Information Technology Project Management
Sections of this presentation were adapted from A Guide to the Project Managemen...
Organization Structure & Stake Holder &
Human Resources Management During
Projects
Learning Objectives
 Describe the three major types of formal organizational
structures: functional, pure project and mat...
The Formal Organization
Advantages
 Increased flexibility
 Breadth and depth of
knowledge and experience
 Less duplicat...
The Functional Organization
The Formal Organization
Advantages
• Clear authority and
responsibility
• Improved
communication
• High level of
integrati...
The Project
Organization
The Matrix Organization
Organize people in terms of specialties
• Matrix of projects and specialist groups
• People from d...
Forms
• Balanced matrix
• Functional matrix
• Project matrix
Advantages
• High level of integration
• Improved communicati...
While the formal organizational structure
describe how individuals or groups within an
organization
should be related to o...
The Informal Organization
 No formal lines of communication & authority.
 Power is determined by how well one is
connect...
The Informal Organization
Stakeholders –Individuals, groups or
organizations with a stake/claim in project’s
outcome
Stake...
The Informal Organization
Stakeholder Analysis
 Develop list of stakeholders with an interest in the
project
 Identify t...
Identify Stakeholders
Project Charter
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Process Assets
Procurement
Documents...
Plan Stakeholder Management
Stakeholder
management
plan
Project documents
updates
 Expert judgment
 Meetings
 Analytica...
Manage Stakeholder Engagement
 Communication methods
 Interpersonal skills
 Management skills
Tools & Techniques
Plan S...
Power/Interest Grid for Stakeholder
Prioritization
http://www.mindtools.com
Position Stake Holders
http://www.stakeholdermap.com/
Control Stakeholder Engagement
 Information management
systems
 Expert judgment
 Meetings
Tools & Techniques
Plan Stake...
The Project Team
The Roles of the Project Manager
• Managerial role
• Leadership role
Attributes of a successful project m...
Why Human Resources Management is Important?
Clearly defined roles and responsibilities are essential for the
successful p...
Common Responsibilities
Project Sponsor
Accept the product
Provide key dates
Risk threshold
Senior Management
Provide plan...
Common Responsibilities
Stakeholders
 Approve project changes
 Verify Scope
 Become risk owners
Functional Manager
 As...
How to Manage Human Resources?
There are four processes
• Develop Human Resources Plan
• Acquire Project Team
• Develop Pr...
Develop Human Resources Plan
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Process Assets
Project
Management
Plan
Roles ...
Develop Human
Resources Plan
Acquire Project
Team
Develop Project
Team
Manage Project
Team
Inputs
Outputs
Acquire Project ...
Develop Project Team
Project Staff
Assignments
Staffing
Management Plan
Resource
Availability
General management skills
...
Manage Project Team
Organizational Process
Assets
Project Staff
Assignments
Roles and
Responsibilities
Observation and
co...
Power and Leadership
Powers of PM
(Order of Effectiveness)
 Expert
 Reward
 Referent
 Formal (legitimate)
 Penalty (c...
Motivation
Poor motivation often leads to:
• Increased absenteeism
• Increase in the effect of sickness
• Lower commitment...
Motivation - Maslow
Hierarchy of needs
• Physiological needs – air, food, water
• Safety needs – protection, security
• So...
Motivation - Taylor
 Taylor was associated with what has become known
as 'scientific management'.
 Taylor looked at how ...
Motivation - McGregor
Theory X:
 People are inherently lazy and
 People will avoid work if they can
and
 People they in...
Motivation - Herzberg
Motivation
Motivated people to work harder
 Achievement
 Recognition
 Work
 Responsibility
 Adv...
The Project Team
Team Selection and Acquisition
• Skills desired in team members
– technology skills
– business/organizati...
The Project Team
Team Performance
• Work Groups
– Members interact to share information, best
practices, or ideas
– No sha...
The Project Team
Team Performance
• Real Teams
– Team basics
• Small number of people
• Complementary skills
• Commitment ...
Teams vs. Groups
A team is not just a group of people
working together.
A team is not a team because someone
says they’re ...
The Project Team
• Real Teams
– Common sense findings:
• Teams flourish on a demanding performance
challenge
• Team basics...
Important to Notice
Teams are usually artificial entities – you don’t
get to choose who you work with
Understanding team...
The Project Environment
 A place to call home
 Technology support
 Office supplies
 Culture
Conflict Managements
There are Five Conflict Resolution Modes
• Withdraw
• Smoothing
• Compromising
• Forcing
• Problem So...
Each conflict situation is unique and the choice
of an approach to resolve conflict depends on these things:
 Type of con...
