From 1900s- Present Women's Fashion Early 1900s. Early 1990s.
Life of a Designer
Draw, design, create,
& sell clothing.
Influence on fashion: Reflects society, political & economical changes. Fashion Designer Emilio Pucci. Fashion Designer Karl Lagerfeld.
Life of a Designer Continued… Starting new trends. Overseeing production. Managing marketing & finances. Alexander McQueen. Butterfly Hat , Spring/ Summer 2008.
Fashion Terms Haute Couture : Custom made & create certain ‘looks.’ John Galliano, Dior. Dress , Spring 2007. ( Haute : High, Couture : Fashion)
Prêt-a-porter : Mass-production: many sizes. (Boutiques & Clothing Stores) Fashion Terms Continued… Tommy Hilfiger. Coat , 2009. (Ready-to-Wear)
Givenchy. Dress , Fall 2010. Can you guess which design represents Haute Couture & which design represents Pret-a-porter ? Gucci. Ensemble; Fall 2003
What is STYLE ? John Galliano, Dior. Dress , Spring 2007. Hubert de Givenchy. Haute Couture , Fall 2010. Karl Lagerfeld. Chanel House , Winter 2010.
Style Personality Defines character Creative International Christian Dior. Haute , Autumn/Winter 2010 . Christian Lacroix. Haute Couture , Spring 2009 (Paris). Emilio Pucci. Haute Couture , Fall 2009.
Style Invention Issey Miyake. Dress. Inspiration Unique Artistic expression Yves Saint Laurent. "Mondrian" day dress , autumn 1965. Karl Lagerfeld. Chanel House , Fall 2010.
Trends I.e. Harajuku Current style Followers Trend setters Colour Block Trend , London. Harajuku Girls. Harajuku Girls.
Manufacturing & Technology Changes:
Innovations modernized life & impacted fashion industry.
Electricity powered clothing & textile factories.
Trains brought goods to marketplaces.
Evolution Continued …
Communications made selling clothes easier (phones).
Photography showed buyers clothing designs.
Society & Fashion
As society changes,
so does one’s
Evolution Continued … Each has great influence over one another.
E.g.: women’s rights, economical change.
Evolution Continued … Society & Fashion Continued… “ Fashion is a style … that is temporarily adopted [by a social group] … because that chosen style … is perceived to be socially appropriate for the time and situation” (Sproles & Burns, 1994). Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Day ensemble , ca. 1927. Cristobal Balenciaga. Cocktail Dress , Spring/ Summer 1948.
Changes in Society Continued… Early 1900s: Looser Gowns: “ Straight Look” Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Day ensemble , ca. 1927. Cristobal Balenciaga. Day dress , ca. 1960–64.
Many different styles (ie. Dresses, pants, shirts, unisex clothing, etc.)
making a comeback.
Changes in Society Continued… Christian Dior. "Chérie" Dinner Dress, Spring/ Summer 1947. Alexander McQueen. Dress; Spring 2011.
In the 1800s, the figure of a woman was tightly fitted, & greatly emphasized the rear. In the Past… Dress , 1800ss. Corset , 1800s. Silhouette , 1800s.
Wire frames were used to emphasize womanly features (were put underneath dresses & skirts). In the Past… Continued… Dress , 1800s. Wire Skirt , 1800s.
In the Past… Continued… Different types of hoop framing. Hoop frames , 1800s.
Transition from the 1800s to the 1900s Dress , 1800ss. Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907. Leave behind the form- fitting corsets & puffy skirts & start to embrace the loose & simple cut garments. Mariano Fortuny was one of the 1 st designers to radically change the silhouette of women’s dress.
DESIGNERS DAY 1
Mariano Fortuny. Fortuny House in Venice , until 1949.
Mariano Y Madrazo Fortuny Painted, photographed, worked with textiles, & clothing. Disliked trendiness & commercialism of fashion. Fashion did not interest Fortuny, for him, fashion was art. 1871-1949 Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907.
M a r i a n o F o r t u n y Peplos Kore , Acropolis, Athens, c.530 BC (1.17m) Acropolis Museum, Athens KORE: KOUROS: Kouros, Tenea c. 550 BC (1.35m) Glyptothek, Munich Dress Design (Delphos Gown): Classical Greek-inspired. Based on Kore & Kouros sculptures.
What similarities do you notice between the Kore Statue and the Delphos Gown ? Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907. Peplos Kore , Acropolis, Athens, c.530 BC (1.17m) Acropolis Museum, Athens Mariano Fortuny
Mariano Fortuny What other similarities do you notice between these two images ? Peplos Kore , Acropolis, Athens, c.530 BC (1.17m) Acropolis Museum, Athens Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907.
