Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

астрономическая ориентация пирамид египта и новая хронология царей древнего царства

2,627

Published on

Published in: Entertainment & Humor, Sports
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,627
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. ТАЙНА ШНУРА СЕШАТАСТРОНОМИЧЕСКОЕ ДАТИРОВАНИЕ ПИРАМИД И ДИНАСТИЙ ДРЕВНЕГО ЕГИПТА
  • 2. СОДЕРЖАНИЕПолюс мира-прецессия 5Метод Спенс 10Метод Хака 15Метод Бельмонте 21Критика методов 40Шнур Сешат 53Строительные метки 58Коронация царя Нейт и Сешат 72История метода 79Египетские пирамиды 82Ориентация египетских пирамид 87Метод Поллукса 90Радиоуглеродный анализ пирамид 94Ступенчатая пирамида Джосера 98Слоеная пирамида Сехемхета 105Пирамида Хаба 109Пирамида Хуни 111Ломаная пирамида Снофру 117Красная пирамида Снофру 121Великая пирамида Хуфу 124Пирамида Абу Роаш Джедефра 134 2
  • 3. Пирамида Хафра 139Пирамида Завиет эль-Ариан Небкара 146Пирамида Менкаура 158Мастаба эль-Фараун Шепсескафа 164Пирамида Джедефптаха - Униса 167Пирамида Усеркафа 175Пирамида Сахура 178Пирамида Нефериркара 183Солнечный храм Ниусерра 186Пирамида Пепи II 189Пирамида Шепсескафа - Аменемхета III 191Пирамида Аменемхета I в Лиште 200Мастаба 17 204Пирамида Лепсиуса №1 206Туринский царский канон 210Генеалогическое древо династий 213Гипотеза Берлева 214Гипотеза Штадельмана 223Хронология Miroslav Verner 224Хронология McClellan 267Новая хронология династий 275Заключение 280 3
  • 4. Gewidmet meiner geliebten Mutter.Автор попытался восстановить утраченную первоначальную процедуру ориентациипирамид Древнего царства Египта, которая позволяла ориентировать ритуальныесооружения с точностью в одну астрономическую минуту. Метод Поллукса дает новыевозможности, позволяющие датировать точную дату и год начала строительствапирамиды. Этим методом были ориентированы все пирамиды Древнего царства.Полученные результаты не только сдвинули принятые датировки пирамид, но и прекрасносостыковались с известными цифрами в радиоуглеродном анализе пирамид. Выстроеннаяновая хронология времени постройки пирамид позволила синхронизировать её с известнойдлительностью времени правления царей и получить новую хронологию династий Древнегоцарства с точностью в один год. Это и есть та тайна, которую поведал шнур богиниСешат. Кисточка, которой она записывала годы жизни и правления фараонов на листьяхдерева "ишед" , теперь написала новую историю Древних пирамид и их Царей. [ от автора ,2012] 4
  • 5. Полюс мира-прецессияТочка весеннего равноденствия, кульминация которой определяет начало звездных суток, не находитсяпостоянно в одном и том же месте небесной сферы. Полярная звезда не всегда была в полюсе мира и ее рольисполняли и будут исполнять в разное время другие звезды, например Тубан или Вега.Движения точки равноденствия и полюса мира — это два видимых следствия одного и того же явления,называемого предварением равноденствий или прецессией. Это явление было открыто еще в 125 г. до н. э.греческим астрономом Гиппархом, но только через восемнадцать столетий Исаак Ньютон сумел его объяснить. 5
  • 6. Полюс мира — точка на небесной сфере, в которую направлена ось нашей вращающейся планеты.Наблюдателю кажется, что именно вокруг этой точки движется небосвод. Если бы Земля была идеальнокруглым шаром, то направление ее оси вращения всегда оставалось бы одинаковым. Однако Земля не является точным шаром, аслегка сплюснута у полюсов и чуть-чуть вытянута у экватора. Вследствие этого ось вращения Землипрецессирует так же, как ось обыкновенного вращающегося волчка. В то время как наклон оси к плоскостиземной орбиты остается постоянным (отклонение от вертикали равно 23.5 градуса), ось Земли движется вокругвертикали по поверхности конуса, совершая один оборот приблизительно за 25 800 лет. Если представитьземную ось в виде длинного тонкого карандаша, то за это время он опишет на небесной сфере окружность,показанную в верхней части рисунке, а звезды, лежащие на этой окружности или около нее, поочередно будутполярными. 6
  • 7. Предварение равноденствий (лат. praecessio aequinoctiorum) — историческое название для постепенногосмещения точек весеннего и осеннего равноденствий (то есть точек пересечения небесного экватора сэклиптикой) навстречу видимому годичному движению Солнца. Другими словами, каждый год весеннееравноденствие наступает немного раньше, чем в предыдущем году. Основная причина предваренияравноденствий — прецессия, периодическое изменение направления земной оси под влиянием притяженияЛуны, а также (в меньшей степени) Солнца. Как выяснил Ньютон в своих «Началах», сплюснутость Земли уполюсов приводит к тому, что притяжение внешних тел поворачивает земную ось, которая описывает конус спериодом (по современным данным) примерно 25 776 лет. При этом наклон земной оси к эклиптике сохраняетсянеизменным. Поворот земной оси смещает и связанные с Землёй экваториальные системы небесных координат,примерно на 20,1" в год.Существуют и другие причины смещения земной оси — нутация, апериодическое «блуждание полюсов» и т. п.,однако их вклад в результат по сравнению с прецессией невелик. 7
  • 8. Аналогичные явления происходят и на других планетах. Например, ось Юпитера под влиянием егомногочисленных спутников и Солнца смещается примерно на полградуса в течение юпитерианского года.Смещение северного полюса мира - поворот оси нашей планеты имеет разнообразные последствия.Прежде всего, он сокращает продолжительность тропического года, который становится на 20 минут корочезвёздного. Поскольку долготы звёзд отсчитываются от точки равноденствия, они постепенно увеличиваются —именно этот эффект и привёл к открытию данного явления.В процессе прецессии вид звёздного неба, видимый в тех или иных широтах, меняется, так как меняютсясклонения тех или иных созвездий, и даже время года их наблюдения.Некоторые созвездия, видимые сейчас в средних широтах северного полушария Земли (например, Орион иБольшой Пёс), постепенно опускаются под горизонт и через несколько тысяч лет будут почти недоступны изсредних широт северного полушария, зато на северном небе появятся созвездия Центавр и Южный Крест, атакже ряд других.Однако не все созвездия южного полушария будут доступны в результате прецессии, к примеру, выше всехподнимется современное «летнее» небо, меньше — «осеннее» и «весеннее», зимнее небо не поднимется вовсе,так как в настоящее время оно уже максимально поднято.Схожие процессы будут и в Южном полушарии. Многие созвездия Северного полушария, которые в настоящеевремя недоступны, будут доступны, причём выше всего поднимется современное «зимнее» небо, которое видноиз Южного полушария как летнее. Спустя 6 тысяч лет будет доступно из средних широт Южного полушария длянаблюдения созвездие Большая Медведица, а 6 тыс. лет назад была видна Кассиопея.Полюс мира сейчас почти совпадает с Полярной звездой; в древнем Египте он находился вблизи звезды Тубан (αДракона), а в V тысячелетии перейдёт в созвездие Цефея.Орбита Земли слегка вытянута, и ближе всего Земля подходит к Солнцу в январе, когда в северном полушариизима. Из-за этого климат северного полушария Земли несколько мягче, чем южного (зима мягче, а летонесколько прохладнее). Через 10 000 лет сезоны из-за прецессии сдвинутся, и мягче станет климат южногополушария 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. Метод Спенс 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Метод Хака 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Метод Бельмонте 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. 35
  • 36. 36
  • 37. 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. 39
  • 40. Критика методовA brief evaluation of Kate Spences article in NATUREVol. 408, 16 November 2000, pp. 320-324Ancient Egyptian Chronology and the Astronomical Orientation of Pyramids.© Robert G. Bauval, 6 January 2001The findings in the above titled paper, which was supported in the same Nature issue by an article from Dr.Owen Gingerich, the veteran astronomer from Harvard [1], have been vented in the international press in atleast 20 countries and in hundreds of dot.com news-lists as a major Egyptological event. In the paper theauthor, Dr. Kate Spence of the Faculty of Oriental Studies at the University of Cambridge, well-known to Britishviewers for her appearance on BBC Horizon Atlantis Reborn and other ancient history programmes, makes thefollowing claims: a. Dating the Giza Pyramids: That the Egyptian pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated. b. Simultaneous Transit Method: That the method used by the ancient builders in their attempt to determinetrue north was by aligning a plumb-line to the invisible line formed by the great circle passing through the starKochab ( b Ursa Minor) and Mizar ( z Ursa Major) and to the north-south axis of the west or east side of eachpyramid. c. Misalignments of Pyramids as a Function of Precession: That this method produced a misalignment errorof the west or east side of each pyramid which can be explained as a function of the precessional drift of theinvisible line away from the north celestial pole. d. Anchoring the Old Kingdom chronology: That the date for the start of construction of the Great Pyramidcan be fixed by her dating method to 2478 BC +/-5 years and can serve as an anchor for the Old Kingdomchronology.One of the great appeals of Spences thesis, especially concerning item (c) above, is that it offers amathematical model showing on X-Y graphs the relationship between precessional drift and the misalignmentof the pyramids which can be evaluated per se. At first sight the two neatly parallel lines, which representrespectively the misalignments of the pyramids and the Precessional Drift plotted against time, appear toconfirm her theory in a way that clinches the deal for the scientifically-minded. On closer examination, however,the paper reveals flaws and errors, inconsistencies and unjustified assumptions that undermine the originalityand validity of the claims that Spence was allowed to make in Nature.Let us examine these claims:Dating the Giza Pyramids:First, the claim that the pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated before is not correct. Spence simplyignores the scientists and researchers who came before her. As one eminent astronomer put it to me, this wasnot very polite. In 1838 Sir John Herschel was the first to use precession to attempt to date the Great Pyramidby using the pole star, Thuban; and was followed by the Scottish astronomer Charles Piazzi Smyth in 1865 whoused the same method [2]. More recently, in 1964, astronomer Virginia Trimble and Egyptologist AlexanderBadawy used precession to determine the stellar alignments of the so-called air-shafts of the "King’s Chamber"of the Great Pyramid by referring to data from Petries 1881 survey, and computed that these shafts weresloped to Delta Orionis in the south and Alpha Draconis in the north at about 2600 BC [3]. In 1990, I also usedthe same data to compute that the southern shaft of the Queens Chamber was sloped towards Sirius in c. 2750 40
  • 41. BC [4]. However, in 1993 the slopes of these shafts were more accurately measured by the German engineerRudolf Gantenbrink, and with this new data I obtained a date of 2450 BC +/- 25 years for all four shafts [5]. Thisdate was confirmed in 1995 by the Scottish astronomer, Dr. Mary Bruck, although she assumed a +/- 60 yearsmargin of error [6]. A simple calculation shows that this estimate falls within the 2478 BC +/- 5 years dateclaimed by Kate Spence. Adding a brief paragraph or footnote to her paper to cover this historical backgroundwould have given it the scholarly ethics it sorely lacks on this specific issue, but as I understand it, it wasapparently the referees of Naturethat advised against it.It must be remembered that the Pyramids of Giza are, astronomically speaking, equinoctial monuments andthus any methods using the azimuth change of stars are bound to be fraught with much uncertainty. This, interalia, is because the misalignment error could very simply be due to surveying and constructionalproblems,and/or naked-eye limits of resolution, rather than the result of the precessional drift. In any case, Spencesmethod is by no means novel. Several years ago, in 1984, the astronomer Steven C. Haack of NebraskaUniversity introduced the idea of using the precessional drift of stars to define a new chronology for the PyramidAge [7]. And although Haack used the azimuth at the horizon rather than azimuth at the celestial pole, themethod is fundamentally the same. It also must be mentioned that Haacks method was used again by Frenchastronomer Karine Gadre in 1998 [8]. Using the east horizon rather than the pole region is, in fact, more justified(if perhaps less accurate), for it is well-known that the south and north sides of the pyramid are more accuratelyaligned to the cardinal directions than the east and west sides [9]. For example, the south side is only 1 57" S ofW as opposed to a 2 30" W of N for the west side which Spences used [10]. The real problem, however, withazimuth methods such as proposed by Haack and Spence is that the accuracy required for naked-eyeobservations is, in practice, almost impossible to achieve [11]. The astronomer Brad Schaefer from TexasUniversity rightly pointed out that the scatter about Spence’s theoretical curve is ~ 2 arc-minutes on the X-Ygraphs displayed, yet the stars she uses are faint enough that their perceived naked-eye appearance is aboutthe same size [12]. Schaefer also pointed out that the accuracies of naked-eye sightings required by KateSpence are theoretical and cannot be achieved in practice because with the perceived size of the stars and thespeed of motion, it is impossible for the human eye to get the 25 second timing accuracy required [13].Furthermore, there is a mathematical error in Spence’s paper pointed out by the astronomer Dennis Rawlins ofBaltimore and his colleague Keith Pickering of DIO magazine. In their own words, "Spence (or Stephenson [theastronomer whose calculations Spence used]) correctly computed that the inter-star linebetween Kochab andMizar moves past the North Celestial Pole at 27 per century, but that is not the rate at which the azimuth of thevertical line between them changes. To get the rate of azimuth, you must divide by the cosine of the latitude,which in this case yields an azimuth change of 31 per century." Pickering and Rawlins suggested a bettersolution: "to wait until Thuban (the classical Egyptian pole star) and nearby star 10 Draconis are at equalaltitude, and bisect the small angle between them. This method yields a change of 27.4 arcmin/century, which ismuch closer to the 28 arcmin per century change of the pyramids themselves." [14] I asked the astronomer Dr.Ed Krupp of the Griffith Observatory what he made of this error, and this was his comment: "I know DennisRawlins well enough to figure he is likely to be right on this count. If my understanding of the error is correct,Kate Spences use of pyramid construction chronology can no longer be used in support of her pyramidalignment proposal." [15] This elementary error has, in fact, been now acknowledged by Dr. Owen Gingerich,the Harvard astronomer who originally promoted Kate Spences paper. Gingerich confirmed that "there is asmall error in Kate Spences paper on this point, which compresses the time scale on each side of the zero pointby about 15%." [16]For the record, in 1995 the astronomer Dr. Mary Bruck pointed out that although in archaeoastronomy thedating of ancient monuments is generally performed from azimuth observations, this cannot be satisfactorilyapplied to the Egyptian pyramids because they are oriented towards the cardinal points of the sky, directionswhich do not alter with time. The visible effect of precession, if it exists, must be looked for in evidence of stellaraltitudes rather than azimuth. [17]. Thus the change in declination, not of azimuth, of stars measured at themeridian is the correct method to be used. Fortunately the Great Pyramid contains numerous tunnels and shaftsinclined towards the meridian. If any of these were directed to stars, and if we know which stars might havebeen used, then we are provided with the correct means to attempt to date this monument. This is precisely the 41
  • 42. reason why in 1964 Dr. Trimble and Dr. Badawy used the so-called ‘air-shafts’ of the Great Pyramid for datingpurposes. Among Egyptologists and, later among astronomers, the possible stellar links of the shafts receivedserious attention because of the well-known association of Orion to the rebirth cult of the Pyramid Age [18]. Thefact that the astral shafts were not used as actual sighting devices because of various features that impededsuch a possibility, was not seen as an obstacle to this theory, since pyramid specialists such as Dr. I.E.S.Edwards rightly argued that, like many other features in Egyptian monuments, the shafts essentially served asymbolic and magical function. And although these days there are the occasional voices raised in protestagainst this conclusion (chief among them Rudolf Gantenbrink and Dr. Zahi Hawass [19]), there isnonetheless overwhelming support for the stellar association of the shafts coming from both the Egyptologicaland astronomical professions [20]. In any case, for Kate Spence to have completely ignored in her paper thisimportant issue and the eminent scientists who had worked on it, is not just a reflection of some inexplicableoversight or academic impoliteness but also highlights a very worrying trend amongst scientific editors andreferees to opt for economy and simplicity in an article at the expense of historical facts, irrespective of thevalidity or acceptance of the theory. Kate Spence, however, apparently now claims that her paper inNature wasintended to merely test her views in the scientific community, but this is a very lame excuse for ignoring orbeing economical with the facts in such a blatant manner. At any rate such a motive was most certainly notmade explicit or implicit in her original article, hence the huge reaction by the scientific media, which, uponseeing the supporting article in Nature by Dr. Owen Gingerich, readily accepted Spence’s findings asscientifically proven facts.The Simultaneous Transit Method:Spence claims to have started with a blank-slate approach to find the stars that could be used for the so-called Simultaneous Transit Method. Apparently after a series of trials and errors she happened on the starsKochab in Ursa Minor and Mizar in Ursa Major and noted that these two stars were directly above each other inc. 2467 BC. She then called the imaginary line that joined these two stars the invisible chord. In actual fact,however, the idea of an invisible chord between Kochab and Mizar is depicted in several diagrams of my earlierpublications, albeit not for the same purpose but rather in connection with the simultaneous rising of Orions belt 42
  • 43. in the east and the Great Pyramid only [21]. It should be pointed out that although there is ample evidence in theancient Egyptian texts that Orion was observed at rising, there is, in contrast, absolutely no textual support tosuggest that Kochab or Mizar, simultaneously or otherwise, were used for aligning pyramids to true north. To beentirely honest about this, the ancient methods are unknown, and if these were indeed stellar, we simply cannottell which stars they used. In my opinion single star transits using a star in Orion or the star Sirius (which arementioned in the texts) could have done just as well as the northern stars in simultaneous transit proposed bySpence. As for the Simultaneous Transit Method itself, there is a logic that escapes me in Spences paper. Herreasoning, if I understand it well, shows that the Great Pyramid (Khufu) at Giza was the best aligned to truenorth using the invisible chord in c. 2478 BC +/- 5 years on the west side (running south to north). Spencearrived at this conclusion by matching the 2.8 arc-minutes westerly misalignment of this side of the pyramid tothe westerly angular distance of her so-called invisible chord measured from the north celestial pole. She thenreasoned that the pyramids that were built earlier would have greater westerly misalignments than Khufus, andthat those built later would have greater easterly misalignment. She then goes on to say that there is evidencethat shows that the techniques and precision of sighting and fixing the alignment of pyramids were the samethroughout the Pyramid Age, and also states that such precision should have improved after the Great Pyramid.But surveying and setting-out precision, however, goes hand in hand with construction standards. And here,contrary to what Spence assumed, there is considerable evidence that the standards of engineering of pyramid-building were lower before Khufus reign, and deteriorated very rapidly again after the 4th Dynasty. Thus toignore this and then to consider only the surveying aspect is, to me, being selective with the evidence. Thereare also religious and cultic issues to consider in this matter. It must be appreciated that the astronomicalalignment of pyramids was essentially a religious matter, carried out according to strict religious rituals and fixedreligious dates. A pyramid project was, after all, an enterprise that would require many years to plan and severaldecades to construct, and thus the site preparation including the astronomical alignments were carefully andmeticulously implemented according to a long-established tradition. Now according to Spence, in order for hertheory to work, she had to assume that some of the alignments on the invisible chord were taken with Kochabat upper culmination and Mizar at lower culmination; and others taken in reverse, that is with Mizar now at upperculmination and Kochab at lower culmination. The astronomer R.H. Van Gent pointed out, however, that thereis no period in the year when both situation can be clearly viewed on the same night [HASTRO-L Sat.18 Nov.2000]. Furthermore also for the theory to work, Spence had to also assume that in some cases it was the north-south axis of the west side of the pyramid that was aligned to the invisible chord and that in other cases it wasthe north-south axis of the east side. Such assumptions, however, would have required radical changes in therituals and also radical changes in the religious dates between the successive reigns of Khufu and Khafre,which would be somewhat inconsistent with how religious bodies normally behave on such matters, especiallyin antiquity. Even today, for example, Islamic priests would be extremely reluctant to alter the astronomicalcomputations related to the feast of Ramadan, as much as Roman Catholics abhor any change theastronomical calculations for dating Easter each year. There is, too, another Catch-22 reasoning by KateSpence that does not seem to add up, and it is this: in order for the ancient Egyptian priest-astronomers to knowwhich stars culminated simultaneous on and/or near the great circle going through the celestial north pole(meridian), they obviously had to know beforehand where the north celestial pole was in the first place. Thiswould imply that they already had a means to establish true (or near-true north)!Misalignments as a function of Precession:Most of the objections are dealt with in items (a) and (b) above. Apart from these,there are other miscellaneous factors that undermine Spences method. Forexample, the problem of parallax has been mentioned. Aiming a plumb-line at aninvisible chord adjoining two stars which are some 22° away from each other israther a tricky business to say the least, as just a slight uneven blinking of theviewers eyelids can cause a parallax effect on the plumb-line, especially in the pitch-dark conditions such as required by Spences method [22]. On the other hand, the 43measuring of the declination of a single star using a simple inclinometer for aligning the shafts or tunnels in the
  • 44. 44
  • 45. 45
  • 46. 46
