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Next 25 years• Foresight – Nanotech advocacy for more than 25 years (especially MNT) – About atoms – physical stuff• How long? – Technology – Saturday – Applications – Sunday• How – Using natures’ nanotechnology – Moving around atoms mechanically – Chemistry – mechanized molecules – Software modeling
Commercializing Nanotech• Zyvex (1997) – Tools, nanotubes, fundamental research – First MNT startup – Many partners, broad commercialization path – Nano-retina • Artificial retina – Zycraft • Independent unmanned ultra-light boat. – Advanced nanocomposite materials – Very low weight – Ultra maneuverable – 50 knots – 2 foot draft
New Synthetic Methods for Nanoscale Materials• Building from synthetically modified proteins – Advantages • Relatively rigid, precise, precise chemistries• Viral capsids – Self assembled nanostructures capable of binding substances inside – Candidates: • Bacteriophage MS2 • Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) – Apps • Drug and detector delivery • Light gathering and pumping• Scaffolding uses – 2 to 10 nm spacing for light gathering structures – Natural protein and viral arrangement spacers
Integrating Molecular Switches and Structures• Memory Lane – Molecular interaction – recognizers – Self assembly 80 – 1994 molecular rings – 1998 molecular switch• Coming from – Adding and removing electrons to cause switching – Single molecule switch• Were we are – Open reticulated geometries (scaffolds) – 2D – 3D metallic structures w/ switches• Needs / goals – More complex easy to make (self assemble) molecules – Templated synthesis – Much computational work
Challenges of transformative nanotech panel)• Opinions on what is needed• Focus on cross-disciplinary training• Long term R&D and awarding risk taking – Especially things that are unlikely to pay off • This is death in grant programs • Research funding is hard – Perhaps easier to do in early startups?? • Many complaints about over-management of research – Common theme that undergrad education is broken and turns off mind
Saturday Lunch• Robert Freitas – Says that enough fundamental research is now done for MNT – Now is the time to pour own funds to do the engineering• Peter Voss – Talked a bit about his AGI company and the challenge of producing products to fund research – Also brought up efforts to get people to talk through their opinions rationally and the near impossibility of having that happen
LEGO to Programmable Matter• Bricks of material that make tailored DNA• Interacting protein chains of amino acids – Tailored chains of bisamino acid, bis-peptide – Found way to add in reactive groups to build out side functionality • And ability to tailor molecules for new interactions – Builds systems that can construct other systems – Produces new therapeutics – new catalystic agents• Molecular bricks with large rigid cyclic cores• Modeled using CANDO program running on Kraken (terragrid computer) – Lisp based scripting – Molecular lego
Molecular Dynamics• Predict systems computationally before construction – Tools • DFT • Quantum MonteCarlo• Tunneling through molecules• Growing DNA densely on substrae – Multiple columns of DNA• Devices – Graphene transistors – Damage free anistropic etching • Unknown why this works and very difficult to model• Industry and Darpa are major funders
Molecular Robotics (nanorobotics)• Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS)• Nanorobots – Programmable assembly of nanoscale components – To construct sensing/acting robots at micro scale – Programming and coordination of swarms of such robots – robot sense, thinks and acts as do some immune system cells• Networks of sensors and actuators• Nanomedicine• Massed automated nanoparticle manipulation• Produced plasmonic rotating motor, magnetically propelled swimmers• Nanoscale communication – Chemical, EM, plasmonicnanoattenae• Swarms – Global to local compilation to simple rules – Grab, release, exchange message with neighbors
Application of nanomaterials to IC technology• Etching potential solutions – Novel molecules, molecular gas, directed self-assembly• Extending CMOS and beyond – Alternative channel materials with better nanoscaleperfromance – Nonplanar devices (3D) – Spintronics• Novel memory devices – Redox ram – Spin transfer – Molecular memonry – Macromolecular memory – Nanomechanical memory – Nano phase change
Nanomaterials to IC tech #2• Interconnect challenge – Copper and its limitations – Carbon nanotubes – Novel sub 5nm materials – Self assembled monolayers – Novel interconnects and vias – Graphene – (surprised by no mention of photonic interconnects)
Reflections on a decade of innovation• Near term game changers – Aerospace • Weight, strength, anti-balistic • Producs – EMI shields – Nano-structured carbonfiber – nanofiber based core components – Nano-coatings for optical substraits • Companies – Nanocomp Technologies – United Protective Technologies
Reflection..decade..innovation• Marine – Drivers • Military, maneuverability, reduction in fuel consumption – Products • CNT-based composites • Nanostructured composite fill material• Automotive – Drivers • Powertrain, battery – Nanomaterial based lithium ion packs – Products • Battery tech, racing grade adhesives, nanotech derived sheet steel.
Reflections..Innovation• Nanomedicine – Drivers • Faster and more accurate diagnosis • Better therapeutics – Products • Precisely engineered particles & films for vaccines and therapeutics • Point of care• Space exploration – Drivers • Weight to fuel consumption • New materials – Products • EMI shield fro power systems • CNT-based coaxial cabling
Mesoporous Sensors: From explosives to cancer• Molecular detection – Explosives, chemical agents, disease/health biomarkers.• Sensor types – Molecule in fluid – Thin film sensors – Vibrating crystal• Structure types – Silica, shell POSS TiO2 – Matrix: Acrylates, liloxamnes, polymide – Hydrogen bonding – Complex nanostructured surfaces • Showed mesoporous material pictures. Many are soft spun clouds of material.
Mesoporous Sensors• Electrospray and EDD coatings – Plasma, UV, heat drive chemistry• Nanostructured materials – Films, fibers, particles – Dielectric, semiconductor, metal• Chemical agent detection – Film on surface is very adaptable – Technology • Capacitive: parallel plates: dielectric & conductivity • QCM: vibrating crystal, vibrationalshift• Sorting Proteins – Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy – Selectivity form ordered structures – Lithography – Full assay of proteins in sample
Evolution of a Nanotech Startup• Dip-pen nanolithography – Commercial software controlled STMs was 1st product – Mems, nanofab systems, NanoBioDiscovery, Nanoguardian • Last nano-signs things like drug capsules• DPN process – High rez, material versatility, multiplexing, scalable, desktop systems – Array of thousands to millions of STM tips• Printing protein arrays
Mining the Moon• Barney Pell’s new project• Not much new here – He3, – Lunar solar power to earth – Mining various minerals on the moon – Mining lunar water • Some seem to now thing there is much more water in the interior of the moon but evidence seems missing – tourism – None of this is very compelling• Nothing on meeting the many challenges – Says company is mainly in transport and other enabling tech business• Space tug for moving cargos form LEO/GEO to moon orbit – Only solar electric though.• Overall this felt like a hype session and not many answers to questions