M a r i a n o F o r t u n y Peplos Kore , Acropolis, Athens, c.530 BC (1.17m) Acropolis Museum, Athens KORE: Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907. Wide neckline Wide neckline Loosely fitted Hung from shoulders
M a r i a n o F o r t u n y 1st textile creation: Knossos Scarves . Rectangular Cloth: silk veils, geometric shapes. Mariano Fortuny. Knossos Scarves , 1906.
MARIANO FORTUNY Mariano Fortuny. Knossos Scarves , 1906. Mariano Fortuny. Knossos Scarves , 1906. These scarves were Fortuny’s ‘stepping stones’ to creating his legendary Delphos Gowns. The same material used for the Knossos scarves, was also used in making the Delphos.
Mariano Fortuny. Coat, 1910s. Stencil Print: traditional Japanese pattern. Design: Straight- cut structure. Art nouveau piece. Mariano Fortuny Early Designs:
Mariano Fortuny. Gown, 1910s. Resembles kimono: Long, narrow collar & sleeves. Traditional Japanese patterns. Garment underneath: Delphos Gown. Mariano Fortuny Early Designs Continued…
Invention: DELPHOS GOWN (modern & original) Mariano Fortuny Pleated Dress This crimpled garment was seen as striking & dazzling. Pleats changed colour when the movement of the dress caught the reflection of the light. Mariano Fortuny. Delphos Gown, 1907.
Batwing Sleeves, Wide Neckline, always had a Chord
Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907. Fine silk, hung loosely, gently surrounds the body.
Mariano Fortuny Long, (usually with train), Venetian glass beads at side seams, armholes function as weights for dress. Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907. Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907.
Mariano Fortuny Mariano Fortuny. Tunic and Pants, 1910s. Delphos Gown : Intended to show natural beauty of body’s shape. Simple dress, with loose silhouette. Inspiration : Classical Greek & Medieval Periods. Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907.
Mariano Fortuny Mariano Fortuny. Dress, 1930s. Renaissance pattern made by Fortuny. Mariano Fortuny. Dress, 1930s. Fortuny later began using velvet, which he eventually used to cover his Delphos Gowns.
Mariano Fortuny Mariano Fortuny is known to have broken through the corset & tight silhouette era, only to replace them with long, loose, & flowing garments. Because his clothing was very distinctive, many designers have used his designs for inspiration & have heavily relied on his art for their starting point in fashion. Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907.
A great example of a fashion designer who has definite similarities in her designs with those of Fortuny’s is Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel Evening Dress , ca. 1926–27.
C O C O C H A N E L
Coco Chanel “ A girl should be two things: Classy & Fabulous .” -Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel 1883-1971
Coco Chanel Chanel was known for her Avant Garde style. Avant Garde: Refers to people or works that are experimental & innovative. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Evening ensemble , 1936. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Evening dress , 1938.
Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Day ensemble , ca. 1927 French fashion designer of 1920s. Simplicity & Elegance: Chic & Practical. Simple, sophisticated designs (functional styling). Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Shirt , ca. 1935–37
Coco Chanel Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Coat and Hat, c.1920 & late 1910s. Opened her first hat shop in 1910. Later added 2 more stores & began selling clothing. In the 1900s, no outfit was complete without a hat!
Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Evening Dress, c. 1920. Coco Chanel Her pieces resembled those of Fortuny’s. Mariano Fortuny. Evening Gown (Delphos Gown) , 1907. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Day Dress , ca. 1924.
COCO CHANEL Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Dress, c. 1926. Her designs proved that clothing could be both classic & casual. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel Evening coat , ca. 1927.
Coco Chanel Had strong belief that women’s clothing needed to posses functional features (especially during both wars). Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Dress, c. 1927. Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Dress , c. 1928. Combined masculine tailoring & women’s clothing. The “Little Black Dress”
Coco Chanel 1925: Introduced legendary Chanel suit with the collarless jacket & well-fitted skirt. Style element of men’s wear & emphasizes comfort. Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Chanel Suit , 1929.
Mariano Fortuny. Tunic and Pants, 1910s. Coco Chanel Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Day Ensemble , c.1927. Both designers incorporated a straight, loose fitting feel in their designs.
Coco Chanel Took pride in wearing her creations, even more so because she was a working woman. Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Day Ensemble , c. 1928. Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Day Ensemble , c. 1927. Her signature look, paired with strands of pearls.
