Distributed User Interfaces:How to Distribute User Interface Elements across Users, Platforms, and Environments<br />Jean ...
What is the situation today?One user performing one task on one domain in one context of use<br /><ul><li>The predominantp...
Monitor, device
Computingplatform
User
Environment
Context of use
Domain and task</li></ul>one<br />many<br />2<br />
Introduction<br />DUI = Distributed User Interface across<br />Multiple Users: single user stereotypes vs. multiple stereo...
One dimension at a time<br /><ul><li>The predominantparadigm: single…
Monitor, device
Computingplatform
User
Environment
Context of use
Domain and task</li></ul>one<br />many<br />4<br />
Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />Deviceside<br />Monitor surface isincreasing, whileprice...
Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />User side<br />[Harris,2002]<br />
Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />Effects of Display Size on Task Times<br />160<br />140<...
Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />The tasks were easy to perform<br />5<br />4<br />3<br /...
Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />[Czerwinsky,2005]<br />
Multi-monitor/device<br />Distribution of UIsacrossmonitors (hardware)<br />Coupling different monitors to the same workst...
Multi-monitor/device<br /><ul><li> Hard wired, manual solution
 Opportunistic
 Lack of reusability</li></ul>Distribution of UIsacrossmonitors (hardware)<br />Coupling different monitors to the same wo...
Multi-monitor/device<br />Distribution of UIsacrossmonitors (software)<br />Partitioning of a window across several screen...
Multi-monitor/device<br />Extending a Desktop with another Monitor<br />[Demeure et al.,2004]<br />
The 4C Framework for DUIs<br />C1 (Computation) represents the computation of a DUI, i.e. what are the elements to be dist...
Dimensions of the 4C<br />C4 (Configuration) represents where a UI is distributed. It therefore poses the problem of how t...
One dimension at a time<br />The predominant paradigm: single…<br />Monitor, device<br />Computing platform<br />User<br /...
Multi-platform<br />(Amount of interactive systems)<br />(Amount of end users)<br />10 to 50 systems<br />for 1 user<br />...
Multi-platform<br />[Pierce et al.,2004]<br />
Multi-platform<br />Problem: how to design a UI thattakes care of multiple computingplatforms?<br />Some solutions:<br />D...
The Painter’s Palette<br />+<br />=<br />
Digital Painter’s Palette<br />
Useful area is wasted !<br />
Multi-platform<br />Problem: how to design a UI thattakes care of multiple computingplatforms?<br />Painting<br />Pencil<b...
Multi-platform<br />[Grolaux & Vanderdonckt,2005]<br />
Multi-platform<br />
Example using a Pocket PC<br />
Multi-platform<br />
Multi-platform<br />DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach<br />
Multi-platform<br />DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach - Migrate<br />
Multi-platform<br />DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach - Migrate - Plastify<br />
Multi-platform<br />DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach - Migrate - Plastify - Attach<br />
Multi-platform<br />This is not a floating bar<br />Process<br />
Computer B<br />Computer A<br />Process<br />Multi-platform<br />Process<br />
MigriXML architecture<br />Interactive system architecture<br />GUI application<br />Arch meta-model or ‘Slinky’ meta-mode...
Case study<br />The user’s environment is a small office, with five different platforms <br />
Case study<br />Two different user interfaces<br />
Case study<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />Migrating from one laptop to the other<br />Aspire 200015”, 16:10 1280x800<br ...
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Distributed User Interfaces: How to Distribute User Interface Elements across Users, Platforms, and Environments

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Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs) have become one vivid area of research and development in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) where many dramatic changes occur in the way we can interact with interactive systems. DUIs attempt to surpass user interfaces that are manipulated only by a single end user, on the same computing platform, and in the same environment, with little or no variations among these axes. In contrast to such currently existing user interfaces, DUIs enable end users to distribute any user interface element, ranging from the largest one to the smallest one, across one or many of these dimensions at design- and/or run-time: across different users, across different computing platforms, and across different physical environments. In this way, end users could be engaged in distributed tasks that are regulated by distribution rules, many of them being currently used in the real world. This paper provides a conceptual framework that invites us to re-think traditional user interfaces in a distributed way based on the locus of distribution control: in the hands of the end user, under control of the system, or in mixed-initiative way. Any user interface submitted to distribution may also be subject to adaptation with respect to the user, the platform, and the environment.

