http://www.foresight.org/reunion/speakers.html#MfrancisProtiens are atomically precise. In many cases they are very rigid structures. You can position various types of functionality along the surface.Proteins change shape to sense, harness and bind to things in the environmentMany advantages for production (energy and toxicity advoidance) Site selective reaction focusViral capsides 180 identical copies self-assemble to form capsid each bit is about 27 nm hollow spheres of protein maybe house whatever you want inside like drugs specific molecule sensors on outside is dreamcandidatesBateriophage MS2 – well known structure 2 nm holes in capsid structure. Just pick enough for some important drug molecules chemical strategies to attach substances to inner surface used for containing drugs and signaling substances into the bloodstreamHow do we put detectors on the outside 21 amino acid (artificial) copies on outside of MS2 actomer to bind to specific moleculescorafin others are oxygen sensitive under blue light 100 nm killzone by oxygenation flashCan find and destroy many blood borne cancers e.g. leukemiaUsing these molecules as scaffolding Photosynthetic structure of some bactiria crystal structure – pair of chlorphyll molecules additional light harvesting molecules around center reaction that pump the light in (2 – 10 nm apart) gray helices to keep them apart attempt to build this sort of thing artificially used tobacco mosaic virus 300 nm rod structure disassemble into parts and add chromaphores to transmit light make little disks and long helices as well (very high amounts of light) 90% efficiency light collection now connecting them inside of solar cells adding outside virus connectors to assemble the disk and helices on surfacesEvolved binding to different thingsCystine reactions (sulfur based) proteins wrap around metal ions (evolved in body to take out some metal poisons) sought to tailor this to remove metal toxins from water challenge to remove the bound results linked these together with polymers to form a gel material gets more dense and aggregates on binding. Easy to remove reports and binds metals
http://www.foresight.org/reunion/speakers.html#FstoddartMemory lane molecular interaction / recognizers self assembly (1989) 1994 assembly rings of molecules first molecular switch in 1998 1997 crossbars in monolayer into deviceWhere are we coming from pull out electrons to make bond not preferred so switch shifts put electrons back and it shifts again photo lithography to plant switches on say silicon 5-6k switches in a monolayer molecular switch tunnel junction on – off ratio is currently low found way to update rationrotaxene rod in ring structure single molecule switch!!! 1 molecule per square nm 160 kb molecular access memory built. (fits in a white blood cell) as dense as desired 10 years from now need better deposition methods for greater yieldWhere are we now and where do we want to go? open reticulated geometries (scaffolds) put switches into scaffolds MOFS / NEMS interaction 2D metallic structure -> 3D structure new switchability frameworkMechanized NanoparticlesNeed / Goals Significantly more complex molecules made more simplytemplatedsythesis much computational work complexity and emergenceNanoelectronics and PhotonicsNext Generation Electronics Beyond CMOSNanomaterials and CompositesNanoCatalysisNanomembranes Switches -> NanomachinesMulti-molecule systems
Nanotech requires strong knowledge in physics, chemistry and molecular biology and especially in computational chemistry. Other disciplines are needed depending on specialized area. Undergrad education also tends to push people going on to grad school to hyper specialize where it doesn’t cram so much shallow information about so many subjects in as to preclude much self-guided learning. I was surprised to hear that Saudi Arabia funds a great deal of fundamental research.
“we know enough now that we can benefit a lot from pouring on money. The fundamental research problems are at a stage where we have a lot of building, tuning, engineering to spend the money on.”
The molecular building blocks add functional groups at interior points that support adding arbitrary molecular capabilities without breaking the overall molecules chemistry. Most of these connections are two embedded nitrogen bearing sections. A new reaction called Acyl Transfer Coupling was discovered by his group to make this possibel.Segments can be combined with others in any desired orientation. Can be used to create broad spectrum antibiotics. Two types of molecules are water loving vs greasy (water phobic) molecules. The former make good detectors while the latter are good at entering cell membranes.This work also can be used to create artificial membrane channels into cells and extracellular material. This has likely bearing on SENS work. Molecular recognition and mimicry, especially enzyme mimicry.
