Motivating youth to motivate themselves


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Motivating youth to motivate themselves

  1. 1. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 1 Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves Providing Tangible Skills and Tools to Increase Youth Initiative, Responsibility, and Motivation Target Audience: any member of the community (youth practitioner, parent, educator, etc.) who is concerned with raising youth motivation Length: two to three hours Time Frame: can be done as a morning ( 9 A.M. to 12 P.M.) or afternoon (1 P.M. to 4 P.M.) session Group Size: eight to 20 participants Materials Needed: • refreshments • Career Circuit brochures • business cards • Community Workshop forms • registration form • planning checklist • evaluation form • stick-on labels as nametags • agenda • flip chart (with prepared topic headings) • flip chart markers • tape • paper • Post-it Notes • pens • prepared handouts (HO) or overheads or slides • facilitator's references (FR) • participant portfolios or notebooks • materials for collages: • coloured paper
  2. 2. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 2 • large sheets of heavy-weight coloured construction paper for collages bases • scissors • glue • sparkles • old magazines • stickers • coloured markers • crayons • whatever else would be fun to include in a collage Facilitator’s Notes Audience This workshop is geared primarily to members of the community who either work directly with youth or are interested in youth issues. We encourage you to tailor it, highlighting those points that are most relevant and/or adding new content that speaks directly to your audiences. Preparation Ensure that you read Circuit Coach Section B1. Increasing Youth Initiative, Responsibility and Motivation, prior to facilitating this workshop. Preparing well ahead of time will save you a lot of added stress on the workshop day. Circuit Coach is available online through the Career Circuit web site at <>. Materials Flip charts and handouts are used in this workshop. You can also use PowerPoint slides and/or overheads if you have access to an LCD or overhead projector. You may wish to reproduce some flip chart pages, slides, or overheads as handouts in order to provide participants with a variety of visual aids and resource materials they can take away with them. Suggestions Create a portfolio for each participant containing copies of print information as well as blank sheets of paper for notetaking. Alternatively, provide your participant with a three-ring folder so handouts can be kept in order. If you do so, you will want to have the handouts holepunched in advance. Provide pens at each station for participants' use. Create individual labels with the workshop title and the participant’s name ahead of time, or have participants make their own at the beginning of the workshop. Have appropriate music playing at various times during the workshop. Music can help create a warm, comfortable, and creative learning environment. Circuit Coach Content and Tools Used During this Workshop Section B1. Increasing Youth Initiative, Responsibility, and Motivation Section B1.1. Magnusson’s "5Ps of Planning" Section B1.3. The Basics of Motivation Theory Self Application Tool B1.1. Magnusson’s "5Ps" Additional Circuit Coach Sections Relevant to the Topic Section B1. Increasing Youth Initiative, Responsibility, and Motivation Section B1.2. Amundson’s "Mattering"
  3. 3. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 3 Section B1.4. Giving and Receiving Feedback Section B1.5. Negotiation Skills Section B1.6. Action Planning Section B1.7. Creating Experiential Successes All Self Application and Client Application Tools Section B2 Increasing Youth Hope Section B2.1. Optimism Section B2.2. Self-Defeating Beliefs Section B2.3. Repeated Defeat All Self Application and Client Application Tools Section B3. Helping Youth Have a Future Section B3.1. Seeing Opportunities Section B3.2. Having a Preferred Future or Vision Section B3.3. Seeing Successes All Self Application and Client Application Tools Facilitator’s Notes If possible and appropriate you may wish to ask workshop participants to review these sections of Circuit Coach before they come to the workshop. Refer them to the online version of Circuit Coach. Alternatively, you may wish to photocopy these sections of Circuit Coach and have them as handouts in participants’ portfolios so they are able to refer to them during the workshop.