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Distributed User Interfaces: How to Distribute User Interface Elements across Users, Platforms, and Environments

  1. 1. Distributed User Interfaces:How to Distribute User Interface Elements across Users, Platforms, and Environments<br />Jean Vanderdonckt<br />LouvainInteractionLab<br />Universitécatholique de Louvain<br />Jean.Vanderdonckt@uclouvain.be<br />
  2. 2. What is the situation today?One user performing one task on one domain in one context of use<br /><ul><li>The predominantparadigm: single…
  3. 3. Monitor, device
  4. 4. Computingplatform
  5. 5. User
  6. 6. Environment
  7. 7. Context of use
  8. 8. Domain and task</li></ul>one<br />many<br />2<br />
  9. 9. Introduction<br />DUI = Distributed User Interface across<br />Multiple Users: single user stereotypes vs. multiple stereotypes<br />Multiple computingPlatforms: single platform vs. multiple platforms<br />Simultaneously<br />Asynchronously<br />Multiple surroundingEnvironments(physical): same place vs. multiple places<br />Problem to beaddressed: the design and the development of DUIswhiletakingintoaccount<br />Aspects that are common to various distributions<br />Aspects that are specific to some distributions<br />Today, thereis an ontological confusion in the various distributions possible<br />The State of the Art islargelyinconsistent<br />It isdifficult to compare relatedwork<br />
  10. 10. One dimension at a time<br /><ul><li>The predominantparadigm: single…
  11. 11. Monitor, device
  12. 12. Computingplatform
  13. 13. User
  14. 14. Environment
  15. 15. Context of use
  16. 16. Domain and task</li></ul>one<br />many<br />4<br />
  17. 17. Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />Deviceside<br />Monitor surface isincreasing, whilepriceisdecreasing<br />User side<br />Usersprefer more display surface<br />User’sproductivityincreasesfrom 10% to 30% (althoughsomeusabilityproblems are raised)<br />[Harris,2002]<br />
  18. 18. Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />User side<br />[Harris,2002]<br />
  19. 19. Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />Effects of Display Size on Task Times<br />160<br />140<br />120<br />100<br />Small<br />Average Task Time (Seconds)<br />80<br />Large<br />60<br />40<br />20<br />0<br />DISPLAY<br />[Czerwinsky,2005]<br />
  20. 20. Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />The tasks were easy to perform<br />5<br />4<br />3<br />Average Rating (1=Disagree, <br />5=Agree)<br />2<br />1<br />0<br />Small<br />Large<br />Display Size<br />[Czerwinsky,2005]<br />
  21. 21. Multi-monitor/device<br />Whytake care of multiple monitors?<br />[Czerwinsky,2005]<br />
  22. 22. Multi-monitor/device<br />Distribution of UIsacrossmonitors (hardware)<br />Coupling different monitors to the same workstation<br />
  23. 23. Multi-monitor/device<br /><ul><li> Hard wired, manual solution
  24. 24. Opportunistic
  25. 25. Lack of reusability</li></ul>Distribution of UIsacrossmonitors (hardware)<br />Coupling different monitors to the same workstation<br />
  26. 26. Multi-monitor/device<br />Distribution of UIsacrossmonitors (software)<br />Partitioning of a window across several screens to obtain a DUI<br />
  27. 27. Multi-monitor/device<br />Extending a Desktop with another Monitor<br />[Demeure et al.,2004]<br />
  28. 28. The 4C Framework for DUIs<br />C1 (Computation) represents the computation of a DUI, i.e. what are the elements to be distributed during the operation<br />C2 (Communication) represents the dimension of distribution time, i.e. when are the elements of an interactive system distributed<br />C3 (Coordination) represents the dimension of distribution responsibility, i.e. who is distributing the interactive system<br />Detection, computation, selection, execution => ISATINE framework[Lopez2006]<br />C4 (Configuration) represents where a UI is distributed. It therefore poses the problem of how to distribute it<br />Conserving physical pixels<br />Conserving logical pixels<br />Conserving semantic pixels<br />[Demeure et al.,2004]<br />
  29. 29. Dimensions of the 4C<br />C4 (Configuration) represents where a UI is distributed. It therefore poses the problem of how to distribute it by conserving<br />Physical pixels<br />Logical pixels<br />Semantic pixels<br />[Demeure et al.,2004]<br />
  30. 30. One dimension at a time<br />The predominant paradigm: single…<br />Monitor, device<br />Computing platform<br />User<br />Environment<br />Context of use<br />Domain and task<br />one<br />many<br />16<br />
  31. 31. Multi-platform<br />(Amount of interactive systems)<br />(Amount of end users)<br />10 to 50 systems<br />for 1 user<br />10000<br />50000<br />2 or 3 systems<br />for 1 user<br />1 system for 1 user<br />1000<br />5000<br />100<br />500<br />1 system for 100 users<br />10<br />50<br />1970<br />1980<br />1990<br />2000<br />2010<br />2020<br />Source: ForresterResearch, 2002<br />Source: M. Weiser<br />
  32. 32. Multi-platform<br />[Pierce et al.,2004]<br />
  33. 33. Multi-platform<br />Problem: how to design a UI thattakes care of multiple computingplatforms?<br />Some solutions:<br />DistriXML = software architecture for distributingUIsfrom one computingplatform to anotheratrun-time [Grolaux et al., 2005]<br />MigriXML = software architecture for migratingUisfrom one platform to anotheratrun-time with adaptation [Molina et al., 2006]<br />