  • 47. Всем известно, что главные пирамиды Четвертой династии фараонов (три пирамиды в Гизе и две пирамидыСнофру в Дашуре) ориентированы по четырем сторонам света с очень высокой точностью. Отклонениевосточной грани пирамид от истинного направления на север составляет: Медум - 20 + 1,0; наклонная пирамида- 17,3 + 0,2; красная пирамида - 8,7 + 0,2; Гиза 1 (Хуфу) - 3,4 + 0,2; Гиза 2 (Хафра) - 6,0 + 0,2; Гиза 3 (Менкаура) -12,4 + 1,0.Достигнутая строителями пирамид точность настолько велика, что не приходится сомневаться, что методориентации, которым они пользовались, был связан со звездами, а не с измерением длины тени (недавнофранцузская экспедиция под руководством М. Валлогиа выяснила, что ошибка ориентации пирамиды в АбуРуаше [Матье, 2001], которая, по всей вероятности, была построена Джедефрой, правившим между Хуфу иХафрой, составляет 48,7, но эта ошибка настолько выбивается из общего ряда, что заставляет предположитьдругую церемонию ориентации пирамиды, возможно, по солнцу).Методы ориентации по звездам, предложенные в прошлом, то есть наблюдение за восходом и заходом звезды,не подвержены воздействию прецессии. Тем не менее, как уже отмечал Хаак (1984), имеющиеся данныеуказывают на зависимость систематической погрешности от времени, которая обусловлена прецессией. Этапроблема побудила Кейт Спенс (2000) предложить метод ориентации - "метод одновременного переноса"? -состоящий в фиксации шнура, протянутого между двумя околополярными звездами, а именно между Кохабом 47
  • 48. (Малая Медведица) и Мицаром (Большая Медведица), в положении, перпендикулярном к горизонту. Из-запрецессионного движения земной оси шнур не всегда указывает на истинный север: он медленно перемещаетсяслева направо. Начертив график временной зависимости отклонения от направления на север, Спенсдемонстрирует, что получившаяся прямая линия достаточно точно совпадает с отклонением ориентациипирамид относительно истинного севера, если, к примеру, "церемония ориентации" для 1-й пирамиды Гизыпроводилась в 2467 году до н. э. + 5 лет (несмотря на отсутствие письменных свидетельств существованияцеремонии ориентации для пирамид Древнего Царства, изображение "церемонии протягивания шнура" ужеприсутствует на стеле той эпохи, получившей название "палермский камень"). Если считать, что египтянедействительно пользовались этим методом, то полученный график можно применить для оценки временистроительства всех пирамид Четвертой династии, что дает датировку на восемьдесят лет позже общепринятой. Вразвитие идеи Спенс Бельмонте (2001) высказал предположение, что использовавшийся египтянами методтакже состоял в измерении взаимного расположения звезд (как в гипотезе Спенс), только не находившихся поразные стороны полюса - возможно, это были Мегрец (дельта Большой Медведицы) и Фекда (гамма БольшойМедведицы). Поэтому полюс располагается на продолжении линии, соединяющей звезды, - выше или ниже. Этовыглядит более естественным (по крайней мере для современных наблюдателей, не использующих оптическиеприборы) и примиряет астрономическую хронологию с общепринятой. Следует, однако, заметить, чтоастрономическая датировка так называемых вентиляционных шахт в 1-й пирамиде Гизы (Тримбл, 1964, Бадеви,1964, Бьювэл, 1993) свидетельствует в пользу хронологии Спенс.Решение, предложенное Спенс для ориентации 2-й пирамиды Гизы, совпадает с калибровочной прямой только втом случае, если соответствующую точку "поднять" в область положительных значений. Чтобы преодолеть этутрудность, Спенс предполагает, что ориентация этой пирамиды выполнялась в противоположное время года(летом, а не зимой) по отношению к другим пирамидам (эта же проблема возникала в гипотезе Бельмонте, и дляее разрешения он предположил особую процедуру ориентации для 2-й пирамиды Гизы). Мне кажется, что такаяважная религиозная церемония, как ориентация гигантской гробницы царя, не могла проводиться когда угодно -время ее проведения определялось скрупулезными астрономическими вычислениями, как в обрядах, связанныхс циклом Сириуса. Поэтому я предположил, что погрешность в ориентации второй пирамиды свидетельствует отом, что она была построена раньше первой, а если точнее, то оба сооружения проектировались одновременно(можно показать, что эта гипотеза не противоречит бесспорным археологическим фактам: см. Магли, 2003).В любом случае для нас здесь интересно то, что погрешности ориентации пирамид формируют наборэкспериментальных данных, из которых можно вычислить эффект прецессии. Причина этого неизвестна, нопрецессионный эффект абсолютно трансферабелен для самых больших и совершенных пирамид, то есть 1-й и 2-й пирамид Гизы. Можно, однако, возразить, что сравнение ориентации пирамиды 3 с ориентацией пирамиды 2дает прецессионный эффект 18,4 или около 0,3 градуса. Как бы то ни было, мне хотелось бы подчеркнуть, чтосвязанные с астрономией данные из Гизы (ориентация вентиляционных шахт и пирамид), а также многиеастрономические ссылки в "Текстах пирамид", вне всякого сомнения, указывают на присутствие астрономии какважной составляющей мышления (религиозного и научного) в эпоху Древнего Царства.Anchoring existing chronologies The dating discrepancy between the two sets of results is caused by the fact that whilestellar positioning at a given time can be predicted with great precision, existing Egyptian chronologies of this periodbased primarily on cumulative reign lengths can only be considered accurate to about 6100 years , although thechronology of line b generated by astronomical data can be considered ®xed, the chronology according to which thearchaeological data are plotted (line a) is not anchored in time. However, the point at which line a crosses zero on the y-axis can now be ®xed at 2467 BC from the results of the astronomical modelling. This gives a date of 2478 BC for thealignment of Khufus pyramid which would require the lowering of von Beckeraths lower estimate of chronology by afurther 74 years. In reconstructing accession dates from dates of pyramid alignment ceremonies, potential for errortheoretically exists in the assumption made here that this ceremony was held in the second year of each reign.However, it is exceptionally unlikely in this period that the error involved is more than 61 year. At present, a total of 65years can be considered an adequate error allowance for the reigns of Khufu and Khafre (F. R. Stephenson and T. vanAlbada, personal communications) given the accuracy of the archaeological data available for these reigns and the 48
  • 49. precision of the astronomical modelling. Future research The ability to ®x the reigns of Khufu and Khafre to 65 yearsrepresents an advance in establishing a reliable absolute chronology for the second half of the third millennium BC inEgypt, but it does not solve all the problems. It is not possible simply to shift existing chronologies forward by therequisite number of years as ®xed astronomical dates soon after 2000 BC mean that these existing chronologies will alsohave to be compressed. To achieve this, a process of careful reanalysis of the historical data will be necessary to makesuitable adjustments. For this reason, the recalibrated accession dates given in the last column of Table 1 show errormargins which increase over time as the possibility of numerous minor errors in cumulative reign lengths iscompounded. I intend to undertake ®eldwork to collect more accurate data for those pyramids that have not beenrecently and reliably surveyed. From this and through more detailed mathematical modelling I hope to re®ne the errormargin for dating the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre to 61±2 years. More accurate data for the period around the reignsof Sahure and Neferirkare will reduce the error margins for the dates of these later kings and will assist in the process ofre®ning the overall chronology of the period.Several years ago, in 1984, the astronomer Steven C. Haack of Nebraska University introduced the idea of using theprecessional drift of stars to define a new chronology for the Pyramid Age [7]. And although Haack used the azimuth atthe horizon rather than azimuth at the celestial pole, the method is fundamentally the same. It also must be mentionedthat Haacks method was used again by French astronomer Karine Gadre in 1998 [8]. Using the east horizon rather thanthe pole region is, in fact, more justified (if perhaps less accurate), for it is well-known that the south and north sides ofthe pyramid are more accurately aligned to the cardinal directions than the east and west sides [9]. For example, thesouth side is only 1 57" S of W as opposed to a 2 30" W of N for the west side which Spences used [10]. The realproblem, however, with azimuth methods such as proposed by Haack and Spence is that the accuracy required fornaked-eye observations is, in practice, almost impossible to achieve [11]. The astronomer Brad Schaefer from TexasUniversity rightly pointed out that the scatter about Spence‚Äôs theoretical curve is ~ 2 arc-minutes on the X-Y graphsdisplayed, yet the stars she uses are faint enough that their perceived naked-eye appearance is about the same size[12]. Schaefer also pointed out that the accuracies of naked-eye sightings required by Kate Spence are theoretical andcannot be achieved in practice because with the perceived size of the stars and the speed of motion, it is impossible forthe human eye to get the 25 second timing accuracy required [13].Furthermore, there is a mathematical error in Spence‚Äôs paper pointed out by the astronomer Dennis Rawlins ofBaltimore and his colleague Keith Pickering of DIO magazine. In their own words, "Spence (or Stephenson [theastronomer whose calculations Spence used]) correctly computed that the inter-star line between Kochab and Mizarmoves past the North Celestial Pole at 27 per century, but that is not the rate at which the azimuth of the vertical linebetween them changes. To get the rate of azimuth, you must divide by the cosine of the latitude, which in this caseyields an azimuth change of 31 per century." Pickering and Rawlins suggested a better solution: "to wait until Thuban(the classical Egyptian pole star) and nearby star 10 Draconis are at equal altitude, and bisect the small angle betweenthem. This method yields a change of 27.4 arcmin/century, which is much closer to the 28 arcmin per century change ofthe pyramids themselves." [14] I asked the astronomer Dr. Ed Krupp of the Griffith Observatory what he made of thiserror, and this was his comment: "I know Dennis Rawlins well enough to figure he is likely to be right on this count. If myunderstanding of the error is correct, Kate Spences use of pyramid construction chronology can no longer be used insupport of her pyramid alignment proposal." [15] This elementary error has, in fact, been now acknowledged by Dr.Owen Gingerich, the Harvard astronomer who originally promoted Kate Spences paper. Gingerich confirmed that"there is a small error in Kate Spences paper on this point, which compresses the time scale on each side of the zeropoint by about 15%." [16]For the record, in 1995 the astronomer Dr. Mary Bruck pointed out that although in archaeoastronomy the dating ofancient monuments is generally performed from azimuth observations, this cannot be satisfactorily applied to theEgyptian pyramids because they are oriented towards the cardinal points of the sky, directions which do not alter withtime. The visible effect of precession, if it exists, must be looked for in evidence of stellar altitudes rather than azimuth.[17]. 49
  • 50. 50
  • 51. 51
  • 52. 52
  • 53. Шнур Сешат 53
  • 54. 54
  • 55. 55
  • 56. 56
  • 57. 57
  • 58. 58
  • 59. 59
  • 60. 60
  • 61. 61
  • 62. 62
  • 63. 63
  • 64. 64
  • 65. 65
  • 66. 66
  • 67. 67
  • 68. Строительные метки 68
  • 69. 69
  • 70. 70
  • 71. 71
  • 72. Коронация царя Нейт и СешатНил (египетское название — Эль-Бахр) берет начало на Восточно-Африканском плоскогорье и несет свои воды к Средиземному морю.Лишь в прошлом веке географам удалось обнаружить два истока этойвеличайшей водной артерии мира. Самый длинный нильский исток —Белый Нил начинается в горах Бурунди, а Голубой Нил — вытекает изозера Тана. В самом центре Хартума — столицы Судана — обаисточника, сливаясь, образуют собственно Нил. Преодолевая расстояниев 6 671 км, река несет свои воды среди песков и каменистыхвозвышенностей, где воздух раскален до 50°С и дожди бывают некаждый год.Окруженный с двух сторон знойными пустынями, Нил в разгар лета не только не мелеет, но, наоборот,становится более полноводным, образуя длинную «ленту» нильской долины. В сентябре уровень водыподнимается на 10 метров, превращая долину в огромное озеро, так как на это время приходится периодливневых дождей в верховьях Голубого Нила, а Белый Нил подпитывается дождями вообще круглый год. Кначалу октября вода спадает и река входит в берега. Прибрежные зоны, где ранее была вода, покрываютсягустым слоем плодородного красного ила. С этого момента начинают посевные работы. Для древних египтянразлив Нила означал обильный урожай, обеспечивавший пищей миллионы жителей долины. Именно это времяи было для них началом нового года. Праздновали его пышно, принося богатые жертвоприношения богу Нила —Хапи, чтобы тот не скупился на разливы. В Древнем Египте Новый год отмечали во время разлива Нила, когдавосходила священная звезда Сириус (точную дату указать сложно – разброс где-то с июля по сентябрь), иначинался первый сезон древнеегипетского года – "ахет". Разлив Нила назывался приходом Хапи - бога Верхнегои Нижнего Нила, дарующего изобилие. Это было священное время для Египта, ведь засуха поставила бы подугрозу само существование этого земледельческого государства. Поэтому с восходом Сириуса начинался новыйпериод жизни древних египтян, которые к тому времени оканчивали посев.Нейт или Нефтида — одна из древнейших богинь египетского пантеона, праматерь богов, культовый центркоторой находился в городе Саисе (Дельта, совр. Са эль-Хагар). Ее символ, состоящий из двух стрел,перекрещенных на щите, встречается уже на памятниках I династии: погребальных стелах и табличках израннединастических погребений, амулете из гробницы в Наг эль-Дейр. Богиня присутствует и в теофорныхименах двух выдающихся цариц эпохи I династии— Нейтхотеп, супруги царя Аха, и Мернейт, матери царя Дена. 72
  • 73. Деревянная табличка, обнаруженная также в Абидосе, возможно свидетельствует об основании святилища Нейтпри личном участии царя Аха (ок. 3100 г. до н. э.). Нейт была тесно связана с военным делом, приносила емуудачу на охоте и покровительствовала войне. Символ Нейт часто встречается на внутренней стороне капюшонасвященной кобры — урея, что, возможно, свидетельствует о раннем отождествлении богинь Нейт и Уаджет,повелительниц древних городов Дельты — Саиса и Буто, в которых в архаическую эпоху проходили обрядысвязанные с погребением царя.Нейт обычно изображалась в дешрет — красной короне Нижнего Египта, области, с которой она была наиболеетесно связана; даже само имя богини иногда выписывалось с детерминативом в виде этого головного убора.Существовали даже особые «святилища короны Нейт», связанные с ритуалом царской коронации. Как богиняэпохи Древнего царства (2707 - 2170 гг. до н. э.) богиня стала почитаться как супруга Сетха и матерью бога-крокодила Себека, отождествлявшегося с фараоном. Как богиня-мать, связанная с небом, Нейт имела эпитет«Великая корова» и отождествлялась с другими небесными богинями, прежде всего Нут и Хатхор. Тексты эпохиНового царства (1550 - 1078 гг. до н. э.) говорят о том, что Нейт входила в число божеств, почитаемых в пер ну —«доме огня», архаическом первохраме Нижнего Египта, который вместе с пер ур «домом великим», архаическимпервохрамом Верхнего Египта, составлял зал в Карнаке, где проводилась церемония коронации.В Римское время, тексты храма Хнума в Эсне говорят о Нейт как о верхнеегипетской богине-создательнице,позже обосновавшейся в Саисе. Известный храм богини Нейт в эпоху Нового царства существовал и в Мемфисе.В качестве творца вселенной Нейт часто изображалась как лишенная пола сущность, подобная хаотическомуокеану Нуну, предшествовавшему созданию мира. Согласно легендам, Нейт, призвала мир к существованиюсемью изречениями, которые в более поздней магической традиции, трансформировались в семикратный смехбога-творца.С Древнего царства Нейт также ассоциировалась с погребальным ритуалом. Тексты пирамид (Pyr. 606)упоминают о бдениях Нейт над телом усопшего Осириса вместе с Исидой, Нефтидой и Селкет. Каждая из этихчетырех богинь изображалась с одной стороны саркофага и покровительствовала одному из четырех «сыновейХора» — духов, покровителей каноп. Нейт представала на восточной стороне саркофага и была защитницейшакалоголового Дуамутефа. Как легендарная богиня ткачества, Нейт также была связана с изготовлениемпогребальных пелен, изготовлением амулетов. Издревле Нейт считалась защитницей царя на протяжении всейего жизни — от рождения, когда она присутствует в момент зачатия царицей-матерью сына от бога Амона(маммизи Хатшепсут в Дейр эль-Бахри, Аменхотепа III в Луксоре и Рамсеса II в Рамессеуме), и вплоть до егосмерти, когда она предстает на росписях в его гробницы и изображается на предметах погребального инвентаря.Культ Нейт приобрел особенную значимость во время правления XXVI династии, когда Саис стал столицей Египта.Здесь, в ее храме, знаменитом своей уникальной библиотекой, находилась, согласно Страбону, могилаПсамметиха I, основателя этой династии. При храме росли священные деревья Нейт, из которых изготовлялосьсвященное оружие богини, которое она отдавала царю при коронации. Увы, в настоящее время от святилища не 73
  • 74. осталось ничего, кроме кирпичной стены и разрозненных блоков с именами царей-строителей и фрагментамиизображений ритуалов и церемоний, описанных в бесценном труде Геродота.Также Нейт почиталась как охранительница спящих, богиня, охраняющая человека от сглаза и порчи, моглаизображаться вместе с богиней Хатхор в облике двух золотых рыб, плывущих в бирюзовом озере перед ладьейсолнечного бога и защищающих его от опасностей мира иного. Развалины храма богини, основанного царемАмасисом, который в своей титулатуре даже именовал себя «сыном Нейт», сохранились в греческом торговомпоселении Навкратис, где Нейт отождествлялась с Афиной.Коронация нового царя проходила в первый день нового года, следовавшего за восходом Сириуса и разливомНила. Первый день Новыго года в Древнем Египте совпадает с 19 июля . Упоминание богини Нейт или Нефтиды,олицетворением которой была звезда Процион ,связанной с коронацией царя не случайна ,т.к. Проционвосходит немного раньше ,чем Сириус . Так как это достаточно плавающая дата ,попадающая в диапазон междуначалом августа и концом октября, установить время точной даты не имеется возможности . Однакопоследовательность довольна проста – после восхода Проциона и Сириуса ,начинался разлив Нила,праздновался Новый год ,происходила коронация нового царя. После восшествия на престол он отдавал указ остроительстве себе новой усыпальницы – пирамиды. Начинались поиски места для ее строительства и послеэтого происходил обряд под названием протягивание «Шнура Сешат».Это и есть тот день ,в которыйзакладывалась ориентация будущей пирамиды. Все пирамиды укладываются в возможность закладки с августапо октябрь.,но ориентация граней пирамиды проводится перед рассветом точно в день 15 декабря..Роль Сешат в церемонии "протягивания шнура" - "Еще одной ее [Сешат] функцией считалась запись имени царяна листьях Дерева Жизни , чтобы это имя сохранялось вечно. Нo поскольку самый первый из известных намжрецов Сешат, ужасный Ка-бау-Секер из Мемфиса, был также жрецом Анубиса и Сета и, значит, имел отношениек смерти воплощенного бога (царя), то вполне возможно, что именно богиня Сешат определяла срок жизницаря". Одна из ролей Сешат состояла в определении срока жизни царя, а другая заключалась в том, что богиняпомогала царю "протягивать шнур", ориентируя гробницу в направлении околополярных звезд, и особенносозвездия Бедро Быка (Плуг). Это созвездие, называлось также "Бедро Сета", и состоит оно из семи звезд. Помнению Уэйнрайта, Сешат вручала фараону власть на семь лет. Было бы странным не увидеть в семи звездахсозвездия Плуг общий знаменатель двух ролей Сешат. Как бы то ни было, богиня Сешат всегда изображалась в 74
  • 75. одежде из леопардовых шкур, облегавшей ее стройное тело. Желтые пятна на леопардовой шкуре, иногдаимевшие форму звезд, вероятно, символизировали способность леопарда и Сешат видеть в темноте . На головебогиня носила золотую тиару с увенчанным семи-конечной звездой. В египетском пантеоне она считаласьсупругой Тота, бога мудрости, изобретателя священных иероглифов и основоположника наук, особенноастрономии. Неудивительно, что многочисленные пышные эпитеты Сешат указывали на их близкие отношения сТотом: «Первейшая в Библиотеке», «Госпожа Письма в Доме Жизни», «Хранительница Царских Записей» и такдалее . Очень часто Сешат и Тот изображались вместе — они вели записи юбилеев и коронаций царей навеерообразных пальмовых листьях. В этом качестве они были равными по значимости божественнымихранителями времени и астрономами, записывавшими ежегодный небесный цикл и календарь. 75
  • 76. 76
  • 77. 77
  • 78. 78
  • 79. История методаМетод ориентации по северным звездом прослеживается ко временамДжосера и по всей видимости, придуман Имхотепом. Первоначально он былиспользован по восходу Сириуса на востоке 15 декабря и звезде Алькаид изБольшой Медведицы. Направление оверстия в сердабе Ступенчатойпирамиды говорит об этом,как и сама ориентация всего комплекса. Сехемхетсохранив принцип выбора направления,но изменил метод выбора парызвезд ,выбрав впервые момент заката Сириуса на западе и Полярную звезду.На рубеже Хабы или Хуни происходит его дальнейшее уточнение ипоявляется пара Поллукс и Полярная звезда .После этого момента сам методи пара звезд остаются неизмеными до рубежа 2000ВС. Экспериментальныепирамиды Хуни и Снофру показывают поиски выбора ориентации пирамидыпо зимнему и летнему солнцестоянию и возможно ,что храмы тех временпостроены по солнечному ,а не звездному направлению. Пара Полярной иПоллукса просуществовала до Первого Переходного Периода ,в который нестроилось ритуальных пирамид. В период длившейся около двухсот лет в истории Египта, когда почти всепирамиды и усыпальницы наследников престола и высоких сановников были разграблены и опустошены ,этотпервоначальный метод был полностью утрачен по двум причинам - его обладатели или носители жрецы храмовумерли,а также из-за физической не возможности выбора этой пары звезд в определенный момент года.Методом последний раз пользовались в 2267ВС при Пепи2 .После 2000 ВС года возможности ориентироватьсяэтим методом уже не имеется возможности из-за простой причины - Солнце на рассвете восходит раньшемомента, при котором Поллукс остается видимым и успевает достигнуть и пересечь линию горизонта. Впоследствии все цари ориентировали их культовые сооружения по солнцу ,луне, звездам Большой медведицыи Сириусу,но никогда больше по паре Поллукса и Полярной .Последующие династии сохраняли традициюритуала при начале сооружения строений ,но под внешней одинаковостью процедуры ,стоял выбор ужесовершенно другого направления от истинного севера . Метод существовавший около тысячи лет канул в небытие .According Lehner and Verner 7 small provincial step pyramids have been found. They are relatively small in size, andseemingly were not constructed for the purpose of burial. Five of the pyramids are thought to possibly date to the reignof Huni who ruled at the end of the 3rd dynasty, while at least the pyramid at Seila may have been constructed duringthe reign of Snefru, the first king of the 4th dynasty. 79
  • 80. Location Ruler Dimensions of the base Sinki Huni ? ca 18.2 m X 18.2 m Ombos Huni ? ca 18.2 m X 18.2 m Kula Huni ? ca 18.2 m X 18.2 m Edfu Huni ? ca 18.2 m X 18.2 m Elephantine Huni ? ca 23.4 m X 23.4 m Seila Snefru ? ca 25 m X 25 m Zawiyet el-Meiyitin Unknown ca. 22.4 m X 22.4 mhttp://webpages.ull.es/users/irguezh/articulos_present_oral/arqueoastronomia.pdfhttp://www.kch42.dial.pipex.com/pdf/egyptian_temple_orientation.pdfhttp://www.kch42.dial.pipex.com/egyptarticle_temple_orient2.html 80
  • 81. 81
  • 82. Египетские пирамиды 82
  • 83. 83
  • 84. Пирамиды третьей династииПирамиды четвертой династии 84
  • 85. Пирамиды пятой династииПирамиды шестой династии 85
  • 86. Пирамиды двенадцатой династии 86
  • 87. Ориентация египетских пирамидAccording to figures provided by astronomer Karine Gadre [10], the alignment of Sekhemkhet is about 11° west of DueNorth, and the alignment of Djoser is about 3° east of Due North. 87
  • 88. 88
  • 89. 89
  • 90. Метод ПоллуксаПолярная звездаПолярная звезда (α Малой Медведицы, также Киносура) — звезда+2,0m звёздной величины, расположенная вблизи Северного полюсамира. Это сверхгигант спектрального класса F7Ib. Расстояние доЗемли — 431 световой год. В настоящую эпоху Полярная находитсяменее, чем в 1° от Северного полюса мира, и поэтому почтинеподвижна при суточном вращении звёздного неба. Она очень удобнадля ориентирования — направление на неё практически совпадает снаправлением на север, а высота над горизонтом равнагеографической широте места наблюдения. Из-за прецессии земной оси положение Северного полюса мираменяется, ближе всего Полярная звезда подойдёт к нему около 2100 г. — на расстояние приблизительно 30. Вюжном полушарии нет яркой полярной звезды. Полярная является ярчайшей и ближайшей к Землепульсирующей переменной звездой типа дельта Цефея с периодом 3,97 дней. Но Полярная — оченьнестандартная цефеида: её пульсации затухают за время порядка десятков лет: в 1900 изменение яркостисоставляло ±8 %, а в 2005 г. — приблизительно 2 %. Кроме того, за это время звезда стала в среднем на 15 %ярче. 90
