Relative Clausesa clause introduced by a relativepronoun/adverb
Can you find them?• Jack: Where are the books?• John: Which books?• Jack: The books that were lying on this table?• John: Your friend has taken them.• Jack: But I don’t remember lending them toanyone.• John: Your friend who visited us yesterday borrowthem from you.• Jack: How forgetful of me!
What is a Clause?Consequently, What is a RelativeClause?A clause is a group of words containing a(finite) verb. A clause may be part of asentence. An adjective clause is one thatdescribes a noun or a pronoun. We alsocall it a relative clause.
Its Entry in a SentenceThe books aremissing.• Your friendborrowed them.• Relative clause is usually introduced byrelative pronouns such as who, which, that,whose, whom, where and when.
Its Entry in a SentenceRelative clauses are introduced just afterthe antecedent and are introduced by apronoun or a relative adverb. The mostfrequent ones are:; ; ; (only in definingrelative clauses), and relative adverbs:; ; .
Provides (Important/Additional)InformationA relative clause (adjective clause) is asubordinate (supporting) clause that givesinformation about a noun (subject or object)in the main clause.
No Useless RepetitionSubordinate clauses are clauses whichallow us to add information about people orthings we are talking to, without a need torepeat the name, e.g.:
Types of Relative Clause• Relative clauses are usually divided intotwo types:• A. Non-Defining Relative Clauses• B. Defining Relative Clauses
Non-Defining Relative ClausesLook at this sentence:is a .It adds extra information to the sentence.If we take the clause out of the sentence,the sentence still has the same meaning.
Examples of Non-Defining RelativeClause1.2.• 3.
Main Features of Non-DefiningRelative Clauses- 1. Between commas- 2. ‘That’ is not allowed- 3. The relative pronoun can’t be omitted- 4. It’s less frequent than defining relativeclauses. It is more formal and usuallyused in written texts- 5. Add extra information to sentences.
Defining Relative ClausesDefining Relative Clauses are used to addimportant information to a sentence. The sentencewould have a different meaning without a definingrelative clause.They give essential information about theirantecedent and without them, the meaning will beincompleted. That is why you write them withoutcommas.
Comparing Defining & Non-Defining Relative ClausesThe defining relative clause tells uswhich skirt.The non-defining relative clause doesn’ttell us which skirt – it gives us moreinformation about the skirt.
Important FactsNon-defining relative clauses can use mostrelative pronouns (which, whose etc,) butthey CAN’T use ‘that’ and the relative pronouncan never be omitted.Non-defining relative clauses are more oftenused in written English than in spokenEnglish. You can tell that a clause is non-defining because it is separated by commas ateach end of the clause.
Examples of ‘Where’ as theRelative AdverbThe relative adverb where is used after nounsreferring to places:(defining relative clause)(non-defining relativeclause)
Examples of ‘When’ as theRelative AdverbThe relative adverb when is used after nounsreferring to times and dates:(defining relative clause)(non-defining relative clause)
Examples of ‘Why’ as the RelativeAdverbThe relative adverb why is usedafter reason:(only indefining relative clauses)
Examples of ‘Whose’ as theRelative Pronoun(defining relativeclause)(non-defining relative clause)
Relative ClausesDefining Non-DefiningPronounsWho/ThatWhich/ThatWhoseWhereWhen/ThatWhomThey give us essentialinformationThe information given is notessential,it can be omitted.PronounsWho WhichWhose WhenWhere