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Semantic Web - Introduction

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  • 1. Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) Bachelor en informatique (professionnel) SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb Unit 1: Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web Trust Proof Rules Logic Data Ontology vocabulary RDF + RDF Schema Data XML + Namespaces + XML Schema •URI •Unicode Digital Signature Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 1
  • 2. Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 2
  • 3. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..11.. EEaarrllyy DDaayyss ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett 11..22.. TThhee HHyyppee ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett && tthhee WWeebb 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall 11..44.. TToowwaarrddss aa NNeeww WWeebb,, ""WWeebb 22..00"" 11..55.. TToowwaarrddss aa MMuucchh BBeetttteerr WWeebb 11..66.. SSeeaarrcchh eennggiinneess 11..77.. RReeffeerreenncceess Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 3
  • 4. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1.1. Early DDaayyss ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett Sputnik (1957) D. Eisenhower Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency founded in 1958, to prevent technological surprise like the launch of Sputnik, which signaled that the Soviets had beaten the U.S. into space J.C.R. Licklider “man-computer symbiosis” (1960) 1966 DARPA director Bob Taylor had the idea to build a nation wide computer network Larry Roberts, principal architect of ARPANet Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 4
  • 5. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1969 1970 1975 1.1. EEaarrllyy DDaayyss ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett SRI (Oct.) Utah (Dec.) UCLA (Aug.) UCSB (Nov.) Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 5
  • 6. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1.1. EEaarrllyy DDaayyss ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett Telnet (1969) NCP (1970) FTP + e-Mail (1972) Vinton Cerf & Bob Kahn Newgroups (1975) 1970 1980 1990 TCP/IP (1978) Esperanto for networks SMTP (1982) DNS (1983) Gopher (1990) WWW, HTTP, HTML (1991) XML (1996) Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 6
  • 7. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1.1. EEaarrllyy DDaayyss ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett Internet = INTERconnected NETworks Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 7
  • 8. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1.1. EEaarrllyy DDaayyss ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/web/carna-botnet-internet-zensus-mit-hacker-methoden-a-890225.html Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 8
  • 9. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1.2. The Hype ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett && tthhee WWeebb potential of 4.3 billion IPv4 addresses source: http://www.isc.org/solutions/survey 1981: 213 hosts 1991: 617000 hosts 2000: +/- 1 mill. hosts 2007: +/- 500 mill. hosts July 2010: 768,913,036 hosts July 2011: 849,869,781 hosts July 2012: 908,585,739 hosts July 2013: 996,230,757 hosts Jan. 2014: 1,010,251,829 hosts Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 9
  • 10. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1993, Marc Andreessen develops the first browser Mosaic 11..22.. TThhee HHyyppee ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett && tthhee WWeebb 1989, Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau au (CERN, Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) introduced hypertext system NeXT computer used by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 as first web server, hypermedia browser and web editor. Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 10
  • 11. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1.2. The Hype ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett && tthhee WWeebb ((uunnccoommpplleettee lliisstt)) 1990 WWW, HTML Tim Berners-Lee, Robert Cailliau 1994 PHP Rasmus Lerdorf 1994 Cascading Style Sheets Håkon Wium Lie 1995 CGI Robert McCool (Netscape) 1996 Active Server Pages Microsoft 1996 Javascript Brendan Eich (Netscape) 1995 Java Sun Microsystems 1996 Flash Macromedia (now: Adobe) 1997 WAP Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, Openwave 1999 RSS Ramanathan V. Guha (Netscape) 2000 XHTML W3C 2005 AJAX Jesse James Garrett Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 11
  • 12. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..22.. TThhee HHyyppee ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 12
  • 13. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..22.. TThhee HHyyppee ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.P2/countries Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 13 source:
  • 14. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..22.. TThhee HHyyppee ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 14
  • 15. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..22.. TThhee HHyyppee ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett Internet users as percentage of population source: http://data.worldbank.org/ Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 15
  • 16. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..22.. TThhee HHyyppee ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett Luxembourg 94,5% have Internet access 77% have broadband 87% use Internet every day (Italy: 93%) 90% male / 82% female 7 of 10 use mobile devices for Internet 62% buy online (regulary) source: http://www.rtl.lu/letzebuerg/511580.html http://www.statistiques.public.lu/catalo gue-publications/luxembourg-en-chiffres/ luxembourg-chiffres.pdf Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 16
  • 17. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1.3. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall Mobility, ubiquitous Web becomes more social, e.g., Linkedln, FOAF Accessibility for everyone (cf. W3C recommendations) "The Internet is no more about router, DNS etc, but about people coming together" (Yahoo) Online business, e-commerce Appealing multimedia aspect, e.g., internet TV Tremendous amount of information & knowledge Web of People Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 17
  • 18. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/europa.htm Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 18
  • 19. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall source: http://www.marketingcharts.com/ Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 19
  • 20. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall http://www.internetworldstats.com/facebook.htm Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 20
  • 21. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 21
  • 22. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall TOP 5 source: http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics/luxembourg Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 22