  • 91. Полярная звезда, на самом деле, представляет собой тройную звёздную систему. В центре системырасполагается сверхгигант (Полярная А), в 2000 раз превосходящий по яркости наше Солнце. Полярная Bрасположена на приличном удалении от Полярной А, поэтому разглядеть её в телескопы нетрудно даже споверхности Земли. Однако карликовый компаньон центральной звезды — Полярная Ab — располагается кгиганту настолько близко, что сфотографировать его удалось лишь «Хабблу», и то, только после перенастройкиоборудования. Приблизительный период обращения Полярной Ab составляет около 30 лет.Поллукс (звезда)Поллукс (β Gem / β Близнецов / Бета Близнецов) — ярчайшая звездав созвездии Близнецов и одна из ярчайших звёзд неба. Она ярче,чем α Близнецов (Кастор), хотя и помечена Байером как «β». Поллуксявляется оранжевым гигантом спектрального класса K0 IIIb. Звездауже сошла с «главной последовательности» диаграммы Герцшпрунга— Рассела и находится на ветви красных гигантов. В течениеближайших 100 миллионов лет запасы гелия в недрах звездыиссякнут, Поллукс сбросит газовую оболочку и превратится в тусклыйбелый карлик. Предполагается, что Поллукс — переменная звезда сколебаниями блеска от 1,10m до 1,17m.Поллукс был назван поимени одного из мифических близнецов Диоскуров — Полидевка, матерью которого была красавица Леда, аотцом — Зевс.Древние арабы называли звезду Al-Ras al-Taum al-Mu’ahar, «голова второго близнеца». Кастор (αGem / α Близнецов) — вторая по яркости звезда созвездия Близнецов, одна из ярчайших звёзд неба. Хотя онабыла помечена Байером как «α», ярчайшей звездой созвездия является Поллукс, имеющий меньшуюэклиптическую широту и потому помеченный Байером как β Близнецов.После выбора места под строительство пирамиды и проведения первичных действий по созданию базыпирамиды наступает момент для ориентации грани пирамиды на Полярную звезду. Проводится эта процедураперед рассветом 15 декабря одним человеком с использованием двух клиньев и одной веревки . МетодПоллукса состоит из двух процедур.Первое это натягивание веревки , с одной стороны привязанной к вбитому в землю клину и её ведение с другойстороны , в натянутом состоянии , строго соблюдая прямую линию по веревке в направлении на Полярнуюзвезду. Вторая часть состоит из наблюдения за звездой Поллукс из созвездия Близнецов. Человеческий глазспособен отличать сдвиг звезды на небосклоне в одну астрономическую минуту. Необходимо дождатьсямомента , когда звезда Поллукс скроется за линией горизонта и перестанет быть видимым. Рефракция в данномслучае не имеет значения. После этого ведение шнура останавливается и вбивается втрой клин ,к которумупривязывается веревка со второй стороны .Линия проложенная по веревке указывает точно на Полярную звезду в определенный момент времени и еёазимут дает отклонение от истинного севера. Процедура закончена и теперь вдоль веревки будут сделаныметки, по которым будут выравнивать грань пирамиды по окончанию строительства. Заложенное направление иазимут остается неизменным даже спустя десятилетия, необходимое для постройки пирамиды.Имея цифрыазимута можно проделать эту процедуру в обратную сторону и из-за прецессионного сдвига звезд получитьточный год в который её проводили. 91
  • 92. 92
  • 93. http://www.stellarium.org/A Поллукс скрывается за горизонтомB Полярная звезда дает азимут 93
  • 94. Радиоуглеродный анализ пирамидhttp://digitalcommons.arizona.edu/objectviewer?o=http%3A%2F%2Fradiocarbon.library.arizona.edu%2FVolume43%2FNumber3%2Fazu_radiocarbon_v43_n3_1297_1320_v.pdfhttp://www.adamwalanus.pl/Kalib14C.htmlhttp://digitalcommons.arizona.edu/objectviewer?o=http%3A%2F%2Fradiocarbon.library.arizona.edu%2FVolume44%2FNumber3%2Fazu_radiocarbon_v44_n3_739_754_v.pdfhttp://c14.arch.ox.ac.uk/embed.php?File=calibration.html#curveshttp://hbar.phys.msu.ru/gorm/dating/berger2.pdf 94
  • 95. 95
  • 96. 96
  • 97. 97
  • 98. Ступенчатая пирамида Джосера 2800ВС 98
  • 99. План заупокойного храма фараона Джосера. 6- вход в храм, 7- двор- сердаб со статуей фараона Джосера 99
  • 100. 100
  • 101. Saqqara was the principal necropolis for the ancient city of Memphis where, from 1st Dynasty onwards, the Egyptianelite built their tombs. The area is best known today as being the site of the first stone pyramid, built for a king of 3rdDynasty whose Horus name was Netjerikhet. The pyramid has been attributed to a King Djoser since the New Kingdom,but only the name Netjerikhet has been found on the monument.The pyramid structure rises above the plateau in aseries of six stepped mastabas and was surrounded by a complex of dummy buildings enclosed within a nichedlimestone wall over 10m high. Beyond the wall was a rectangular trench measuring 750m by 40m and although it is nowfilled by sand, it can be clearly seen on aerial photographs. The high limestone walls of the enclosure were decoratedwith niches and false doors which were carved into the wall after it was built - quite an enormous task! Somearchaeologists believe that the enclosure wall may have represented the earthly residence of the King and so the termpalace façade became used for this type of decoration. It is thought that the design imitates the wooden framework 101
  • 102. covered by woven reed mats which would have been used in earlier structures although it has also been suggested thatthe motif may originate in Mesopotamia. The wall has been reconstructed on the southern rampart and near theentrance and this is the best place to examine the construction.The single entrance to the enclosure is the southernmost doorway on the eastern side of the wall (the only one of the15 doorways which is not a false door) and leads to the entrance colonnade. 20 pairs of engaged columns, resemblingbundles of reeds or palm ribs line the corridor. Between the columns are 24 small chambers, thought perhaps torepresent the nomes of Upper and Lower Egypt, which may once have contained statues of the King or deities. The roofof the entrance colonnade was constructed to represent whole tree trunks. This is one of the places where thechallenging experiment of copying natural materials in stone is most evident. The columns were not yet trusted tosupport the roof without being attached to the side walls and the small size of the stone blocks used in the constructionreflects the fact that previous structures were built from mudbricks. At the end of the entrance hall two false stonedoorleaves rest against the side walls of a transverse vestibule which has been reconstructed. Several statue fragmentswere found in the entrance colonnade but the most important was a statue base (now in Cairo Museum) inscribed withthe Horus name and titles of Netjerikhet and also with the name of a High Priest of Heliopolis and royal architect,Imhotep.Imhotep, who may have been a son of Djoser, is credited with the invention of building in dressed stone and the designand construction of the Step Pyramid complex. He was deified as a god of wisdom in the Ptolemaic Period andworshipped as Asklepios, god of medicine, by the Greeks. Netjerikhets name is directly linked to his predecessorKhasekhemy because mud sealings bearing his name were found in 1996 in Khasekhemys Abydos tomb.Immediately to the north of the entrance colonnade, on the eastern side of a large open courtyard, is a series ofreconstructed buildings thought to have been connected with the Kings heb-sed, or jubilee festival. A rectangularbuilding known as Temple T is suggested to have been a model of the Kings palace and contains an entrancecolonnade, antechamber and three inner courts leading to a square chamber decorated with a frieze of djed symbols.This structure leads into the southern end of the Jubilee Court, which is lined with dummy buildings representingUpper Egypt (on the eastern side) and Lower Egypt (on the western side). These buildings are purely symbolicstructures. There were originally 12 chapels on the east with curved vaulted roofs representing the shape of LowerEgyptian shrines each having a statue niche which would have contained statues of the King. The 13 western chapels aremodelled on the shrines of Upper Egypt with three fluted half-columns and simulated doorleaves at the entrances,topped by an arched vaulted roof. The two chapels at the south had a staircase leading to a statue niche, while theother western buildings had more simple façades and may have been robing rooms or other buildings connected withthe sed festival. A model fence imitating wooden palings separated the shrines. All of the structures represent, in stone,the earlier building materials of wood and reed mats and it is thought that the columns would have been painted red tosimulate wood. At the southern end of the Jubilee Court there is a large elevated dais which would have held thethrones of Upper and Lower Egypt where the King may have been symbolically crowned during the ceremonies.North of the Jubilee Court there are two mysterious buildings commonly called the House of the North and the Houseof the South and it is thought that these structures were originally partially buried, which would have given them afunerary significance. They each stand in their own courtyards and are currently believed to represent the archaicshrines of Nekhbet (from Hierakonpolis in the south) and Wadjet (from Buto in the north), although there have beenmany other theories suggesting their significance. The two buildings are again constructed with stone fashioned torepresent organic materials. In the House of the South there is a continuous khekher frieze over the entrance and thewalls inside contain many New Kingdom graffiti, written in ink by ancient visitors, naming Djoser as the owner of thecomplex. The House of the North contains a shaft, 20m deep, with an underground gallery which led Lepsius to believethat the two buildings were pyramids when he first investigated them.Djosers mortuary temple lies against the northern wall of the pyramid, unlike later pyramids which usually had themortuary temples on the eastern side. This was the cult centre of the King but now is badly ruined and only theentrance wall is preserved. It is difficult to see the ground-plan of the temple, which seems to differ considerably fromother pyramid mortuary temples. The original entrance shaft into the Step Pyramid can still be seen in the floor of the 102
  • 103. mortuary temple where it emerged to run through the structure above the ground. In excavations of the temple, claysealings were found bearing the name of a King Sanakht, previously thought to have been a predecessor of Djoser, andthese may provide evidence that he actually ruled after Djosers time.On the north-eastern corner of the pyramid is acourt, which contains a small structure known as a serdab. Inside this tiny sealed chamber, which is tilted upwards atan angle of 30 degrees, a life-sized painted statue of the King, sat on his throne and gazed out through a peep-holetowards the northern stars and the land of Osiris. Today the original statue can be seen in Cairo Museum but you canpeep into the serdab and see a replica statue of Djoser, disconcertingly staring back you. The statue would haverepresented the Kings ka emerging from his burial chamber in the pyramid.The Step Pyramid itself was thought to have been built in several stages, beginning with an initial square mastaba andthat its plan was changed several times during construction. Scholars now doubt this theory and suggest that the wholestructure was planned as a pyramid from the outset. Earlier mastaba tombs were always rectangular. Recentexcavations at Abydos have shown that earlier enclosures contained a mound of sand covered with mudbricks(possibly symbolising the mound of creation) and perhaps acting as a prototype for Djosers structure. It would seemfrom recent study that the Step Pyramid was first constructed as a square mastaba which was enlarged and expanded insix stages, eventually becoming a 4-step mastaba and then a 6-step structure which was no longer square, but hadbecome a rectangle oriented east-west. The limestone blocks were laid in courses which were inclined towards thecentre of the pyramid.Below ground the Step Pyramid contains a maze of more than 5.5km of shafts, tunnels andchambers. A large central shaft to the burial chamber descends to a depth of 28m, while above ground the pyramids sixsteps rise to a height of 60m. Inside the burial chamber, the pink granite blocks may have replaced original blocks oflimestone or alabaster - a theory based on Lauers discovery of numerous fragments of limestone nearby. Somelimestone blocks carved with stars were found to have been re-used with their decoration hidden and it is thought thatDjosers burial chamber may have contained the first example of a star ceiling. Little was found inside the granite burialvault - only a few small fragments of bone wrapped in linen in Old Kingdom style, including a left foot and part of anarm. These have now been radiocarbon dated and prove to be from a burial much later than Djosers reign. In a passagenorth-west of the burial chamber a wooden box was found inscribed with Netjerikhets name.Many galleries and magazines surround the central burial vault. In one of the galleries on the eastern side, three falsedoors were carved from limestone and the walls were decorated with exquisite tiny blue faience tiles inter-spaced withrows and motifs of limestone to represent wall-hangings of natural reed matting. A reconstruction of one of the panelsis now displayed in the Cairo Museum. Reliefs of the King wearing the red crown and the white crown, and running orwalking, probably depict the heb-sed rituals. Other walls were also found to be decorated with blue tiles, although someof the chambers were left unfinished. It is suggested that the decoration of these chambers was inspired by the Kingsprivate apartments in his palace at Memphis.Another series of galleries extended westwards from 11 shafts on theeastern side of the pyramid. These were thought to be for the burial of the Kings wives and children. One of thegalleries was found to contain an empty alabaster sarcophagus as well as a wooden coffin belonging to a small boy andNetjerikhets name was found on a seal-impression in one of the shafts. In other shafts vast quantities of stone vesselswere found (around forty thousand in total) in a wide variety of shapes and materials and many bearing inscriptions ofDjosers ancestors. The reason for these heirlooms being in Djosers tomb is still unexplained today and is the source ofmuch debate among archaeologists.In front of the southern face of the Step Pyramid is a large open courtyard measuring 180m by 100m. In the centre ofthe court are two curious buildings whose low walls are shaped like the letter B and are thought perhaps to have beenassociated with the heb-sed ceremonies. A limestone block was also found here bearing a text of Prince Khaemwaset(son of Rameses II) who was known to have restored many of the Old Kingdom monuments in his role of High Priest ofMemphis.The court is bounded on the southern side by the south wall of the enclosure. At the south-west corner is anenigmatic building known as the South Tomb, which appears to be a miniature replica of the subterranean chambers ofthe Step Pyramid. The South Tomb contains similar decoration to the pyramid including the same blue faience tiles andfalse doors, but better preserved than in the pyramid galleries. Its purpose is unclear, the burial chamber is too small tohave ever contained a sarcophagus. Many theories have been put forward by archaeologists as to its use, but the tombwill perhaps always remain a mystery. 103
  • 104. 104
  • 105. Слоеная пирамида Сехемхета 2781ВС 105
  • 106. Almost everything we know about Sekhemkhet ("Powerful in Body"), we know because of his unfinished (Buried)pyramid at Saqqara, and it seems to give us little facts about his life.The only evidence outside of this tomb is a scenedepicted at Wadi Maghara in the Sinai which bears his name. It is a military scene, classical in that it probably showsSekhemkhet, with his raised mace, about to smite his desert enemies. This relief actually shows a procession ofSekhemkhets. In front of the smiting king, who is wearing the White Crown is a second depiction of the king wearing theRed Crown, and in front of him, another of Sekhemkhet back in the White Crown.However, we are not really sure of much about this king. According to the Turin King-list, Djosers immediate successorwas identified by his personal name Djoser-Ti (Djoserty), and ruled for only six years. It now seems that mostEgyptologists believe Djoser-Ti and Sekhemkhet were one and the same person, though some might still argueotherwise. His reign would have been from about 2649 until 2643 BC.Judging from an inscription on his pyramid atSaqqara, and from its very design, we can also tentatively guess that the great Imhotep survived Djoser, his predecessor,and was again the mind behind the funerary complex works. Also, because of his short reign, and particularly histruncated pyramid, many believe he came to a sudden and unexpected death, though we have no idea what might havecaused it.Another possible building project of Imhotep may have been the pyramid of Sekhemkhet. Also located atSaqqara, it would be rather remarkable for this pyramid to have been designed by anyone else, or to have belonged tosomeone other then Sekhemkhet. In many ways, it duplicated elements from the Step Pyramid of Djoser.Sekhemkhets step pyramid was perhaps first noticed by a young Egyptian archaeologist named Zakaria Goneim whilehe was working at Saqqara excavating the pyramid of Unas, just before World War II. When the war erupted, he set outthat period in Luxor, but afterwards returned to Saqqara to further investigate the huge, rectangular structure barelyvisible beneath a sand dune. It was only about one hundred meters to the southwest of the site Goneim had beenworking before the war, and he could tell that it was roughly oriented north-south.As he began to uncover thestructure, he found that the four corners he had seen beneath the sand dune were actually the walls of an enclosure,and inside were the ruins of a previously unknown pyramid. Soon it was clear that this was a 3rd Dynasty pyramid,because the facade of the perimeter wall, with its facade ornamented with deep niches, was so very similar to the wallthat Djoser had built for his complex.The pyramid was built upon an uneven rock surface, so the builders were forced to level the terrain, building largeterraces, of which some were more then ten meters high. Why the king chose this site for his pyramid is a bit of amystery, though there are some nearby royal tombs from the 2nd Dynasty that may have lured him there.The perimeterwall was built in to phases. In the first phase, it was a much less radical rectangle. Later it was extended south, andparticularly north. With these extensions, it was close to the size of Djoser/s complex. Like Djosers complex, it has rowsof niches alternating in a regular intervals with false doors, though there was probably only one real door in the entirecomplex, which has never been found. The wall was cased in fine, white Tura limestone. The wall probably stood aboutten meters tall, with a walkway and sentry posts just as in the complex of Djoser.It has been difficult to determine whether the core was originally planned as six or seven steps, but apparently, thepyramid itself was never completed, having only reached a height of about 26 feet. It was built using the accretion layermethod with the stones laid inwards at a 15 degree slope. These stones were laid at right angles to the incline. Since thepyramid was unfinished, there was never any casing applied. The pyramid probably had a square floor plan, with sidesabout 119 meters in length. According to Lehner, if the pyramid was built in seven steps, it would have been higher thenDjosers, rising some 70 meters (230 ft) above its base.An entrance to the pyramid was found in front of the north wall,leading into a corridor that eventually communicated with the burial chamber. However, this corridor was bisected by avertical shaft that extended up into the masonry of the pyramid itself. This was a type of security system also found inother Egyptian tombs, specifically at Beit Khallaf, dating to this period. Within the shaft, Goneim found the bones ofvarious animals, including cattle, rams and gazelles, that were doubtless offerings to the deceased. he also found 62papyri from the 26th Dynasty written during the reign of Ahmose II. Below these were some seven hundred stonevessels and remarkably a gold treasure cache from the 3rd Dynasty.These artifacts included 21 bracelets, small musselshells, and faience corals covered with gold leaf. The items are, so far, the oldest gold ornamentation discovered inEgypt. It was no doubt a part of Sekhemkhets funerary goods, but how it ended up at the bottom of the shaft ratherthen stolen with the rest of the tombs content remains a mystery. 106
  • 107. About 47 meters before reaching the burial chamber, a U shaped passage leads off to the east, and is lined with a seriesof narrow, long storage annexes. After the entrance to this auxiliary passage, the main corridor continues. It wasbetween here, and the burial chamber that clay vessel stoppers were discovered bearing Sekhemkhets name, which isanother reason why we attribute the pyramid to him.The main corridor continues to descend down until reaching first a transverse corridor, and then to the burial chamberjust to the other side, some 100 feet below the base of the pyramid. The burial chamber is lined up precisely with thepyramids vertical axis. The walls within this north-south oriented burial chamber were left unfinished. Inside thereapparently remains a highly polished alabaster sarcophagus cut from a single stone. This is very rare, for the only otheralabaster we know of used in such a way was in the coffins of Queen Hetephere I, of the 4th Dynasty, and Seti I, of the19th Dynasty. It also had no cover, but rather a sliding partition.There is an interesting story related to this sarcophagusand its unique sliding partition. When found, the partition to the sarcophagus was sealed, and even the remains of whathe believed to be dried flowers (later determined to be bark and decomposed wood) lay atop it. Furthermore, Goneimalso claims that the entrance to the pyramid was blocked by an in tact wall. Goneim was sure he had discovered an intact sarcophagus still bearing the remains of its owner. Though he was warned by other Egyptologists, notably Lauer,that the substructure had been robbed, he nevertheless created a media sensation. he invited high state officials,journalists, reporters and film teams to the opening. Then came the shock of an empty sarcophagus.He apparently managed to survive this embarrassment, for after all, he had made a reasonably important discovery byfinding the pyramid of Sekhemkhet. Many Egyptology professionals throughout the world had considerable interest inwhat was probably only the second pyramid built in Egypt.Just outside of the entrance to the burial chamber, thetransverse corridor leads off the the right (westerly) and to the left, and then each makes a 90 degree tern back to thesouth past the burial chamber. These galleries were also unfinished, and may have been intended to lead to a largermortuary apartment, similar to the one in Djosers complex.Outside of the pyramid within the complex on the south, just as in the case of Djosers complex, there is also a symbolicsouth tomb. The superstructure of the tomb consisted of a mastaba built of limestone blocks. It had an entrance on thewest side, also like Djosers complex. From there, a long corridor descended to the east, and like in the pyramid, wasinterrupted by a vertical shaft. Further down the main corridor, though this tomb had probably not been meant for aburial, the excavators found the fragments of a small coffin that had held the remains of about a two year old child.The burial chamber in the south tomb was small, but found within it were fragments of thin gold leaf impressed with apattern imitating reed matting. Also found were animal bones and stone vessels.Unfortunately, Goneim would neverfinish excavating the pyramid. Having achieved some amount of fame, he went off to the United States on a lecturetour, and even wrote a book about his discovery named The Buried Pyramid. The book was successful, and eventranslated into different languages, but when he returned to Egypt, everything fell apart. He was accused of smuggling alarge, valuable vessel that Quibell and Lauer had found two years earlier near in the Djoser complex out of the country.There was no hard evidence, only accusations and slander, but it devastated Goneim, who one must remember is alsoEgyptian. He was repeatedly interrogated by the police.It was his friend Lauer who attempted to finally help him. In1957, he tracked the missing vessel to a corner of the Egyptian Museums depository. But like an Egyptian tragedy, evenas Lauer was hurrying back to Saqqara to redeem his friend, Goneim was jumping into the Nile to commit suicide.In fact, it was Lauer who returned to the site in about 1963 for a hurried search for answers. It was he who discoveredthe south tomb, along with the south side of the perimeter wall. But unfortunately, no one yet has excavated themortuary temple or the rest of the grounds. Many questions remain about this pyramid. For example, was Sekhemkhetever buried, here, and if he was not, what happened to this king. The sealed sarcophagus seems to indicate, though notwith certainty, that it never held his remains. By all indications, he came to an abrupt end, if we consider his attemptedpyramid as evidence. In fact, most Egyptologist seem to agree that he probably only ruled for about six years. Perhapshe died in some remote expedition, his body never again seen. On the other hand, some future excavation may give usreal answers to these questions.According to figures provided by astronomer Karine Gadre [10], the alignment ofSekhemkhet is about 11° west of Due North, and the alignment of Djoser is about 3° east of Due North. 107