  4. 4. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 4 Workshop Outline Set-up (30 min. before start) Materials Needed: • Community Workshop Registration Form • Community Workshop Planning Checklist • handouts/overheads • refreshments • nametags or labels • flip chart • markers • tape Set-up • Place the Community Workshop Registration Form on the table for participant sign-in. • Have the nametags, pens, paper, and participant portfolios or notebooks prepared with handout packages ready for pick up by the participants. • Check equipment. • Ensure coffee/refreshments are ready and waiting (as appropriate). Welcome and Introduction (5 min.) Welcome and Introduction • Welcome all participants to the workshop. • Introduce yourself and briefly share a little background about yourself and how you became involved in presenting this workshop. • Acknowledge those who have made contributions to the workshop (e.g., host agency, in-kind donations, and helpers). • Briefly reference the focus of the workshop. Exercise: Introduction of Participants (15 to 20 min.) Materials Needed: • prepared flip chart with introduction questions • flip chart • markers • tape Exercise: Introduction of Participants • Ask each participant to find a partner (someone they don’t know very well or don’t know at all) and get to know them a bit. • Explain that the goal is to introduce your partner to the group and explain what motivated them to come to the workshop. • Provide the following sample questions for the group to ask once they've learned their partner's name: • What motivated you to come to the workshop today? • What motivates you in the workplace? • What motivates your clients? • Do you a have a special person who helps motivate you? • What is something nobody in this room knows about you?
  5. 5. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 5 Facilitator’s Note Have these questions written out on flip chart that is visible to the group during the exercise. • Pull the group back together and invite each pair of participants to begin by introducing their partners to the group and sharing what they learned about their partner’s motivation. • Record each person's name and their responses relating to motivation on a flip chart. Objectives (5 min.) Materials Needed: • objectives on overhead, flip chart, or handout Objectives • Present and review the following objectives for the two- hour session: • To learn the basics of motivation theory and explore the issues of increasing youth motivation • To examine how pride, passion, purpose, performance, and poise (Magnusson’s "5Ps of Planning") can be used in helping youth find their motivation • To receive information and resources that will assist you to motivate youth to motivate themselves • To encourage the use of Circuit Coach to enhance your own learning and work more effectively with your clients in the area of career development Facilitator's Notes Ahead of time, prepare a flip chart sheet with an outline of the workshop objectives. If you are presenting the objectives on a flip chart, tape them up where they can be viewed by participants throughout the workshop. It is always a good idea to check in with participants to see if the stated objectives fit with their own expectations. Refer to the expectations recorded on the flip chart and negotiate amendments as appropriate. Tip Because of the short time frame, you may want to send a copy of the objectives to participants as part of pre-session information.
  6. 6. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 6 Agenda and Logistics (5 min.) Materials Needed: • agenda on flip chart Agenda and Logistics • Present and review the agenda on a flip chart. • Outline any important norms such as punctuality and so forth. • Note any important logistical or housekeeping details. Facilitator’s Note Ahead of time, prepare a flip chart sheet with an outline of the workshop agenda. Setting the Context (5 min.) Setting the Context • Provide the following brief overview of Circuit Coach (no longer than five minutes): • Circuit Coach, developed by the Canadian Career Development Foundation, is a self-managed curriculum to support the professional development of career development practitioners. • Circuit Coach is also an excellent practical resource for career practitioners seeking dynamic tools, strategies, and interventions to address specific youth issues. • During this workshop, we are using Circuit Coach in its capacity as both a professional development support and practical resource to assist us and our clients to explore different learning options, and to help us to manage our own learning. • Note that Circuit Coach is available to all in a variety of formats (online at < english/default.htm>, disk, CD-ROM, and in print format as PDF files). Facilitator’s Note Many of your participants may not be familiar with Circuit Coach. If possible, you may want to have a version of Circuit Coach available for participants to view at the end of the workshop. I have my laptop set up showing Circuit Coach, and I also have a print copy available for participants to view.
