A nimation deals with generation, sequencing, and display of a set of images to create an effect of visual change or motion, similar to a movie film. It creates an illusionof movement. Animation is an importantcomponent of multimedia, because just asa picture is a powerful way to illustrateinformation, a small animation clip is evenmore powerful and useful for illustratingconcepts involving movement.Many of the early inventions designed toanimate images were meant as noveltiesfor private amusement of children or smallparties. Animation devices which fall into this category include the zoetrope,magic lantern, praxinoscope, thaumatrope, phenakistoscope, and flip bookzoetrope.Computer animation -Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying factorbeing that the animation is created digitally on a computer. Steps of a simple computer animation are following- 1. Creating animation sequences – object definition – path specification (for an object or a camera) – key frames – in-betweening 2. Displaying the sequences – raster animation – colour-table animation
Types of animation -2D animation:2D animation figures are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmapgraphics or created and edited using 2D Vector graphics. This includes automatedcomputerized versions of traditional animation techniques such as of twining,morphing, onion skinning and interpolated rot scoping.Example - power point animation.3D animation:Digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. To manipulate a mesh, it isgiven a digital skeletal structure that can be used to control the mesh. Othertechniques can be applied such as mathematical functions, simulated fur or hair,fire/water effect and the use of Motion Capture. Many 3D animations are verybelievable and are commonly used as Visual Effects for recent movies. Beowulf, Polar Express and Avatar are recent examples of 3D Animation.Why animation works? • The eye cannot register images faster than approximately 50 frames per second (30 is just about adequate) • If a gap in the projection occurs, the eye seems to perform spatial interpolation over the gapRules of Animation-The three basic rules to give a realistic appearance to the animation sequence.1. Squash and stretch2. Slow-in and slow-out3. Maintaining 3d affects
Problems in Animation-1. Temporal aliasing-It occurs when the view of a moving object is repre-sented by a series of short samples as distinct from a continuous view.2. Ray tracing- Ray tracing is a technique for generating an image by tracing thepath of light through pixels in an image plane.Confusion between video &animation • An animation is an animated drawing, cartoon, etc. • "Video" is often used to refer to any kind of audio/visual recording; an animation is never referred to a live recording. • In animation we are giving some effects to particular object, but in video we can’t. • A video is recorded from actual footage where as an animation is made digitally.Difference between video andanimation:Techniques of Morphing Hardware Software requirementAnimation requirementsInterpolation and The Hardware requir- Animation creationtransformation is transformation ements Image ge- software allow user tothe basic technique of an object’s neration tools and create animationused in animation shape from one devices such as sequences from scratch.which are used for form to another scanners, digital Screen capture softwarein-between the key is called cameras for creat- used to capture computerframes. morphing. It can ing images. Graph- screen as graphic images.1. Linear be applied to ics accelerator Animation clips is a libraryinterpolation any motion or board used for used for directly importing2. Translation transition controlling images. Animation3. Rotation involving a resolution and software import animation4. Scaling change in shape. number of color of files like .FLI and .FLC. display.
Applications-Applications In medical- Computer Animation used for presenting result ofbiomechanical analyses and simulation.In education – By using visual effects in educations students can easy grasp andattract by the students.In entertainment –Animation is used for creating cartoons or other visual effectslike movies, video games for entertaining the user.Advantages- • The animator has total control of animation. • Interactions are automatically realistic. • System with complex inter-relationship is possible. • To visualize the event that can’t be catch by the camera.Disadvantages- • Difficult to specify large and dynamic images. • It consumes a lot of memory space for storing data. • Special software and programs are required to obtain and process the data.EXAMPLE OF CREATING ANIMATION SEQUENCES-