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Semantic Web - Introduction Semantic Web - Introduction Presentation Transcript

  • Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) Bachelor en informatique (professionnel) Semantic Web Unit 1: Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web Rules Data Trust Data Proof Ontology vocabula ry RDF + RD F Schem a Digital Signature Logic XML + N amespac es + XML Schema •URI •Unicode Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 1
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.1. Early Days of the Internet 1.2. The Hype of the Internet 1.3. The Evolution of the World Wide Web 1.4. The Success Story of the Web Today 1.5. Towards a New Web, "Web 2.0" 1.6. Towards a Much Better Web 1.7. Search engines 1.8. References Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 2
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.1. Early Days of the Internet Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Sputnik (1957) D. Eisenhower founded in 1958, to prevent technological surprise like the launch of Sputnik, which signaled that the Soviets had beaten the U.S. into space Larry Roberts, principal architect of ARPANet J.C.R. Licklider “man-computer symbiosis” (1960) 1966 DARPA director Bob Taylor had the idea to build a nation wide computer network Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 3
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.1. Early Days of the Internet 1969 1970 1975 SRI (Oct.) Utah (Dec.) UCSB (Nov.) UCLA (Aug.) Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 4
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.1. Early Days of the Internet Telnet (1969) Gopher (1990) NCP (1970) Vinton Cerf & Bob Kahn WWW, HTTP, HTML (1991) FTP + e-Mail (1972) Newgroups (1975) 1970 1980 1990 TCP/IP (1978) Esperanto for networks SMTP (1982) DNS (1983) XML (1996) Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 5
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web Internet = INTERconnected NETworks 1.1. Early Days of the Internet Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 6
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.1. Early Days of the Internet http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/web/carna-botnet-internet-zensus-mit-hacker-methoden-a-890225.html Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 7
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.2. The Hype of the Internet source: http://www.isc.org/solutions/survey 1981: 213 hosts 1991: 617000 hosts 2000: +/- 1 mill. hosts 2007: +/- 500 mill. hosts July 2010: 768,913,036 hosts July 2011: 849,869,781 hosts July 2012: 908,585,739 hosts July 2013: 996,230,757 hosts Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 8
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm Internet i ≠ WWW 1.2. The Hype of the Internet 9
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.2. The Hype of the Internet Internet users as percentage of population source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 10
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.2. The Hype of the Internet Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 11
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.2. The Hype of the Internet Key t eleco m pa rame Luxem bourg ters https :/ Telec /www.bu d o Forec ms-IP-Ne de.com.a u/ twork asts. html? s-Dig Research r= 5 1 ital-M /L edia- uxembou andrg- Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 12
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web Internet i ≠ WWW 1.2. The Hype of the Internet source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 13
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web Internet i ≠ WWW 1.2. The Hype of the Internet source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 14
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.3. The Evolution of the World Wide Web 1989, Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau au (CERN, Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) introduced hypertext system 1993, Marc Andreessen develops the first browser Mosaic NeXT computer used by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 as first web server, hypermedia browser and web editor. Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 15
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.3. The Evolution of the World Wide Web 1990 WWW, HTML (uncomplete list) 1996 Tim Berners-Lee, Robert Cailliau 1994 PHP Microsoft 1996 Rasmus Lerdorf 1994 Cascading Style Sheets CGI 1997 Java 1999 Flash Macromedia (now: Adobe) RSS Ramanathan V. Guha (Netscape) 2000 Sun Microsystems 1996 WAP Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, Openwave Robert McCool (Netscape) 1995 Javascript Brendan Eich (Netscape) Håkon Wium Lie 1995 Active Server Pages XHTML W3C 2005 AJAX Jesse James Garrett Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 16
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.4. The Success Story of the Web Today "The Internet is no more about router, DNS etc, but about people coming together" (Yahoo) of eb ple W o Pe Online business, e-commerce Tremendous amount of information & knowledge Accessibility for everyone (cf. W3C recommendations) Appealing multimedia aspect, e.g., internet TV Mobility, ubiquitous Web becomes more social, e.g., Linkedln, FOAF Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 17
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.4. The Success Story of the Web Today http://www.internetworldstats.com/facebook.htm Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 18
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.4. The Success Story of the Web Today TO P 5 source: http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics/luxembourg Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 19
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1 10 1.4. The Success Story of the Web Today v 00 h e v 0 ho e er ou ery ur y m rs mi s off inu o v nu te viide te de o oa are >1 >1 re biilllli b io up up on v lloa n viis oa siits de ts pe de per m d d r mo r 250 years of 0 years of onth nth content ID scans ove r 25 ove content ID scans video every day video every day s es riie > 6 billion hours of video are tr > 6 billion hours of video are nt un o watched each month co u watched each month 6 c 56 n 5 in d i d atched tched ew are w a ze lliiz e v deo r of viideo a a rs of a 500 yea rs oc 500 yea lloc y every da y every da 7 007 ed iin 2 00 d n2 eat e at cr e cr more more t th come han 25% of come f an 25% of g from m gl rom m obiille loball viiews ob e d oba v ews deviices ev ces source: http://www.youtube.com/t/press_statistics Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 20