  7. 7. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 7 Motivation Theory and Discussion (20 to 30 min.) Circuit Coach Content: • Section B1.3. The Basics of Motivation Theory Materials Needed: • flip chart responses from opening introduction exercise • HO #1—The Basics of Motivation Theory Motivation Theory and Discussion • Ask the group to refer back to the opening exercise when they identified what motivated them to come to the workshop, etc. Have them review the responses that were recorded on the flip chart. • Explain that you will be going over some basic theory on motivation, reviewing the key elements of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Note that the following content is from Circuit Coach B.1.3 on motivation and planning. • Distribute HO #1—The Basics of Motivation Theory. Facilitator’s Notes The following summary, and HO #1, is from Circuit Coach Section B1.3., The Basics of Motivation Theory. You may choose to photocopy the handout and distribute it to the participants, or have it in their notebooks so that they can refer to it during this part of the workshop. • Review the following concepts (referring to the handout): • There are two types of motivators: intrinsic and extrinsic. • Intrinsic Motivators · Ask the group if someone can give you a definition and/or an example of an intrinsic motivator. (Be prepared to give your own examples.) · You want to emphasize that intrinsic motivators come from within. They include naturally occurring responses, such as hunger and fatigue. Nobody has to create these motivations within you because you already have them; they are part of being human. • Extrinsic Motivators · Ask the group if someone can give you a definition and/or example of an extrinsic motivator. (Be prepared to give your own examples.) · External factors that control your behaviour are extrinsic motivators. Money, gold stars, prizes, grades, and praise are all examples of motivators
  8. 8. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 8 that people learn, or are conditioned, to value. • Focusing on Motivators · Ask the group to look at their answers to the opening questions. · Ask them to take a moment to look at their responses and determine whether they were motivated by intrinsic or extrinsic motivators. · Ask if someone wants to share their observations and insights about their own motivations. Facilitator’s Note During the discussion, you want to help participants identify their motivations. Sometimes, a motivation may present as extrinsic, but may be fulfilling an intrinsic motivation. For example, someone may say, "I am here because my agency wants me to learn about youth motivation," (external) but it may also be "I want to know how to work with youth" (self-growth, achievement, responsibility—all intrinsic motivators). • Youth Client Motivators · Ask participants to go back to the responses from the morning to look at their answers about what motivates their youth clients. · Ask them to identify whether the motivators listed are intrinsic or extrinsic. · Ask them how they use both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, and why, when they are working with or engaging youth. Facilitator’s Note This does not have to be a heavy discussion. For example, I use food a lot when I am working with youth. I had to get a group of youth to show up late Friday afternoon to make sure they all got to their GED test. The motivator for them to show up was a free pizza dinner before the test—both an extrinsic and intrinsic motivator. • Suggest to the group that focusing on intrinsic motivators for youth clients tends to support more enduring, sustainable, and personally meaningful results. Why? · Intrinsic motivators will be there long after you’re gone. The extrinsic ones only work if someone keeps doling them out.
  9. 9. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 9 · There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that intrinsic motivators can be diminished and destroyed by the continuous use of extrinsic motivators. · Extrinsic motivators put someone else in control of your clients’ behaviours; intrinsic motivators help them stay in control. • Ask the group if their responses and comments about what motivates their youth clients support the ideas presented on motivation basics. Ask them to state what fits and what doesn’t. • Summarize the main points of the discussion. • Invite participants to share any further questions and/or comments. Facilitator’s Note This section of Circuit Coach also briefly covers the theories of Maslow and Hertzberg. They have been omitted from this workshop due to time, however you may wish to include them. Break (10 min.) Refreshment Break
  10. 10. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 10 Introduction and Exercise: Magnusson's "5Ps of Planning" (20 to 30 min.) Materials Needed: • HO #2—Magnussons "5Ps of Planning" • prepared flip chart with "5 Ps of Planning" outlined • prepared flip chart titled, "Circle of Magnusson’s '5Ps of Planning'" • FR #1—Motivation: "5Ps" Introduction and Exercise: Magnusson's "5Ps of Planning" • Begin by explaining how pride, passion, purpose, performance, and poise (Magnusson’s "5Ps of Planning") can be used in helping youth find their motivation. • Discuss, as a group, Magnusson’s "5Ps of Planning" using overheads and/or handouts (see HO #2, based on Section B1.1. of Circuit Coach). For example, ask how this relates to youth clients, or if these 5Ps are about intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. Facilitator’s Note Other concepts can be