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Lecture 06
Lecture 06
Lecture 06
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Lecture 06

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  • 1. Course Instructor : Sehrish Rafiq Department Of Computer Science University Of Peshawar Data Communications & Networking Lecture-06
  • 2. Lecture overview Functionalities of Network layer Functionalities of Transport layer Functionalities of Session layer Functionalities of Presentation layer Functionalities of Application layer TCP/IP protocol suite or Internet model
  • 3. Network Layer A network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet possibly across multiple networks(links). The data link layer oversees the delivery of the packet between two systems on the same network. The network layer ensures that each packet gets from its point of origin to its final destination. If two systems are connected to the same link, there is usually no need for a network layer. Note:- If the two systems are attached to different networks(links) with connecting devices between networks, there is often a need for the network layer to accomplish source-to-destination delivery.
  • 4. Network Layer
  • 5. Responsibilities of the network layer Logical addressing  The physical addressing implemented by the data link layer handles the addressing problem locally.  If a packet passes the network boundaries we need another addressing system to help distinguish the source and destination systems.  The network layer adds a header to the packet coming from transport layer that among other things includes the logical addresses of the sender and receiver. Routing  When independent networks or links are connected together to create an internetwork or a large network, the connecting devices (called routers or gate ways) route the packets to their final destination.  One of the functions of the network layer is to provide this mechanism.
  • 6. Source to destination delivery
  • 7. Example
  • 8. Transport Layer  The transport layer is responsible for source-to-destination(end-to-end) delivery of the entire message.  The network layer oversees end-to-end delivery of individual packets, it does not recognize any relationship between those packets.  The network layer treats each packet independently ,as though each piece belong to a separate message whether or not it does.  The transport layer, on the other hand ensures that the whole message arrives intact and in order, overseeing both error control and flow control at the source-destination level.
  • 9. Transport Layer
  • 10. Transport Layer  For added security, the transport layer may create a connection between the two ports.  A connection is a single logical path between the source & destination that associated with all packets in a message.  Creating a connection involves 3 steps:  Connection establishment  Data transfer  Connection release  By confining transmission of all packets to a single pathway, the transport layer has more control over sequencing, flow and error detection and correction.
  • 11. Responsibilities of the transport layer Service point addressing  Computers often run several programs at the same time.  For this reason source –to-destination delivery means delivery not only from one computer to the next but also from a specific process on one computer to a specific process on the other.  The transport layer header therefore must include a type of address called a service-point address(or port address).  The network layer gets each packet to the correct computer, the transport layer gets the entire message to the correct process on that computer. Segmentation & reassembly  A message is divided in to transmittable segments, each segment containing a sequence number.
  • 12. Responsibilities of the transport layer  These numbers enable the transport layer to reassemble the message correctly upon arriving at the destination and identify and replace packets that were lost in the transmission. Connection control  The transport layer can be either connectionless or connection oriented.  A connectionless transport layer treats each segment as an independent packet and delivers it to the transport layer at the destination machine.  A connection-oriented transport layer makes a connection with the transport layer at the destination machine first before delivering the packets.  After all the data is transmitted, the connection is terminated.
  • 13. Responsibilities of the transport layer Flow control  Like the data link layer the transport layer is responsible for flow control.  However, flow control at this level is performed end-to-end rather than across a single link Error control  Like the data Link layer, the transport layer is responsible for error control.  However error control at this layer is performed end-to-end.  The sending transport layer makes sure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer without error( damage, loss or duplication).  Error correction is usually achieved through retransmission.
  • 14. Session Layer Services Provided by the first three layers( physical, data link and network) are sufficient for some processes. The session layer is the network dialog controller, establishes, controls, maintains and synchronizes the interaction between communicating systems.
  • 15. Responsibilities of the Session Layer  Dialog control  The session layer allows two systems to enter in to a dialog.  It allows the communication between two processes to take place either in half duplex mode or full duplex mode.  Half duplex example: Main frame and terminal.  Synchronization  The session Layer allows a process to add check points(synchronization points) in to a stream of data.
  • 16. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two systems.
  • 17. Responsibilities of the Presentation Layer Translation  The processes in two systems are usually exchanging information in the form of character strings,numbers and so on.  The information should be changed to bit streams before being transmitted.  Because different computers use different encoding schemes,the presentation layer is responsible for interoperability between these different encoding methods.  The presentation Layer at the sender changes the information from its sender- dependent format in to a common format.  The presentation Layer at the receiving machine changes the common format in to its receiver dependent format.
  • 18. Presentation Layer continued… Encryption  To carry sensitive information, a system must be able to assure privacy.  Encryption means that the sender transforms the original information in to another form and sends the resulting message out over the network.  Decryption reverses the original process to transform the message back to its original form. Compression  Data compression reduces the number of bits to be transmitted.  Data compression becomes particularly important in the transmission of multi- media such as text, audio and video.
  • 19. Application Layer The application layer enables the user whether human or software to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as electronic mail, remote file access and transfer, shared database management and other types of distributed information services. No headers or trailers are added at this layer.
  • 20. Application Layer
  • 21. Services provided by the application layer Network virtual terminal  A network virtual terminal is a software version of a physical terminal and allows a user to log on to a remote host.  To do so, the application creates a software emulation of a terminal at the remote host.  The user’s computer talks to the software terminal which in turn talks to the host and vice versa.  The remote host believes that it is communicating with one of its own terminals and allows you log on.  File Transfer, Access and Management (FTAM)  This application allows to access files in a remote computer (to make changes or read data),to retrieve files from a remote computer and to manage or control files in a remote computer.
  • 22. Application layer continued… Mail services  This application provides the basis for e-mail forwarding and storage. Directory Services  This application provides distributed database sources and access for global information about various objects and services.
  • 23. TCP/IP protocol suite or Internet Model
  • 24. TCP/IP protocol suite or Internet Model The TCP/IP protocol suite used in the Internet was developed prior to the OSI model. Therefore, the layers in the TCP/IP suite do not match exactly with those in the OSI model. The first four layers provide physical standards, network interface, internetworking and transport functions that corresponds to the first four layers of the OSI model. The three top most layers(application layer, presentation layer, session layer) are represented in TCP/IP by a single layer called the application layer.
  • 25. TCP/IP protocol suite or Internet Model
  • 26. TCP/IP protocol suite or Internet Model The TCP/IP protocol suite contain relatively independent protocols that can be mixed and matched depending on the needs of the system. The term hierarical means that each upper level protocol is supported by one or more lower level protocols. At the transport layer TCP/IP defines two protocols TCP and UDP. At the network layer the main protocol defined by TCP/IP is IP, although there are some other protocols that support data movement in this layer.

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