dimension class {OID}: ticket_num qty: integer price: real /total: integer inventory: integer * * 1..* Product … Fact class 1 … Time … Dimension class •Fact classes are specified as composite classes in shared aggregation relationships of n dimension classes
    12. 12. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML OO MD modeling {inventory is (AVG,MIN,MAX) along Time} Sales {OID}: num_ticket qty: integer price: real /total: integer inventory: integer Additivity rule * * 1..* Product … 1 … Time … •All measures in the fact class are considered additive •Non-additive measures  Additivity rules defined as constraints
    13. 13. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML OO MD modeling {inventory is (AVG,MIN,MAX) along Time} Sales {OID}: num_ticket qty: integer price: real /total: integer inventory: integer {total = qty * price} * * 1..* Derivation rule Product … 1 … Time … •Derived measures are defined by means of derivation rules •Identifying attributes {OID}  Represent degenerate dimensions
    14. 14. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML OO MD modeling Time * 1 … {OID}: cod_time {D}: day_of_week * * 1 Week * Season … Classification hierarchy * * 1 Year … Month * … Base class •An association of classes specifies the relationships between two levels of a classification hierarchy •Every classification hierarchy level is specified by a class called base class
    15. 15. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML OO MD modeling Time * {OID}: cod_time {D}: day_of_week 1 … {dag} * * 1 Week * Season … * * 1 Year … Month … * •The classes in a classification hierarchy must define a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) rooted in the dimension class ({dag}) •Every classification hierarchy level must have an identifying attribute ({OID}) and a descriptor attribute ({D})
    16. 16. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML OO MD modeling Time * {OID}: cod_time {D}: day_of_week 1 … {dag} * * 1 Week * Season … * * 1 Year … Month … {completeness} * •The multiplicity 1 and 1..* addresses the concepts of strictness and non-strictness •The {completeness} constraint addresses the completeness of a classification hierarchy
    17. 17. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML OO MD modeling Product {OID}: cod_prod {D}: description Food type family Meat Fish Drink … •The categorization of dimensions is considered by means of generalization-specialization relationships
    18. 18. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Contents • Introduction • OO Multidimensional Modeling • UML Extension for MD Modeling • MD Modeling in Rational Rose • MD Models in XML • Conclusions and Future Work
    19. 19. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML UML Extension for MD Modeling • UML extensible language  Extension mechanisms: stereotypes, tagged values, and constraints • Allow introducing new elements for specific domains (web design, data modeling, etc.) • UML can be adapted to fit a specific method, organization, or user
    20. 20. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML UML Extension for MD Modeling • Stereotype: a new model element that specializes a UML element (Class, Attribute, Package, Association, etc.) • Tagged value: a new property of a model element • Constraint: refines the semantics of a model element  Informal or formal (Object Constraint Language)
    21. 21. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML UML Extension for MD Modeling • Extension summary: – 8 stereotypes: • Class: Fact, Dimension, and Base • Attribute: FactAttribute, DimensionAttribute, OID, and Descriptor • Association: Completeness – 2 tagged values: • isTime and derivationRule – 23 constraints
    22. 22. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML UML Extension for MD Modeling • Facts and dimensions  Fact and Dimension stereotypes • Derived measures: derivationRule tagged value • Classification hierarchies  Association between Dimension and Base stereotypes • Completeness  Completeness stereotype
    23. 23. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML UML Extension for MD Modeling • Name: Fact • Base class: Class • Description: Classes of this stereotype represent facts in a MD model • Icon: • Tagged values: None
    24. 24. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML UML Extension for MD Modeling • Constraints: – All attributes of a Fact must be OID or FactAttribute: self.feature->select(oclIsKindOf(Attribute))-> forAll(oclIsTypeOf(OID) or oclIsTypeOf(FactAttribute)) – All associations of a Fact must be aggregations: self.association->forAll(aggregation = #aggregate) – A Fact can only be associated to Dimension classes: self.allOppositeAssociationEnds-> forAll(participant.oclIsTypeOf(Dimension))
    25. 25. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Contents • Introduction • OO Multidimensional Modeling • UML Extension for MD Modeling • MD Modeling in Rational Rose • MD Models in XML • Conclusions and Future Work
    26. 26. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML MD Modeling in Rational Rose • Rational Rose is one of the most well-known visual modeling tools • RR is extensible by means of add-ins through the Rose Extensibility Interface: – – – – – – – Main menu items Stereotypes Properties (tagged values) Data types Event handling Scripts …
    27. 27. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML MD Modeling in Rational Rose • Our add-in customizes: – Stereotypes  Stereotype configuration file – Properties  Property configuration file – Menu item  Menu configuration file • Menu Tools: – MD Validate – XML Export
    28. 28. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML
    29. 29. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML
    30. 30. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Contents • • • • Introduction OO Multidimensional Modeling UML Extension for MD Modeling MD Modeling in Rational Rose • MD Models in XML • Conclusions and Future Work
    31. 31. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML MD Models in XML • XML is being adopted as a standard syntax for the interchange of semistructured data • We use XML to store MD models • Correct structure?  XML Schema
    32. 32. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML MD Models in XML • Main advantages of XML Schema over DTD: – They are written in the same syntax as XML documents – They can define new data types – The references are more precisely defined • We have chosen a “Russian doll” design (nested, anonymous complex types)
    33. 33. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML
    34. 34. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML MD Models in XML • Goal: provide different presentations of MD models in the web • Common web browsers partly support XML • We are currently forced to transform XML documents into HTML pages in order to publish them in the web • How?
    35. 35. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML MD Models in XML • XSLT is the best method: it is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents (XML  XHTML) • XML documents can be tailored (filtered and reordered) to represent different presentations of the same MD model using XSLT stylesheets
    36. 36. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML MD Models in XML FACT CLASS 1 FACT CLASS 2 XML document containing MD model XSLT stylesheet XSLT processor HTML presentation for FACT CLASS 1 HTML presentation for FACT CLASS 2
    37. 37. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML
    38. 38. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Contents • • • • • Introduction OO Multidimensional Modeling UML Extension for MD Modeling MD Modeling in Rational Rose MD Models in XML • Conclusions and Future Work
    39. 39. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Conclusions and Future Work • UML extension for MD modeling: allows us to represent structural MD properties at the conceptual level • OCL to specify the constraints, avoiding an arbitrary use of the extension • Main advantage: UML  Avoids developers learning a new graphical notation
    40. 40. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Conclusions and Future Work • MD models are stored in XML documents  We provide an XML Schema • Different presentations from the same MD model in HTML  We provide XSLT stylesheets
    41. 41. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Conclusions and Future Work • PhD: define a methodology for MD modeling • Until now: graphical notation, static part, representation in XML, some design guidelines • Future work: dynamic part, UML package diagrams, automatic generation of database schema into OO and OR databases, more design guidelines, …
    42. 42. Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Multidimensional Modeling using UML and XML Sergio Luján-Mora

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