  • 23. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 100 hours of video are uploaded every minute content ID scans over 250 years of video every day localized in 56 countries created in 2007 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall 500 years of video are watched every day source: http://www.youtube.com/t/press_statistics > 1 billion visits per month > 6 billion hours of video are watched each month more than 25% of global views come from mobile devices Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 23
  • 24. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall 22001133:: 221144 bbiilllliioonn mmiinnuutteess ooff SSkkyyppee22SSkkyyppee ccaallllss 4400%% ooff tthhee tteelleeccoomm mmaarrkkeett 2003: Founded 2011: Microsoft $8.5 billion source: http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2014/01/15/skypes-incredible-rise-in-one-image/ 23-29 Rives de Clausen L-2165 Luxembourg Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 24
  • 25. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb source: was in my mailbox 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 25
  • 26. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall 96% of incoming e-mails are spam source: newsletter uni.lu Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 26
  • 27. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..33.. TThhee IInntteerrnneett ggeettss ssoocciiaall Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 27
  • 28. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb artifical intelligence (AI) strong AI  1.4. Towards aa NNeeww WWeebb,, ""WWeebb 22..00"" • Logical reasoning • Knowledge representation • Natural Language Processing • Machine Learning • … weak AI  art or porn? Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 28
  • 29. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb photography woman 1.4. Towards aa NNeeww WWeebb,, ""WWeebb 22..00"" voting 18-200mm VR tagging black & white best picture 2010 Statistical solution Requires critical mass of "good" users art or porn? Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 29
  • 30. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb artistic black and white picture of a naked woman in a narrow street 11..55.. TToowwaarrddss aa MMuucchh BBeetttteerr WWeebb art or porn? Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 30
  • 31. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb search engine picture naked narrow street 11..55.. TToowwaarrddss aa MMuucchh BBeetttteerr WWeebb black and white of a woman in user query photo nude outdoors daylight metadata + data artistic black and white picture of a naked woman in a narrow street Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 31
  • 32. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb too much information Web > 100 billion pages Dark Web some 500 x more 8 billion indexed by Google false interpretation false positive 11..55.. TToowwaarrddss aa MMuucchh BBeetttteerr WWeebb "We came up with the notion that not all web pages are created equal. People are – but not web pages.“ Sergey Brin, co-found of Google Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 32
  • 33. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..66.. SSeeaarrcchh eennggiinneess black and white photo of a nude woman outdoors in daylight of black woman in a white daylight photo and nude outdoors does order matters? does size matters? Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 33
  • 34. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 21 March 2011 presentation CRP-HT Informal language 11..66.. SSeeaarrcchh eennggiinneess Brown tag set a date a date noun phrase (NP), prepositional phrase (PP), adjective phrase (ADJP), verb phrase (VP) adjective (JJ), conjuncation (CC), preposition (IN), determiner (DT), noun (NN), verb (VBZ) Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 34
  • 35. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb S º Photo  "hasColor.BW  "photoOf.(Woman  "isNude)  "isOutdoors.Daylight description logics remove “stop words” semantic interpretation verbs, adjectives, adverbs  roles nouns  concepts 11..66.. SSeeaarrcchh eennggiinneess Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 35
  • 36. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb artistic black and white picture of a naked woman in a narrow street 11..66.. SSeeaarrcchh eennggiinneess P º Picture  "hasColor.BW  "isArtistic  "pictureOf.(Woman  "isNaked)  "isLocated.(Street  "isNarrow) similarity ? Q º Photo  "hasColor.BW  "photoOf.(Woman  "isNude)  "isOutdoors.Daylight 36 Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 36
  • 37. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..66.. SSeeaarrcchh eennggiinneess ppicictuturere pphhoototo mmoovvieie Photo  Picture Photo is subsumed by Picture semantic resources e.g., WordNet pictureOf º photoOf isNude º isNaked equivalences P º Picture  "hasColor.BW  "isArtistic  "pictureOf.(Woman  "isNaked)  "isLocated.(Street  "isNarrow) similarity ? Q º Photo  "hasColor.BW  "photoOf.(Woman  "isNude) Q º Photo  Picture  "hasColor.BW  "pictureOf.(Woman  "isOutdoors.Daylight imimaaggee  "isNaked)  "isOutdoors.Daylight Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 37
  • 38. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb Query Object 1 Object 2 3 11..66.. SSeeaarrcchh eennggiinneess no cover Object 3 Object 4 1 Object 5 rest cover miss 2 Best cover = object with smallest rest and miss preference is given to smallest miss Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 38
  • 39. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..66.. SSeeaarrcchh eennggiinneess Lecture "WWW Grundlagen" by Prof. Meinel #1 Intro #2 Protocols in general This clip is about error-handling as a task of a protocol #n How TCP/IP works #3 Error-handling as task of a protocol #4 Error-handling LO3  Protocol  $hasTask.ErrorHandling <owl:Class rdf:about="#LO3"> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Protocol" /> <owl:restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasTask" /> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#ErrorHandling" /> </owl:restriction> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 39
  • 40. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 1.6. Towards aa MMuucchh BBeetttteerr WWeebb Weakness' of the current Web and proposals for a new and better Web: Semantic of the content must be described in a standardized formalism. Such additional data about data are called metadata metadata data Represent meaning and context in well organized data structures and share it with the rest of the world Allow applications (e.g., search engines, robots…) to logical infer over the data Offer a certain degree of trust and security, e.g., by revealing correctly the origin of the data Semantic Web + Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 40
  • 41. 1. Introduction –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..66.. SSeeaarrcchh eennggiinneess Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 41
  • 42. 11.. IInnttrroodduuccttiioonn –– WWWWWW vvss.. SSeemmaannttiicc WWeebb 11..77.. RReeffeerreenncceess E-Librarian Service User-Friendly Semantic Search in Digital Libraries Serge Linckels, Christoph Meinel ARPA Kadabra. Die Geschichte des Internet Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon WWW. Kommunikation, Internetworking, Web-Technologien Christoph Meinel, Harald Sack Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 42