Project Management Introduction General PM lifecycles

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Project Management Introduction General PM lifecycles

  1. 1. Introduction to Project Management/ Project Life Cycle Sections of this presentation were adapted from A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge 5th Edition, Project Management Institute Inc., © 2013
  2. 2. What is Project “A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. “ PMBOK The temporary does not mean it is short. It means a project has a definite beginning and end. The end : the project’s objectives have been achieved the project is terminated because End can be defined when customer, sponsor, or champion is satisfied or does not want to continue. 2COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  3. 3. What is Project Every project creates a unique tangible or intangible outcome which can be product, service, or result. It can also be an improvement in the existing product or service. 3COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  4. 4. Project Management Process Groups Project management processes are categorized into five Process Groups:  Initiating,  Planning,  Executing,  Monitoring and Controlling,  Closing. 4COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  5. 5. Project Management Managing a project typically includes, but is not limited to:  Identifying requirements;  Managing stakeholders  Balancing the competing project constraints, which include, but are not limited to:  Scope,  Quality,  Schedule,  Budget,  Resources, and  Risks. 5COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  6. 6. Program Management A program refers to group of related projects, subprograms, and program activities managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. A portfolio is defined as programs ,projects, sub-portfolios, and portfolio operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. Projects of a program are related through the common outcome or collective capability. The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related 6COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  7. 7. Program and Portfolio Management  Projects within a program are related through the common outcome or collective capability.  If the projects are related only since there is a shared client, seller, technology, resource then these projects should be managed as a portfolio.  Programs may include elements of related work outside the scope of the discrete projects in the program.  A project may or may not be part of a program but a program will always have projects. 7COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  8. 8. Project and Statement of Work (SOW)  A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.”  A SOW is a narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract. 8COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  9. 9. Project Management 9COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. “The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project.”
  10. 10. Trends that Impact Environment of Projects  Team environment- location  Contract PM and outsourcing  Interpersonal skills  Multinational- multicultural projects  Dependence on technology  Corporate globalization  Massive mergers and reorganizations  Flatter organizations  Short-term results driven  Organization’s established communications channels 10COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  11. 11. A Balanced Project 11COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Time Cost Scope Quality
  12. 12. Project Management Office (PMO) 12COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. PMO is a management structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates. The involvement of a PMO to projects ranges, therefore there are three types of PMOs Supportive • Has consultative role to projects • Supplies supplying templates, best practices, training, access to information and lessons learned from other projects. Controlling • Provides specific rules for adaptation of frameworks or methodologies Directive • Directly controls the projects. Degree of Control Low High
  13. 13. What can be Differences between the role of project managers and a PMO? 13COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Please be ready to discuss
  14. 14. Business Value 14COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.  Business value is a concept that is unique to each organization. Business value is defined as the entire value of the business; the total sum of all tangible and intangible elements.  Whether an organization is a private, government agency or a nonprofit organization, all organizations focus on creating business value for their activities.
  15. 15. Interpersonal • Figurehead • Leader • Liaison Informational Roles • Monitor • Disseminator • Spokesperson Decisional Roles • Entrepreneur • Resource Allocator • Disturbance Allocator • Negotiator Role of Project Manager
  16. 16. Skills of Project Manager  Conflict Resolution  Creativity and Flexibility  Ability to Adjust to Change  Good Planning  Negotiation & Communication should have attitude of “win-win”  Leadership,  Team building,  Motivation, 16COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.  Communication,  Influencing,  Decision making,  Political and cultural awareness,  Trust building,  Conflict management, and  Coaching.
  17. 17. Contrast Projects and Operations Projects Create own charter, organization, and goals Catalyst for change Unique product or service Heterogeneous teams Start and end date 17COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Operations Semi-permanent charter, organization, and goals Maintains status quo Standard product or service Homogeneous teams Ongoing