  34. 34. The Painter’s Palette<br />+<br />=<br />
  35. 35. Digital Painter’s Palette<br />
  36. 36. Useful area is wasted !<br />
  37. 37. Multi-platform<br />Problem: how to design a UI thattakes care of multiple computingplatforms?<br />Painting<br />Pencil<br />Paintingtool<br />Palette<br />[Grolaux & Vanderdonckt,2005]<br />
  38. 38. Multi-platform<br />[Grolaux & Vanderdonckt,2005]<br />
  39. 39. Multi-platform<br />
  40. 40. Example using a Pocket PC<br />
  41. 41. Multi-platform<br />
  42. 42. Multi-platform<br />DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach<br />
  43. 43. Multi-platform<br />DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach - Migrate<br />
  44. 44. Multi-platform<br />DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach - Migrate - Plastify<br />
  45. 45. Multi-platform<br />DEMIPLAT Principle for migration: Detach - Migrate - Plastify - Attach<br />
  46. 46. Multi-platform<br />This is not a floating bar<br />Process<br />
  47. 47. Computer B<br />Computer A<br />Process<br />Multi-platform<br />Process<br />
  48. 48. MigriXML architecture<br />Interactive system architecture<br />GUI application<br />Arch meta-model or ‘Slinky’ meta-model<br />Platform<br />Layered structure<br />[Molina, Vanderdonckt, Gonzalez, 2006]<br />
  49. 49. Case study<br />The user’s environment is a small office, with five different platforms <br />
  50. 50. Case study<br />Two different user interfaces<br />
  51. 51. Case study<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />Migrating from one laptop to the other<br />Aspire 200015”, 16:10 1280x800<br />PT-LB10SU4:3 800x600<br />Latitude15”, 4:3 1024x768<br />
  52. 52. Case study<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />Migrating from a laptop to the Pocket PC<br />Aspire 200015”, 16:10 1280x800<br />e7503,8”, 3:4240x320<br />
  53. 53. One dimension at a time<br />The predominant paradigm: single…<br />Monitor, device<br />Computing platform<br />User<br />Environment<br />Context of use<br />Domain and task<br />one<br />many<br />39<br />
  54. 54. Multiple users<br />Design guideline #1: provide multiple ways to carry out a task by differentusers<br />Interactive systemsshouldbetter support multiple users in multi-taskingbecause group definition changes<br />[Mandviwalla & Olfman, 2000]<br />
  55. 55. Multiple users<br />Design guideline #2: support multiple workmethods<br />A sametaskcouldinvolvedifferentsub-tasksdepending on the context<br />Design guideline #3:support group evolution<br />GR1 et GR2 changent en fonction du temps<br />[Mandviwalla & Olfman, 2000]<br />
  56. 56. One dimension at a time<br />The predominant paradigm: single…<br />Monitor, device<br />Computing platform<br />User<br />Environment<br />Context of use<br />Domain and task<br />one<br />many<br />42<br />
  57. 57. Multi-context<br />The Sedan-Bouillon Tourist Application with Plasticity<br />The Slides Manager<br />[Demeure et al.,2004]<br />
  58. 58. One dimension at a time<br />The predominant paradigm: single…<br />Monitor, device<br />Computing platform<br />User<br />Environment<br />Context of use<br />Domain and task<br />one<br />many<br />44<br />
  59. 59. What we had for multi-platform<br /><ul><li>Application layer :
  60. 60. UI is dynamically migratable
  61. 61.  
  62. 62. UI is dynamically adaptable</li></li></ul><li>What we have for multi-tasking<br />Ext/Tktoolkit<br />
  63. 63. Display Site<br />Architecture overview<br />Transparent proxy mechanisms<br />Proxies relay event bindings from the functional core<br />Widgets trigger these events inside the CM at the display site<br />The CM relays and triggers the event at the application site<br />Proxies store all their event bindings<br />Application Site<br />User Interface<br />Communication Manager<br />Functional Core<br />Widget 1 Proxy<br />Widget 1<br />Widget 2 Proxy<br />Widget 2<br />(using TCP)<br />Widget … Proxy<br />Widget …<br />Event Listener<br />Event Triggerer<br />Widget N Proxy<br />Widget N<br />
  64. 64. Multi-taskingcombined<br />Set of services offered to multiple usersusing multiple platforms in the samecontext<br />[Vandervelpen et al., 2005]<br />
  65. 65. Conclusion<br />Thinkeverythingdistributedaccording to the following « template »<br />Everythingcouldbethoughtdistributed<br />Accessibility, evaluation<br />Virtual, mixed reality<br />
  66. 66. Conclusion<br />Advantages of the 4C framework for DUI<br />Multiple monitors, same platform, same user<br />Multiple platforms, same user<br />Multiple platforms, different users, but same technological space<br />Multiple platforms, different users, different technological spaces<br />Limitations<br />Framework oriented towards the context of use<br />Some aspects not considered in the framework<br />Ambient intelligence<br />Possible extension<br />Generalization needed<br />
  67. 67. User Interface eXtensibleMarkupLanguage<br />http://www.usixml.org<br />FP7 Serenoaprojecthttp://serenoa.morfeo-project.org/wiki/index.php/Main_Page <br />FP7 Selfmanprojecthttp://www.ist-selfman.org/<br />For more information and downloading,http://www.isys.ucl.ac.be/bchi<br />Thankyouverymuch!<br />

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