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EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS ...

EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Project Center For Research in Power Electronics and Power Systems
IEEE 2010 , IEEE 2011 BASED PROJECTS FOR FINAL YEAR STUDENTS OF B.E
Email: expertsyssol@gmail.com,
Cell: +919952749533, +918608603634
www.researchprojects.info
OMR, CHENNAI
IEEE based Projects For
Final year students of B.E in
EEE, ECE, EIE,CSE
M.E (Power Systems)
M.E (Applied Electronics)
M.E (Power Electronics)
Ph.D Electrical and Electronics.
Training
Students can assemble their hardware in our Research labs. Experts will be guiding the projects.
EXPERT GUIDANCE IN POWER SYSTEMS POWER ELECTRONICS
We provide guidance and codes for the for the following power systems areas.
1. Deregulated Systems,
2. Wind power Generation and Grid connection
3. Unit commitment
4. Economic Dispatch using AI methods
5. Voltage stability
6. FLC Control
7. Transformer Fault Identifications
8. SCADA - Power system Automation

we provide guidance and codes for the for the following power Electronics areas.
1. Three phase inverter and converters
2. Buck Boost Converter
3. Matrix Converter
4. Inverter and converter topologies
5. Fuzzy based control of Electric Drives.
6. Optimal design of Electrical Machines
7. BLDC and SR motor Drives

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    Electricmotors5 Electricmotors5 Presentation Transcript

    • EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS Email: expertsyssol@gmail.com expertsyssol@yahoo.com Cell: 9952749533 www.researchprojects.info PAIYANOOR, OMR, CHENNAI Call For Research Projects Final year students of B.E in EEE, ECE, EI, M.E (Power Systems), M.E (Applied Electronics), M.E (Power Electronics) Ph.D Electrical and Electronics. Students can assemble their hardware in our Research labs. Experts will be guiding the projects.Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page 1
    • Tutorial 2Sensorless Motor Drives Ralph M. Kennel Elektrical Machines and Drives Wuppertal University Page 2
    • Reasons for Industrial Applications of Drives with Encoderless Control: • Cost • Reliability • Robustness Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page 3
    • Industrial Drives with Sensorless Controlsince several years / decades sensorless control is investigated and published on conferences and magazines- acceptance in industry, however, is rather low Why ?new ideas and concepts are interesting for industry, only if they do not result in higher cost or higher effort!!! What does that mean for industrial drives with sensorless control ? no additional or more powerful processors / controllers no additional hardware or additional sensors (e. g. voltage sensors) no increased installation effort with respect to parameter adjustments Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page 4
    • Sensorless (Encoderless) Motor Drivesintroduction• fundamental model methods• high frequency injection methodssensorless control of electrical machines• machine response on high frequency injection voltages• tracking of magnetic saliencies / anisotropiespractical results• experiences with industrial drivesconclusions Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page 5
    • Categories of Machine Models for „Sensorless“ Control Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page 6
    • fundamental model high frequency injection• simple realisation• does not work at frequency 0• parameter dependencies current injection voltage injection• measuring voltage is high enough• additional voltage sensors Basic Principles current response transient current response stationary• no additional hardware • standard microcontroller sufficient of Encoderless• very small measuring current• very short measuring time Control Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page 7
    • Fundamental Model of an Induction Machine stator rotorwhen knowing voltage uS mechanics as well as current iSit should be possible calculate speed ω Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page 8
    • Calculation of Speed by Fundamental Model is not Practicable for Very Low Speeds... because• the voltage signal becomes very small• errors between real voltage and values used for calculation cannot be avoided and become more significant• DC components of these errors let the integrators for flux calculation drift away  the calculated speed gets more and more incorrect is an encoder/resolver the only feasable solution ?? Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page 9
    • Signal Injection Method according to J. Holtz, H.Pan, etc.• this is basically a current injection method  voltage sensors are necessary !!!• it is possible to use current derivatives instead of motor voltages  measuring current derivatives, however, by standard current transducers is not really possible• but, industrial current transducers have a current derivative available internally can this be made available for customers ??? Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • INFORM method according to M. Schroedl (Technical University of Vienna, Austria)• this is basically a transient voltage injection method  currents have to be sensed at specific times !!!• when using standard current transducers  these cannot be synchronized with PWM  the hardware of a standard industrial drive has to be changednevertheless this method comes close to industrial needs ! Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Stationary Signal Injection Methods according to R. Lorenz, S.-K. Sul, R. Kennel, etc.• the basic idea is to use the electrical machine itself as a resolver !!!• a resolver is nothing else but an electrical machine  can we operate the motor itself like a resolver ?• if the machine itself is a resolver (encoder)  is that really an „encoderless“ control ??? good idea – but does it work ???  Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Resolver injection of a sensing of a two-dimensionalstationary (sinusoidal) stationary (sinusoidal)high frequency signal signal response Tamagawa S2 u1(γ) π 2π R1 0 γ Stator Rotor Stator ue uR u2 R2 S4 u2(γ) Stator π 2π 0 u1 γ S1 S3 Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Stationary Signal Injection Methods according to R. Lorenz, S.-K. Sul, R. Kennel, etc.• the basic idea is to use the electrical machine itself as a resolver !!!• a resolver is nothing else but an electrical machine  can we operate the motor itself like a resolver ?• if the machine itself is a resolver (encoder)  is that really an „encoderless“ control ??? now we do the same with an electrical AC machine  Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Fundamental Frequency Excitation (in α-β coordinates) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • High Frequency Excitation (in α-β coordinates)Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Machine Model for High Frequency Signals d ic(F) (F) lsσ d 0 uc(F) = rs ic(F) + lsσ (F) + jωa lsσ (F) ic(F) lsσ = dt  0 lsσ q   Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • High Frequency Behaviour of the Machine Model Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • injection of high frequency voltages fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • injection of high frequency voltages fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • injection of high frequency voltages fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • injection of high frequency voltages fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Injection of High Frequency Rotating Phasorsrotating voltage phasor uc elliptic current response ic Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Position Information of Salient Rotorsin High Frequency Rotating Phasors• machine responds on a rotating voltage phasor with an elliptic current response• ellipse is correlated with the geometric anisotropy of the rotor• rotor position information is included elliptic current response ic (rotating) in the high frequency current Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Saturation Anisotropyof a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine rotor flux saturation of a permanent magnet synchronous machine Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Position Information of non-salient rotorsin High Frequency Rotating Phasors• machine responds on a rotating voltage phasor with an elliptic current response• ellipse is correlated with the saturation anisotropy• rotor position information is included in the high frequency current elliptic current response ic (rotating) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Injection of High FrequencyAlternating (Pulsating) Voltage Phasors advantage : composing an alternating (pulsating) voltage phasor no rotational (HF) field by two phasors rotating in opposite direction  no additional torque Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • High Frequency Current Response of a Synchronous Machine Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Current Response of a Misoriented System voltage and current show different orientation !!Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Current Responseunder a Misorientation of 90°Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Tracking Scheme for Magnetic Anisotropies ˆicd (F) = K ⋅ sin ( ω c t ) lcq ˆ ( )icq (F) = − K ⋅ sin ( ω c t ) lcq − lcd ∆ δˆa Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Tracking Scheme for Magnetic Anisotropies Tracking the estimated angle of the rotor flux by controlling icq to 0 Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • tracking control of injection voltage fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • tracking control of injection voltage fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • tracking control of injection voltage fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • tracking control of injection voltage fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • ) e nstracking control of injection voltage r( res po to /v ec s or fundamental voltage phasor/vector ph a t n rre y fundamental current phasor/vector cu e nc qu h fre hig injecte d hi gh freque voltag nc y e pha sor/ve ctor Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • tracking control of injection voltage fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Encoderless Control Structure step response of the PLL; PLL is locked after ca. 10 -15 ms Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • tracking control of injection voltage fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • tracking control of injection voltage fundamental voltage phasor/vector fundamental current phasor/vector injected high frequency voltage phasor/vector high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • tracking control of injection voltage fundamental voltage phasor/vector cy fundamental currentnphasor/vector freque ctor e d hi gh pha sor/ve inject v oltage high frequency current phasor/vector (response) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • control structure of an encoderless control with alternating high frequency signal injectionthe estimated angle can be usedfor field orientation as well as forspeed or position controlof synchronous machines Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • north and south pole can be distinguisheda) theoretisch b) experimentelltrajectory of stator admittance(SMPMSM, carrier frequency fc = 0.5 kHz) Stator Admittance in Complex Plane Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Tracking Controltracking of estimated rotor flux angle by adjusting/controlling icq to zero Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • north and south pole can be distinguisheda) theoretisch b) experimentelltrajectory of stator admittance(SMPMSM, carrier frequency fc = 0.5 kHz) Stator Admittance in Complex Plane Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • the concept of encoderless control as presented here works similar to radio broadcasting :the information of rotor position is modulated by a high frequency signalthe information is demodulated / extracted from motor currents Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Modulation of Carrier Signals by Electrcial Machines• Synchronous Machines works fine !!• Induction Machines further research to be done !! Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Combination of Field Oriented Control and Encoderless Detection of Rotor Position• the estimated angle can be used for field orientation as well as for speed and/or position control of synchronous machines• high frequency test signals are superposed to the fundamental stator voltage(s)• drive control structure remains as before• no additional sensors required• the scheme is parameter independant Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Sprungantwort der Drehzahlregelung Drive with Speed ControlProf. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Sprungantwort der LageregelungStep Response of Encoderless Position Control Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Results• the tracking control scheme presented here synchronizes on the saturation anisotropy of a synchronous machine.• the tracking control scheme is not depending on any machine parameter.• the size of additional software for the tracking control is comparable to the software of a rotor model for the field oriented control of an induction machine.• the high frequency current signal can be measured together with the fundamental current by the standard current transducers of a standard drive inverter. Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Practical Experience with an Industrial Servo DriveImplementation of a sensorless controlinto a servo drive of• training of a development engineer 2 x 1 week in our laboratory• programming of additional software in manufacturer‘s factory• delivery of prototype after ca. 3 months• presentation on Hanover Fair in April 2006 Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page
    • Conclusion• The proposed estimation method is simple and therefore suitable for usual microcontrollers  no additional or more powerful processors / controllers• The sensorless control scheme presented here does not need additional voltage measurement devices - neither on the machine/motor side nor on the line side  no additional hardware or additional sensors (e. g. voltage sensors)• The phase tracking method is very robust to variations of the system parameters  no increased installation effort with respect to parameter adjustments Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralph M. Kennel Wuppertal University Page