introduced to help reinforce the learning, e.g., Amundson’s backswing, the "Big Rocks" story, or Manning’s purposeful planning (see FR #1— Motivation: "5Ps"). • Lead into the upcoming activity by telling the group you are going to give a client example. • Ask the participants to identify the 5Ps within the following example as you read it: I had a young client who had completed high school with minimum passing marks. He was very disinterested in learning and applying himself in school. He began a metal fabrication program, studied hard for the first test, and, much to his surprise, passed with 95 percent. He was so excited and energized by this. Now he studies faithfully and is very motivated to do his best. Since then, he has also become involved in several volunteer organizations within his community. He’s on the volunteer fire department, and is involved in several youth committees. —Angela Hooper • Ask the group to identify the steps in this story when the client experienced each of the following 5Ps (Have the 5Ps outlined on a flip chart and refer to them now: When did he experience . . . ?): 1. Pride: He felt proud when he scored a high mark on his test. 2. Passion: He found out that he had an interest in welding, a belief that he could succeed in this program, and the value that was worth working for. 3. Purpose: He could live out this passion by staying in school and continuing to learn. 4. Performance: He continued to perform well on his
  11. 11. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 11 tests. He studied and received great marks. 5. Poise: As a result of this experience, his level of confidence increased tremendously. Due to this, he sought out more pride experiences (volunteering) that he would not have had the courage to attempt earlier. • Describe how this process is a continual self-feeding cycle: as your level of self-confidence increases as a result of poise, you seek out new and fulfilling experiences that in turn give you a new sense of pride, and the cycle starts over again. You continue to grow, learn, and improve. • Show a flip chart of the "Circle of Magnusson’s 5 Ps" to illuminate how the 5Ps provide self-propelling motivation. Facilitator’s Note While describing how the 5Ps are a continual cycle, refer to a cyclical representation of the 5Ps, starting with pride, moving around a circle, and returning to pride. Think-Pair-Share Exercise: Pride (30 min., although you can take up to one hour for this exercise) Materials Needed: • HO #3—Magnusson’s "5Ps" • Collage Materials: · coloured paper · large sheets of heavy- weight coloured construction paper for base · scissors · glue · sparkles · magazines · stickers · coloured markers · crayons · whatever else would be fun to include in a collage • prepared list of exercise steps on a flip chart at front of room Think-Pair-Share Exercise: Pride Facilitator’s Note You can dedicate up to one hour for this exercise depending on your time frame. • Introduce the exercise by telling the group that this exercise requires them to think of something they did in the past that made them proud. • Ask them to briefly describe that experience by filling in the handout titled Magnusson's “5Ps” (see HO #3, based on Circuit Coach Self Application Tool B 1.1.), or by creating a collage using the materials supplied. • Distribute HO #3 and have all collage materials accessible. • Explain that this exercise will help participants experience the 5Ps on a very personal level. • Explain that the steps in this exercise are as follows (refer to the flip chart): • List one experience in your life that has left you feeling proud.
  12. 12. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 12 • Through the worksheet, or through visuals, identify the attendant values (Why was this experience important?), interests (What was enjoyable about this experience?), beliefs, (What skills, knowledge, and attitudes are associated with this experience?). You can do this by filling in the handout, or you can shake things up by creating a collage. • Invite the participants to work alone or with a partner, however they feel their learning will be best supported. Facilitator’s Note Give the participants a good 30 minutes for this exercise–longer if you have time. The collage allows another way of expressing one's pride and is a lot of fun for participants. It works well in a group that includes members of the community who may not be youth workers or career practitioners. It also models that exercises can be done in different ways with youth, especially youth who may have literacy issues. You may want to have appropriate music playing during this exercise to help set the mood. Debrief • When most participants have completed the exercise, ask those who have been working individually to pair up and discuss the pride experience they wrote about, or to present their collage. • Ask them to tell their partner how it made them feel. (How did this experience effect their motivation?) • Ask if anyone wants to share a pride experience with the entire group. • Bring the group together and ask how this exercise would work with their youth clients. Ask them what factors they would need to consider before they use this particular activity (e.g., clients may be too shy to talk about pride experiences, some clients may find it difficult to express themselves verbally) and what adjustments they might need to make (e.g., do exercise graphically only, using collages, for some students). • Ask participants who did collages how it felt for them to do the exercise visually instead of verbally.
