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EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS ...

EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Project Center For Research in Power Electronics and Power Systems
IEEE 2010 , IEEE 2011 BASED PROJECTS FOR FINAL YEAR STUDENTS OF B.E
Email: expertsyssol@gmail.com,
Cell: +919952749533, +918608603634
www.researchprojects.info
OMR, CHENNAI
IEEE based Projects For
Final year students of B.E in
EEE, ECE, EIE,CSE
M.E (Power Systems)
M.E (Applied Electronics)
M.E (Power Electronics)
Ph.D Electrical and Electronics.
Training
Students can assemble their hardware in our Research labs. Experts will be guiding the projects.
EXPERT GUIDANCE IN POWER SYSTEMS POWER ELECTRONICS
We provide guidance and codes for the for the following power systems areas.
1. Deregulated Systems,
2. Wind power Generation and Grid connection
3. Unit commitment
4. Economic Dispatch using AI methods
5. Voltage stability
6. FLC Control
7. Transformer Fault Identifications
8. SCADA - Power system Automation

we provide guidance and codes for the for the following power Electronics areas.
1. Three phase inverter and converters
2. Buck Boost Converter
3. Matrix Converter
4. Inverter and converter topologies
5. Fuzzy based control of Electric Drives.
6. Optimal design of Electrical Machines
7. BLDC and SR motor Drives

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Emi Emi Presentation Transcript

  • EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS Email: expertsyssol@gmail.com expertsyssol@yahoo.com Cell: 9952749533 www.researchprojects.info PAIYANOOR, OMR, CHENNAI Call For Research Projects Final year students of B.E in EEE, ECE, EI, M.E (Power Systems), M.E (Applied Electronics), M.E (Power Electronics) Ph.D Electrical and Electronics.Students can assemble their hardware in our Research labs. Experts will be guiding the projects.
  • ic on and l tr ec nts E e r su entem ation M ea m In st ruT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 2
  • EC-315 Electronic measurement and Instrumentation UNIT - I T Srinivasa Rao Dept. of ECE Bapatla Engineering College
  • Objective of course• To provide students with a fundamental understanding of the concepts, principles, procedures, and computations used by engineers and technologists to analyze, select, specify, design, and maintain modern instrumentation and control systems Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 4 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Part 1MEASURENT AND ERROR: Definitions, Accuracy and precision, Types of errors, Statistical analysis, robability of errors, Limiting Errors. Part 2DIRECT CURRENT INDICATING INSTRUMENTS: DC ammeters, DC voltmeters, Series type ohmmeter, Shunt type ohmmeter, Multimeter, Calibration of DC Instruments. Part 3DC & AC BRIDGES: Wheatstone, Kelvin, Guarded Wheatstone, Maxwell, Hay, Schering and Wein bridges, Wagner ground connection.. T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 5
  • • Error: The difference between the reported value and the (usually unknown) true value of a quantity.• Validity: How well an instrument (or measurement technique) reflects what it is purported to measure. Depends on details of the instrument, and varies with the operating conditions.• Robustness: When the input to an instrument varies slightly, does its output stably reflect the changes, or does it become unstable, or chaotic?• Reliability: Given very different values, or measurements taken at very different times, are the measurements consistent?• Repeatability: Do repeated measurements, on a constant true value, give the same answer?• Accuracy: How close is the mean measurement of a series of trials to the true value?• Precision: How much do the measurements vary from trial to trial?• Resolution: How finely can we and/or the instrument separate one value from another thats close to it?• Mistake: .Human error.! Electronic Measurements and T Srinivasa Rao 6 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 7 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Instruments• Detector – Device that indicates a change in one variable in its environment (eg., pressure, temp, particles) – Can be mechanical, electrical, or chemical• Sensor – Analytical device capable of monitoring specific chemical species continuously and reversibly• Transducer – Devices that convert information in nonelectrical domains to electrical domains and the converse Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 8 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Simple instrument modelInstrument model with amplifier, analog to digital converter and computer output Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 9 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Part 1MEASUREMENT AND ERROR
  • CONTENTS• Definitions• Accuracy and Precision• Significant Figures• Types of Error• Statistical Analysis• Probability of Errors• Probable Error• Limiting Errors• Systems of Units of Measurement• Standards of Measurement Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 11 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • • Limiting Errors• Systems of Units of Measurement• Standards of Measurement Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 12 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Definitions• Measurement : generally involves using an instrument as a physical means of determining a quantity or variable• Instrument : a device for determining the value or magnitude of a quantity or variable• Accuracy : closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value of the variable being measured.