Coco Chanel Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Dress , c. 1935. As lightweight materials started to popularize, Chanel began using prints & patterns which incorporated many colours. Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Evening Dress , c. 1930. Chanel’s use of lace in large amounts was shocking because it was known to be used for lingerie.
Coco Chanel Through the years, Chanel was consistent with her designs. Today, the Chanel Suit & the Little Black Dress are well- known & easily recognized worldwide. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Evening dress , 1938. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Evening ensemble , 1936. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Cocktail ensemble , ca. 1964. Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. Day ensemble , ca. 1927.
Coco Chanel Although her popularity decreased after World War II, she staged a comeback in the 1950s, partly in reaction to Christian Dior’s "New Look“. Chanel went on to become one the most important figures in the history of 20th century fashion.
Cristobal Balenciaga Master of fabric design & creation. Fashion innovator. 1895-1972 “ Women did not have to be perfect or even beautiful to wear his clothes. His clothes made them beautiful.” - Longtime Client
Cristobal Balenciaga Cristobal Balenciaga. Dress (Sketch), November 1948. Altered women’s silhouette. Balenciaga was one of the few designers who could actually cut & sew.
Cristobal Balenciaga Cristobal Balenciaga. Day Dress, Autumn/ Winter 1948. Created complex forms with cutting techniques. Cristobal Balenciaga. Day Dress (Close-up), Autumn/ Wionter 1949. Elegant & classic, this dress shape was similar to the garment shape of the 19 th century. Dress , 1800ss.
Cristobal Balenciaga used a lot of fabric, but dresses were very light. Cristobal Balenciaga. Evening Coat, Autumn/ Winter 1949. The rolled collar on his Evening Coat puts great emphasis on the individual’s slender neck. (Gives coat more of dramatic look.) Cristobal Balenciaga. Evening dress , Fall/Winter 1965–66 . (Effect was due to refined technique.) Balenciaga
Cristobal Balenciaga Balenciaga’s designs embodied fluidity & grace. Cristobal Balenciaga. Cocktail Dress , 1955. Cristobal Balenciaga. Cocktail Dress (Sketch) , 1955. Balenciaga’s style hinted at the classic & elegance from the past.
Cristobal Balenciaga Cristobal Balenciaga. Cocktail Dress , 1955. Dress , 1800s. His Cocktail Dress took inspiration from the late 19 th century bustle style. (I.e. movement/ commotion). Wire Skirt , 1800s.
Elsa Schiaparelli, 1938 shocking-pink and black striped evening gown Elsa Schiaparelli, Evening Gown
Elsa Schiaparelli, The 1937 Lobster Dress Schiaparelli's Fall-Winter 1937-38, Shoe hat Elsa Schiaparelli, Tear Illusion Dress, 1938 “ Surrealism is an artistic movement and a philosophy that first gained popularity in the 1920s. It was a movement that believed traditional art should be replaced with anything "anti-art" and focused on the ridiculous, the absurd, and a basic disregard for form. Surrealism was a reaction to the philosophy of rationalism “(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience “, which many felt had caused, through the Industrial Revolution, the disaster of World War I. “
Chanel vs. Schiaparelli Evening jacket , 1938, Elsa Schiaparelli Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. Day Ensemble , c. 1927.
Lady Gaga at the AMAs, 2009. Schiaparelli Skeleton Dress, 1938. Lady Gaga, Lobster Hat Striped Wedge Shoe
“ Zest is the secret of all beauty. There is no beauty that is attractive without zest.”
Christian Dior Created a new look: Flower Women. Composed of rounded, soft shoulders, a narrow waist, & full skirt.
Christian Dior Outfits normally paired with: A hat (tilted to the side), gloves, & simple jewellery.
Christian Dior Dior used expensive fabrics to make his clothes Chérie dinner dress for example was made out of silk "Chérie" dinner dress, spring/summer 1947
"Bar" suit and jacket, spring/summer 1947
Different styles Same features which are a narrow waist, soft rounded shoulders, and a full skirt
Designed by John Galliano
Resembles the “new look”
Soft rounded shoulders
Fall 2010 Couture
- Known best for his revolution of textile in the fifties and sixties.
Pucci’s career began by luck, he was skiing and a reporter (Harpers Bazaar) noticed his uniform.
Known best for his revolution of textile in the fifties and sixties.
This revolution brought a new era to fashion, the previous designs featuring dull colours and heavy fabrics was now passé.
Emilio Pucci, dresses
Pucci’s success brought several opportunities his way. One being him offered to design uniforms for airlines. He designed bright, patterned uniforms, he even included a glass helmet to keep the stewardess’ hair in place Emilio Pucci, Air Hostess Uniform and Helmet
What made Pucci so popular was when consumer discovered how light weight his silk dresses were. They were also wrinkle free so several could be fit into a bag making travel very easy.
