Game-Ranching andCommunity-Based-Natural-Resource-Management Two Emerging Models ofEcosystem Protection, Preservation and Restoration … an overview
In 1967, the Government of Namibia (then German Southwest Africa)reinterpreted its conservation law, giving de-facto ownership of wildlife overto landholders, the then mostly-white farmers and ranchers. Whereas, priorto that, wildlife had been a liability, private-ownership allowed land-holdersto profit from the wildlife on their lands, initially by selling hunting rights tofriends and neighbors, later to foreign trophy-hunters.The additional income became so significant that many of the landholdersbegan converting their crop-farms or cattle-ranches into hunting-ranches.Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia) had been experimenting along the same lines.These new models were so successful, both ecologically and economically,that South Africa enacted similar legislation, and a revolution in game-ranching began.
Over the next few decades, some 20 million hectares of South African farmand ranch-land were given over to wildlife, an area equivalent to the entirenational park system of the United States. Much of that land was restored tovirtually complete biodiversity via normal ecological succession and beganproviding all of ecosystem services previously eliminated by the ecologicallydisruptive farming and ranching practices.Later, it was recognized that Indigenous Peoples and other rural tribalcommunities might also benefit from the wildlife on their lands, and anothermodel, also based upon private-ownership and the sustainable-use, wasimplemented. Thus began the Community-Based-Natural-Resource-Management (CBNRM) programs, with similar beneficial results.
The Protection Paradigm 189 Geer v. Connecticut (Public Trust Doctrine) 6 190 1st Federal Law Protecting Lacey Act 0 Game 197 Endangered Species National Park (USA) 1872 Yellowstone Endangered Species Protection 3 Act Kruger National Park (South 1926 Africa) 1967 Kenya Bans HuntingIUCN (1948), WWF (1961), UNEP (1972), CITES (1975), TRAFFIC (1976)
The ProTecTion Paradigm a ToP-downregulaTory mechanism
Private Ownership of Wildlife Wildlife Conservation Act (1960) Zimbabwe Rhodesia Parks and Wildlife Act (1975) Nature Conservation Ordinances (1967 & Namibia 1975) South Certificate of Adequate Enclosure Law (1984) AfricaDevolved Wildlife Ownership Rights to Landholders
Community-Based-Natural-Resource- Management 1990 Namibia Independence N 1996 Namibia Nature Conservation Amendment Act of 1996 a m 1998 1st Communal Conservancy, Torra Conservancy created. 1980 Zimbabwe Independence Z 1980 WINDFALL (Wildlife Industries New Development for All) i m CAMPFIRE (Community Areas Management Programme 1989 for Indigenous Resources)Devolved Wildlife Ownership Rights to Indigenous Peoples IUCN Institutes Category System for Protected Areas 1994 Category VI: Protected Area with Sustainable Use of Natural Resources
camPfire ZimbabweCommunity Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources90% of the revenues which accrue to the CAMPFIRE wards is from Trophy-Hunting Allocation of Revenue from CAMPFIRE Wildlife (1989-2006 US$) Disbursed to Communities Management, etc. Total Total … $20,856,202 $20,570,322 $41,426,524 Pct (%) ... 50.30% 49.70% 100% Between 1984 and 2000, numbers of wildlife in Zimbabwe quadrupled. Source: USAID-COPASSA (2010)
Save ValleyConservancy• 24 ranches• 3387 km2• Largest privatepreserve in Africa (du Toit 1998)
cbnr mCommunity-Based-Natural-Resource- Management boTswan a
Cattle to Game Ranch Greater Species Richness Conversion Greater Species Diversity Photos & Analysis Courtesy of Ekofocus Game Ranch Services
World Database on Protected Areas: (planning to include) privately owned & managed protected areas, even where these do not have legal protectionIUCN (World Conservation Union) Governance Categories Type C: Private Governance: (including) not-for-profit or for-profit schemes Type D: Governance by indigenous peoples and communities.Convention on Biological Diversity Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (Aichi Biodiversity Targets)The Addis Ababa Principles & Guidelines for Sustainable Use of BiodiversitySociety for Ecological Restoration Guidelines for Developing and Managing Ecological Restoration Projects
The susTainable-use Paradigm a boTTom-uPregulaTory mechanism