  • 108. 108
  • 109. Пирамида Хаба 2775ВС 109
  • 110. The pyramid at the southern end of the site is known as the Layer Pyramid and has been attributed to king Khaba of3rd Dynasty, probably a successor of Sekhemkhet. The pyramid was investigated by the Italian archaeologist AlessandroBarsanti in 1900, but the owner of the structure was unknown until Reisners American Expedition excavated thepyramid and some of the mastaba tombs in the area in the early part of the 20th century. Here he found fragmentsbearing the name of Khaba as well as some pieces of pottery bearing the name of Narmer, which led him to suggest a2rd Dynasty date for the structure.The southern pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan is locally called Haram el-Meduwara or the round pyramid, due to its ruinedcondition and diminutive size. The base of the pyramid was about 84m square and the subtructure is very similar to thatof Sekhemkhets unfinished pyramid at Saqqara. Khabas pyramid was conceived as a step pyramid with a core built withsloping layers of masonry. Only the lower part of the first step remains of what may have been intended to be a five, sixor seven stepped structure, its height today rising to only 16m. No trace of a limestone casing from the pyramid hasbeen found which tends to support the view that the pyramid was never completed.The subterranean chambers were entered near the north-east corner where a staircase continues in a westwardsdirection as a passage which then turns south at the bottom of a vertical shaft. Another unfinished passage leads fromhigher in the shaft in the same direction. The lower passage leads to another staircase and an empty burial chamber. Onthe northern side of the vertical shaft there were thirty two store-rooms which also proved to be empty.The area has never been thoroughly investigated and is now inaccessible because it is within a military zone. ReisnersAmerican team excavated a large mastaba to the north of the Layer Pyramid, identified as Mastaba Z-500 and it washere that the Horus name of Khaba was found on alabaster vases. Although these artefacts, in addition to the stylisticdating of the pyramid lead many Egyptologists to attribute the monument to Khaba, the owner is by no means certain. 110
  • 111. Пирамида Хуни 2769ВС 111
  • 112. 112
  • 113. Just across from the Faiyum in the Nile Valley, south of Cairo, situated alone on the edge of the Western Desert abovethe lush green fields at Meidum is a tower shaped structure some sixty-five meters high that was once a pyramid thatwe believe was built by the 4th Dynasty King, Sneferu (Snefru, Snofru). However, there is no sure agreement on thisamong Egyptologists. Some believe that the early phases of construction were done by Huni, his predecessor, and thatSneferu was only responsible for the completion of the Pyramid. However, Hunis name was not found at the pyramid,and various written documents suggest that it and the nearby residential city belonged to the reign of Sneferu. Also,many of the nearby tombs also belong to the family of Sneferu.In may ways, Meidum is the most mysterious of all the great Pyramids. When Sneferu came to the throne around 2575BC, Djosers complex at Saqqara was the only large royal pyramid that stood complete. But Sneferu would become thegreatest pyramid builder in Egyptian history by completing not one but three of them.The early locals of this centurycalled the Meidum Pyramid el-haram el-kaddab, meaning "false pyramid" and because of its form, it attracted attentionas early as the Middle Ages from travelers. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the famed Arab historian Taqi ad-Din al-Maqrizi thought it looked like a huge, five stepped mountain. However, it eroded so badly that when FrederikLudwig Norden visited it in the eighteenth century, the pyramid seemed to have only three levels. But it was notweather that eroded it so, but human beings.When Napoleons expedition passed by Meidum in 1799, his well knowndraftsman, Denon, had only enough time to make a few sketches and prepare a short description of the pyramid. Later,Perring made a much better investigation of it, including making measurements in 1837. Afterwards, the Lepsiusexpedition of 1843 studied it in some detail. Nevertheless, its internal structure remained a mystery.Then, in an extensive effort to discover and document the pyramid texts, Maspero was finally able to open it, along withsome mastabas in the area, but archaeological investigation would not start for another ten years. It was Petrie, thefounder of modern Egyptology, in collaboration with Egyptologist Percy Newberry and the architect, George Fraser, wholed this excavation. They were responsible for not only fully investigating the inside of the pyramid, but also unearthingthe pyramid temple, an approach causeway and a series of private tombs in the area around the pyramid. However, thiswould not be the last that the pyramid would see of Petrie.After a long interruption, Petrie returned to Meidum withthe Egyptologists, Ernest MacKay and Gerald Wainwright. This time they conducted excavations at the northeast cornerof the pyramid, in the so-called South Pyramid, and in other places. They tunneled into the pyramid, showing that itscore consisted of five accretion layers with an outer surface built of carefully dressed limestone blocks. However, asthorough as Petries work always was, his research into this pyramid seems to have raised more questions than itanswered.In the mid-1920s, Borchardt made his way to Meidum and after mere days in the field, accumulated so muchinformation on the pyramid that it filled an entire book which is still highly regarded today (Die Entstehung derPyramide an der Baugeschichte der Pyramide bei Mejdum nachgewiesen). He spent considerable time reconstructing,on the basis of the ruins, a corridor leading toward the pyramid from the southeast, which Petrie had earlier discoveredin 1910. In Borchardts opinion, it was used to transport construction material to the pyramid. There was a ramp thathad a gradient of ten degrees which made it possible to construct the lower half of the pyramid, consisting of about88.5 percent of the total volume of masonry. The ancient builders increased the gradient of the upper half of the ramp,and on these assumptions, everything about the construction strategy seemed to be explained.Only a few years later, still in the 1920s, an American expedition visited the ruins under the leadership of the Britisharchaeologist, Alan Rowe, but then there was a long period during which the pyramid received little attention. When, ahalf century later, another expedition visited the pyramid, this time it was an Egyptian effort led by Ali el-Kholi. Theyconcentrated on the huge gravel mound at the foot of the pyramid.Because of the marshy terrain and the high waterlevel, the valley temple belonging to this pyramid has not yet been found. Snefrus residential city of Djedsnefru (whichmeans "Sneferu endures") was probably located east of it.There was an unroofed causeway that stretched more thantwo hundred meters and which almost certainly linked the pyramids enclosure wall with a valley temple on the edge ofthe valley. There was actually another "approach" that Petrie excavated, that may have been originally intended as foruse as a causeway.The pyramid was surrounded by a single, high perimeter wall made of limestone blocks. To the east,another huge mastaba lay adjacent to the enclosure wall, which may have been built for the crown prince, though noowner has been identified. It is therefore known only as Mastaba No.17 on maps of the necropolis. However, it is 113
  • 114. remarkable that stone rubble from the pyramid was used to construct it, and that its mudbrick mantle was originallyplastered and whitewashed.Within the enclosure wall, the large, open courtyard that it enclosed had a floor made of dried clay. Within thiscourtyard, near the southwest corner of the main pyramid, was a second, though much smaller pyramid, probablyoriginally built as a step pyramid. This is almost certainly the oldest known example of a cult pyramid. It has asubstructure that was accessible from the north through a descending corridor. Within its ruins was unearthed afragment of a limestone stela bearing a depiction of the falcon god Horus. On the opposite side of the courtyard are theremains of a mastaba that was probably intended for a royal consort.At the center of the east side of the pyramid,Petrie discovered a mortuary temple built of limestone blocks, also within the enclosure wall. It is so small that it mighthave been a commemorative chapel to the king rather than a true mortuary temple. It is unique in many ways, above allbecause it was the first one to be built on the east rather than the north side of the pyramid. It is also the most intactand well preserved temple from the Old Kingdom. Even the limestone ceiling slabs remain in place. It is also very simple,and almost certainly connected with the whole conceptual transformation of this pyramid complex during the E3 stageof construction.The floor plan of this temple is almost square. It consists of three sections that include an entry corridor with a doublebend in the southeast corner, an open courtyard and a room with two stelae. The Stelae, which stand close to the footof the pyramid, consists of pieces of smooth sided limestone that are rounded at the top, but they bear neitherinscriptions nor images. Between them stands an offering table. The lack of decorations would seem to indicate that thetemple was never really used for any cult activity.Nevertheless, the temple appears to have had a profound effect onlater visitors, as various graffiti show. Dating mainly from the 18th Dynasty, some of the writers praise the temple.Ankhkheperreseneb, who visited it in the 41st year of Thutmose IIIs reign, says that he came "to see the marveloustemple of Horus Sneferu. He saw it, as if heaven were in it and in it the sun rose." He further exclaims that, "May coolmyrrh rain down from the heavens and fragrant incense drip onto the temple roof of Horus Sneferu!" Yet, by the timeof his visit it was already in poor condition, for sometime during the First and Second Intermediate Periods herdsmenactually lived there.As for the Pyramid itself, the explanation of the strange form that it takes today and the manyriddles that surround it lies in the complicated transition from the 3rd Dynasty step Pyramids into the true, smoothsided pyramids of the 4th Dynasty. When Wainwright dug into the inside of the pyramid, he showed that the core of thepyramid was constructed of accretion layers of limestone blocks inclined at an angle of about seventy-five degrees. Theystood on a square base measuring thirty-eight meters per side.That the ancient Egyptians used the accretion method tobuild the pyramid came as no surprise to Egyptologists even in Petries time, because that was a fairly widespreadconstruction method. What did surprise them was the smooth outside surface of each level, which seemed illogical andmust have considerably decreased the cohesion of the layers and that of the structure as a whole. The answer to thisparticular riddle came later from Borchardt, who demonstrated that the Medium Pyramid was built in three stages,during which its outward appearance changed significantly.The pyramid was originally a seven step structure built on a rock foundation, but perhaps even before it was finished, aneighth step was added. Each of these first two stages, designated E1 and E2, was intended to be the final structure. Yet,the pyramid was eventually rebuilt in order to transform it into a true, smooth sided pyramid. However, in contrast toE1 and E2, the extension designated E3 did not rest on a solid bedrock foundation, but on three layers of limestoneblocks laid on sand.Even more strangely, while the E1 and E2 stage blocks were angled toward the middle of thepyramid, as in the case of Djosers Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara, thus significantly increasing the structuresstrength, the E3 blocks were laid horizontally. This fact had been noticed by Borchardt, but Kurt Mendelssohn, whovisited Meidum as a tourist, published a best selling book in 1986 on his theory that the method used to build the E3stage resulted in a catastrophic slippage that buried the workers who built the pyramid under the rubble that nowsurrounds the structure.However, Mendelssohns theory has not at all been excepted by Egyptologists, because it contradicts the archaeologicaldiscoveries that Petrie had already described and that remain obvious today. The stratification of the massive gravelmounds on all four sides of the pyramid shows that the erosion of the structure took place gradually over a long periodof time. However, the change in construction methods did make it much easier for the work of stone thieves. Borchardt 114
  • 115. pointed this out, and explained that the rings of rough masonry bound the individual layers of the core more stronglyand were simply laid bare when those layers were destroyed.Moreover, archaeological investigations have also shownthat the pyramid was probably destroyed at the end of the New Kingdom, since in the piles of rubble at its footsecondary graves from the 22nd Dynasty were found at a height of between seven and ten meters above the templefloor. It is assumed that the removal of the casing blocks had already begun during the reign of Ramesses II.Morerecently, the American, George Johnson, offered his opinion on the large gravel mound around the pyramid. In hisopinion, the wall concealed the remains of a construction ramp that ran around the pyramid and was built in connectionwith the transformation from the second (E2) to the third (E3) stage. He points to the unused limestone blocks that hadnot been part of the masonry that el-Kholi found during his investigation of the mound on the northwest corner of thepyramid.The builders marks on some of the blocks from which the pyramid was built are interesting. Among them are stylizedimages of two, three and four step Pyramids that led some scholars to assume that they show the original, graduallyaltered form of the pyramid. However, we know know that the images determined the placement of the blocks on thecorresponding levels. No less interesting are the inscriptions that include dates and designations of the work groups.They come from the seventh through the eighteenth cattle counts of an unnamed ruler, though it was probably Snefru.Similar masons inscriptions can be found on the pyramid of Sneferu at Dahshur.In addition, the actual significance ofthe alteration of the structure during stage E3 has not yet been fully explained. The monuments step-shaped form wasabandoned in favor of a true pyramid form, and the north-south orientation in favor of an east-west orientation. Thisseems to reflect an important shift in religious ideas that occurred during the transition from the 3rd to the 4th Dynasty.Ricke believed this to be the time that the Osiris myth was incorporated into the worship of the dead king. The kingbecame identified with Osiris, the ruler of the netherworld, and his death became a mythical event. However, accordingto another interpretation, the change in the tombs form and orientation was connected with the decline of the astralreligion and the rise of the solar religion. Similarly, the German Egyptologist Dietrich Wildung argued that the pyramidcomplex in Meidum was a predecessor of the later sun temples of the 5th Dynasty.We might also add that some scholars believe that the last stage of the construction may have occurred many yearsafter the completion of the first two stages, after Snefru had already moved to Dahshur. These scholars seem to believethat he may have finished the pyramid as a cenotaph rather than a true tomb.The entrance to the pyramid is on thenorth-south axis, in the north wall, about fifteen meters above ground level. This is a unique placement of an entranceto a step pyramid, so high above ground level. From here, a corridor runs down until it reaches a few meters below thebase of the pyramid, where it turns into a horizontal passage that leads to the burial chamber. There are niches on theeast and west sides of the horizontal section of the corridor, though their purpose is not certain. They may have beenused to make it easier to move the blocks used to seal the corridor after the burial.The burial chamber itself, which wasnever finished was entered through a vertical shaft that led upward from the south end of the corridor and came out inthe northeast corner of the burial chamber floor. When Maspero entered the pyramid for the first time, he discoveredropes and beams there, which made him think that the shaft was what remained of a tunnel built by grave robbers tofacilitate their work. He dated the this structure to the period when the burial chamber was plundered. However, someEgyptologists believe it was part of the original structure, used in raising the kings sarcophagus into the burial chamber,though there was apparently never a sarcophagus in the burial chamber and no one seems to have been interred there.Also, why would workers have made it so complicated when the sarcophagus could have been placed in the burialchamber during construction?In the tradition of the Step Pyramids of the 3rd Dynasty, the burial chamber is aligned with the pyramids north-southaxis. The so-called false vault constructed of large limestone blocks is worth noting. The idea behind it is very ancientand draws on the brick architecture of the Early Dynastic Period. Its purpose was to prevent the enormous weight of thepyramid from shattering the ceiling of the burial chamber. Apparently the builders chose this method over the graniteceiling slabs that they were also familiar with.There are also rooms to the north of the burial chamber and above thehorizontal section of the corridor that were probably the result of alterations in the pyramids construction plan.Apparently, Snefru abandoned this pyramid complex, though why he did so continues to be unresolved. Afterwards, hefounded a new residence and a new pyramids necropolis near Dahshur. Perhaps he wanted to be closer to the fortress 115
  • 116. of the White Walls (Memphis), or maybe he wanted to found a new, more strategically located residential city.Stadelmann, who believes that the pyramid in Meidum was built for Sneferu from the outset, thinks that the complexand surrounding tombs belonged to the queen mother and the princes of a so-called first generation. According to him,only a later generation of Sneferus family was buried in Dahshur. 116
  • 117. Ломаная пирамида Снофру 2755ВСhttp://www.dainst.org/en/project/dahshur?ft=allThe Bent Pyramid was probably the first planned from the outset to be a true pyramid, with smooth sides. Thisrepresents a glorious period in the evolution of the pyramid, comparable to that when Djsoers architect, Imhotep, builtthe Step Pyramid at Saqqara. The Bent Pyramid was probably either the first or second of Sneferus pyramids,depending on who built the Medium Pyramid. It was almost certainly built prior to his other project at Dahshur, the RedPyramid. The pyramid is also sometimes called the Rhomboidal, False, or Blunt Pyramid. The ancient Egyptians called it"Sneferu Shines - South (pyramid)".As one of the most unusual pyramids in Egypt, as well as one of the best preserved(much of its casing remains), it has attracted considerable attention over the centuries. Early visitors included Europeantravelers such as Richard Pococke, Robert Huntington, Robert Wood and Edward Melton. Yet strangely, a seriousarchaeological investigation of the structure was not made until the 19th Century, when the great pyramid explorersPerring, Lepsius and later still, Petrie came to explore the structure. Later still, after World War II, Abdel Salam Hussainand Alexandre Varille further investigated the Bent Pyramid, but regrettably their work was lost.Modern archaeologicalstudies of the Bent Pyramid began under the direction of Ahmad Fakhry in the first half of the 1950s, and his 117
  • 118. information was added to by important observations and measurements made by Maragioglo and Rinaldi, as well asJosef Dorner, an Austrian geodesist.Even with all of this investigation, some Egyptologists believe that the pyramid may still hold a few secrets. Somequestion whether all of the pyramids chambers have actually been located. Investigation of the pyramid wassometimes difficult, because wind created a strong draft blowing through the passageways. This so hindered thearchaeological studies that work was sometimes interrupted. However, these problems occurred even prior to thediscovery of the walled in western entrance, so some current Egyptologists wonder how the draft was vented, andleading them to speculate that other rooms or passageways might remain undiscovered.The remains of the pyramidcomplexs valley temple lie about a kilometer west of the Nile Valley, about half way between between the pyramid andthe Nile river. There may have in fact been a second causeway that lead down to a dock or landing stage. It is the firstvalley temple we know of to be connected to a pyramids complex, and so it has been fairly well investigatedarchaeologically. However, it may have been preceded by a valley temple that at Medium, though the investigation ofthat structure is hampered by high water levels. In reality, the Bent Pyramids prelude to the valley temple is in fact partvalley temple and part mortuary temple, containing elements of both types of structures.The Bent Pyramid valley temple is rectangular and north-south oriented. It was built of fine white limestone, with anentrance in the middle of the south facade. The entrance was framed with wooden pillars with pennants. During theMiddle Kingdom, a limestone stele from the tomb of Sneferus son, Netjeraperef was used to frame the entrancedoorway.This temple has three sections of equal size. In the southern section, are located four storerooms. Here, theside walls are decorated with scenes depicting representations of personified mortuary estates. On the east wall UpperEgyptian sources are displayed, while on the west wall we find Lower Egyptian funerary estates. These reliefs areconsidered to be some of the best artwork of the 4th Dynasty, and are the earliest known examples of such estatescenes.A portico with ten, undecorated limestone pillars arranged in two rows occupied the northern part of the valley temple.These pillars were all painted red. Here we find the walls decorated with bas-reliefs portraying the ruler participating inthe rituals of the Sed-festival. At the rear of the portico was six deep niches, originally each provided with woodendoors, that held six statues of Sneferu in a walking pose. Their north walls were built from large limestone monolithsdecorated with the figure of the king in half sculpture. Here, we find the king represented at least twice wearing thecrown of Upper Egypt, and at least once wearing the crown of Lower and Upper Egypt.Apparently uncommon in laterstructures, the Bent Pyramids valley temple was enclosed within a huge perimeter wall made of mudbrick. Within thewall apparently the temple priests of Snefrus mortuary cult, which lasted into the Middle Kingdom, made their homes.The causeway to the main pyramid and complex led out of the southwest corner of the valley temple and enclosurewall.The causeway to the main pyramid complex followed an irregular path leading from the valley temple It had no roof,but was paved with limestone blocks. Along the causeway ran low, fine white limestone walls that were rounded at thetop and slightly inclined on the outside.The pyramids complex was surrounded by a huge wall built probably of localyellowish, gray limestone. This wall enclosed a large, square courtyard to which the causeway connected on thenortheast corner.A cult chapel, consisting of fine white limestone walls and roof, stood at the foot of the east wall of thepyramid directly on the east-west axis. Here, an altar was located, also in the form of the hetep symbol, but this timeconstructed of three limestone block with two nine meter high fine white limestone monoliths (stele) to its north andsouth sides. On the southern monolith Sneferus name and titles were engraved in bas-relief (part of which may now befound in the Egyptian Antiquity Museum in Cairo). Over time, this chapel was surrounded by mudbrick walls andeventually it was made into a small temple. Because of Sneferus later deification and worship during the MiddleKingdom, some renovations in this structure were still being made for many years.It is not unusual for us to find pyramids in Egypt that are mere ruins, often because of a poor foundation. It seems thatsome pyramid architects took the foundation very seriously, while others did not. The Bent Pyramid, though largelyintact, owes its preservation to the builders realization of their errors soon enough to make changes to their initialbuilding plans. 118