  13. 13. Motivating Youth to Motivate Themselves – 13 Closure and Evaluation (10 min.) Materials Needed: • Community Workshop Evaluation Form Closure and Evaluation • Ask each participant to share one thing they learned today. • Provide an opportunity for participants to reflect on the day’s activities and how they can tie them into their everyday activities. • Give time for the group to ask questions, and to say goodbye. • Remind them that all the resources used in the workshop were from Circuit Coach, and encourage participants to explore and use Circuit Coach (and Career Circuit in general) to their benefit. • Provide participants with time to complete a written evaluation of the session and submit their comments prior to leaving. • Distribute the evaluation form. • You may decide to do a summary close or a closing quotation. • Thank participants for their participation and contributions and be sure they know how to contact you for support as they continue their learning journey.
  14. 14. Handouts and Facilitator's References
  15. 15. Motivation: The "5Ps" – 1 Facilitator’s Reference #1—Motivation: "5Ps" (Use in addition to participant handouts from Circuit Coach Section B1.1.) Pride Norm Amundson also looks at the importance of pride in purposeful planning. He calls it the backswing, and examines how no forward motion can be gained without an initial gathering of energy. Regeneration of the energy source often requires a step backward before one is in a position to move forward. To understand this process of generating energy by moving backward before moving forward, let us return to physics. Consider the movements of people as they try to generate energy in order to move an object forward. Think about the carpenter swinging the hammer back in order to hit a nail, or the golfer’s measured backswing before hitting the ball. In both of these instances, and in many more, power and energy come through the backswing, a measured activity where a goal is always in focus. For maximum success, the backswing is followed by full contact with the object and a smooth follow-through (Amundson, N., 2003. The Physics of Living. Richmond: Ergon Communications, p. 127). In other words, it is not possible to move ahead without recognizing where we are now, and celebrating ourselves. Purpose Purpose must be found in order to live out passion. Finding purpose is about seeking opportunity and bringing passion into reality. This does not mean that the one purpose in life must be found (if such a thing even exists), but that it is more about establishing a small purpose or set of purposes as a starting point for action. How can these purposes be extracted from the many important things in the lives of youth? How can priorities be established? Following is an illustration that is used in the Student Success Course at MacArthur State Technical College, for students who are on academic probation. It comes from Skip Downing, the developer of an On Course workshop, web site, and book, and was written by Polly Patterson. On Course: Big Rocks One day, an expert in time management was speaking to a group of business students and, to drive home a point, used an illustration those students will never forget. As he stood in front of the group of high-powered overachievers he said, "Okay, time for a quiz" and he pulled out a one- gallon, wide-mouth Mason jar and set it on the table in front of him. He also produced about a dozen fist-sized rocks and carefully placed them, one at a time, into the jar. When the jar was filled to the top and no more rocks would fit inside, he asked, "Is this jar full?" Everyone in the class yelled, "Yes." The time management expert replied, "Really?" He reached under the table and pulled out a bucket of gravel. He dumped some gravel in and shook the jar causing pieces of gravel to work themselves down into the spaces between the big rocks. He then asked the group once more, "Is the jar full?" By this time the class was on to him. "Probably not," one of them answered. "Good!" he replied. He reached under the table and brought out a bucket of sand. He started dumping the sand in the
  16. 16. Motivation: The "5Ps" – 2 jar and it went into all of the spaces left between the rocks and the gravel. Once more he asked the question, "Is this jar full?" "No!" the class shouted. Once again he said, "Good." Then he grabbed a pitcher of water and began to pour it in until the jar was filled to the brim. Then he looked at the class and asked, "What is the point of this illustration?" One eager beaver raised his hand and said, "The point is, no matter how full your schedule is, if you try really hard you can always fit some more things in it!" "No," the speaker replied, "that's not the point. The truth this illustration teaches us is if you don't put the big rocks in first, you'll never get them in at all. What are the 'big rocks' in your life—time with your loved ones, your faith, your education, your dreams, a worthy cause, teaching or mentoring others? Remember to put these BIG ROCKS in first, or you'll never get them in at all. So, tonight, or in the morning, when you are reflecting on this short story, ask yourself this question: What are the big rocks in my life? Then, put those in your jar first. (Polly Patterson, MacArthur State Technical College, AL.) In other words, what is your passion, your purpose? How will you ensure that you make room in your life for your big rocks? Performance Purpose, as stated, must be accompanied by action. Performance is about taking effective action that is supported with skills and strategies. Decisions must be focused and flexible, particularly to avoid self-defeating thoughts when barriers are encountered. Doug Manning talks about Proactive Planning as a way to get youth moving (presentation at the National Consultation on Career Development [NATCON], January 2003). He states that the purpose of a plan is not necessarily to "get there," but to motivate, give a sense of purpose, and help get you started. A plan connects who you are with what you do, linking your motivation with your competencies. Connecting your plan with purpose and action leads you to three questions: What do you want from life? What do you have to offer? How do you connect who you are with what you do?
