This is great. Perhaps each deck could include a graphic to explain methodologies
Answers to questions…
FGM RESEARCHApproaches to combatting FGM
DEFINITION• FGM refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or other non-medical reasons.• Some organizations have opted to use the more neutral term of “female genital cutting (FGC) to avoid demeaning communities and causing backlash.
SCOPE OF ISSUE IN AFRICA • WHO estimates that 91.5 million girls and women in Africa are currently living with the consequences of FGM. • Eighteen countries ,including Kenya and Tanzania, have enacted laws criminalizing FGM • On December 20, 2012, the UN General Assembly unanimously passed a resolution formally banning the practice of FGM.
CASE STUDY: KENYA FGM in Kenya is far more prevalent among certain ethic groups (nearly universal among Somali/Kisii-98%)
APPROACHES TO COMBAT FGM Criminalization Grassroots• Laws alone unlikely to change • Community based programs traditions. To have a that work “bottom-up” to sustainable impact on the combat FGM locally. Shown to prevalence of FGM, laws must be most effective be complemented by multifaceted programs at the • CBO’s can mobilize community level communities to publically renounce FGM• Uses human rights and UN laws
CRIMINALIZATION APPROACH• John Hendra (UN Women) states: “…while efforts to criminalize FGM are vital, they need to be backed up with services for victims, engaging key influencers and supporting community- based activities to change social norms…”• Steps to eliminate FGM: laws criminalizing FGM, education and outreach programs, and the use of civil remedies and administrative regulations to prevent the practice (Center for Reproductive Rights)
THE FULDA-MOSOCHO PROJECT (GRASSROOTSAPPROACH)• Mosocho, Kenya: Goal is to achieve sustainable and extensive improvement of quality of life – comprehensive abandonment of female genital mutilation• Identifies and trains community leaders to participate in program that runs 3 ½ years; trained leaders then organize community meetings (studied extensively by UNICEF Innocenti Research Center, 2010, labeled highly successful after 5 year study)• Outcomes: 16, 000 girls have been saved from mutilation (communities denouncing FGC), 100 female circumcisers decided to no longer continue and became advocates against FGC, Non-SFF Partner Approach
ORCHID PROJECT (GRASSROOTS APPROACH)• Senegal/Somalia : Partner with organizations and projects to accelerate the abandonment of FGM.• In November 2012, Orchid began a new project with Tostan supporting their social mobilization activities in southern and northern Senegal until the end of October 2013. They are assisting with coordinating Tostan’s post-exit model. To achieve this goal, Orchid communicates best practices and experiences of success between grassroots organizations• Outcomes: Currently, outcomes are in the process of being measured. Orchid is focusing on shadowing social mobilization efforts in the Fouta with Tostan.Contact the Orchid Project directly through their website at: http://orchidproject.org/ (pleasenot that the Orchid Project is not a SFF Partner) Non-SFF Partner Approach
KISTREACH THEATRE INTERNATIONAL(GRASSROOTS APPROACH)• Kenya: Mission is to stop all types of violence against women, children, people living with disability, youth and other vulnerable groups• Kistreach disseminates information to communities through skits, puppets, dance, and song, story-telling (media/grassroots approach)• Outcomes: 475 girls, and their families, who have denounced FGM. These girls then become “Kistrech Junior Girls” and play roles in influencing others to denounce (similar to Tostan idea of “organized diffusion”) Non-SFF Partner Approach
TOSTAN (GRASSROOTS APPROACH)• Senegal: Tostan is “dedicated to empowering African communities to bring about sustainable development and positive social transformation based on respect for human rights”• Tostan uses an inclusive holistic, human rights-based education program, the Community Empowerment Program (CEP) Please see next slide for details• Outcome of process: 6,000 villages agreeing to abandon FGM, communities are organized, empowered, and active in their own development. Tostan is in the process of building a training center to share their successful model with others NGOs. You can reach our Partner Tostan through SFF, or their website at http://www.tostan.org/http://www.tostan.org/ SFF Partner
TOSTAN’S COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENTPROGRAM Human rights based education classes Participants empowered with Assign a trained are held knowledge and lead facilitator to the • Adults and community dialoguevillage for 3 years adolescents • Also learn to select, Community that is fluent in separated to implement, and manage Management the local encourage an small projects Committee also language and of open atmosphere established the same ethnic • development of new skills • Draw on modern that lead to improved living • Responsible for group as the education implementing community conditions techniques as well development members as traditional projects African oral designed by traditions community