1. POVERTY, SOCIALLY ENGAGED RESEARCH AND RESISTANCE IN SOUTH AFRICA’S POST-APARTHEID EDUCATIONSALIM VALLY, ENVER MOTALA,BRIAN RAMADIRO AND CAROL ANNE SPREEN Politics in Organizations By Sehriban Bugday
2. OUTLINE-The Purpose of the Article-The Policy Issues in the Article-Effects of Global and LocalDiscourses-Results and Influences ofParticipatory Researches in SouthAfrica-Conclusion
3. The Purpose of theArticle-South Africa is known for its resistance inpost-apartheid education in its history.-This resistance has created severalmovements against racial capitalism suchas the Peoples Education Movement, theWorker Education Movement and theCommunity Education Movement.-South Africa also struggles against theimpact of neo-liberalism, growing povertyand inequality.-This article explains the correlationbetween poverty, participatory actionresearch and resistance ,and also itfocuses on what these case studiessuggest about educational changing.
4. The Purpose of the Article-Socially engaged researchers and activists in South Africahave joined several research projects in education and otherareas of social policy.-This is a positive development because they can provide amore detailed understanding of the issues and possiblesolutions. A traditional research that does not take intoaccount local nuances, history and culture often presentsonly a simple view of the problem, which leads to ineffectiveand even harmful solutions.-This article emphasizes the importance of socially-basedresearches that help to understand poverty and its socialeffects radically.-Also socially-based research can help engage with thepolicy and decision-making agencies of the state and withpublic representatives.-Moreover, such research can provide the necessarybackground to help resist the power of dominantdiscourse.
5. What is the dominant discourse in thearticle? -The dominant discourse in much of the researchpresents a very simplified analysis without consideringlocal culture, history, and the experiences of the people.-A simplistic understanding of the policy makes up thedominant discourse. The simple analysis influencesgovernment policy, resulting in solutions that dont work.-The result is continued inequality and poverty.-Involving local groups in the social research shouldmake for a more sophisticated analysis, leading to morepractical solutions.
6. The Policy Issues in the Article-South Africa suffers from levels of socialinequality, income poverty and unemployment.IssuesPost-apartheid Education-the existence of undemocratic and unrepresentativeschool policy-unaffordable school fees, transport and uniforms.-use of corporal punishment in schoolsUnemployment-poorly paid work-intermittent employment-insecure jobs
7. How local and global discourses influence thepolicy?Local Discourses-First action was made by Poverty and Inequality Hearings organisedby the South African Non-Governmental Organization Coalition(SANGOCO).-People took to the streets and joined in public hearings.-The purpose was to increase the policies which provide to improveconditions for accessing people’s socio-economic rights.-All these responses brought public attention and pressure ongovernment officials and politicians to revise the neo-liberal macro-economic strategy and it’s negative effects.Result-Despite the hearings, the impact was limited, actually even threeyears after the Hearings, Department of Education’s survey showedthat negative conditions continued and in some cases had increased.
8. Global Discourses-Education Rights Projects (ERP) and social movements pressurized the state toorganize the education rights(2002).-The intense press campaigns against the government position provided thatgovernment set up a reference group of 27 members including a core team fromDepartment of Education, and economists and managers from inside and outsidegovernment as well as the World Bank.Result-Although these discourses provided clear evidence about the effects of thepolicy choices of government and showed that school fee is a barrier to the rightto education for poor working-class communities, the goverment stayed stableabout a fee policy.
9. How the participatory researches effect the policy?-Education Rights Projects (ERP) 2002. Result-worked closely with the social -these case studies showed that themovements. policy issues can not solve alone through education policy reform.-case studies- Durban Roodepoort Deepand Rondebult. Solution -is a broader and more purposeful-asserted the need for civil society to approach to social reform andaccess independent of government, and strategiesright to education. -require the-facilitate a social response to complex voice, knowledge, experience andpolicy issues. information gathered by locally- based social movements.-indentify real barriers to basic educationand deal with by meeting with localeducation officials.
10. CONCLUSION POLICY, DISCOURSE, POWER AND RESISTANCE-In South Africa, in spite of the promise of apartheid reform, democraticaccountability still remains a serious problem.-Despite the new educational changing, inequity never disappears in SouthAfrica.-The effects of post-apartheid education still remain in South Africa and it isdifficult to remove them completely.-But it can be found solutions through engaging in participatory researcheswhich are based on the voices of the communities.