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.4. The Success Story of the Web Today source: was in my mailbox Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 21
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.4. The Success Story of the Web Today e spam mails ar ing eof incom 96% source: newsletter uni.lu Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 22
  • Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 23
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.5. Towards a New Web, "Web 2.0" artifical intelligence (AI) art or po rn? strong AI  • Logical reasoning • Knowledge representation • Natural Language Processing • Machine Learning •… weak AI Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu :::  24
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.5. Towards a New Web, "Web 2.0" art or po rn? voting tagging photography n oma w blac 18-2 00m m VR k & white best picture 2010 Statistical solution Requires critical mass of "good" users Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 25
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.6. Towards a Much Better Web art or po rn? nd black a artistic ture hite pic w an ed wom k of a na eet row str r in a na Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 26
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.6. Towards a Much Better Web r qu use ery black and photo white nude of outdoors daylight a woman in rch a se in e g en picture naked narrow street metadata + data nd black a artistic icture white p ma n ked wo of a na treet rrow s in a na Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 27
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.6. Towards a Much Better Web too much information Web > 100 billion pages Dark Web some 500 x more 8 billion indexed by Google false interpretation false positive "We came up with the notion that not all web pages are created equal. People are – but not web pages.“ Sergey Brin, co-found of Google Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 28
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.7. Search engines black and white photo of a nude woman outdoors in daylight of black woman in a white daylight photo and nude outdoors does order matters? does size matters? Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 29
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.7. Search engines Bro 21 e tag s wn t March prese ntatio CRP011 n 2 -HT Informal language a date a date noun phrase (NP), prepositional phrase (PP), adjective phrase (ADJP), verb phrase (VP) adjective (JJ), conjuncation (CC), preposition (IN), determiner (DT), noun (NN), verb (VBZ) Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 30
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.7. Search engines S ≡ Photo  ∀hasColor.BW  ∀photoOf.(Woman  ∀isNude)  ∀isOutdoors.Daylight description logics remove “stop words” semantic interpretation verbs, adjectives, adverbs  roles nouns  concepts Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 31
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.7. Search engines and c black artisti ture hite pic woman w ked et of a n a ow stre rr in a na P ≡ Picture  ∀hasColor.BW  ∀isArtistic  ∀pictureOf.(Woman  ∀isNaked)  ∀isLocated.(Street  ∀isNarrow) ? similarity Q ≡ Photo  ∀hasColor.BW  ∀photoOf.(Woman  ∀isNude)  ∀isOutdoors.Daylight 32 Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 32
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.7. Search engines se ma n e.g tic r ., W eso u or dN rces et picture picture image image photo photo movie movie pictureOf ≡ photoOf isNude Photo  Picture ≡ isNaked equivalences Photo is subsumed by Picture P ≡ Picture  ∀hasColor.BW  ∀isArtistic  ∀pictureOf.(Woman  ∀isNaked)  ∀isLocated.(Street  ∀isNarrow) ? similarity Q ≡ Photo  ∀hasColor.BW  ∀photoOf.(Woman  ∀isNude) Q ≡ Photo Picture  ∀hasColor.BW  ∀pictureOf.(Woman  ∀isOutdoors.Daylight ∀isNaked)  ∀isOutdoors.Daylight Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 33
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.7. Search engines Query Object 1 1 Object 2 no 3 Object r ove c 3 2 Object 4 Object 5 rest Best cover = cover miss object with smallest rest and miss miss preference is given to smallest miss Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 34
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.7. Search engines Lecture "WWW Grundlagen" by Prof. Meinel #1 #2 #3 #4 #n Intro Protocols in general Error-handling as task of a protocol Errorhandling How TCP/IP works bout lip is a as This c g handlin ocol errorro t k of a p a tas LO3  Protocol  ∃hasTask.ErrorHandling <owl:Class rdf:about="#LO3"> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Protocol" /> <owl:restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasTask" /> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#ErrorHandling" /> </owl:restriction> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 35
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.7. Towards a Much Better Web Weakness' of the current Web and proposals for a new and better Web: metadata + data Semantic of the content must be described in a standardized formalism. Such additional data about data are called metadata Represent meaning and context in well organized data structures and share it with the rest of the world Allow applications (e.g., search engines, robots…) to logical infer over the data Offer a certain degree of trust and security, e.g., by revealing correctly the origin of the data Semantic Web Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 36
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.7. Search engines Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 37
  • 1. Introduction – WWW vs. Semantic Web 1.8. References E-Librarian Service User-Friendly Semantic Search in Digital Libraries Serge Linckels, Christoph Meinel ARPA Kadabra. Die Geschichte des Internet Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon WWW. Kommunikation, Internetworking, Web-Technologien Christoph Meinel, Harald Sack Semantic Web ::: Serge Linckels, 2013 ::: http://www.linckels.lu/ ::: serge@linckels.lu ::: 38