It was also, unlined, which meant it was shaped and would caress the body, moving with their motions, opposed to it being heavy. This allowed it to be versatile, used for poolside relaxation or even dinner parties.
Emilio Pucci, Fall 2008 Emilio Pucci, Winter 2010-11
Hubert De Givenchy
Hubert De Givenchy
“ Hair style is the final tip-off whether or not a woman really knows herself.”
-Hubert De Givenchy
Givenchy’s trademark was flowing lines, use of embroidered, bold colours and print fabrics
Shows quality, elegance, and lady like fashion
Designed “fun” clothes inspired by modern artist
embroidered peapod motifs
Example of organic art by adding peapods
Hubert De Givenchy
Evening gown, ca. 1968
Used a bright salmon colour
Use of embroidered by adding feathers
Influenced by organic art by using feathers
Evening gown, 1963
Used bright coral colour
Use of embroidered by adding beads and coral pieces
Influenced by organic art
Hubert De Givenchy
Embroidered beads and coral pieces
Evening gown, 1963
Hubert De Givenchy
Worn in Sabrina 1954 by Audrey Hepburn
use of embroidered
Use of organic art
All three dresses are very different but show the use of embroidered, influence of organic art, and bold colours
Hubert De Givenchy
Bettina blouse was part of his first collection
He used this blouse as his signature
This design still has an impact today
Galleries Lafayette one of Pairs top department stores uses it as their symbol
Hubert De Givenchy
Designed by Riccardo Tisci
Riccardo’s design also shows the use of embroidered
Also shows the use of organic art by adding the feathers
Fall 2010 Couture Collection
Yves Saint Laurent
Yves Saint Laurent
"dressing is a way of life".
-Yves Saint Laurent
Frequently used ethnic themes in designs
Used bright colours that contrasted with black
Had a more masculine flavour
Yves Saint Laurent
Contrast in bright colours with black
Showed more masculine features in designs
created a women pantsuit
Spring/Summer 1967 “African look”
First to create a “back to nature” look
Used an ethnic theme
Shows a contrast in the bright colours and black
Decorated with seashells and tooth like beads
Designed by Tom Ford for Yves Saint Laurent House
Used an ethnic theme (more of an Asian style)
Spring 2001 Couture
A masculine design
Jean- Paul Gaultier
Jean- Paul Gaultier Avant Garde: Gaultier is always experimenting & innovating his designs. He started experimenting with fashion at a young age. (I.e. at 13, he designed a whole collection of clothing for both his mother & grandmother.) French Fashion Designer ! 1952
Jean- Paul Gaultier Edgy Collections. Growing up, Gaultier had a passion for image. (I.e. Being well- known.)
Gaultier’s Early Sketches.
KNOWLEDGE of fashion history
master of technique
Jean- Paul Gaultier Gaultier took undergarments & incorporated them in outwear. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Dress , Spring/ Summer 1987. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Dress , Spring/ Summer 1987. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Jacket, Brassiere and Pants , Spring/ Summer 1987. He became known as the “enfant terrible,” meaning the “bad boy” of fashion .
Jean- Paul Gaultier These unique designs were his signature look. In 1990, Madonna actually wore Gaultier’s garments, which greatly increased their popularity. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Dress , Spring/ Summer 1987. Madonna. Singer , 1990.
Jean- Paul Gaultier Some of his most recognizable cutting- edge designs included jackets, dresses, & jumpsuits. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Jumpsuit , Spring/ Summer 1990. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Top, Skirt, and Gloves , Autumn/ Winter 1987. The artificial glow in fabric has been taken out, so material appears as real skin.
Jean- Paul Gaultier Gaultier's innovations have always pushed the boundaries of fashion . Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Spring/ Summer 2001. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Fall 2003.
Jean- Paul Gaultier Because of the success of his brand, Jean Paul Gaultier, also named as the successor of YSL, was hired as the creative director of Hermes in 2003/2004.
Jean- Paul Gaultier Jean- Paul Gaultier always held the audience’s interest during his seasonal Houte Couture fashion shows due to them being very extravagant & outrageous. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Spring/ Summer 2004. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Spring/ Summer 2008. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Winter 2005.
Jean- Paul Gaultier Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Spring/ Summer 2009. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Winter 2009. All shows consisted of a theme & was mainly featured about Gaultier’s latest exotic destination.
Jean- Paul Gaultier
Jean- Paul Gaultier’s inspiration:
Couture from the elite.