  • 119. The relatively soft layer of slaty clay that the core rests upon seriously compromised the stability of the whole structure.The structure was further weakened by the internal masonry being laid with little care, leaving substantial gaps thatwere then filled with limestone rubble. However, one reason that so much of the fine white limestone casing remains isthat they built an artificial foundation that it rests atop.The pyramid actually went through about three differentalterations away from the original plans, which called for the structure to have an angle of almost 60 degrees. The waschanged to a less steep slope of almost 55 degrees, requiring that the base be enlarged. This first alteration can beclearly seen in the ceiling and the side walls of the north access corridor, about twelve meters from the entrance. Theseearly stages of construction used the traditional method of laying the courses of the core with the stones slopinginward. However, this adjustment in slope proved to be inadequate.When the pyramid was about 45 meters high, theangle of the slope was reduced to 45 degrees (later pyramid usually had a slope of between 52 and 53 degrees), whichhad the effect of reducing the mass of the upper part of the pyramid and thus reducing the load on the substructure. Atthis point in the pyramids construction, the builders began laying the stone courses horizontally (rather than with thestones sloping inwards). Apparently the builders had learned that the inward sloping layers of the core, rather thanadding stability, actually increased the stresses within the structure.It should also be noted that other structural changes were incorporated into the Bent Pyramid. For example, both thecore stones and the casing stones were larger than those used in 3rd Dynasty pyramids. In act, the casing stones weremuch larger.However, it should also be noted that a very few scholars believe that the pyramid was intentionallyplanned to have its odd shape for various religious reasons. This theory is dismissed by most Egyptologists.There are actually two entrances to the substructure. A north entrance is aligned with the pyramids north-south axisabout twelve meters above ground level. The entrance leads to a descending corridor and then to an undergroundantechamber with a high, corbel vault ceiling made of large limestone slabs. A steep ladder (stairway) leads up into aburial chamber that also has a corbel vault ceiling. From here, a short passage leads out of the southwest corner to avertical shaft, which today is partly destroyed. This shaft, referred to by archaeologists as the chimney, is preciselyaligned with the vertical axis of the pyramid.The second entrance to the pyramid is much higher up the west face of thestructure. Again, it leads to a descending corridor, but here we find two portcullis barriers. The corridor ends in an"upper chamber", which also has a corbel vault ceiling made of rough limestone slabs. In the openings of side walls werefound the remains of cedar beams (also to be found in his possible pyramid at Meidum). The lower part of the chamberwas filled with rough limestone masonry, some of which was bound with mortar and some of which was laid dry.The function of the masonry and beams is unknown. Maragioglio and Rinaldi believed that this formed a structureintended to either serve as a base of the sarcophagus, or to help protect it. Stadelmann, on the other hand, thinks thatthe material was perhaps to prevent the side walls from cracking, or possibly to finish off the vault. It seems that otherEgyptologists such as Lehner agree with him.Fakhry believes that Sneferu was actually buried in this chamber. Withinthe chamber, crudely written in red pigments is an inscription that bears the courtouche of Sneferu, but mostEgyptologists believe the pyramid was never used for its intended purpose, and some also believe that it was the uppernorth chamber that was originally intended to be the burial chamber of Sneferu.The chambers of the pyramid accessed by the northern entrance are lower than those accessed by the westernentrance, but both substructures are connected by one narrow, irregular tunnel roughly cut through the core masonryof the pyramid. This passage communicates with the lower chamber and connected to the western substructurebetween the two barriers, but was almost certainly built after the completion of both substructures.Egyptologistsspeculate that the underground substructure and the passage connecting the two systems, with the rooms all orientednorth-south, was an effort by the builders to harmonize traditional theology with the emerging sun worship inspiredeast-west orientation of the pyramid complex as a whole. Others, though the arguments are somewhat similar, believethat the western substructure acted similarly to the South Tomb of Djoser.Attached to the north face of the pyramid was a small mudbrick "north chapel". Though little of this remains, fromother pyramid we can probably assume that there would have been a sacrificial table with the hieroglyphic sign forhetep (offering, or offering table), cut into its upper side.A small cult pyramid stands off further to the south side, butstill along the pyramid axis. It has an substructure with an entrance on the north side at ground level. This entrance 119
  • 120. leads to a corridor that first descends, and then ascends to communicate with a small chamber with a corbel vaultedceiling just under seven meters above the floor. Many scholars see this corridor as the model for the Great Gallery inSneferus sons (Khufu) pyramid at Giza. On the east side of the cult pyramid was another small chapel with an alabasteraltar with five meter high limestone monoliths bearing the kings name and titles to either side. 120
  • 121. Красная пирамида Снофру 2727ВС 121
  • 122. The severe structural probles encountered while building the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur South, led Sneferu to build yetanother pyramid, at a small distance to the North.Stripped from its limestone casing, this new pyramid is has a redish colour, hence its modern-day name, the RedPyramid. Its Ancient Egyptian name was The Shining One.An inscription found at the base of this pyramid has shown that work had started during the year of the 15th cattlecount of Sneferus reign. Since the cattle counts were held at irregular intervals during this reign, this refers tosomewhere between Sneferus 15th and 30th year.Interestingly, a second inscription was found 30 courses of stones higher. it is dated 2 to 4 years later than theinscription found at the base. This gives an idea about the speed at which the Egyptians were able to build a monumentlike this pyramid.The work on this pyramid probably started when structural problems encountered when building the Bent Pyramidforced the builders to temporarily abandon this project.The Red Pyramid was built with a slope of only 43°22. Its base length is 220 metres, that is 32 metres more than theBent Pyramid. Its height is the same as the Bent Pyramid in its final state: 105 metres.The broader base and lower slope were intended to better spread the mass of this pyramid and thus avoid thestructural problems that had temporarily halted works on the Bent Pyramid.The internal structure of this pyramid is a further continuation of the pyramid at Meidum and the Bent Pyramid.Contrary to this latter monument, however, there is only one internal structure, making it a lot more simple. Theentrance is located high up in the Northern face of the pyramid. A descending passage leads down for 62.63 metres to ashort horizontal corridor. This is followed by two almost identical antechambers with corbelled roofs. Bothantechambers measure 3.65 by 8.36 metres and are 12.31 metres high. 122
  • 123. The burial chamber can only be reached via a short passage which opens high up in the wall of the second antechamber.The burial chamber measures 4.18 by 8.55 metres. Its corbelled roof goes up to a height of 14.67 metres. It is locatedwell above groundlevel, in the core of the pyramid.The chapel built against the Eastern face of the pyramid was finished hastily, probably after the death of Sneferu. It issomewhat more elaborate than the eastern chapel of the Red Pyramid or the pyramid at Meidum in that it houses aninner sanctuary, flanked by two smaller chapels.There is no trace of a causeway leading down to the Valley Temple, of which few remains were found at the end of the19th century. There is little doubt that Sneferu was finally buried in this pyramid, although the fragments of humanremains found inside the burial chamber are not certain to have been his.Interestingly, during the reign of Pepi I of the 6th Dynasty, this pyramid along with its southern neighbour, the BentPyramid, was considered as one estate. 123
  • 124. Великая пирамида Хуфу 2706 ВС 124
  • 125. The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufus Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldestand largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the onlyremaining member of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for 4thDynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC.The Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. Visibly all that remains is theunderlying step-pyramid core structure seen today. Many of the casing stones that once covered the structure can stillbe seen around the base of the Great Pyramid. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories regarding theGreat Pyramids construction techniques. Most accepted construction theories are based on the idea that it was built bymoving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.Great Pyramid of Giza / Khufus Pyramid wasthe tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years.There are three known chambers inside the GreatPyramid. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. A passagefrom the Grand Gallery leads to the Queens Chamber, while an antechamber leads from the Grand Gallery to the KingsChamber. Despite precautions such as covering the entrance hole with casing and the portcullises, even before the OldKingdom ended thieves simply bypassed all the barriers, digging through the soft limestone and breaking a corner ofKhufus red granite sarophagus while removing the lid. This sarcophagus of the Kings Chamber was hollowed out of asingle piece of Red Aswan granite and has been found to be too large to fit through the passageway leading to thechamber. Both the Kings Chamber and the Queens Chamber contains small shafts that ascend out of the pyramid.Egyptologists now conclude they were instead used for ceremonial purposes. The Great Pyramid is the only pyramidknown to contain both ascending and descending passages. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the main part of a complexsetting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near theNile), three smaller pyramids for Khufus wives, an even smaller "satellite" pyramids, a raised causeway connecting thetwo temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for 4th Dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu and constructed over a 20 yearperiod concluding around 2560 BC. Khufus vizier, Hemon, or Hemiunu, is believed by some to be the architect of theGreat Pyramid. It is thought that, at construction, the Great Pyramid was 280 Egyptian royal cubits tall, 146.6 meters,but with erosion and the loss of its pyramidion, its current height is 138.8 m. Each base side was 440 royal cubits, witheach royal cubit measuring 0.524 meters. The total mass of the pyramid is estimated at 5.9 million tonnes. The volume,including an internal hillock, is believed to be roughly 2,500,000 cubic metres. The first precision measurements of thepyramid were done by Egyptologist Sir Flinders Petrie in 1880-82 and published as The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.Almost all reports are based on his measurements. Petrie found the pyramid is oriented 4 west of North and the secondpyramid is similarly oriented.The Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years, unsurpassed until the 160metre tall spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300. The accuracy of the pyramids workmanship is such that thefour sides of the base have a mean error of only 58 mm in length, and 1 minute in angle from a perfect square. The baseis horizontal and flat to within 15 mm. The sides of the square are closely aligned to the four cardinal compass points towithin 3 minutes of arc and is based not on magnetic north, but true north. The design dimensions, as confirmed byPetries survey and all those following this, are assumed to have been 280 cubits in height by 4x440 cubits aroundoriginally, and as these proportions equate to 2p to an accuracy of better than 0.05%, this was and is considered to havebeen the deliberate design proportion by Petrie, I. E. S. Edwards, and Miroslav Verner. Verner wrote "We can concludethat although the ancient Egyptians could not precisely define the value of p, in practise they used it".With its 146.59m in height, Khufus pyramid has indeed deserved its modern-day nick-name of The GreatPyramid.Khefrens adjacent pyramid appears to be somewhat higher, but this is only because it was built on a higherpart of the Giza platform. It is, in fact, slightly over 3m "smaller".The original entrance to the Khufus pyramid is on theNorth face, 15m high and surmounted by a double vault.Like the pyramids at Dahshur, built by Khufus father Sneferu,the Great Pyramid consisted of huge core blocks, laid in horizontal courses, encased in fine limestone.As with mostpyramids, the outer casing has been removed over the centuries to be reused in other buildings, leaving only thepyramids naked core. What does remain of the outer casing shows a high degree of craftsmanship and precision. Thepyramidion of this monument is, like with so many other pyramids, missing as well. A wooden structure was put on top 125
  • 126. of the pyramid in modern days, to give the many visitors of this monument an impression of its original height.LikeSneferus pyramids at Dahshur, a part of the Great Pyramids internal structure was built inside the pyramids core,rather than underneath it; a practice that would be abandonned by later pyramid builders. Khufus internal structure,however, is somewhat less complex than that of Sneferus pyramids at Dahshur.From the entrance, traditionally locatedslightly off-centre in the northern face of the pyramid, sloping at an angle of 26° 34 23", leads down to a subterraneanchamber. The first 28.8m of the passage run through the pyramids core, an then another 30.3m through the naturalrock of the plateau.The subterranean chamber is roughly hewn and gives the impression of not being finished. It has longtime beenassumed to have been intended as the burial chamber in the pyramids original plan, before Khufu and his architectshad decided to go for a completely different internal structure. It was planned to measure 14m by 7.2 and a height of5.3m. From its southern corner, a roughly cut passage leads further south to a dead end. As the kings burial chamberwas always the last chamber of a series, it seems unlikely that the subterranean chamber would have been intended assuch. This is confirmed by the fact that the descending passage leading to the chamber is too small to allow asarcophagus the size of the one found in the Kings Chamber, to be entered. A more recent theory has suggested thatthis chamber was built below the ground level on purpose, for it represented the underworld. Its unfinished statesuggests it was the last chamber that was built, rather than the first and that it was not completed at the time of thekings death. It could also be that it was left unfinished deliberately, to symbolically mark the coming into being ofcreation out of the primeval, subterranean waters.Several metres before the descending passage plunges into the thenatural bedrock, a second passage leads up to the rooms inside the pyramids core. The first room is named QueensChamber, a name which is the result of an old misinterpretation that once the kings wife was buried in this room. Thechamber is entered via a horizontal passage that connects with the ascending passage from just before the GrandGallery. It measures 5.8m by 5.3 and a height of 6m. A corbelled niche, 4.7m high, in the east wall may once havehoused a Ka-statue of the king. If so, the purpose of the so-called Queens Chamber was the same as that of the serdabsfound connected to private mastabas and to the Step Pyramid of Netjerikhet: it marked the place where the deceasedking could come and collect his daily offerings.At the point where the ascending passage connects to the horizontal passage leading to the Queens Chamber, a lownarrow passage connects to the Grand Gallery, a monumental passage of 46.7m by 2.1 and a height of 8.7m, leadingfurther up to the Kings Chamber. The corbelling of its roof does not run op entirely to the top, which is covered byslabs. Regular holes in the walls are believed to have been sockets for large beams that were to hold back the blockswhich sealed the ascending passage.The Grand Gallery eventually leads up to a relatively small antechamber which, in turn, opens on to the Kings Chamber,the actual burial chamber of Khufu. This rectangular chamber, made entirely out of red granite, measures 10.5 by 5.2mand a height of 5.8m. The kings sarcophagus is traditionally located in the west of this room. It is slightly larger than thepassages leading to the chamber where it was located, which means that it put in place as the pyramid was being builtaround it.Above the Kings Chamber, there are five equally size stress-relieving chambers. The topmost chamber has apented roof to distribute the weight and stressed of the pyramids core above. Grafitti left behind in these chambersgive us the names of the teams that built them. Interesting is the fact that Khufus name is also present in the grafitti. Asthese chambers were completely sealed off since they were built only to be accessed again for the first time in the 19thCentury, the grafitti provide the ultimate proof that this pyramid was indeed built for Khufu.Both the Queens and the Kings chambers have so-called air-shafts leading up from the northern and southern wallsthrough the pyramids core, a unique feature of Khufus pyramid.The air-shafts of the Kings Chamber lead all the wayup to the outside, but as the outer casing is missing, it is not certain if the casing stones locked these shafts or not.Theshafts of the Queens Chamber stop somewhere inside the pyramid. A small camera riding up one of these shaftsstumbled upon what looked like a stone door. A hole drilled in that stone door, revealed that the shaft continued afterit, only to be blocked again by another stone door.It should also be remarked that the northern air-shafts point to thecircumpolar stars, while the southern ones were oriented towards the stars that form what we call the belt of theconstellation Orion. The circumpolar stars where visible every night of the year and were considered to be 126
  • 127. indestructable stars. It was hoped that the kings spiritual remains would travel to these stars after his burial, and sharein their indestructability. The shafts pointing to Orions belt may have played an important part in the kings burial ritual.To the southeast of the main pyramid, there are three Queens Pyramids, G 1a, G1 b and G1 c. The foundations of thethese three pyramids were not leveled out, causing their bases not to be completely square and level.Each pyramid had a stepped core, which was then encased in limestone to complete the pyramid shape. The entrancewas located in the northern face of the pyramids, with a descending passage leading down to a subterranean burialchamber. The identity of the queens for whom these monuments were built, is not known for certain. The presence of acache just north of the northernmost pyramid containing objects that belonged to Hetepheres I, the mother of Kheops,has led to the assumption that she may have been buried in this pyramid.An inscription found in the chapel of themastaba of Kawab, one of Khufus sons, may indicate that the middle pyramid was built for Kawabs mother,a queenMeretites.The mortuary chapel that was built to the east of the southernmost pyramid, was converted into a temple forIsis during the Late Dynastic Period. Henutsen, whose name is known only from Late Dynastic sources, may perhapshave been the queen buried in this third pyramid.A satellite pyramid, measuring only 20m per side and almost totallydemollished, was found next to the southeastern corner of the pyramid itself. It has a descending passage that ends in asmall room that may, at one time, have housed a Ka-statue of the king.The funerary chapels that Snofru built to the eastof his pyramids, was extended into a small, squarish Mortuary Temple.Unfortunately, this temple has been almost entirely destroyed over time, which makes it hard to identify the differentelements that originally made up the temple. The general shape of the temple, however, does make it clear that thiswas just an intermediate monument between the funerary chapels of Sneferu, and the traditional mortuary temple, asit would be defined just one generation later, during the reign of Khafra.Khufus mortuary temple was entered via a doorway in the eastern wall. Sockets in the basalt pavement mark thelocation of megalithic granite pillars that once surrounded an open court. Beyond the open court, there was an innersanctuary, but no trace of a false door or perhaps a statue of the king, have been found. Only a vague outline of boththe 739.8m long causeway and of the Valley Temple now remain.Several long and narrow pits were found south and east of the kings pyramid, north of the causeway and between thequeens pyramids as well. Some pits were found to contain the dismantled remains of the boats which were presumablyused in the kings last journey, his burial.Boat pits: There are several boat pits near the pyramid of Khufu, 5 to the east and 2 to the south.One boat, buried in one of the southern pits, has been rebuilt and can now be seen in the Boat Museum, next to thekings pyramid. The reassembled boat, made of cedar wood that was imported from the Lebanon, measures 43.3m inlength. Its prow and stern were shaped like papyrus stalks.The other southern boat pit was examined in the 1980s and was also found to contain a dismantled boat, which was leftin situ.Contrary to the eastern pits, the two southern pits are located outside of the now lost enclosure wall that marked theboundaries of the pyramid complex. This seems to imply that the boats of the eastern pits may once have been part ofthe deceased kings funerary cult, for his transportation in the hereafter, while the southern boats were not.The southern pits also differ from the eastern pits, in that they were rectangular rather than boat-shaped. The fact thatthey were dismantled is seen as an indication that they had been part of the royal funeral. Any objects that participatedin the royal funeral were considered improper for further use and appear to have been ritually taken apart, as opposedto destroyed, and buried. If this also applies to the two boats in the southern pits, then we may well have here the twoboats that once carried the mortal remains of the king, along with some of the objects that he would need in hisafterlife, to their final resting place. 127