  17. 17. The Basics of Motivation Theory – 1 Handout #1—The Basics of Motivation Theory (Circuit Coach Section B.1.3.) This section deals with the basic tenets of motivation theory. This is a broad topic, but we’re just going to take a birds-eye look at what it’s all about. Let's start with two types of motivators: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivators are those that come from within; no one does anything to create these, although we can sometimes create conditions that allow these motivators to emerge. When you've gone a while without eating, for example, you experience hunger—that is, you are intrinsically motivated to eat. When you're tired, you're intrinsically motivated to sleep. When you're cold, you're intrinsically motivated to find a way to be warmer. When you're bored, you're intrinsically motivated to find something interesting to do. Nobody has to create these motivations within you because you already have them; they're part and parcel of being human. Extrinsic motivators are external factors that control your behaviour. Nobody is born with a yearning for money; money is an external or extrinsic driver of behaviour, a learned motivator. Hearing "You're a good boy!" or "You're a good girl!" from your mom or dad when you're growing up is extrinsically motivating as well. With extrinsic motivators, something outside of you urges you to behave in a certain way. Money, gold stars, treats, prizes, grades, and praise are all examples of extrinsic motivators. Intrinsic motivators, such as food, can be used as extrinsic motivators, too. For example, one might use food to motivate a dog to come when its name is called. The dog will seek food because of hunger, an intrinsic motivator. However, food can also be linked to the act of coming to the dog's name. In this instance, food is an extrinsic motivator for that particular behaviour. Not all intrinsic motivators are automatically present at birth, however. According to some theorists, such as Abraham Maslow, motivation is influenced by other factors. Maslow claimed that motivation is developmental. He contended that humans are born intrinsically motivated to meet physiological needs (e.g., eating, sleeping), but as these needs are reliably met, a new set of dominant motivations arises: safety and security needs (e.g., freedom from the elements, pain and, of course, death). As these are reliably satisfied, new intrinsic motivations for love and belonging become dominant. These comprise the needs to feel loved, show love, and feel part of at least one social group. When a person feels securely loved, the new dominant motivations centre on esteem—feeling good about yourself and knowing that others hold you in high regard. Finally, once these basic or deficit needs are consistently fulfilled, a new order of motivators emerges. These are called being needs or self-actualization needs, and they are comprised of the needs for knowledge (e.g., science, philosophy, history), beauty (e.g., painting, music, dance), and goodness (e.g., justice, peace, philanthropy). The system Maslow used to detail the developmental aspect of motivation is called Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Some of the research in this area is a little shaky, but it's useful to be familiar with it, as it is much safer to find and use intrinsic sources of client motivations than it is to use extrinsic sources of motivation, for three main reasons:
  18. 18. The Basics of Motivation Theory – 2 1. Intrinsic motivators will be there long after you're gone; the extrinsic ones only work if someone keeps doling them out. 2. There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that intrinsic motivators can be diminished and destroyed by the use of extrinsic motivators. 3. Extrinsic motivators put someone else in control of your clients' behaviours; intrinsic motivators help them stay in control. Maslow's hierarchy is useful for youth workers because it provides a framework for thinking about what might be intrinsically motivating to youth clients. Let's look at the three reasons for using intrinsic motivators whenever possible: 1. Intrinsic motivators will be there long after you're gone; the extrinsic ones only work if someone keeps doling them out. One danger of using extrinsic motivation to change client behaviours is that you have no idea how clients will be treated once they leave your program. For example, you may find that praise really seems to work with your clients, so you reward positive behaviours with compliments such