  18. 18. Common Pitfalls for Project Management  Unclear objectives  Lack of senior management support  Lack of effective project integration  Inadequate funding  Change in business priorities  Original assumptions invalid  Ineffective team  Lack of effective communication processes  Change of External Factors  More? 18COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  19. 19. Potential Benefits of PM for the Organization  Improved control  Improved project support opportunities  Improved performance 19COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  20. 20. Potential Benefits of PM for You  Recognition of PM as a profession  Future source of company leaders  High visibility of project results  Growth opportunities  Build your reputation and network  Portable skills and experience 20COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  21. 21. Key Concepts Project phase: “A collection of phases related project activities from its start to the completion of a major deliverable.” Product life cycle: The natural grouping of ideas, decisions, and actions into product phases, from product conception to operations to product phase-out. 21COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Project Life Cycle
  22. 22. Typical Cost and Staffing Levels Life Cycle 22COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. PMBOOK 2013
  23. 23. Impact of Variable Based on Project Time 23COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. PMBOOK 2013
  24. 24. Project Phases 24COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.  A project phase is a collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables.  There is no single or correct way to define phases Phase-to-Phase Relationships 1. Sequential relationship 2. Overlapping relationship.
  25. 25. Project Life Cycle- Example of a Single Phase Project 25 Initiation Planning Execution Closing Time Monitoring and Controlling Processes
  26. 26. Project Life Cycle Types 26COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Predictive Life Cycles-(fully plan-driven) Iterative and Incremental Life Cycles Adaptive life cycles (also known as change- driven or agile methods)
  27. 27. Predictive Life Cycles-(fully plan-driven) Plan Design Implement Test Time Release Concentrates on thorough, upfront planning of the entire project. Avoid changes, low customer interaction Requires a high degree of predictability to be effective.
  28. 28. 28COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Planning Analyzing Designing Small Release Requirementt Planning Analyzing Execution Requirementt Release n Small Release n..... ..... ..... ..... .....Release 1 Bigger Release n Iterative and Incremental Life Cycles Execution Designing
  29. 29. 29COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.  It is used for unpredictable / rapidly changing requirements  It is also iterative and incremental- but iterations are VERY FAST  Aim is to respond to high levels of change and ongoing stakeholder involvement.  It is ideal for exploratory projects (e.g. new product / service line development) in which requirements need to be discovered and new technology tested.  It requires active collaboration between the project team and customer representatives  Real-time communication (prefer face-to-face), very little written documentation Adaptive life cycles (Agile Methods)
  30. 30. 30COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.  It helps to Minimize risk due short iterations  It requires Continuous integration, verification, and validation of the evolving product.  It embraces change  It has high level of customer interaction and provides frequent demonstration of progress to increase the likelihood that the end product will satisfy customer needs.  It helps to detect defects and problems as very early stages Adaptive life cycles (Agile Methods)
  31. 31. Popular Agile PM Methods CLIFFORD F. GRAY, ERIK W. LARSON, LARSON ERIK PROJECT MANAGEMENT: THE MANAGERIAL PROCESS 2011 BY MCGRAW-HILL Agile PM Methods Crystal Clear RUP (Rational Unified Process) Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) Scrum Extreme Programming Agile Modeling Rapid Product Development (PRD) Lean Development
  32. 32. Agile PM in Action: Scrum Methodology  Used by cross-functional teams to collaborate and develop a new product / service.  Interact customers as early as possible  Defines product features as deliverables and prioritizes them by their perceived highest value to the customer.  Re-evaluates priorities after each iteration (sprint) to produce fully functional features.  Has four phases: analysis, design, build, test 17–32
  33. 33. Agile PM in Action: Scrum Methodology • Iterative, incremental process in order to maximize productivity • It is a Team-based approach for developing systems/ products with rapidly changing requirements • Controls the chaos of conflicting interest and needs • Improve communication and maximize cooperation 17–33
  34. 34. Key Roles Scrum Process  Product Owner Acts on behalf of customers prioritize customers values and interests.  Development Team Is a team of five-nine people with cross-functional skill sets is responsible for delivering the product.  Scrum Master (aka Project Manager) Facilitates scrum process and resolves impediments at the team and organization level by acting as a buffer between the team and outside interference. 17–34
  35. 35. Scrum Master-daily questions What did you do since the last Scrum? What are you doing until the next Scrum? What is stopping you getting on with the work? For more information about Scrum please search for the internet. 35COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  36. 36. Discuss PM Life Cycles Which one to use, why,? Which is best and when? 17–36
  37. 37. 37COPYRIGHT © 1999 PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.  The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®)  The Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) documents 9 project management knowledge areas  The PMBOK® Guide is published and maintained by the Project Management Institute (PMI)  http://www.pmi.org  PMI provides a certification in project management called the Project Management Professional (PMP) that many people today believe will be as relevant as a CPA certification  PMP certification requires that you pass a PMP certification exam to demonstrate a level of understanding about project management, as well as satisfy education & experience requirements and agree to a professional code of conduct PMBOK® Guide and PMI

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