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Eliminating gender disparity






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Eliminating gender disparity Eliminating gender disparity Presentation Transcript

  • FINAL ASSIGNMENTPolitics in Organizations C. McGregor by Sheri
  • Do you know that 7.5 millionpeople in Turkey arefunctionally illiterate and sixmillion of these people arewomen?
  • ELIMINATING GENDER DISPARITYGender inequality in education is asignificant problem in Turkey, mostpronounced in rural areas of the south-east.Some south-eastern provinces have afemale illiteracy rate of around 50 per cent.Girls’ attendance at primary and secondaryschool has remained lower than theattendance of boys.
  • Girls say ‘‘ We do not want to wait to get married at home; we want to go to high school and university.Many parents consider the early marriage of their girls to be more importantthan their education. Female role models in rural communities are scarce - or entirelyabsent.
  • She deserves to go to school like any other child.
  • She wants to be a teacher if her parents allow her to go to school.
  • This policy paper deals with how to provide gender disparity in education of Turkey.There are several barriers to Girls’ Education Education, the important ones being adeficiency of schools and classrooms. Schools often reside far from home and manyparents do not want their children, especially girls, to travel far.
  • Moreover, parents do not want to send children to schools that are in a poorphysical state with no toilets or running water.Economically poor, the people there endure a harsh winter climate that can last upto eight months.
  • Many families suffer economic hardship and the traditional gender bias of familiesfavors the needs of men and boys, often leading to girls being kept at home fromschool to assist in domestic chores or to help household income. Families have power on their children; parents treat their children like an object.
  • Child Limited Access Marriage to Quality Education Girls out of Poverty school No Birth Certificate Traditional Practices and Child Gender Bias LabourChart 1: Why Girls are out of School
  • How local and global discourses influence the power?Discourses enhance public awarenessand mobilise all sections of society.The government worked with UNICEFand organized campaign for Girls’Education.Dr. Huseyin Celik, Minister of NationalEducation said: ‘‘We are very pleased tobe working with UNICEF in this campaignfor the education of girls. Through ourcooperation, we strongly believe that wewill succeed in mobilising our children,their families and all other individualsand institutions in the country’’.
  • Big efforts have been made to overcomediscrimination in primary enrolment andattendance over the past few years.The Girls’ Education Campaign which beganin the ten most disadvantaged provinces in2003, was extended to all of Turkeys 81provinces in 2006.In this campaign, the Ministry of NationalEducation and UNICEF have aimed topersuade families to send their daughters toprimary school for the full eight years.
  • The UNICEF Representative and officialsfrom the Ministry of National Educationvisited all project provinces in 2003 toreview progress and promote thecampaign in the field.
  • RESOURCES & FUNDINGThese efforts have been backed by thepayment by the off-budget Social Assistanceand Solidarity Fund (SYDF) of monthlyconditional cash transfers (CTT) under theWorld Bank-led Social Risk MitigationProject to hundreds of thousands of poorfamilies whose children regularly attendschool.Companies and private citizens frequentlymake donations for education or to build orequip schools, with 100 per cent tax relief.UNICEF has provided an additional total ofUS$420,000 in funding support.Particularly in rural areas, bus services,lunches and uniforms have also beenprovided.
  • Advocacy CoalitionThere have been encouraging signs ofgrowing sensitivity among policyand decision-makers, NGOs and thegeneral public on topics such as genderdisparities in education, the quality ofeducation and parenting and theservices provided to children deprivedof parental care – even if there is as yetinsufficient understanding of children’srights and child participation.Non-governmental organizations arealso running many projects in the fieldof education, and have played animportant role in the Girls Educationcampaign.
  • What do the actors think?Dr Hüseyin Çelik, Minister of NationalEducation: The solution to the problem of girls’education is a key to the solution of manyeconomic, social and cultural problems thatpresently affect Turkey.Dr. Nur Otaran, Researcher in UNICEF Turkey,said: It’s very much within our power tochange the situation and improve rates ofenrolment."Girls education is more than just reading andwriting and the skills you need to get by in life;its about public health," says EdmondMcLoughney, UNICEFs representative inTurkey. Numerous studies, he says, have shown She started to go to school afterthat education for girls brings lower birthrates Girls’ Education Campaign.and infant mortality. "You are affecting not justeducation itself, but health and quality of lifein general.
  • Educated girls grow into educated women --women who are more likely to participate inmaking decisions that affect their lives and thelives of those they love. And they are morelikely to be healthy, to have smaller families,and to have healthier and better-educatedchildren.To reach our goals for girls’ education, we needstrong national leadership, unshakeablepolitical commitment, generous financialsupport - and an all-out attack on the factorsthat help sustain gender discrimination andviolence: poverty, ignorance, and inequity saidCarol Bellamy ,UNICEF Executive Director. Her father thinks she has to stay at home and looks after her younger siblings.
  • Results of UNICEF Girls’ Education CampaignSince 2003, intensive efforts have been madeto address the situation through a girls’education campaign.The campaign has met with considerablesuccess with an additional 223,000 girlsenrolled by the start of the 2006/7 school yearand the gender gap reduced from around 7 percent to 5 per cent. Significantly, the campaignhas also benefited boys and an extra 100,000have enrolled as a result of the campaign.
  • SolutionsThree main policy measures to resolve the problem of the non-attendance ofgirls at school.First, provide more schools and classrooms and experienced teachers tounderserved rural and urban areas.Second, address the poverty constraint through the continuation and expansionof the cash transfer scheme to poor families on condition that theirgirls attend school.Third, address the male-dominated culture through convincing arguments onthe importance of girls’ education.Implementation of these three policy measures can bring about the twin goals ofgender parity in primary school enrolment and universal primary education.
  • ReferencesOtaran, Nur. (2003). A gender review in education Turkey. UNICEF , 1-40.UNICEF, (2003). Improving educational opportunities for girls. Lessons from Past Decades, 1-12.UNICEF, (2003). Say Yes. The Quarterly Newsletter of Unicef Turkey, 1- 16.