• Precision : a measure of the reproducibility of the measurements; i.e., given a fixed value of a variable, precision is a measure of the degree to which successive measurements differ from one another• Sensitivity : the ratio of output signal or response of the instrument to a change of input or measured variable.• Resolution : the smallest change in measured value to which th instrument will respond.• Error : deviation from the true value of the measured variable. Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 13 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Accuracy and Precision• Precision is composed of two characteristics : conformity and the number of significant figures to which a measurement may be made• Conformity is a necesary, but not sufficient, condition for precision because of the lack of significant figures obtained• Precision is a necesary, but not sufficient, condition for accuracy. Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 14 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Significant Figures• Significant figures convey actual information regarding the magnitude and the measurement precision of a quantity• The more significant figures, the greater the precision of the measurement• When a number of independent measurements are taken in an effort to obtain the best possible answer (closest the true value), the result is usually expressed as the arithmetic mean of all readings, with the range of possible error as the largest deviation from that mean• When two or more measurements with different degrees of accuracy are added, the result is only as accurate as the least accurate measurement. Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 15 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Types of Error• Gross errors : largely human errors, among them misreading of instruments, incorrect adjustments, and computational mistakes.• Systematic errors : shortcomings of the instruments, such as defective or worn parts, and effects of the environment on equipment or the user.• Random errors : those due to causes that cannot be directly established because of random variations in the parameter or the system of measurement. Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 16 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Statistical Analysis• Arithmetic mean x= x1 + x 2 + x 3 + ..... + x n ∑ x = n n• Deviation from the mean d n = xn − x• Average deviation D= d 1 + d 2 + d 3 + ... + d n = ∑d n n• Standard deviation σ= d 12 + d 2 + d 32 + ... + d n 2 2 = ∑d i 2 n n• Standard deviation of a finite d 12 + d 2 + d 32 + ... + d n 2 2 ∑d i 2 σ= = number of data n −1 n −1 Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 17 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Probability of Errors Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 18 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Probable Error Deviation (+) Fraction of total (σ) area included 0.6745 0.5000 1.0 0.6828 2.0 0.9546 3.0 0.9972 Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 19 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Limiting Errors• In most indicating instruments the accuracy is guaranteed to a certain percentage of full-scale reading. Circuit components (such as capacitors, resistors, etc.) are guaranteed within a certain percentage of their rated value. The limits of these deviations from the specified values are known as limiting errors or guarantee errors.T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 20
  • System of Unit Measurements Decimal multiples and submultiples Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 21 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Basic SI Quantities, Units, and SymbolsT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 22
  • Electric and Magnetic Units Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 23 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Fundamental, Supplementary, and Derived UnitsT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 24
  • English Into SI ConversionT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 25
  • Standards of Measurement• Standard of measurement is a physical representation of a unit of measurement• Classification : – International standards – Primary standards – Secondary standards – Working standardT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 26
  • Part 2Direct Current Indicating Instruments
  • CONTENTS• Permanent-magnet moving-coil mechanism (PMMC)• Galvanometer sensitivity• DC ammeters• DC voltmeters• Voltmeter-ammeter method• Series-Type Ohmmeter• Shunt-Type Ohmmeter• Multimeter or VOM• Calibration of DC Instruments Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 28 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Suspension Galvanometer• This instrument was the forerunner of the moving-coil instrument, basic to most dc indicating instruments currently used Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 29 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Torque and Deflection of The Galvanometer Steady-state Deflection• Torque deflection : T = B × A× I × N• The practical coil area generally ranges from approximately 0.5 to 2.5 cm 2• Flux densities for modern instruments usually range from 1,500 to 5,000 gauss (0.15 to 0.5 Wb/m2) Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 30 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Dynamic Behavior• The motion of a moving coil in a magnetic field is characterized by three quantities : – The moment of inertia (J) of the moving coil about its axis of rotation – The opposing torque (S) developed by the coil suspension – The damping constant (D). Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 31 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Damping Mechanisms• Galvanometer damping is provided by two mechanisms : mechanical and electromagnetic• A galvanometer may also be damped by connecting a resistor across the coil --- CDRX (Critical Damping Resistance External) Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 32 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • PMMC• Permanent Magnet Moving-Coil Mechanism• Ofte called d’Arsonval movement• Construction -------------------• Details of PMMC movement --------- Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 33 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Temperature Compensation• Both the magnetic fieldstrength and spring-tension decrease with an increase in temperature• The coil resistance increases with an increase in temperature• The spring change, conversely, tends to cause the pointer to read high with an increase in temperature• Compensation may be accomplished by using swamping resistors in series with the movable coil Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 34 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Galvanometer Sensitivity d mm• Current sensitivity may be defined as a ratio of the SI = I µA deflection of the galvanometer to the current producing this deflection• Voltage sensitivity may be defined as the ratio of the d mm SV = galvanometer deflection to the voltage producing this V mV deflection• Megohm sensitivity may be defined as the number of megohms required in series with the (CDRX shunted) d mm SR = = SI galvanometer to produce one scale division deflection I µA when 1 V is applied to the circuit• Ballistic sensitivity and is defined as the ratio of the maximum deflection, dm, of a galvanometer to the d m mm SQ = quantity Q of electric charge in a single pulse which Q µC produces this deflection. Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 35 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • DC Ammeters Shunt Resistor I m Rm Rs = I − Im Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 36 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Ayrton Shunt• Schematic diagram of a simple multirange ammeter --------• Universal or Ayrton shunt --T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 37
  • DC Voltmeters• Basic dc voltmeter circuit -- V − I m Rm V Rs = = − Rm Im Im• Multirange voltmeter ---------• Voltmeter sensitivity : 1 Ω S= I fsd V Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 38 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Voltmeter-Ammeter Method• A popular type of resistance measurement• Effect of voltmeter and ammeter positions in voltmeter-ammeter measurements -----------------• Effect of the voltmeter position in a voltmeter-ammeter measurements ------------------ Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 39 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Series-Type Ohmmeter• Certain disadvantage : when the battery is old, the full-scale current drops and the meter does not read "0" when A and B are shorted• The design can be approach by recognizing that, if introducing Rh reduces the 1 meter current to 2 I fsd I fsd R m Rh R1 = R h − E Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 40 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Shunt-Type Ohmmeter • Particularly suited to the measurement of low-value resistors • When R = ∞ the full-scale meter current x will be E I fsd = R1 + R m • The meter current for any value of Rx , expressed as a fraction of the full-scale current, is Rx s= Rx + R p • At half-scale reading of the meter R1 Rm Rh = R1 + Rm Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 41 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Multimeter or VOM Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 42 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • • Schematic diagram of the Simpson Model 260 multimeter• dc voltmeter section of the Simpson Model 260 multimeter Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 43 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • • DC Ammeter section of the multimeter• Ohmmeter section of the multimeter Electronic Measurements and T Srinivasa Rao 44 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Calibration of DC Instruments• Potentiometer method of calibrating a dc ammeter ---• Potentiometer method of calibrating a dc voltmeter --- Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 45 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Introduction to Alternating-current Indicating Instruments• The dArsonval movement responds to the average or dc value of the current through the moving coil• If the movement carries an alternating current with positive and negative half cycles, the driving torque would be in one direction for the positive alternation and other direction for the negative alternation• If the frequency of the ac is very low, the pointer would swing back and forth around zero point on the meter scale• At higher frequencies, the inertia of the coil is so great that the pointer cannot follow the rapid reversals of the driving torque and hovers around the zero mark, vibrating slightly. Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 46 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Part 3DC & AC Bridges