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Organization Structure - stake holder -human resources management during projects

  1. 1. Information Technology Project Management Sections of this presentation were adapted from A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge 4th Edition, Project Management Institute Inc., © 2008 & A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge 5th Edition, Project Management Institute Inc., © 2013 & Information Technology Project Management Jack T. Marchewka 2006 John Wiley & Sons,
  2. 2. Organization Structure & Stake Holder & Human Resources Management During Projects
  3. 3. Learning Objectives  Describe the three major types of formal organizational structures: functional, pure project and matrix.  Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the functional, pure project and matrix organizational structures.  Describe the informal organization.  Understand Motivation Theories  Understand Stake Holder Management  Describe the difference between a work group and a team.
  4. 4. The Formal Organization Advantages  Increased flexibility  Breadth and depth of knowledge and experience  Less duplication Disadvantages  Determining responsibility  Poor response time  Poor integration The Functional Organization
  5. 5. The Functional Organization
  6. 6. The Formal Organization Advantages • Clear authority and responsibility • Improved communication • High level of integration Disadvantages • Project isolation • Duplication of efforts The Project Organization
  7. 7. The Project Organization
  8. 8. The Matrix Organization Organize people in terms of specialties • Matrix of projects and specialist groups • People from different departments allocated to software development, possibly part-time Formal Organization
  9. 9. Forms • Balanced matrix • Functional matrix • Project matrix Advantages • High level of integration • Improved communication • Increased project focus Disadvantages • Higher potential for conflict- Individuals have multiple bosses • Poorer response time • Difficult to control a project’s progress The Matrix Organization
  10. 10. While the formal organizational structure describe how individuals or groups within an organization should be related to one another, it does not tell us how they are actually related to one another. Which Organizational Structure Is Best?
  11. 11. The Informal Organization  No formal lines of communication & authority.  Power is determined by how well one is connected in the informal network.
  12. 12. The Informal Organization Stakeholders –Individuals, groups or organizations with a stake/claim in project’s outcome Stakeholder Analysis Basically: To think all the people who are affected by your work, who have influence or power over it, or have an interest in its successful or unsuccessful conclusion.
  13. 13. The Informal Organization Stakeholder Analysis  Develop list of stakeholders with an interest in the project  Identify their interest in project  Gauge their influence over project  Define a role for each stakeholder  Identify an objective for each stakeholder  Identify strategies for each stakeholder
  14. 14. Identify Stakeholders Project Charter Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Procurement Documents Stakeholder Register Stakeholder Management Strategy  Stakeholder analysis  Expert Judgment  Meetings Tools & Techniques Plan Stakeholder Management Manage stakeholder Engagement Control stakeholder Engagement Identify Stakeholders Inputs Outputs Project stakeholders are individuals, groups, or organizations who may affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project
  15. 15. Plan Stakeholder Management Stakeholder management plan Project documents updates  Expert judgment  Meetings  Analytical techniques Tools & Techniques Plan Stakeholder Management Manage stakeholder Engagement Control stakeholder Engagement Identify Stakeholders Inputs Outputs Project management plan Stakeholder register Enterpriseenvironmen tal factors Organizational process assets
  16. 16. Manage Stakeholder Engagement  Communication methods  Interpersonal skills  Management skills Tools & Techniques Plan Stakeholder Management Manage Stakeholder Engagement Control stakeholder Engagement Identify Stakeholders Inputs Outputs Stakeholder management plan Communications management plan Change log Organizational process assets Issue log Change requests Project management plan updates Project documents updates Organizational
  17. 17. Power/Interest Grid for Stakeholder Prioritization http://www.mindtools.com
  18. 18. Position Stake Holders http://www.stakeholdermap.com/
  19. 19. Control Stakeholder Engagement  Information management systems  Expert judgment  Meetings Tools & Techniques Plan Stakeholder Management Manage Stakeholder Engagement Control Stakeholder Engagement Identify Stakeholders Inputs Outputs Project management plan Issue log Work performance data Project documents Work performance information Change requests Project management plan updates Project documents updates Organizational
  20. 20. The Project Team The Roles of the Project Manager • Managerial role • Leadership role Attributes of a successful project manager • ability to communicate with people • ability to deal with people • ability to create and sustain relationships • ability to organize
  21. 21. Why Human Resources Management is Important? Clearly defined roles and responsibilities are essential for the successful project Roles and responsibilities are assigned to one of six groups 1. Project Sponsor 2. Senior Management 3. Project Team 4. Stakeholders 5. Functional Manager 6. Project Manager Human Resources Management
  22. 22. Common Responsibilities Project Sponsor Accept the product Provide key dates Risk threshold Senior Management Provide planning time Prioritize projects Prioritize triple constraint Issue project charter Protect the project Project Team Perform work tasks Manage stakeholders Define quality Review project performance & correct
  23. 23. Common Responsibilities Stakeholders  Approve project changes  Verify Scope  Become risk owners Functional Manager  Assigns individuals to team  Assist with team member performance issues  Notify PM of other project resources demands Project Manager  Integrate project components  In charge of project (not necessarily resources)  Accountable for project failure  Measure performance and act  Does NOT sign the project charter