William A. Goddard III Long time Molecular Dynamics modeling expert. Analyzed the molecular gears and other machines proposed by Eric Drexler, et. al. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja044530xhttp://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v66/i8/e085420http://scholar.google.com/scholar?start=20&q=%22Molecular+Dynamics%22+Goddard&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&as_vis=1http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-4484/9/3/002/pdf/0957-4484_9_3_002.pdf
http://www.foresight.org/reunion/speakers.html#Arequichahttp://lipari.usc.edu/~requicha/NEMs are a step beyond MEMS. Nanometer devices have dimensions comparible to the atoms and molecules that make up all matter, living and inantimate. Artificial cells and cell repair robots will become possible. http://www-pal.usc.edu/cs5xx/syllab5xx.htmlhttp://www.unisci.com/stories/20021/0114026.htm
http://www.foresight.org/reunion/speakers.html#TtheisBinnig and Rohrer Nanotechnology CenterIBMcore capabilities modeling of materials and devices new devices for memory, logic, communication Partnerships.. Advanced nanoscale analytical instruments growing wires inside electron microscope can see atomic layer at a time growing and forming 1 nm resolution electronic cloud viewing 25 picometer resolution Scanning probe nanopatterning 3D fabrication at 40 nm scale competitive w/ electron beam writingSmarter Planet Initiative most highly efficient solar cells all earth abundant relatively benign materials partner w/ Roche for patterned and electrofiednanopores feedback control but not on the fly sequencing – yet antimicrobial polymeric nanostructure Inside info technology smart dust (rocks) distributed mesh networks of sensors (old technology) FET cannot reduce this to dustBeyond FETsilicon nanophotonics optical communication on the chip ultra compact wavelength compressors 10 gbs tiny modulator high thoroughput switches avalanche wavelength detector / diodoe better because it is so small Exascale computing electrical and optical devices on same chip terabit/s optical network on chip Memory projects phase change memory (PCM) tiny element pulsed with current to heat and freeze to amorphous or non-amorphous state (50 nanosecond speed) billions of rw cycles 3 nm x 20 nm x 100 nm device (can get it down to 3 x 3 x 3 nm in theory)Processing devicescarbon electronicsnanotubes missing process to place them with nm precision DNA origami is possible to do this but not solved yetgraphene sheets limiting success opening useful bandgap developing for radio frequency analog electronicsnanotubes to 15nm great at switching but larger currents but too small for what contacts can carry tunnel FETs solid state memory problems silicon transistors (FET) coming close to limitsComputers stop getting faster about 5 years agoNeed new physics and concepts (low voltage switches)Nano-plasmonics
http://www.foresight.org/reunion/speakers.html#RmeagleyMesoporous means having pores with diameters between 2 and 50 nm. Such materials have high water uptake so they such materials are ideal for sensing in fluid environments. nanostructures: size, shape, area, porosity, mechaincalpropeties all determine what will "fit” or will be detected.▼❑strtucre types•❑fille: silica shell, POSS TiO2•❑matrick: Acrylates, liloxamnes, polyimide•❑capping materials reatictwyth Ho-•❑H-bonding, hydrophobicityFacile coating by ES-CVD, ES-PECVD•❑complexmanostructured surfaces
Dielectric – insulator that can be polarized by electric currentA dielectric material is a substance that is a poor conductor of electricity, but an efficient supporter of electrostatic field s. If the flow of current between opposite electric charge poles is kept to a minimum while the electrostatic lines of flux are not impeded or interrupted, an electrostatic field can store energy.QCM: Quartz Crystal Microbalance
http://www.foresight.org/reunion/speakers.html#MnelsonDip Pen Nanolithography (DPN) began as ascanning probe lithography technique where anatomic force microscope tip was used to transfer alkane thiolates to a gold surface. This technique allows surface patterning on scales of under 100 nanometers.DPN is thenanotechnology analog of the dip pen (also called the quill pen), where the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever acts as a "pen," which is coated with a chemical compound or mixture acting as an "ink," and put in contact with a substrate, the "paper."
Next 25 years• Foresight – Nanotech advocacy for more than 25 years (especially MNT) – About atoms – physical stuff• How long? – Technology – Saturday – Applications – Sunday• How – Using natures’ nanotechnology – Moving around atoms mechanically – Chemistry – mechanized molecules – Software modeling
Commercializing Nanotech• Zyvex (1997) – Tools, nanotubes, fundamental research – First MNT startup – Many partners, broad commercialization path – Nano-retina • Artificial retina – Zycraft • Independent unmanned ultra-light boat. – Advanced nanocomposite materials – Very low weight – Ultra maneuverable – 50 knots – 2 foot draft
New Synthetic Methods for Nanoscale Materials• Building from synthetically modified proteins – Advantages • Relatively rigid, precise, precise chemistries• Viral capsids – Self assembled nanostructures capable of binding substances inside – Candidates: • Bacteriophage MS2 • Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) – Apps • Drug and detector delivery • Light gathering and pumping• Scaffolding uses – 2 to 10 nm spacing for light gathering structures – Natural protein and viral arrangement spacers
Integrating Molecular Switches and Structures• Memory Lane – Molecular interaction – recognizers – Self assembly 80 – 1994 molecular rings – 1998 molecular switch• Coming from – Adding and removing electrons to cause switching – Single molecule switch• Were we are – Open reticulated geometries (scaffolds) – 2D – 3D metallic structures w/ switches• Needs / goals – More complex easy to make (self assemble) molecules – Templated synthesis – Much computational work
