Pathogens And Toxins


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Pathogens And Toxins

  1. 1. Pathogens and Toxins By: Sensiang
  2. 2. Subjects <ul><li>1) H1N1 </li></ul><ul><li>2) Botulism </li></ul><ul><li>3) E. Coli </li></ul><ul><li>4) Nicotine </li></ul>
  3. 3. H1N1 <ul><li>H1N1 (Also known as swine flu) is a human disease. The virus contains genes from swine, bird, and human flu viruses. Originally swine flu does not infect people but the current swine flu outbreak is different. It's caused by a new swine flu virus that has changed in ways that allow it to spread from person to person. It's happening among people who haven't had any contact with pigs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. H1N1 Symptoms <ul><li>H1N1 includes many of the regular flu symptoms and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. Many people with swine flu have had diarrhea and vomiting. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How To Prevent H1N1 <ul><li>To prevent getting H1N1, wash your hands properly and regularly. When coughing, cough into your elbow and avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouths with your hands. Keep a distance from sick people. Also, get enough sleep, eat healthy, and exercise. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Botulism <ul><li>Botulism is a serious illness that causes flaccid paralysis of muscles. It is caused by a neurotoxin called botulinum toxin which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum . Botulism is not transmitted person to person. Botulism develops if a person ingests the toxin . If this happens organisms grow in the intestines or wounds in the body and toxin is released. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Botulism Symptoms <ul><li>The classic symptoms of botulism include double vision, blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing dry mouth, and muscle weakness. Constipation may also occur. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How To Prevent Botulism <ul><li>When practicing home-canning, follow strict hygienic procedures to reduce getting infection and contamination. Another way is to boil home-canned foods for 10 minutes before eating to ensure safety. </li></ul>
  9. 9. E. Coli <ul><li>Escherichia coli (E. coli) are members of a large group of bacterial germs that inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and other warm blooded animals (mammals, birds). E. Coli  infection occurs when a person ingests Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing  E. Coli (e.g.,  E. Coli  O157:H7) after exposure to contaminated food, beverages, water, animals, or other persons. </li></ul>
  10. 10. E. Coli Symptoms <ul><li>As the infection progresses, diarrhea becomes watery and then may become grossly bloody. E. Coli symptoms also may include vomiting and fever, although fever is an uncommon symptom.  </li></ul>
  11. 11. How To Prevent E. Coli <ul><li>Some ways to prevent getting E. Coli are to avoid swallowing lake or pool water while swimming. Make sure people with diarrhea wash there hands carefully with soap. Remember to also avoid spreading in your kitchen. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nicotine <ul><li>Nicotine is the ingredient that causes physical addiction to tobacco. It's a stimulant and increases activity in the brain just like caffeine, cocaine and amphetamine. It's also a powerful toxin, which is why you probably coughed your way through that first cigarette all those years ago. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nicotine Symptoms <ul><li>A smoker's nervous system becomes accustomed to functioning with nicotine. When you stop smoking, the reduced nicotine intake will disturb the balance of the central nervous system, causing withdrawal symptoms. The most common are anger, irritation, headaches, depression, restlessness, and constipation. </li></ul>
  14. 14. How To End Nicotine Addiction <ul><li>The best way is to not even start smoking. If you have already started then one method is to take up more sports or do anything that will keep your mind off smoking. Constantly keep your mind occupied. Within the next few days, you will feel better and more free. </li></ul>