  • CONTENTS Introduction Wheatstone bridge Kelvin bridge Maxwell Hay Schering Wein bridges Wagner ground connection Comparison bridges Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 48 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Introduction • Bridge circuits are extensively used for measuring component values, such as resistance, inductance, or capacitance, and of other circuit parameters directly derived from component values • Its accuracy can be very high.Bridges are electrical circuits for performing null measurements onresistances in DC and general impedances in AC Electronic Measurements and T Srinivasa Rao 49 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Wheatstone bridge• Photograph of the instrument• Simplified schematic of the bridge circuit------------------ Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 50 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Wheatstone bridge R1RX = R2R3 Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 51 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • • Basic operation R2 R x = R3 R1• Measurement errors : – Found in the limiting errors of the three known resistors – Insufficient sensitivity of the null detector – Changes in resistance of the bridge arms due to the heating effect of the current through the resistors – Thermal emfs in the bridge circuit or the galvanometer circuit (when low- value resistors are being measured) – Errors due to the resistance of leads and contacts exterior to the actual bridge circuit Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 52 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Thevenin Equivalent Circuit• Wheatstone bridge configuration --------------------• Thevenin resistance looking into terminals c and d --------• Complete Thevenin circuit, with the galvanometer connected to terminals c and dT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 53
  •  R1 R2 • The Thevenin, or open circuit voltage : E cd  = E −    R1 + R3 R 2 + R4 • The Thevenin resistance : R1 R3 R2 R4 RTH = + R1 + R3 R 2 + R 4• The galvanometer current : ETH Ig = RTH + R gT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 54
  • Kelvin Bridge• Wheatstone bridge circuit, showing resistance Ry of the lead from point m to point n R1 Rx = R3 R2• Basic Kelvin double bridge circuit -------------------------- R1 R x = R3 R2T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 55
  • Loop Tests with The Portable Test Set• Murray-loop test, used for locating a ground fault (short circuit) ----------------------------- B l x = 2l A+ B• Varley-loop test: (a) no.1; (b) no. 2; (c) no.3, used to locate grounds, crosses, or short circuits in multiconductor cable R2• X1 = 2T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 56
  • Guarded Wheatstone Bridge• Used for high resistance measurementsT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 57
  • General Form of The AC Bridge Z1Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 ∠θ 1 + ∠θ 4 = ∠θ 2 + ∠θ 3T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 58
  • Comparison Bridges• Capacitance comparison bridge• Equating the real terms : R R x = Rs 2 R1• Equating the imaginary terms : R1 C x = Cs R2• Inductance comparison bridge R2 L x = Ls R1 R2 R x = Rs R1T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 59
  • • Inductance comparison bridge with extended measurement range R• With the switch in position 1 : R x = ( Rs + r ) 2 R1 R2• With the switch in position 2 : R x = Rs −r R1T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 60
  • Maxwell Bridge • The Maxwell bridge measures an unknown inductance in terms of a known capacitance. • The maxwell bridge is limited to the measurement of medium-Q coils (1<Q<10). R 2 R3 Rx = R1 L x = R 2 R 3 C1 Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 61 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Hay Bridge• The Hay circuit is more convenient for measuring high-Q coils• Hay bridge for inductance measurements ---------------------• Impedance triangles illustrate inductive and capacitive phase angles --------------------------------• for Q>10 : L x = R 2 R3 CT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 62
  • Hay BridgeT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 63
  • Schering Bridge• The Schering bridge, one of the most important bridges, is used extensively for the measurement of capacitors.• Schering bridge for measurement of capacitance -------------------- C1 R x = R2 C3 R1 C x = C3 R2• Dissipation factor : D = ωR1C1 Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 64 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Unbalance ConditionsT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 65
  • • Bridge balancing problem : – (a) unbalanced condition – (b) bridge balance is restored by adding a resistor to arm 1 (maxwell configuration) – (c) Alternative method of restoring bridge balance, by adding a capacitor to arm 3T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 66
  • Wien Bridge• Applications : – Frequency measureent – Notch filter – Frequency-determining element• Frequency measurement with the Wien bridge ----------------------- 1 f = 2πRCT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 67
  • Wagner Ground Connection• The wagner ground connection eliminates the effect of stray capacitances across the detectorT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 68
  • Universal Impedance Bridge• Universal impedance bridgeT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 69
  • • Bridge configurations of the universal impedance bridgeT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 70
  • Summary• Wheatstone• Kelvin• Capacitive Comparision• Inductive Comparision• Maxwell• Hay• Schering• Wein Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 71 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 72 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • Electronic Measurements andT Srinivasa Rao 73 Instrumentation (EC-315)
  • • Wein’s Bridge• Schering’s Bridge 74
  • 75
  • x t… Ne – II U NITT Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-315) 76