as "great job!", "good question!", "nice résumé!", and "terrific outfit!" You employ this approach throughout the program on a consistent basis until one day the program ends. But what comes after that? You have helped your clients launch successfully into the world of work, to take training, or improve their education, but the scenario has suddenly changed and there are new rules to follow. It could happen that a new employer does not give praise. Does this mean that clients will wonder whether they are doing something wrong? Will positive behaviour erode because no praise is given? No one knows for sure, and that is the point; you cannot be sure what will happen when a youth is placed in a different environmental context. Therefore, it's safer to find out what intrinsically motivates your clients and proceed to work from that base. Then, you know at least that they'll take their intrinsic motivations with them after they leave your program. 2. There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that intrinsic motivators can be diminished and destroyed by the use of extrinsic motivators. A summary of a simple experiment illustrates this point. A psychologist called Harry Harlow used monkeys in his experiments way back in the time of World War II. The monkeys spent a lot of time in cages, so Harlow thought it would be nice to give them something to do. He had noticed that they really liked playing with the latches of doors and windows, trying to figure out how they worked. To indulge their interest, Harlow obtained a bunch of latches and let the monkeys play. Soon Harlow decided to conduct an experiment: "What would happen," he wondered, "if half the monkeys were rewarded for figuring out how to work the latches, while the other half were left simply to play?" As might be expected, the half that were rewarded showed more focus in their activity and worked a little faster. However, the interesting part was what happened after the experiment had ended: The monkeys that had been rewarded for figuring out the latches actually lost interest in figuring them out, once the
  19. 19. The Basics of Motivation Theory – 3 rewards were no longer present! Indeed, Harlow had managed to suppress, at least temporarily, what had previously been intrinsically motivating to these monkeys. Similar experiments with humans have repeatedly shown the same finding. Extrinsic rewards may work for a while and in some instances, but when the rewards are removed, the initial motivation may be gone. Now, this doesn't mean that extrinsic motivators are always destructive. When something needs to get done, but nobody is intrinsically motivated to do it, extrinsic rewards may be helpful. Cleaning latrines is an example that pops to mind (yet even this can be motivated by the basic physiological need for hygiene and health!). 3. Extrinsic motivators put someone else in control of your clients' behaviours; intrinsic motivators help them stay in control. You're working with youth because you want to help them take charge, take control, and successfully manage their lives. It seems rather contradictory, then, for you or any other helping agent to motivate them through external controls! The better that youth understand their intrinsic motivations and find ways to fulfill them, the better they'll be able to manage once outside the safe environment of your program or service. If you're the one who exerts the control (and extrinsic motivators are always about control), it will be more difficult for youth clients to assert themselves by taking charge. Frederich Hertzberg, a fan of Maslow, identified factors affecting job satisfaction. He listed these under two headings, maintenance and motivator, respectively. Maintenance factors are not considered motivational in and of themselves, but their absence is sure to cause problems. Motivator factors, on the other hand, actually enhance motivation and performance. Take a look at the following table: Maintenance Factors Motivator Factors Dissatisfiers (if absent) Satisfiers • supervision • personal growth • job security • recognition • company policy • achievement • employee relations • autonomy • pay (dual factor) • responsibility • job enrichment • opportunities • sense of participation • pay (dual factor) • progression systems (moving up the ladder) • suggestion systems (using employees' ideas) • lateral movement Notice that all the motivator factors are intrinsic, except pay. Pay is a dual factor; that is, it's extrinsic, but can fulfill intrinsic motivations as well.
