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Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses
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Relative Clauses

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A Brief Overview of Relative Clauses for Middle School Students

A Brief Overview of Relative Clauses for Middle School Students

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  • 1. Relative Clausesa clause introduced by a relativepronoun/adverb
  • 2. Can you find them?• Jack: Where are the books?• John: Which books?• Jack: The books that were lying on this table?• John: Your friend has taken them.• Jack: But I don’t remember lending them toanyone.• John: Your friend who visited us yesterday borrowthem from you.• Jack: How forgetful of me!
  • 3. What is a Clause?Consequently, What is a RelativeClause?A clause is a group of words containing a(finite) verb. A clause may be part of asentence. An adjective clause is one thatdescribes a noun or a pronoun. We alsocall it a relative clause.
  • 4. Its Entry in a SentenceThe books aremissing.• Your friendborrowed them.• Relative clause is usually introduced byrelative pronouns such as who, which, that,whose, whom, where and when.
  • 5. Its Entry in a SentenceRelative clauses are introduced just afterthe antecedent and are introduced by apronoun or a relative adverb. The mostfrequent ones are:; ; ; (only in definingrelative clauses), and relative adverbs:; ; .
  • 6. Provides (Important/Additional)InformationA relative clause (adjective clause) is asubordinate (supporting) clause that givesinformation about a noun (subject or object)in the main clause.
  • 7. No Useless RepetitionSubordinate clauses are clauses whichallow us to add information about people orthings we are talking to, without a need torepeat the name, e.g.:
  • 8. Types of Relative Clause• Relative clauses are usually divided intotwo types:• A. Non-Defining Relative Clauses• B. Defining Relative Clauses
  • 9. Non-Defining Relative ClausesLook at this sentence:is a .It adds extra information to the sentence.If we take the clause out of the sentence,the sentence still has the same meaning.
  • 10. Examples of Non-Defining RelativeClause1.2.• 3.
  • 11. Main Features of Non-DefiningRelative Clauses- 1. Between commas- 2. ‘That’ is not allowed- 3. The relative pronoun can’t be omitted- 4. It’s less frequent than defining relativeclauses. It is more formal and usuallyused in written texts- 5. Add extra information to sentences.
  • 12. Defining Relative ClausesDefining Relative Clauses are used to addimportant information to a sentence. The sentencewould have a different meaning without a definingrelative clause.They give essential information about theirantecedent and without them, the meaning will beincompleted. That is why you write them withoutcommas.
  • 13. Comparing Defining & Non-Defining Relative ClausesThe defining relative clause tells uswhich skirt.The non-defining relative clause doesn’ttell us which skirt – it gives us moreinformation about the skirt.
  • 14. Important FactsNon-defining relative clauses can use mostrelative pronouns (which, whose etc,) butthey CAN’T use ‘that’ and the relative pronouncan never be omitted.Non-defining relative clauses are more oftenused in written English than in spokenEnglish. You can tell that a clause is non-defining because it is separated by commas ateach end of the clause.
  • 15. Examples of ‘Where’ as theRelative AdverbThe relative adverb where is used after nounsreferring to places:(defining relative clause)(non-defining relativeclause)
  • 16. Examples of ‘When’ as theRelative AdverbThe relative adverb when is used after nounsreferring to times and dates:(defining relative clause)(non-defining relative clause)
  • 17. Examples of ‘Why’ as the RelativeAdverbThe relative adverb why is usedafter reason:(only indefining relative clauses)
  • 18. Examples of ‘Whose’ as theRelative Pronoun(defining relativeclause)(non-defining relative clause)
  • 19. Relative ClausesDefining Non-DefiningPronounsWho/ThatWhich/ThatWhoseWhereWhen/ThatWhomThey give us essentialinformationThe information given is notessential,it can be omitted.PronounsWho WhichWhose WhenWhere
  • 20. All right, Bye Now

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