  • 128. 128
  • 129. 129
  • 130. The Shafts of the Queens Chamber DescribedThe openings of both shafts are located at the same level in the chamber, at the joint at the top of the second course ofgranite wall-stone; the ceilings of the shafts are level with the joint. The northern shaft runs horizontally for just over sixfeet (76"), then turns upward at a mean angle of 37º 28. The shaft terminates about 20 feet short of the outside of thepyramid. The total length of the northern shaft is about 240 feet and rises at an angle of 38º for the majority of itslength. The southern shaft also runs horizontally for just over six feet (80"), then turns upward at a mean angle of 38º28. The total length of the southern shaft is about 250 feet and, as its northern counterpart, ascends at an angle of 38ºfor the majority of its length and comes to an end about 20 feet short of the outside of the pyramid.The Shafts of the Kings Chamber DescribedThe openings of both shafts are located at roughly the same level in the chamber, at the joint at the top of the firstcourse of granite wall-stone. The northern opening is slightly lower, its ceiling being level with the joint, while the floorof the southern opening is roughly level with the joint. The northern shaft is rectangular, about 7 inches wide by 5inches high, a shape it maintains throughout its length. The shaft begins on the horizontal for about 6 feet then takes aseries of four bends. While maintaining its general upward angle, it shifts first to the north-northwest then back tonorth, then to north-northeast, and finally back to true north. It has been speculated by some that this unexplainedsemicircular diversion might have been necessary to avoid some heretofore undiscovered feature of the pyramid. Thetotal length of the northern shaft is about 235 feet and rises at an angle of 31º (with a variation of between 30º 43 and32º 4) for the majority of its length. Though the first eight feet of the northern shaft is intact, the next thirty or so feethave been excavated by treasure seekers, presumably following the direction of the shaft in search of treasure. Thebreach to the shaft was made in the west wall of the short passage leading from the antechamber to the KingsChamber. A modern iron grate today guards the mouth of this breach. The southern shaft is different in appearance. Itsmouth is larger, about 18" wide by 24" high. The dimensions are reduced to about 12" by 18" within a few feet, andthen narrows yet more to about 8" by 12". The shape is not rectangular, as is the northern shaft, but has a dome shapewhere it enters the chamber, with a narrow floor, the angle of the walls being slightly obtuse, and a dome-shapedceiling. The shaft is horizontal and true south for about 6 feet. At the first bend, its shape changes to an oval, and 130
  • 131. continues thusly for about 8 feet. Its orientation also changes slightly from true south to south-southwest. At the secondbend its shape changes yet again to a rectangle, with a height greater than its width. It retains this shape for the 160feet to the outside of the pyramid where it emerges at the 101st course of stone. It also changes directions once againat the second bend to a more severe south-southwest diversion. The total length of the southern shaft is about 175 feetand ascends at an angle of 45º (with a variation of between 44º 26 and 45º 30) for the majority of its length. 131
  • 132. 132
  • 133. 133
  • 134. Пирамида Абу Роаш Джедефра 2680ВС 134
  • 135. 135
  • 136. Djedefra, the 3rd ruler of ancient Egypts 4th Dynasty and the son of Khufu, for unknown reasons, abandoned thenecropolis at Giza and built his pyramid at Abu Rawash. It was called "Djedefras Starry Sky". This move is interesting,and it is often suggested that Djedefra had some sort of falling out with his family, or at least his brothers, for thislocation is an odd choice. His successor immediately returned to Giza. However, this conflict with his family is far fromcertain, and more recent evidence suggests that there were in fact no problems at all.Other than the ruins of Lepsiuspyramid number one, Djedefras pyramid is the northernmost of any pyramids in Egypt. Before Lepsius, Perring brieflyinvestigated the ruins, concentrating on the substructure, and Petrie later examined the pyramid in the 1880s. However,only at the beginning of the 20th Century was this pyramid systematically investigated, first by French archaeologistEmile Chassinat, and about then years later, by his fellow countryman Pierre Montet. Later still, it was furtherinvestigated by Maragioglio and Rinaldi. In 1995, the French-Swiss team headed by Michel Valloggia began excavation atthe site, and perhaps this modern effort will answer questions about the pyramid and Djedefra that have long been leftunanswered.Unfortunately, this pyramid became a popular target for early stone thieves. It has been proven that, fromthe end of the 19th century, stone was being hauled away at the rate of three hundred camel loads a day. Previousfindings have held that the pyramid was probably never completed, but it appears that the current excavators are nowrefuting this claim.We know nothing of a valley temple that might have been connected with this pyramid, and verylittle about the causeway leading to the pyramid complex. The Causeway was probably very long. It would have had tobe about 1700 meters (5,577 ft) to have reached the pyramid complex from the valley. The causeway was very unusualfor this period as well, because it run north-south at a time when most causeways ran east-west.The complex issurrounded by an outer perimeter wall that is approximately two and one half meters thick. It is somewhat oriented tothe north-sough, with the causeway approaching from the north. Interestingly, in the area within the perimeter wall tothe north, where the causeway leads in, is a large open space. This is the area where there should have been a mortuarytemple if the causeway connected to this temple as in others, but no remains have been discovered. The problem is thatuntil the end of the 3rd Dynasty, mortuary temples were erected on the north side of pyramids, but beginning with the4th Dynasty onward, they were located at the foot of the east side of the pyramid. If indeed there was a mortuarytemple on the north, unexplored area of the complex, then this would have been a reversion back to earlier layouts.However, it should also be noted that the corridors and burial chamber of the pyramid itself rather than in thesuperstructure, was also a reversion, and while the roofs of this substructure is highly damaged, it appears that thedesign may be similar to the earlier style of Djosers Step Pyramid at Saqqara.View from inside the shaft. The internalstructure of the pyramid of Djedefra is quite different from the large pyramids at Giza. It consist of an internal T-shapedroom, the burial pit, with internal dimensions of 24m long and 11m wide.There may yet be discoveries made on the north side of the pyramid. However, recent excavations have also unearthedan inner perimeter wall about six meters (20 ft) from the north pyramid base, and widening on the east, where amudbrick structure is thought to be what remains of a mortuary temple. A covered corridor is believed to have leadfrom the northeast entrance of the inner enclosure to the mouth of the causeway. Just outside of this corridor, recentexcavations have revealed a cache of votive pottery, which indicate the existence of sustained cult worship of thisKing.The layout of this "mortuary temple" on the east side of the pyramid is very different than other known OldKingdom examples, and was apparently completed in haste. It was formed of rather thick fieldstone walls, finished withmudbrick to form the compartments and chambers surrounding an open courtyard. In the courtyard, some of theoriginal pavement, storehouses and other architectural elements remain today. In the middle of the northeastern partof the structure stood a row of columns, apparently inscribed with Djedefras cartouche, if fragmentary evidence maybe believed. This is interesting, because other than some columns and half columns found at the complex of Djoser atSaqqara, this would represent the only appearance of columns in a pyramid complex mortuary temple prior to the 5thDynasty.There is a depression in the middle of the east wall of the pyramid core. Due to the location, Egyptologistsbelieve that this was a niche that might have held a false door, in front of which would have been an altar, all a part ofan offering hall.In the area near the columns, fragments of statues of three of Djedefras sons and two of his daughterswere discovered, along with a possible limestone sphinx. If this was indeed a sphinx, it would probably be the earliestknow form of this statuary.Like a number of pyramids in Egypt, this one used part of a rock outcropping that was reshaped as part of the core. Theremainder of the core consists of local limestone blocks. There remains about fifteen horizontally laid layers of the 136
  • 137. limestone core, but very little of the fine, pink granite casing is left.Originally, because of the slope of the casing blocks,it was thought that the pyramid had an extremely sharp slope. Some even believe it might have been planned as a steppyramid, as these structures had a much sharper slope than true pyramids. But with the newest investigation, it hasbeen determined that the casing blocks were not laid horizontally, but leaned slightly towards the middle of thepyramid creating, instead of a 60 degree angle, a more standard 48 to 52 degree slope. This method was also used inthe Step and Bent pyramids. Given that the baseline has been accurately determined to be 106.2 meters (348 ft), thepyramid would have risen to a theoretical height of between 57 and 67 meters (187 ft to 220 ft), much smaller thanDjedefras fathers pyramid at Giza.Though the substructure was highly damaged, we can see that the builders used the open pit method of construction,which was also a throwback to earlier times. In the north wall of the pyramid, they built a trench that now contains theremains of a descending corridor. Here, Valloggia found a copper ax blade within a part of a foundation deposit buriedthere when construction on the pyramid was begun. The corridor generally follows a north-south axis, and leads to anarea that probably contained two rooms, an antechamber and burial chamber. Petrie, in his investigation, discovered afragment of what he though was part of a pink granite sarcophagus in this area.On the east side of the pyramid withinthe enclosure wall is a trench that, because of its form in the shape of a boat, might have originally held a royal solarboat. However, no remains of a boat were found here. Rather the fragments of some 120 statues, mostly representingDjedefra sitting on his throne, were discovered. Three more or less complete heads were found, including one now inthe Louvre in Paris and one in the Egyptian Antiquity Museum in Cairo. The statues had been, it would seem,intentionally destroyed. This may have done by Khafra, his half brother and successor, who could have possiblymurdered Djedefra as revenge. There is a possibility that Djedefra himself gained the throne by murdering his older halfbrother, Kauab.However, this theory has lost much ground lately. The view of a majority of scholars appears to be that,because the pyramid was located in an isolated area, the local population may have vandalized the statues. This theoryhold that the destruction began during the New Kingdom, and became especially intense during the Roman andChristian era. At that time, a Coptic monastery was built in the nearby Wadi Karin.Interestingly, no tombs of Djedefrasfamily and high officials have been found within the complex, though there is a structure near the southwest corner ofthe pyramid that might have served as a subsidiary tomb for one of his consorts. However, Egyptologists such asStadelmann and Janosi think that this is in fact a cult pyramid without burial. Again, future excavations will be requiredto answer this question.In the northeast corner of the inner enclosure, workshops and housing have been found thatapparently were used by the builders of the pyramid. Here, layers of chips remain from what was apparently astoneyard where the pyramid blocks were worked.It should also be mentioned that Petrie found a fragment of a dioritestatue with the probable hieroglyphs representing Menkaure. Some Egyptologists believe that this king undertookrestoration work on the pyramid. 137
  • 138. 138
  • 139. Пирамида Хафра 2672ВС 139
  • 140. Khafras Pyramid, is the second largest of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the 4th Dynastypharaoh Khafra (Chephren).The pyramid has a base length of 215.25 m (707 ft) and originally rises to a height of 143.5 m (471 ft) The Pyramid ismade of Limestone blocks (weighing more than 2 tons each). The slope of the pyramid rises at an 53° 10 angle, steeperthan its neighbor Khufus pyramid which has an angle of 51°5040". The pyramid sits on bedrock 10 m (33 ft) higher thanKhufus pyramid which would make it look taller.The pyramid was likely opened and robbed during the First Intermediate Period. During the 18th Dynasty the overseerof temple construction robbed casing stone from it to build a temple in Heliopolis on Ramesses IIs orders. Arabhistorian Ibn Abd as-Salaam recorded that the pyramid was opened in 1372. It was first explored in modern time byGiovanni Belzoni on 2 March 1818 and the first complete exploration was conducted by John Perring in 1837.Because its apex is in better condition and it is located on an elevation (of about 10 meters), Khafras sometimesappears to be the largest of the three great Pyramids of the Giza Plateau. However, originally it was some three meterslower than its neighboring pyramid belonging to Khafras father, Khufu. In fact, the walls of Khafras pyramid are steeperthan the Great Pyramid of Khufu (53° 10 as opposed to Khufus 51° 40), so it contains considerably less mass. Its nameis "Khafra is Great".Khafra may have, prior to his succession to the Egyptian throne in the 4th Dynasty, been named Khafkhufu, andaccording to Stadelmann, may have built a large double mastaba (G 7130-40) in the East section at Giza. However, hisolder brothers, Kauab and Djedefra apparently died early and upon taking the throne of Upper and Lower Egypt, hisname was changed to Khafra.As one of the grandest pyramids in Egypt, his construct has been much studied, with ahistory of modern research not unlike that of Khufus monument. In 1818, the strongman of Egyptology, GiovanniBelzoni, succeeded in penetrating into the pyramids interior after a failed attempt by Giovanni Caviglia only a yearearlier. Belzoni discovered the pyramids "upper entrance" and managed to investigate its subterranean sections.However, the first extensive exploration of the monument was made in 1837 by Perring.Mariette directed excavations of the pyramids Valley Temple, which is also related to the Great Sphinx, in 1853. A yearlater, he was responsible for unearthing one of ancient Egypts most famous and beautiful statues, that of Khafra on histhrone with the protective outstretched winds of the falcon god, Horus, sheltering his head from behind. While Petriealso worked on this pyramid complex while at Giza, the first systematic modern excavations did not occur until theGerman Ernst von Sieglin expedition of 1909-1910 under the direction of Uvo Holscher. Later in the 1930s, Hassanunearthed the boat pits associated with the pyramid, and in recent times, Lehner and Hawass have investigated thepyramid complex under the auspices of the American Giza Plateau Mapping Project. Their work has mostly centeredaround modern geodetic measuring techniques, which has yielded considerable knowledge on both the pyramid, andthe archaeology of architecture.The valley temple of Khafras Giza complex, which is one of the best preserved OldKingdom temples in Egypt. As a masterful work of ancient Egyptian monumental architecture, it was cleared of sand andin 1869 this temple, along with other monuments at Giza, became the backdrop for the ceremonial opening of the SuezCanal.The temple was fronted on the east by a large terrace paved with limestone slabs, through which two causeways ledfrom the Nile canal. Just about in the middle of the terrace, fragments of what may have been a small, simple, wood andmatting structure was unearthed that may have been the location of a statue depicting Khafra. However, others believethat this was a tent used for purification purposes, though known examples of such a structure are only found in a fewprivate tombs.Pyramid of Khafra valley temple, the temple is built of megalithic limestone core blocks sheeted in redgranite. Many of the internal elements are still intact, such has many single granite pillars in the T-shaped hall.In 1995,Zahi Hawass re-cleared the area in front of the Valley temple and in doing so, discovered that the causeways passedover tunnels that were framed with mudbrick walls and paved with limestone. These tunnels have a slightly convexprofile resembling that of a boat. They formed a narrow corridor or canal running north-south. In front of the SphnixTemple, the canal runs into a drain leading northeast, probably to a quay buried below the modern tourist plaza. 140
  • 141. The causeways connected the Nile canal with two separate entrances on the Valley temple facade that were sealed byhuge, single-leaf doors probably made of cedar wood and hung on copper hinges. Each of these doorways wereprotected by a recumbent Sphinx. The northern most of these portals was dedicated to the goddess Bastet, while thesouthern portal was dedicated to Hathor.The temple was laid out in almost a square ground plan. It is situated just nextto the Great Sphinx and its associated temple. Not surprisingly, since the valley temple was a gateway or portal to thewhole complex, it is very similar to the fore part of Khafras mortuary temple. Its core wall was built of huge blocks thatsometimes weighed as much as one hundred and fifty tons. This inner core was then covered by pink granite slabs, amaterial used extensively throughout the complex that was quarried near Aswan far to the south. This wall was slightlyinclined and rounded at the top, making the whole structure appear somewhat like a mastaba tomb.Between the two entrances to the valley temple was a vestibule with walls of simple pink granite that were originallypolished to a luster. Its floors were paved with white alabaster. A door then led to a T-shaped hall that made up amajority of the temple. This area too was sheathed with polished pink granite and paved with white alabaster, though itwas also adorned with sixteen single block pink granite pillars, many of which are still in place today, that supportedarchitrave blocks of the same material, bound together with copper bands in the form of a swallows tail. These in turnsupported the roof.Here, in the dim light provided by slits at the tops of the walls, stood as many as twenty four statuesof the king (though one statue base in the middle that is larger than the others may have been counted twice) madefrom diorite, slate and alabaster. This line of statues continues along the cross of the T shaped hall ending at a doorwaythat leads to a corridor from which a stairway ramp winds clockwise up and over the top of the corridor beforeterminating on the roof of the valley temple.On the south side of the roof was a small courtyard, situated directly oversix storage chambers also built of pink granite and arranged in two stories of three units each. These were embedded inthe core masonry of the T shaped hall. Symbolic conduits lined in alabaster, a material specifically identified withpurification, run from the temples roof courtyard down into the deep, dark chambers below. These symbolic circuitsrun through the entire temple, taking in both the chthonic and the solar aspects of the afterlife beliefs and of theembalming ritual for which the valley temple was the stage, according to some Egyptologists.Hence, the Polish scholar Bernhardt Grdseloff proposed that purification rituals were carried out on the roof terrace in atent especially constructed for that purpose. Afterwards, he theorized that the body was embalmed in the templeantechamber. A French Egyptologist, Etienne Drioton proposed a similar view, only switching the locations to theantechamber for the purification and the embalming on the roof terrace. However, Ricke correctly pointed out thatthese types of rituals required considerable water that was only available near the canal, so at best the priests of thevalley temple could have only performed the rituals symbolically.At the other end of the cross in the T shaped hall(north), an opening gave way to a passage, also paved with alabaster, that led to the northwest corner of the templeand there joined the causeway.Khafras causeway leads from the Mortuary Temple down to the Valley Temple, thecauseway stretches some forty-six meters connecting these structures with the the mortuary temple just before themain pyramid.A corridor cut from the rock separated the ruined causeway from the Great Sphinx temple and the valley temple. Thecauseway stretches some forty-six meters connecting these structures with the the mortuary temple just before themain pyramid. It did not run exactly along the east-west axis of the pyramid and mortuary temple, but insteadsomewhat to the southeast of it due to the fact that the valley temple was erected slightly out of line with the GreatSphinx and the mortuary temple. Archaeologists believe that causeway was probably a covered corridor built oflimestone and lined on its exterior by pink granite blocks. Within it may have been decorated with reliefs.The mortuarytemple, unlike later pyramid complexes, did not border directly against the pyramid but was rather separated from itseast wall by the pyramid courtyard. Rectangular in its ground plan, it is oriented east-west and has walls built of locallimestone that are cased in finer limestone, a technique introduced in this structure.Inside, the building was almost completely lined with granite. The mortuary temple has, in its elemental design, thebasics for the mature mortuary temples ultimately perfected by Sahure at Abusir, including an entrance hall, an opencourtyard, five statue chapels, various storehouses and an offering hall. This structure marks a real architecturaladvance, being both larger then previous examples and for the first time, including all five elements that were tobecome standard.The entrance to the mortuary temple in the east led through to a small antechamber adorned with a 141