  24. 24. How to Manage Human Resources? There are four processes • Develop Human Resources Plan • Acquire Project Team • Develop Project Team • Manage Project Team Develop Human Resources Plan Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team
  25. 25. Develop Human Resources Plan Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Management Plan Roles and ResponsibilitiesOrganizational charts and position descriptions Networking Organizational theory Inputs OutputsTools & Techniques Project Organizational Charts Staffing Management Plan Develop Human Resources Plan Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Inputs Outputs
  26. 26. Develop Human Resources Plan Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Inputs Outputs Acquire Project Team Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Roles and Responsibilities Project Staff AssignmentsPre-assessment Negotiation Acquisition Virtual teams Inputs OutputsTools & Techniques Resource Availability Staffing Management Plan Updates Project Org Charts Staffing Management Plan
  27. 27. Develop Project Team Project Staff Assignments Staffing Management Plan Resource Availability General management skills Training Teambuilding activities Ground rules Co-location Recognition and rewards Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Team performance assessment Develop Human Resources Plan Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Inputs Outputs
  28. 28. Manage Project Team Organizational Process Assets Project Staff Assignments Roles and Responsibilities Observation and conversation Project performance appraisals Conflict management Issue log OutputsTools & Techniques Requested Changes Project Org Charts Staffing Management Plan Team Performance Assessment Work Performance Information Performance Reports Recommended Corrective Actions Recommended Preventive Actions Organizational Process Assets Updates Project Management Plan Updates Develop Human Resources Plan Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Inputs Outputs
  29. 29. Power and Leadership Powers of PM (Order of Effectiveness)  Expert  Reward  Referent  Formal (legitimate)  Penalty (coercive)  Leadership Styles  Directing  Facilitating  Coaching  Supporting  Autocratic  Consultative  Consensus
  30. 30. Motivation Poor motivation often leads to: • Increased absenteeism • Increase in the effect of sickness • Lower commitment to tasks • Project timescale slippage • Reduction in Product Quality
  31. 31. Motivation - Maslow Hierarchy of needs • Physiological needs – air, food, water • Safety needs – protection, security • Social needs – group interaction • Ego needs – the desire for esteem • Self fulfilment needs – realisation of the self image
  32. 32. Motivation - Taylor  Taylor was associated with what has become known as 'scientific management'.  Taylor looked at how to find the most productive way of doing manual tasks- division of labour  Taylor believed that monetary reward was an important motivating factor.  Increase in salary could simply be used to increase rates of output.
  33. 33. Motivation - McGregor Theory X:  People are inherently lazy and  People will avoid work if they can and  People they inherently dislike work  People tend to avoid responsibility Theory Y:  Employees can be self-motivated and exercise self-control  Work is natural  There are other ways of motivating workers  Humans can learn to accept and seek responsibility  Humans have a capacity for imagination and creativity
  34. 34. Motivation - Herzberg Motivation Motivated people to work harder  Achievement  Recognition  Work  Responsibility  Advancement Hygiene  Company Policy and Administration  Supervision  technical  interpersonal relationships  Salary  Working conditions  Security  Recognition  Personal Growth When employees are satisfied makes employees happy? When employees are dissatisfied at work, what makes them unhappy?
  35. 35. The Project Team Team Selection and Acquisition • Skills desired in team members – technology skills – business/organization skills – interpersonal skills • Size of team • Source of team members
  36. 36. The Project Team Team Performance • Work Groups – Members interact to share information, best practices, or ideas – No shared performance goals (individual performance) – No joint work-products – No mutual accountability – Viable in many situations
  37. 37. The Project Team Team Performance • Real Teams – Team basics • Small number of people • Complementary skills • Commitment to a common purpose and performance goals • Commitment to a common approach • Mutual accountability
  38. 38. Teams vs. Groups A team is not just a group of people working together. A team is not a team because someone says they’re a team. Teamwork is about values not about team performance.
  39. 39. The Project Team • Real Teams – Common sense findings: • Teams flourish on a demanding performance challenge • Team basics are often overlooked • Most organizations prefer individual accountability to team accountability – Uncommon sense findings • Strong performance goals spawn more real teams • High performance teams are rare • Real teams provide basis of performance • Teams naturally integrate performance and
  40. 40. Important to Notice Teams are usually artificial entities – you don’t get to choose who you work with Understanding team dynamics, roles and motivation factors will help you work better with team members
  41. 41. The Project Environment  A place to call home  Technology support  Office supplies  Culture
  42. 42. Conflict Managements There are Five Conflict Resolution Modes • Withdraw • Smoothing • Compromising • Forcing • Problem Solving Temporary Only – No Resolution Provide Resolution
  43. 43. Each conflict situation is unique and the choice of an approach to resolve conflict depends on these things:  Type of conflict and its relative importance to the project.  Time pressure to resolve the conflict.  Position of power or authority of the parties involved.  Whether the emphasis is on maintaining the goals or objectives of the project or maintaining relationships. Selecting the Best Approach
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