Tradition; used same fabrics that was normally used in couture.
Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Winter 2009. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Winter 2010. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture , Spring/ Summer 2010.
Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture . Gaultier is probably one of the most targeted (by critics) of all designers because of his originality & wild creations.
Jean- Paul Gaultier. Headgear (Haute Couture), Autumn/ Winter 2008-09. He has made a great impact on the fashion society & has reinvented the concept of Haute Couture, by raising the standards for all future designers. Jean- Paul Gaultier. Haute Couture.
“ What is clothing?” The “matrix” of Miyake’s designs
Attempted to find universal clothing
Tried to bring eastern and western designs together
Often tested the boundaries of haut couture
Investigated fashion from around the world
Based several designs off the kimono
Traditional Japanese kimono Issey Miyake, wind coat
Miyake would create designs with geometric shape and effortless amounts of drapery influenced by Madeleine Voinnet
Evening dress , 1938 Madeleine Vionnet Issy Miyake, Fall 2010
Miyake attempts to design clothing not based on how it looks from the outside body, but how the materials interact and touch the body of those wearing it. (Focused on experimenting with materials)
Miyake has been described to base his designs on three things, functionality, technology and beauty.
Japanese culture meets Western culture
Functionality, will keep you warm.
Geometric shapes (patterns, how it moves on the body)
“ I like the body. I like to design everything to do with the body.”
Designed curve hugging gowns
Liked to create skin-tight with low cuts and high slits on the skirts
first to show tights as pants, and first to bring back the mini skirt
Very slim and tight
Has a high slit
Slim and tight
Has a high slit all the way up to the waist
The high slit Very thin & tight
Has a high slit
Spring 2008 Couture Spring 2008 Couture
Karl is one of the most multitalented designers known today. Maintained his reputation through his successful and strong collections and runway shows
Powdered white hair in a pony tail
Collared white dress shirt buttoned up
Even his over-all look reflects his sophisticated style in his designs.
Black & white with occasional colours
Quirky yet classic
Karl Lagefeld. Ensemble. Spring 2010
Combining immediacy of ready-to-wear with the elegance of couture.
Karl Lagerfeld Dress for House of Chanel, 2011
Ability to mix quirky with classic changed the direction of modern fashion Karl Lagerfeld Suit. Chanel Spring 2008
An expert at combining elements of street style with elegance of haute couture. Karl Lagerfeld Dress. Fall 2010
Currently works for three houses:
Karl Lagerfeld (his own)
Karl Lagerfeld. Ensemble. Spring 2010. Karl Lagerfeld. Ensemble; for Fendi . Fall 2007 Karl Lagerfeld. Ensemble for Chanel; Spring 2009
Lagerfeld for Fendi Karl Lagerfeld. Ensemble; for Fendi . Fall 2007
Designs furs for fendi.
Strip the traditional fur coats to the thinnest layer = simple, light weight coats
Careful design and elegance, sophisticated
Treats the fur like fabric: Silk, wool and cashmere are mixed in with the fur
Black and white, with the occasional colours
Karl Lagerfeld Dress. Fall 2010
brought back the label to high fashion.
Produced many styles on the signature tweed suits
mix with street style
Stretched chanel look to embrace younger customers
Karl Lagerfeld (Chanel) Suit. Spring 2008
Lagerfeld vs. Chanel Karl Lagerfeld. Suit . 1992. Karl Lagerfeld. Haus of Chanel. Spring 2011 Simple, tailored traditional style of Chanel; which includes the feminine vibe Padded shoulder pads Low cut
Details used in Lagerfeld’s designs for Chanel presented the house’s personality: femininity
Karl Lagerfeld. Suit for Chanel; Fall 2010 Karl Lagerfeld. Suit for Chanel; Spring 2011 camellia-trimmed and beading Fabircs used; colours feminine; faint glitter Cropped sleeves and waist of jackets Layers used for skirts
Karl Lagerfeld. Suit for House of Chanel. 1992 Karl Lagerfeld Suit for House of Chanel, 2011 This is an example of how fashion can change over time. Puffed Sleeves, the collar, smaller buttons, the type of fabric he used; more feminine Adding simple designs modernizes the clothing
Now lets see if you can tell the difference
Which of these designs are from the house of Chanel and his own house?;
How do you know?
Karl Lagerfeld. Suit. For Chanel. Spring 2008
Karl Lagerfeld. Dress Spring 2010
At his most recent fashion show, (Fall 2010) he had a sculpture of a lion made just for this show Shows how creative, inspiring and determination, dedication he puts on his work.