Challenges of transformative nanotech panel)• Opinions on what is needed• Focus on cross-disciplinary training• Long term R&D and awarding risk taking – Especially things that are unlikely to pay off • This is death in grant programs • Research funding is hard – Perhaps easier to do in early startups?? • Many complaints about over-management of research – Common theme that undergrad education is broken and turns off mind
Saturday Lunch• Robert Freitas – Says that enough fundamental research is now done for MNT – Now is the time to pour own funds to do the engineering• Peter Voss – Talked a bit about his AGI company and the challenge of producing products to fund research – Also brought up efforts to get people to talk through their opinions rationally and the near impossibility of having that happen
LEGO to Programmable Matter• Bricks of material that make tailored DNA• Interacting protein chains of amino acids – Tailored chains of bisamino acid, bis-peptide – Found way to add in reactive groups to build out side functionality • And ability to tailor molecules for new interactions – Builds systems that can construct other systems – Produces new therapeutics – new catalystic agents• Molecular bricks with large rigid cyclic cores• Modeled using CANDO program running on Kraken (terragrid computer) – Lisp based scripting – Molecular lego
Molecular Dynamics• Predict systems computationally before construction – Tools • DFT • Quantum MonteCarlo• Tunneling through molecules• Growing DNA densely on substrae – Multiple columns of DNA• Devices – Graphene transistors – Damage free anistropic etching • Unknown why this works and very difficult to model• Industry and Darpa are major funders
Molecular Robotics (nanorobotics)• Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS)• Nanorobots – Programmable assembly of nanoscale components – To construct sensing/acting robots at micro scale – Programming and coordination of swarms of such robots – robot sense, thinks and acts as do some immune system cells• Networks of sensors and actuators• Nanomedicine• Massed automated nanoparticle manipulation• Produced plasmonic rotating motor, magnetically propelled swimmers• Nanoscale communication – Chemical, EM, plasmonicnanoattenae• Swarms – Global to local compilation to simple rules – Grab, release, exchange message with neighbors
Application of nanomaterials to IC technology• Etching potential solutions – Novel molecules, molecular gas, directed self-assembly• Extending CMOS and beyond – Alternative channel materials with better nanoscaleperfromance – Nonplanar devices (3D) – Spintronics• Novel memory devices – Redox ram – Spin transfer – Molecular memonry – Macromolecular memory – Nanomechanical memory – Nano phase change
Nanomaterials to IC tech #2• Interconnect challenge – Copper and its limitations – Carbon nanotubes – Novel sub 5nm materials – Self assembled monolayers – Novel interconnects and vias – Graphene – (surprised by no mention of photonic interconnects)
Reflections on a decade of innovation• Near term game changers – Aerospace • Weight, strength, anti-balistic • Producs – EMI shields – Nano-structured carbonfiber – nanofiber based core components – Nano-coatings for optical substraits • Companies – Nanocomp Technologies – United Protective Technologies
Reflection..decade..innovation• Marine – Drivers • Military, maneuverability, reduction in fuel consumption – Products • CNT-based composites • Nanostructured composite fill material• Automotive – Drivers • Powertrain, battery – Nanomaterial based lithium ion packs – Products • Battery tech, racing grade adhesives, nanotech derived sheet steel.
Reflections..Innovation• Nanomedicine – Drivers • Faster and more accurate diagnosis • Better therapeutics – Products • Precisely engineered particles & films for vaccines and therapeutics • Point of care• Space exploration – Drivers • Weight to fuel consumption • New materials – Products • EMI shield fro power systems • CNT-based coaxial cabling
Mesoporous Sensors: From explosives to cancer• Molecular detection – Explosives, chemical agents, disease/health biomarkers.• Sensor types – Molecule in fluid – Thin film sensors – Vibrating crystal• Structure types – Silica, shell POSS TiO2 – Matrix: Acrylates, liloxamnes, polymide – Hydrogen bonding – Complex nanostructured surfaces • Showed mesoporous material pictures. Many are soft spun clouds of material.
Mesoporous Sensors• Electrospray and EDD coatings – Plasma, UV, heat drive chemistry• Nanostructured materials – Films, fibers, particles – Dielectric, semiconductor, metal• Chemical agent detection – Film on surface is very adaptable – Technology • Capacitive: parallel plates: dielectric & conductivity • QCM: vibrating crystal, vibrationalshift• Sorting Proteins – Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy – Selectivity form ordered structures – Lithography – Full assay of proteins in sample
Evolution of a Nanotech Startup• Dip-pen nanolithography – Commercial software controlled STMs was 1st product – Mems, nanofab systems, NanoBioDiscovery, Nanoguardian • Last nano-signs things like drug capsules• DPN process – High rez, material versatility, multiplexing, scalable, desktop systems – Array of thousands to millions of STM tips• Printing protein arrays
Mining the Moon• Barney Pell’s new project• Not much new here – He3, – Lunar solar power to earth – Mining various minerals on the moon – Mining lunar water • Some seem to now thing there is much more water in the interior of the moon but evidence seems missing – tourism – None of this is very compelling• Nothing on meeting the many challenges – Says company is mainly in transport and other enabling tech business• Space tug for moving cargos form LEO/GEO to moon orbit – Only solar electric though.• Overall this felt like a hype session and not many answers to questions