Eliminating gender disparity


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Eliminating gender disparity

  1. 1. FINAL ASSIGNMENT Politics in Organizations C. McGregor by Sheri
  2. 2. Do you know that 7.5 million people in Turkey are functionally illiterate and six million of these people are women?
  3. 3. ELIMINATING GENDER DISPARITY Gender inequality in education is a significant problem in Turkey, most pronounced in rural areas of the south-east. Some south-eastern provinces have a female illiteracy rate of around 50 per cent. Girls’ attendance at primary and secondary school has remained lower than the attendance of boys.
  4. 4. Girls say ‘‘ We do not want to wait to get married at home; we want to go to high school and university. Many parents consider the early marriage of their girls to be more important than their education. Female role models in rural communities are scarce - or entirely absent.
  5. 5. She deserves to go to school like any other child.
  6. 6. She wants to be a teacher if her parents allow her to go to school.
  7. 7. This policy paper deals with how to provide gender disparity in education of Turkey. There are several barriers to Girls’ Education Education, the important ones being a deficiency of schools and classrooms. Schools often reside far from home and many parents do not want their children, especially girls, to travel far.
  8. 8. Moreover, parents do not want to send children to schools that are in a poor physical state with no toilets or running water. Economically poor, the people there endure a harsh winter climate that can last up to eight months.
  9. 9. Many families suffer economic hardship and the traditional gender bias of families favors the needs of men and boys, often leading to girls being kept at home from school to assist in domestic chores or to help household income. Families have power on their children; parents treat their children like an object.
  10. 10. Girls out of school Child Marriage Poverty Traditional Practices and Gender Bias Child Labour No Birth Certificate Limited Access to Quality Education Chart 1: Why Girls are out of School
  11. 11. How local and global discourses influence the power? Discourses enhance public awareness and mobilise all sections of society. The government worked with UNICEF and organized campaign for Girls’ Education. Dr. Huseyin Celik, Minister of National Education said: ‘‘We are very pleased to be working with UNICEF in this campaign for the education of girls. Through our cooperation, we strongly believe that we will succeed in mobilising our children, their families and all other individuals and institutions in the country’’.
  12. 12. Big efforts have been made to overcome discrimination in primary enrolment and attendance over the past few years. The Girls’ Education Campaign which began in the ten most disadvantaged provinces in 2003, was extended to all of Turkey's 81 provinces in 2006. In this campaign, the Ministry of National Education and UNICEF have aimed to persuade families to send their daughters to primary school for the full eight years.
  13. 13. The UNICEF Representative and officials from the Ministry of National Education visited all project provinces in 2003 to review progress and promote the campaign in the field.
  14. 14. These efforts have been backed by the payment by the off-budget Social Assistance and Solidarity Fund (SYDF) of monthly conditional cash transfers (CTT) under the World Bank-led 'Social Risk Mitigation Project' to hundreds of thousands of poor families whose children regularly attend school. Companies and private citizens frequently make donations for education or to build or equip schools, with 100 per cent tax relief. UNICEF has provided an additional total of US$420,000 in funding support. Particularly in rural areas, bus services, lunches and uniforms have also been provided. RESOURCES & FUNDING
  15. 15. Advocacy Coalition There have been encouraging signs of growing sensitivity among policy and decision-makers, NGOs and the general public on topics such as gender disparities in education, the quality of education and parenting and the services provided to children deprived of parental care – even if there is as yet insufficient understanding of children’s rights and child participation. Non-governmental organizations are also running many projects in the field of education, and have played an important role in the Girls' Education campaign.
  16. 16. Dr Hüseyin Çelik, Minister of National Education: The solution to the problem of girls’ education is a key to the solution of many economic, social and cultural problems that presently affect Turkey. Dr. Nur Otaran, Researcher in UNICEF Turkey, said: It’s very much within our power to change the situation and improve rates of enrolment. "Girls' education is more than just reading and writing and the skills you need to get by in life; it's about public health," says Edmond McLoughney, UNICEF's representative in Turkey. Numerous studies, he says, have shown that education for girls brings lower birthrates and infant mortality. "You are affecting not just education itself, but health and quality of life in general. What do the actors think? She started to go to school after Girls’ Education Campaign.
  17. 17. Educated girls grow into educated women -- women who are more likely to participate in making decisions that affect their lives and the lives of those they love. And they are more likely to be healthy, to have smaller families, and to have healthier and better-educated children. To reach our goals for girls’ education, we need strong national leadership, unshakeable political commitment, generous financial support - and an all-out attack on the factors that help sustain gender discrimination and violence: poverty, ignorance, and inequity said Carol Bellamy ,UNICEF Executive Director. Her father thinks she has to stay at home and looks after her younger siblings.
  18. 18. Since 2003, intensive efforts have been made to address the situation through a girls’ education campaign. The campaign has met with considerable success with an additional 223,000 girls enrolled by the start of the 2006/7 school year and the gender gap reduced from around 7 per cent to 5 per cent. Significantly, the campaign has also benefited boys and an extra 100,000 have enrolled as a result of the campaign. Results of UNICEF Girls’ Education Campaign
  19. 19. Three main policy measures to resolve the problem of the non-attendance of girls at school. First, provide more schools and classrooms and experienced teachers to underserved rural and urban areas. Second, address the poverty constraint through the continuation and expansion of the cash transfer scheme to poor families on condition that their girls attend school. Third, address the male-dominated culture through convincing arguments on the importance of girls’ education. Implementation of these three policy measures can bring about the twin goals of gender parity in primary school enrolment and universal primary education. Solutions
  20. 20. References Otaran, Nur. (2003). A gender review in education Turkey. UNICEF , 1-40. UNICEF, (2003). Improving educational opportunities for girls. Lessons from Past Decades, 1- 12. UNICEF, (2003). Say Yes. The Quarterly Newsletter of Unicef Turkey, 1- 16.