  20. 20. The Basics of Motivation Theory – 4 Now consider the motivator factors listed above in terms of yourself and your clients. Experiencing fulfillment in these areas beats receiving a cursory "attaboy" or "attagirl" from the boss, don't you think? Hopefully, the significance of the 5Ps that were outlined in the previous section is now becoming clear. Passion, the second of the 5Ps, is really just another word for intrinsic motivation. What you're helping a client to uncover during the 5P process is, in fact, intrinsic motivation. This is the stuff that will ultimately sustain you and your young clients, not extrinsic motivation.
  21. 21. Magnusson’s "5Ps of Planning" – 1 Handout #2—Magnusson’s "5Ps of Planning" (Circuit Coach Section B1.1.) Kris Magnusson of the University of Lethbridge has developed a planning model, called the "5Ps of Planning," that guides clients through five carefully defined steps for generating purposeful motivation. These steps encompass pride, passion, purpose, performance, and poise. • Pride is the starting point in the planning process. Pride will generate a spark of enthusiasm in youth who may lack motivation and incentive. The 5Ps model focuses on events where youth have experienced pride, instead of examining problems. A change process is started by having clients identify moments in their lives when they have felt quite proud. The experiences need not be work-related. Then, the person identifies and lists the skills and knowledge they used within the pride experience, and the values, interests, and beliefs associated with the experience. The participant is likely to feel a renewal of energy from tapping into pride experiences, and a list of assets will begin to emerge. • Passion (or intrinsic motivation) follows directly from pride. It’s about values, beliefs, and interests. As clients work their way through a number of pride experiences, they begin to notice a recurring pattern in values, beliefs, and interests. This represents passion, which sustains people and keeps them going even when everything is going wrong. This passion must be channeled to ensure motivation is sustained. • Purpose is the place where you think about ways to actually live out your passion; it is about seeking opportunity and bringing passion to reality. This can mean exploring the world of work, being open to opportunities, determining needs, and creating opportunities. It is not about finding the purpose, but finding a small purpose or set of purposes as a starting point for action. • Performance is about accompanying purpose with action. Effective action requires skills and strategies. Therefore, performance can include a host of competencies, such as work search strategies, action-planning methods, work-specific skills, self- management skills—whatever it takes to effectively fulfill purpose. • Poise comes with practice and success. As individuals perform, they get better at what they do, and see results from what they have done. When this happens often enough, the confidence and grace of poise begins to develop. The poise that is acquired leads to new pride experiences, and the circle is complete—the 5Ps process starts all over again! Motivation builds on itself, but it has to start somewhere. When dealing with people who are lethargic, apathetic, and feeling that life is hopeless, it is imperative that a kernel of motivation be found somewhere. Pride, the first of the 5Ps of Planning, is a reliable starting point, and feeds into a process that becomes self-propelling.
  22. 22. Magnusson’s "5Ps" – 1 Handout #3—Magnusson’s "5Ps" (Circuit Coach Self Application Tool B1.1.) Individual or Pairs Exercise 1. List any experiences in your life that have left you feeling proud. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Describe the experience(s) below. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. Identify the values (why is this experience important?), interests (what was enjoyable about this experience?), beliefs, skills, knowledge, and attitudes associated with this experience. VALUES INTERESTS SKILLS BELIEFS KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDES
  23. 23. Magnusson’s "5Ps" – 2 4. This set of values, beliefs, interests, knowledge, and attitudes represents passion. Review your "passion" list and see if anything obvious is missing. Add any value, belief, or interest that you feel has been left out. 5. Identify at least five ways you could fulfill or live out your passion with purpose. This could include hobbies, social events, enhancing your current work, taking on additional new work (e.g., contract work), or changing work. For example, say you're working with youth in a one-to-one counselling role, but your passions include interests in computer programming. Could you take on a contract helping a software company create a career development program for youth? Could you offer to help your employer set up a web site? Could you begin a home-based computer consulting business on the side? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ See if fulfilling the purpose begins to lead to poise (confidence and grace), and to new pride experiences.