  • 142. pair of monolithic pink granite pillars. About the entrance area were a few small chambers (two granite chambersimmediately to the left of the entrance, and at the other end of a short corridor running along the front of the temple,four more chambers lined with alabaster) that are thought to have been storage annexes or serdabs. Ricke, in hisinvestigation of the mortuary temple, found this area strikingly similar to the valley temple, and considered it a kind ofrepetition. He designated this area as the "ante-temple" (Vortempel) and the remaining area of the mortuary temple asthe "worship temple" (Verehrungstempel).The remains of Khafras mortuary temple, seen from his pyramid, Khafrasmortuary temple was larger and more elaborated than earlier pyramid temples and most notable element of the templewas the extensive use of statues of Khafra himself.This antechamber in turn led into the entrance hall itself where there were twelve more similar pairs of pillars to thosein the antechamber. This entrance hall had an original ground plan of an inverted T. Hence, the first part of the entrancehall was transverse, with recessed bays. It led in turn to a rectangular section. Off of the transverse part of the hall, twolong, narrow chambers branched off from either end, and it has been suggested that huge statues of the king oncegraced these dim passages.After the entrance hall there is a large, open courtyard situated in approximately the middleof the temple. Paved in slabs of alabaster and oriented north-south, along its sides runs a covered ambulatory with a flatlimestone roof made of slaps supported by broad pillars of pink granite. The lower part of this ambulatory was formedby a dado in red granite and limestone. It was covered by brilliantly colored reliefs of which only fragments remain.Ricke thought that the ambulatory was fronted by 3.75 meter high statues of Khafre sitting on his throne overlookingthe courtyard, but Lehner thinks these were standing statues of the ruler. Lehner bases his belief on the discovery of asmall statuette in the workshops west of the pyramid. This artifact shows the ruler, wearing the crown of Upper Egypt,standing in front of a kind of pillar. The remains of a small canal suggest that it was drainage for an altar that stood inthe middle of the courtyard.A door in the west side of the ambulatory communicated with five, long chapels (actually niches) that also originallyhoused statues of the king. Another narrow corridor opens from the southwest corner of the courtyard and led to anoffering hall located in the west part of the temple. The hall was a narrow, long room oriented north-south (in contrastto later mortuary temples) with a false door positioned on the west wall, precisely on the pyramids long axis. Betweenthe five cult chapels and the offering hall, a group of five storage rooms were provided for cult vessels and offeringsused during various ceremonies.A stairway in the northeast corner of the temple led up to the roof terrace, while in the northwest corner of thecourtyard, another corridor led to the paved pyramid enclosure.Though all of them had been plundered apparently inantiquity, there were five boat bits discovered outside of the mortuary temple. Two of these stood on the north of thetemple, while three were to its south. Another pit may have been planned. All of these were carved into the rock in theshape of a boat. Two of the pits still retained their roofing slabs, though all of the pits had been looted, probably duringantiquity.Khafras pyramid is surrounded by an inner, huge stone perimeter wall, within which is an open courtyard barely tenmeters wide that bounds the four sides of he pyramid proper. This courtyard is paved with limestone slabs of irregularform.Because of the two different entrances to this structure, some Egyptologists believe that the main Pyramid ofKhafra was originally meant to be larger and to stand slightly farther north then its completed position. However,modern scholars with considerable expertise on this pyramid, such as Lehner, doubt this assumption. Like the pyramidof Khufu and others in Egypt, Khafras structure takes advantage of a rock outcropping to both increase the stability ofits core, as well as to conserve the amount of necessary building materials needed for its construction. In fact, thelowest levels of its southwest corner are actually hacked out of the rock subsoil. The bedrock surface to the northwesthad to be cut down some 10 meters by its ancient builders, while the southeast corner had to be built up usingmammoth blocks of masonry. However, by far the substance of the pyramid core is made up of locally quarriedlimestone blocks of approximately equal height. Nearby to the north of the pyramid, one may still clearly see the tracesof how these blocks were quarried. The blocks were not laid with the care that was given to the core of Khufuspyramid, for the layers do not always run exactly horizontally, and the joints are at times very wide. Often, there is nomortar between the blocks. In fact, because the four corner angles were not quite aligned correctly to meet the pyramidapex, there is a very slight twist at the top.The base levels of the casing were made of pink granite, while the higher 142
  • 143. layers, which become much smaller towards the top (about one cubit thick) are of fine Turah limestone. The outsidefaces of the casing blocks are often staggered by a few millimeters rather than flush, which may mean that they werefaced prior to their placement. While the pyramidion and the apex have been lost, at the top of the pyramid, a smallportion of the original casing remains in place, which helps us see how the finishing blocks were laid and bound to thepyramid core. However, because it is clear that the remaining casing is eroding, recent investigations by Italian expertshave shown that the remaining corner edges of the mantle are not completely straight. Individual blocks are slightlyturned in various directions. An analysis of this peculiarity suggests that this was the result of seismic activity. Smallearthquakes were not uncommon in ancient Egypt, as they are likewise known to occur in modern times.The oldest of the two entrances into the subterranean depths of Khafras pyramid is now located in the ground aboutthirty meters north of the pyramid. Carved completely out of the rock subsoil, it is sometimes called the "lowerentrance". This portal communicates with a corridor that at first descends before running horizontally. In this horizontalleg of the corridor, a passage gives way on the west wall to a small chamber cut from the bedrock and provided with apented roof, where part of the burial equipment was possibly stored. After the horizontal section of the entrancecorridor, it finally ascends into a horizontal corridor shared by the "upper entrance".The second portal, known as the"upper entrance", is located in the north wall of the pyramids face about twelve meters above ground level. Itcommunicates with a corridor lined in pink granite that first descends before running horizontally at the base of thepyramid. At the transitional point between its descending and horizontal sections, there is a barrier made of pinkgranite, which in antiquity, grave robbers managed to dig around. The horizontal passage continues south after thebarrier, eventually arriving at the burial chamber, which lies on the vertical axis of the pyramid. Given the location andrelatively simple construction of the access corridor and the burial chamber, it is likely that the architects of thispyramid sought to avoid the complications that builders of Khufus pyramid had encountered with their technicallydifficult system of passageways, barriers and chambers.As with earlier pyramids, the burial chamber has a rectangular, east-west oriented ground plan which places it at a rightangle to the passage system. With the exception of its ceiling, it was excavated completely out of the rock. Located overthe pyramids base, the burial chambers gabled ceiling is built from enormous pented, limestone blocks. Originally, theintention may have been to cover the burial chambers walls of this chamber in pink granite. There are shaft entrancesin both the north and south walls of the burial chamber that, at first, appear similar to those in the Queens and Kingscambers of the great Pyramid, but are rather short, horizontal openings that could have been used to reinforce awooden structure inside the tomb.Near the west wall of the burial chamber, almost directly under the vertical axis ofthe pyramid and situated within a niche stands the black granite sarcophagus of the king that originally was surmountedby a sliding lid. The lid was found in two pieces close by. Near the sarcophagus, a small shaft in the floor probably heldroyal canopic vessel, which would have been the first instance of this funerary equipment placed in a pyramid. Nopositively identifiable remains of the kings mummy or his other funerary equipment were found within the pyramid.A small, almost completely destroyed cult pyramid (G 2a) sits on the axis of the south side of the main pyramid ofKhafre. Cult, or Satellite pyramids as they are sometimes called, are thought to have derived from the south tomb ofDjosers complex at Saqqara, and may have been for the burial of statues dedicated to the ka, or spiritual double, of theking. Originally, it was surrounded by its own enclosure wall. It has a simple substructure that consists of a descendingcorridor that gives way to an underground chamber with a T-shaped ground plan. Because this chamber contained bitsof wood, carnelian beads, fragments of animal bones and vessel lids, Maragioglio and Rinaldi concluded that it musthave served as a tomb for one of Khafras consorts. However, Stadelmann opposed this view, believing that it was a cultpyramid. His opinion is supported by the cult pyramid attached to Khufus complex on its southeast corner.More to the point, Lehner believes that the wood made up a frame of cedar in the form of a sah netjer, or divine booth,which was used to transport a statue to be buried in the subsection of this small pyramid.In the early 1880s, Petrie alsodiscovered west of Khafras pyramid beyond the so called outer perimeter wall, the ruins of a structure that containedlong, mostly east-west oriented rooms. He assumed, as did some later investigators such as Holscher, that this was aworkers village that lodged as many as four to five thousand men in 111 large rooms. However, later work by Lehnerand Hawass seem to suggest that that this facility, rather than a settlement, was instead a storehouse as well as theworkshops for the pyramids complex. Interestingly, the great number of mollusk shells that were found here also 143
  • 144. suggest that the surrounding area was, rather than arid desert as it is today, a kind of savanna with the correspondingflora and fauna.Perhaps as early as the First Intermediate Period, as in the case with other pyramids, thieves had probably alreadybroken into Khafras tomb. Inscriptions by the "overseer of temple construction" indicate that already by the 19thDynasty, considerable damage had already occurred. In fact, written sources indicate that, on the orders of Ramesses II,casing from Khafras pyramid was used for the construction of a temple in Heliopolis. Other sources suggest that a largepart of the pyramid casing was removed between 1356 and 1362 for use in the Mosque of al-Hassan.At any rate, theArab historian Ibn Abd as-Salaam records that the pyramid was opened up in the 774 after the hegira (1372 C.E.), duringthe reign of the Great Emir Jalburgh el-Khassaki. It is possible that the tunnels going around the granite barriers in theentry passage could have been dug at that time.Outside perimeter walls may have extended around the entire Khafrapyramids complex, including within it the great Sphinx. Close study by geologist Thmas Aigner of the geological layers ofthe Sphinx show that it was closely related to the quarrying and building of the Khafra complex.Hence, there is someindication that it was a part of Khafras pyramids complex. However, the latter is by no means certain, so here we haveavoided the issue for the time being, electing rather to discuss the Great Sphinx separately. 144
  • 145. 145
  • 146. Пирамида Завиет эль-Ариан Небкара 2648ВСLittle remains today of another structure, assumed to be a second unfinished pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan. This was alsoexcavated by Barsanti in 1903, who discovered only a huge sloping trench leading to a pit. Traces of a square platformmeasuring about 200m square indicates that if the pyramid had been completed it would have been similar in size toKhafras monument at Giza. Stylistically this would give the structure a date of 4th Dynasty, probably between the reignsof Djedefra and Khafra. The remaining elements are said to resemble Djedefres pyramid at Abu Rawash.Large blocks oflimestone and granite lie on the floor of the trench and may have been intended for use in the burial chamber. At thebottom of the trench there was a huge oval pink granite sarcophagus, which may or may not belong to the structure.Significantly, Petrie found fragments of a similar styled sarcophagus while excavating Djedefres complex at AbuRawash.During Barsantis excavations, archaeologists were puzzled when the trench filled with rainwater which veryquickly drained to about a metre deep, suggesting that there may have been an undiscovered passage or chamberbeneath the trench. Unfortunately the structure has never been further investigated because of its inaccessibility in themilitary zone.There have been many candidates proposed for the ownership of this unfinished monument which, had itbeen completed, may have rivalled some of the greatest pyramids of the Old Kingdom. Most Egyptologists currentlydate the structure to Dynasty IV. Evidence put forward to support this dating include the use of large blocks of stone,the oval granite sarcophagus and the size of the structures base. Masons marks with the kings name have been foundon some of the blocks. These have been difficult to interpret except that the name was enclosed in a cartouche whichsuggests the ruler must have come after Huni (the last king of 3rd Dynasty), who was the first known king to write hisname this way. Many now suggest that it was a structure belonging a king coming between Djedefre and Khafra,perhaps a son of Khufu or Djedefre who reigned for only a very short period. 146
  • 147. 147
  • 148. 148
  • 149. 149
  • 150. http://www.nabilswelim.com/downloads/Corb_Rf.pdf.pdf 150
  • 151. 151
  • 152. 152
  • 153. Nebkara SetkaSt-kA, "iri-pat, head of secrets in the royal bedroom, kings eldest son of his body, solecompanion of his father, lector-priest of his father, commander of the palace" etc., with a redgranite scribe statue, now in the Louvre (E. 12631 & 12629). 153
  • 154. 154
  • 155. The Horus name of this ruler mat have been Nebkare. Dodson-Hilton tentatively identifies the ruler as Nebkare Setka -"Хозяин Обеих Земель, Небкара (Хозяин Ка Солнца)", Nebkare "Владыка ка - (это) Ра".Сетка был принцем древнеегипетской четвёртой Династии, сын фараона Джедефры , его мать неизвестна. Сеткаизвестен только по статуи писца , которая происходит из храма при пирамиде его отца в Абу Роаш. Попредложению Айдан Додсон 1981 и 1985 ,Сетка мог прийти после смерти своего отца Джедефры и дядиХефрена в течение нескольких лет на трон Египта. Затем он мог бы быть идентифицирован историкомМанефоном как фараон Bicheris. Додсон приводит в своем рассмотрении подпись на стенах и блоках пирамидыЗавиет эль-Ариан , чьи надписи он интерпретирует как король Setka или Sethka. Предложение Додсона былпринято ранее в научном мире, однако, нет общего согласия по этому вопросу. Pyramids were given star namesor names implicit of stars (The Pyramid of Djedefre is a sehedu star; Nebka is a star; Horus is the Star at the Head ofthe Sky and so forth. 155
  • 156. http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf%20library/smith_old_kingdom.pdfhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/44724066/223/Inscriptions-of-Washptah-from-Saqqara?olddoc=1http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf%20library/drioton_liste.pdfhttp://www.nabilswelim.com/downloads/Corb_Rf.pdf.pdfhttp://www.egypt.edu/pdf/adresses/abou-rawach/abourawach-hd.pdfhttp://www.nefershapiland.de/Biografie%20Djedefre.htmhttp://hieroglyphes.over-blog.com/article-32895553.html 156
  • 157. Сет (Сетх, Сутех, Сута) — в мифологии древних египтян богпустыни, убийца Осириса, в позднеегипетских представлениях— олицетворение зла. Изображался в виде человека с головой«зверя Сета» (осел, шакал или др.). Сет — сын Геба и Нут,младший брат Осириса, Исиды и Нефтиды, муж Нефтиды.Сет(Сетх) — египетский бог пустыни и песчаных бурь, богчужеземных стран, бог землетрясений, сын Геба и Нут, брат иубийца Осириса. Был побеждён богом Хором. Египтянеизображали бога Сета мифическим животным или человеком сголовой демонического животного, идущим в сопровождениирыжей собаки, олицетворяющей собой звезду Сириус,появление которой на небосклоне предвещало разлив Нила.Животные — осёл, свинья и гиппопотам. Муж богини Нефтиды.Храм — Пер-Рамсес.В египетской мифологии Сет считалсябогом хаоса и беспорядка, который изображался в обликечеловека с головой загадочного животного, возможно, впозднеегипетском понимании, некого существа, непринадлежащего этому миру. Сет может представать иполностью в форме животного — с телом шакала, высокоподнятым раздвоенным хвостом. Сет также может приниматьоблик осла, свиньи или гиппопотама.Самое раннееизображение Сета сохранилось на резном предмете изслоновой кости, обнаруженном в одной из гробниц эль-Махасны, датированной эпохой Нагада I (4000 — 3500 г. до н.э.) Фигура священного животного Сета также сохранилась набулаве архаического царя Скорпиона (ок. 3150 до н. э.).Сет считался повелителем пустынь, всего враждебного долине Нила,почитался в качестве покровителем далеких стран и чужеземцев вместе с ассиро-финикийскими богинями Анат и Ашторет(Астартой), которые в Новом царстве считались его женами (папирус Честер-Битти I). Легенды повествуют, что Сет убилсвоего брата Осириса, а затем долго и коварно спорил со своим племянником Хором, который хотел отомстить за смертьотца, за владычество над землей. Во время нескольких сражений Сет вырвал у Хора его око, ставшее великим амулетомУджат; одновременно Хор кастрировал Сета, тем самым лишив его основной части его сущности — Сет издревлеассоциировался с мужской сексуальной силой. По одной из легенд отрезанная в битве передняя нога Сетха была заброшенав северную часть неба, где боги приковали ее золотыми цепями к извечным опорам небес и поставили охранять ее грозногогиппопотама Исиду Хесамут. Город, посвященный Сету, в Египте называется Омбос.Сет изображается, как правило, сдлинными ушами, красной гривой и красными глазами (цвет смерти, то есть пустынного песка, хотя изображение его можновстретить и совсем иное). Его изображают в виде крокодила (Рельеф юго-западного зала храма Хатхор в Дендера), самцагиппопотама (папирус Жумиляк), змея (Рельеф в храме Рамсеса 2 в Асуане), а так же в сборном облике: гиппопотам в шкурекрокодила (фреска на стене гробницы Ментухотепа 3), стилизованного животного похожего на осла (ГМИИ им. Пушкина),так же как известен миф о Сете, плюнувшем в глаза Хору, приняв облик чёрной свиньи. Из-за этого свиньи считалисьнечистыми (несмотря на то, что в глубокой древности встречались изображения Нут в виде свиньи с поросятами-звёздами).Однако с концом Древнего царства его культ постепенно превратился из великого защитника Ра в злое могущественноебожество, не утратившее при этом своих первоначальных функций (см. миф «Тяжба Хора и Сета»). Согласно Гелиопольскойкосмогонии Сет родился, выскочив из бока матери-Нут. День его рождения — третий предновогодний — считалсянесчастливым для всего Египта. В продолжении сего надо отметить, что даже после такой трансформации Сет отнюдь невоспринимался египтянами как нечто злое и враждебное (например как змей Апоп или крокодил Мага). Являясь, с однойстороны, повелителем хаоса и олицетворением зла, он, с другой стороны, выступал в качестве необходимого дополнения кбожественному порядку. Несмотря на проигранный спор и многочисленные преступления, в том числе убийство Осириса,Сет остаётся повелителем южных областей Египта, повелителем подвластной ему силы — плохой погоды и песчаных бурь.Особенно почитался он Рамсессидами как владыка воинской доблести и смелости. Основная функция Сета состояла в том,чтобы сражаться в одиночку со змеем Апопом, защищая Солнечную ладью (папирус Жумиляк). Однако начиная с 3-гопереходного периода, особенно в эпоху Птолемеев, огда культ Хора был вознесён особо высоко, Сет превращается сугубо всимвол зла и становится ненавистным злодеем, источником вселенского зла.http://www.joanannlansberry.com/other/setfind/set-find.pdf 157
  • 158. Пирамида Менкаура 2647ВСMenkaures Pyramid, located on the Giza Plateau on the southwestern outskirts of Cairo, Egypt, is the smallest of thethree Pyramids of Giza. It was built to serve as the tomb of the 4th Dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Menkaure.Menkaures Pyramid had an original height of 65.5 meters (215 feet)[citation needed]. It now stands at 62 m (203 ft) tallwith a base of 103.4 m (339 ft). Its angle of incline is approximately 51°2025?. It was constructed of limestone andgranite.The Pyramid of Menkaure, built on the edge of the same rock formation that had also served as foundation for thepyramids of Khufu and Khafra.Menkaure apparently intended for his pyramid on the Giza Plateau to be the last of that specific area of the Memphitenecropolises which it is, as well as being the smallest. The valley temple lies at the mouth of the main wadi, closing whathad been the principal conduit for construction materials brought to Giza for three generations. Named "Menkaure isDivine", the pryamid was thought by some Greeks, according to Herodotus, to belong to the Greek hertaera Rhodopis.Manetho thought that it belonged to Psamtik Is beautiful daughter, Nitocris. 158
  • 159. Diodorus Siculus first described the inscription that bears the name of Mykerinos on this pyramid, but it was not untilVyse in 1837 that anyone actually entered Menkaures pyramid. He began by investigating its substructure by followinga tunnel dug earlier by Caviglia out of a breach in the north wall. The original entrance was not discovered until later.Surprisingly, Lepsius paid almost no attention to this pyramid, and even Petrie worked on it for only a short period in the1880s. Luckily, George Resiner who was one of the most advanced archaeologists of his time, won the concession forMenkaures pyramid when archaeologists drew lots for excavating Giza on the balcony of the Mena House Hotel in1899. He knew before that this pyramid, though small, could provide some rich finds because his assistant, Arthur Mace,had reconnoitered the site. He began a very thorough excavation of the entire complex in 1906 directing a team fromHarvard University and the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Those excavations continued until 1924.Menkaures pyramid, with its original height of some 65-66 meters, represents only about 1/10th of the mass we find inKhufus pyramid. However, this may be the result of a theology which dictated more emphasis on the temples and lesson the pyramid, a process evident to us already in the reign of Khafra which continued throughout the Old Kingdom.The causeway of this pyramid complex leading from the Valley temple to the Mortuary Temple was most likelycompleted by Shepseskaf. It had floors made of limestone blocks and highly compressed clay mixed with limestonefragments. The mudbrick walls that were a little more than two meters thick supported a roof. Reisner believed that theroof was made of wooden beams and mats because he found the remains of such material at the end of the causeway.However, others Egyptologists, because of the width of the side walls and architectural elements of nearby tombs ofclose family members, believed that there would have been a vaulted roof of brickwork. Nevertheless, the causewaywas never completed. Work seems to have stopped at the point where it meets the west side of the old Khufu quarry.From there to down to the valley temple, the causeway was probably never more than a construction ramp fordelivering stone. Hence, we really do not know how it was to connect to the valley temple. Yet some Egyptologyresources believe that it would have not begun at the west part of the valley temple, but rather would have actually runalong its whole south side and part of its west side. They believe it was even accessible from the storerooms in thevalley temples southern section.The reconstruction of Menkaures valley temple is more difficult than any other element within his pyramid complex.The west part of the limestone block base and lower part of the core of the temples north wall were probablycompleted during the rulers lifetime, while the remaining clay masonry would be attributable to his son, Shepseskaf.Just behind the portal to the temple there was a square antechamber adorned with four columns. The alabaster(calcite) bases of these columns, pressed into the clay floor, have been preserved. On either side of this room are fourstorerooms. Behind the entrance antechamber, the whole middle part of the valley temple consisted of a huge opencourtyard with inner walls decorated with niches (similar to the mortuary temples courtyard). A path, paved withlimestone slabs, ran from the pillared antechamber through the center of the courtyard to a low stairway, which in turnled through a portico with two rows of wooden columns. This terminated at an offering hall, in which an alabaster altarmay have once stood. To the north of the offering hall were twelve storerooms, and to its south were five additionalstorerooms. This was the area where Reisner found the famous, mostly triad statues of the ruler, along with fourunfinished statuettes of Menkaure, fragments of other statues and stone vessels. Three of the statues discovered byReisner depicted the goddess Hathor on the rulers right side, with divinities symbolizing three Upper Egyptian nomeson his left. These may have been part of a larger collection of statues for each of the provinces of Egypt, or perhaps onlythe nomes that provided endowments for the complex.The causeway the stretches form the Pyramid Temple to the Valley Temple is 608m long and heads due east.Perhaps curiously, the function of the valley temple changed over time. Reisner retraced the process by which houses ofthe pyramid town first crowded up against the front wall of the temple, and then began to be built within it. Peoplebegan living in the temple itself, particularly in the courtyard, where grain storehouses and lodgings were built.Perhaps as early as the 5th Dynasty, the temple was badly damaged by water after a particularly heavy rain tore awaythe temples west side. Reisner believes that the temple was rebuilt, at least roughly, during the reign of Pepi II. 159
