East Timor


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Conflict in East Timor
Ausrtalia's involvement
Relevance to Australia's national interest

Published in: News & Politics, Travel
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  • ET political parties - Fretilin ( Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor) and UDT (Timorese Democratic Union) had an alliance but it pretty much broke from UDT’s fears and Fretilin’s growing popularity and power Indonesian invasion - Operasi Seroja = Operation Lotus Indonesian campaign of terror - mostly carried out in capital city, Dili, Indonesians annoyed by majority of East Timorese voting for independence rather than autonomy (the right or condition of self-government)
  • UDT’s fears that Fretilin was leaning towards communism were encouraged by Operasi Komodo’s propaganda Fretilin was supported by local Portuguese military Declaration of independence unrecognised by Portugal, Indonesia and Australia Balibo Declaration - declaration calling for independence with Indonesia, drafted by Indonesian intelligence -signed by UDT, Apodeti, KOTA () and Trabalhista leaders -not actually signed in Balibo, but in Bali - President Xanana Gusm ão calls it “Balibohong Declaration” (bohong=lie)
  • Operasi Seroja (Operation Lotus) Almost all equipment supplied by US ET’s instability actually fueled by Indo’s propaganda campaign Operasi Komodo Exact death figures unknown but estimated to be anywhere from a tenth to a third of 1975 population of around 680,000 (interact - about how many people is that? Take guesses) - around 68,000 to 230,00 people (Annex= Append or add as an extra or subordinate part)
  • Ask people if they can guess what it is, let them guess and go with caption’s info. Lol interaction. Dili burning, September 8th, 1999 as seen by the Landsat ETM satellite. Red patches indicate fires burning on the ground. Grey smoke plumes can be seen spreading over the hills from some of these fires.
  • Indonesia and Portugal signed the agreement to let the East Timorese vote, which was endorsed by the UN Referendum= A general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision. Electorate=All the people entitled to vote in an election. Most East Timorese wanted to be an independent country rather than the other option, which was to be an autonomous (self-governing) state within Indonesia INTERFET=INTERnational Force in East Timor Intervention force was sent because of pressure from activists in places like Portugal, Aus and US Indonesia also was pressured to withdraw troops by US pres Bill Clinton using threat of withdrawing IMF loans (Indo was already in a pretty bad state with economy)
  • A lot of people thought that the unrecognition thingy was a “betrayal” of East Timor Some people thought that Australia deliberately ignored the massacres of innocent E Timorese because Aus wanted to keep good relations with Jakarta, and they needed oil and gas from the Timor Sea. Governments said to that: Australia did all it with aid and diplomacy that it could under the circumstances They ended up thinking “oh well that’s better” when the Howard government got their troops to lead the intervention force that stopped the 1999 campaign of terror Solving problems with ET=good relations with Indonesia
  • East Timor

    1. 1. East Timor Azita and Selina
    2. 2. Conflicts in East Timor <ul><li>Civil war between Fretilin and UDT, August 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian invasion (Operasi Seroja), December 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian campaign of terror, 1999 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Civil war
    4. 4. Civil war August 1975 <ul><li>Secret Indonesian propaganda campaign Operasi Komodo divides supporters of UDT and Fretilin </li></ul><ul><li>UDT fears coup from Fretilin and stages own in Dili </li></ul><ul><li>Fretilin overcomes UDT’s attempt to push away Fretilin supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Fretilin declares independence of East Timor on 28th November 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia responds with “Balibo Declaration”, for unity of Indonesia and East Timor </li></ul>
    5. 5. Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor
    6. 6. Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor 7th December, 1975 <ul><li>Largest military operation carried out by Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Political instability and fight against communism used as excuses to invade </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian troops shoot East Timorese in cities, loot houses and rape women and girls </li></ul><ul><li>2000 people killed in Dili in first week </li></ul><ul><li>Many more put to death </li></ul><ul><li>East Timor made Indonesia’s 27th province </li></ul><ul><li>Annexation unrecognised by UN </li></ul>
    7. 7. Indonesian campaign of terror
    8. 9. Indonesian campaign of terror 1999 <ul><li>East Timorese are permitted to vote between autonomy and independence </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all eligible voters vote in referendum </li></ul><ul><li>Majority vote on independence (78.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Militia supported by Indonesia rampage through East Timor </li></ul><ul><li>INTERFET is established </li></ul><ul><li>Australia leads international intervention force to stop killings </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia withdraws troops and allows intervention force to stabilise conditions </li></ul>
    9. 10. Australia’s involvement in East Timor <ul><li>Did not recognise Fretilin’s declaration of independence in 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Did not attempt to intervene in invasion in 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Howard government changed position from no support of East Timorese self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Troops led international intervention force in 1999 to stop Indonesians from killing any more </li></ul><ul><li>Helped to create good conditions for East Timor to gain independence </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin was </li></ul>