  • 160. More recently, an Egyptian archaeologist, Selim Hassan, while excavating the nearby tomb complex of queenKhentkaues I, discovered a small brick structure with a platform, low benches and a small drainage canal, together witha basin at the northeast corner of Menkaures valley temple. Stored there were a large number of flint blades and stonevessels. Some Egyptologists believe that this structure was used for a "purification ten" and was only a part of a largerstructure where the mummification ritual took place.Another modification of the valley temple was a brick structure built in front of the temples west wall. It may haveprovided a widened portal, giving better access between the temple and the pyramid town.Like Menkaures predecessors on the Giza Plateau, his mortuary temple was not built adjacent to his pyramids eastwall. The original temple obviously remained partially uncompleted, we believe, as a result of Menkaures suddendeath. Menkaure began this mortuary temple, as had Khafra, with core blocks of limestone that were locally quarried.The heaviest of these, found at the northwest corner of the temple, is the heaviest known at Giza, weighing some 200tons.Though we know the mortuary temple had an almost square ground plan, its appearance can only be partiallyreconstructed. Reisner believed that an entrance corridor led from the east terminating in an open courtyard that wasmeant to be ornamented by pillars. The inside wall of this courtyard was lined with plastered and whitewashedbrickwork decorated with niches, which was probably added by his successor in order to complete the temple afterMenkaures death. There was also a small shrine built within the courtyard, that Reisner also dated to the reign ofShepseskaf.In the west part of the temple, a portico made up of two rows of pillars provided access to a long offering hall.According to Reisner, there was a false door in the offering halls west wall. However, because of statuary fragments,and the fact that the temple was not immediately adjacent to the pyramid, scholars such as Maragioglio and Rinaldirejected the idea of a false door, instead seeing a statue of the ruler standing in its stead. They do believe that a falsedoor existed, but that it stood on a small, pink granite platform in front of the pyramids east wall. In Maragioglio andRinaldis view, it would have at first been easily accessible from the east wing of the pyramids courtyard, beforeadditional rooms were built in the area.A limestone altar and fragments, including a head, chest, lap, knees and shins of a seated statue of Menkaure, renderedin pink granite were found in the five, two story magazines that form a northwestern part of the mortuary temple. Thisstatue was perhaps meant to be the centerpiece of this entire complex. Originally it stood at the back of a tall andnarrow east-west hall at the end of the center axis of the temple, so that the king looked across the open country,through the entrance hall, and down the line of the causeway to the land of the living. The southwest part of the templeremained uncompleted.Reisner, as well as other Egyptologists, thought that the whole mortuary temple was originallymeant to be constructed of pink granite. In fact, we can see that Menkaures masons had just started bringing in a seriesof granite blocks on both sides of the corridor. They were cutting back the large limestone core blocks to ensure that thefront faces of the granite blocks were flush. When Reisner removed the mudbrick from the casing he found bright redpaint on the core blocks marking leveling lines, measurements and the names of the work gangs. However, Rickerejected this analysis, believing that only the dado was to be made of this fine stone. Irregardless, the temple was notcompleted by Menkaure, but by his son, using mudbrick, evidenced by an inscription on one of the fragments of a stelathat Reisner discovered.Interestingly, there was also within the mortuary temple a small square room with a single pillar. It had a strikinglysimilar appearance to the antechamber carree that actually first appears in the mortuary temples of the 5th Dynastypyramids.Some elements within the temple may even be dated beyond the reign of Menkaures son, including thestelae of Merenre I and Pepi I at Saqqara.Menkaures pyramid lies at the far end of the Giza diagonal on the very edge of the Mokattam Formation, where it dipsdown to the south and disappears into the younger Maadi Formation. Just as with his father, Khafras nearby pyramid,Menkaures construct had to have a very well prepared rock subsurface, particularly around the northeast corner. Thisbase is two and one half meters higher than his fathers pyramid and and occupies a mere quarter of the area consumedby Khafra and Khufus pyramids. It has a core of local limestone blocks, with casing made of unfinished pink granite from 160
  • 161. Aswan up to a height of about fifteen meters. Further up, the casing was probably made of fine, Turah limestone.Because completely finished casing blocks would have probably been damaged during transport and installation,particularly at their edges, the final finishing touches were not completed until the very end of the construction process.This also made it possible to achieve a very accurate fitting along the whole surface of the pyramid walls. There is aninscription on the granite casing of the north wall that dates from the Late period, and may be the one mentioned byDiodorus.Original access was provided to the inner chambers by an entrance on the axis of the north wall, about four metersabove ground level. From there, a descending corridor, only partially lined with pink granite, sloped down at an angle ofa little more than 26 degrees for 31 meters through the masonry core to the chambers below. This "lower corridor"terminates in a room with walls that were provided with niches. The purpose of this unusual room is still debatedamong scholars. However, the niches represent the first purely decorative element inside a pyramid since Djosers StepPyramid at Saqqara. At the beginning of the next corridor, there is a granite barrier that is made of three blocks thatwere lowered after its completion. The following corridor continues at a slight downward angle until it comes out in arelatively small, east-west oriented upper antechamber with wall that are completely undecorated. The east end of thischamber is located directly under the vertical axis of the pyramid.Here, another passageway known as the "uppercorridor" runs over the "lower corridor" through a short horizontal section before climbing in a north-south directioninto the pyramid core, were it terminates. It is very likely that this double corridor system signals a change in the originalconstruction plans. The "upper corridor" was probably abandoned when the floor of the antechamber was lowered.From this, Petrie believed that the original pyramid was only about half the size that it is today, though others such asStadelmann doubt his analysis.In fact, the substructure of this pyramid underwent significant changes. Investigations of both this pyramid, and thetombs of his royal family that are closest in time (Mastabat Faraun and Khentkaues Is stepped tomb) point to thedevelopment of these subchambers in three phases, during which the original plan was enlarged.In the antechamber,Vyse unearthed the remains of an anthropoid wooden coffin with, Menkaures name Within were human bones. Mostscholars today believe this coffin was inserted, perhaps in an effort of restoration, into the pyramid during the Saiteperiod late in Egypts ancient history. However, the bone fragments were even more recent as revealed by radio carbondating, that shows hat they probably date to the Coptic Christian period of some two thousand years ago. There is arectangular indention in the west section of the antechamber floor, suggesting that a sarcophagus may have once beenintended for this room.However, from the middle of the floor of the antechamber, another granite corridor leads downward before becominghorizontal shortly before the actual burial chamber. Just before the entrance to the burial chamber, a short flight ofsteps leads to an area with six small, deep niches, sometimes known as the "cellar", which has an undeterminedfunction, though there is a similarity to architectural elements in the Mastabat Faraun of Shepseskaf and the steppedtomb of Queen Khentkaues I. Four of the niches are on the east side, and Ricke believed that these were to hold thefour canopic vessels containing Menkaures entrails. He believed that the two additional niches on the north side mayhave been graced with the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. However, others believe it may be a forerunner of thethree chambers to the left (east) in the standardized substructures of 5th and 6th Dynasty pyramids, though it may havesimply been used to store funerary equipment and supplies.Unlike the pyramids of his father and grandfather (Khufu), the rectangular burial chamber is oriented north-south. It iscompletely covered in pink granite, including even the gabled ceiling, which was actually hollowed out from beneath tomake a round, barrel vault. The chamber lies some 15.5 meters beneath the level of the pyramids base so that theceiling could be constructed of nine pairs of enormous granite blocks. This construction was carried out after themodification of the plan for the substructure, which made it both difficult and laborious to complete. It required a largedescending tunnel to be built in the west part of the upper antechamber, from which visitors today may actually viewthe top of the vaulted burial chamber.It is very possible that both the granite burial chamber and the set of niches were built after the after the death ofMenkaure on the instructions of his son and successor, Shepseskaf. 161
  • 162. On the burial chambers west wall, Vyse discovered a wonderful, dark basalt sarcophagus that was decorated withniches in the palace facade style. The sarcophagus was empty, and its lid was missing. However, fragments of the lidwere discovered, which indicate that it was ornamented with a concave cornice. Ricke saw in this design certainsimilarities with the decorations in shrines dedicated to the god Anubis, and thought that they were an attempt toprovide additional protection for the tomb by means of that divinity. Alas, we are left with only drawing of this piece offunerary equipment, for the ship, Beatrice, which was taking it from Egypt to the British Museum leaving Leghorn sanksomewhere between Malta and Spain in 1838. Fortunately, the anthropoid coffin was sent in a separate ship thatreached its destination.Interestingly, in contrast to Khufus and Khafras pyramids, there have been no boat pits discovered in relationship toMenkaures pyramid, despite intensive investigation by an Egyptian archaeologist named Abdel Aziz Saleh, whoobviously thought that they should exist.Already in the late 1630s, the English scholar and traveler John Greaves noted that the casing had largely been removed.The destruction of the pyramid lasted well into the 19th century, when Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805-1848) used some ofthe pink granite blocks taken from its casing to construct the arsenal in Alexandria.Notable on the Giza Plateau are thethree much smaller subsidiary that stand in a row along the south wall of the principal pyramid. Designated G 3a-c,archaeologist attribute them to Menkaures royal consorts. Of these, only G 3a was a true pyramid, the other twohaving a four step core, and some Egyptologists believe that it functioned as a cult pyramid, though it was also clearlyused for a burial. All three of these pyramids were surrounded by a common perimeter wall.G 3a, the easternmost, of these pyramids, actually had a small, east-west oriented mortuary temple of its own that wasaccessible from its pyramids courtyard. This mortuary temple was probably partially built of limestone, but was hastilyfinished with mudbrick. The west end of the mortuary temple was dominated by a fairly large, open courtyard that hadniches built into its northern wall. On its south side was a row of wooden columns. A small cult chapel with an entranceadorned with deep, double niches to either side, lead into an offering room that included a false door. storage annexeswere located in the northwest part of the temple, and in the southwest a staircase led to the roof terrace.Pyramid G 3a was the largest of the three constructs, with an entrance situated in the middle of the north wall, only alittle above ground level. It has a substructure consisting of a burial chamber dug from the rock under the center of thepyramids base, which communicates with a descending entrance corridor equipped with a barrier. This burial chamberwas originally equipped with a pink granite sarcophagus, embedded in the floor next to the west wall. Unfortunately, itsoon fell prey to tomb robbers. There were also fragments of ceramics and charred remains of wood and matting foundin this chamber.We really have little idea who was interred in Pyramid G 3a. Reisner thought that it might beMenkaures principal consort, Khamerernebti II, but based on a statue of that queen found in the so-called Galarza tombin the central part of the Giza necropolis, others believe that she was buried alongside her mother, Khamerernebti I inthat tomb. In fact, it is not impossible that this pyramid was originally simply a cult pyramid that was latter transformedinto a tomb.Besides being smaller, and lacking the shape of a true pyramid, G 3b also differs in other details. These include theplacement of the descending corridor, which lacks a barrier. The bones of a young woman were found in the pinkgranite sarcophagus which stood against the west wall of the burial chamber that was located under the northwest partof the pyramid. Like G 3a, it also had a small mortuary temple, though in this case it was oriented north-south.G 3c was never completed with its casing. Like G 3b, the burial chamber was constructed under the northwest part ofthe pyramid, and was likewise not finished. Though no burial was found within this pyramid, there was clear evidence ofa cult following in the small mortuary temple that stood in front of the east side of this pyramid. Also like G 3b, thismudbrick structure was oriented north-south.Unfortunately, the owners of G 3b-c are completely lost to us and may never be known. We are relatively certain thatthey were consorts of Menkaure, but otherwise there no information on these royal women. 162
  • 163. 163
  • 164. Мастаба эль-Фараун Шепсескафа 164
  • 165. Shepseskaf was a son of King Menkaure who succeeded his father on the throne. Shepseskafs name means "His Soul isNoble." He was likely the last Egyptian Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty if he was not succeeded by a certain unknownruler named Djedefptah as recorded in some Egyptian literature and, indirectly, by the Turin Canon. No ruler namedDjedefptah is recorded in contemporary documents such as royal monuments or private tombs in the Old Kingdomcemeteries of Giza and Saqqara which date to this period. Palace officials who served in the interval between the 4thand 5th Dynasties of Egypt such as the long-lived palace courtier Netry-nesut-pu explicitly lists this sequence of OldKingdom kings under whom he served under in his tomb: Radjedef -> Khafra -> Menkaure -> Shepseskaf, and the firstthree 5th Dynasty kings namely Userkaf, Sahure and Neferirkare. Finally,"No names of estates of the periodcompounded with royal names make mention of any other kings than these, nor do the names of...royal grandchildren,who often bore the name of a royal ancestor as a component of their own name."The Turin Canon ascribes Shepseskafa rule of four years and his anonymous 4th Dynasty successor, presumably a reference to Djedefptah, a reign of twoyears. In contrast, Manethos King List explicitly gives Shepseskaf a reign of seven years which may be a combination ofthe 4 + 2 (= 6) full year figures noted in the Turin Kinglist for the last two kings of the Fourth Dynasty plus a significantmonthly fraction. Manethos King List does, however, also note the existence of the unknown and possibly fictitiousruler Djedeptah called Thampthis in his records who is ascribed a reign of nine years.Shepseskaf broke with the FourthDynasty tradition of constructing large pyramid tombs by chosing to construct his tomb as a great mastaba at Saqqara,now known as Mastabat Faraun. In contrast, his three immediate predecessors built the pyramids of Giza whileSneferu, the founder of the Fourth Dynasty, alone constructed three pyramids in his reign most notably, the BentPyramid and the Red Pyramid. Shepseskaf may have designed a smaller tomb for himself since he was faced with thearduous task of completing his fathers pyramid at Giza while simultaneously building his own tomb, all this within hisshort reign.Originally encased with fine white limestone, except for a bottom course of red granite, it may have risen in two stepsand certainly took the form of a ‘Buto shrine - having a vaulted top between two vertical ends. Inside, a passagedescending from the north passes through a corridor-chamber and a set of three portcullises before ending in theantechamber. A short passage slopes down to the burial chamber to the west, which features a false vault carved intothe undersides of the ceiling slabs, similar to that of Mycerinos. Here, remains were found of a stone sarcophagus thatwas also similar to that of Shepseskafs predecessor, carved with niches, panelling, and a cavetto cornice. From thesoutheast of the antechamber another short passage leads to six niches similarly arranged to those in the tombs ofMycerinos and Khentkawes at Giza. Outside, the mastaba was surrounded by two mudbrick enclosure walls andbordered on the east by a small mortuary temple, which consisted of an offering hall and false door flanked by fivemagazines and preceded by a smaller inner court and a larger outer court. The long causeway, which actually bypassesthe mortuary temple, led to a valley temple that has never been excavated. 165
  • 166. 166
  • 167. Пирамида Джедефптаха –Униса 2626ВС 167
  • 168. 168
  • 169. 169
  • 170. 170
  • 171. 171
  • 172. The Pyramid of Unas at Saqqara is the smallest of the Old Kingdom Royal pyramids and considerably more famousand better known then the king who built it. This is because, for the first time that we know of, the 128 magicalspells of the Pyramid Text appear on the walls of its subterranean chambers. It was once called "Beautiful are the(cult) Places of Unas", but today it is little more then a pile of rubble that, sitting next to the famous Step Pyramid,seems hardly noticeable.Unas pyramid did not go unnoticed by Perring and shortly afterwards, of Lepsius, whonumbered it 35 on his archaeological map. But its significance was not known until after Maspero, already havingfound parts of the Pyramid Text in Pepi I and Merenre Is pyramids, decided to reexamine Unas pyramid in 1881. In1899, at Masperos request, Alexandre Barsanti began an investigation, that unfortunately was not all thatsystematic, of the pyramid that would last until 1901. He also partially excavated Unas mortuary temple, as well asother nearby structures. Firth continued the excavation of the temple in 1929, but he regrettably died in 1931. Hiswork was taken up by Lauer from 1936 until 1939, and then by Hassain, Goneim and Hussan, all Egyptianarchaeologists. They continued to excavate the site until 1949. In the 1970s, Ahmad Musa, another Egyptian,excavated the lower half of the causeway and the valley temple.The causeway is not straight, making two turns in order to probably avoid uneven ground or even other buildings. Infact, material from older buildings was used in the causeways underpaving. In the 1970s the Egyptian archaeologist,Mousa, reconstructed the "tomb of the two brothers", Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep", which is now a populartourist stop, mostly from blocks found in Unas causeway. Polychrome bas-relief scenes adorn the walls of thecauseway. They show men hunting for lions, leopards and giraffes, boats transporting granite palm columns fromAswan, battles with Asian enemies, the transport of prisoners, and of course, the well known scene of starvingnatives. However, the meaning of this last scene is, if anything, less clear today then ever. It was originally believedthat the scenes record the decline of this period, but new theories counter this assumption. Just south of the upperpart of the causeway were two forty-five foot white limestone structures that at one time probably held long,slender wooden boats.Passing through the pink granite gateway that bears the name and title of Teti, one first enters the alabaster pavedentrance hall. Here, one finds relief scenes depicting offering goods being delivered. After the entrance hall is theopen courtyard. The ambulatory was supported by eighteen pink granite columns shaped as palms. These columnsare no longer here, but some have survived by being reused in the Delta at modern Tanis, and in the Louvre andBritish Museums. Many of the reliefs are also gone, at least one showing up in Amenemhat Is pyramid complex inLisht. To either side of the entrance hall and courtyard are storage annexes, where in the Late Period, large shafttombs were also dug.From here, several entrances led past the small cult pyramid and into the inner temple and afive niche chapel, though nothing remains of this. Also destroyed is the antechamber which led into the offering hall.But aside from a pink granite false door, little else remains of the offering hall. On the false door, a block of which isalso in the Egyptian Antiquities Museum in Cairo, are inscriptions referring to the tutelary divinities protecting theresidents of Nekhen and Buto. Around the offering hall are more storage annexes.Unas had a long reign, perhaps as long as thirty years. Therefore, he had time to build a larger pyramid, but webelieve that it was probably a time of decreasing wealth, so he limited the size of this building project. Around thewhole pyramid, and a smaller cult pyramid, there was once a massive stone wall that was at least seven meters high.The core of the pyramid consists of six layers, with rough blocks of local limestone decreasing in size as the buildersreached the top layer. The casing was of fine, white limestone, some of which remains on the very lowest levels. Theplan of the substructure, as well as Unas mortuary temple, is very similar to the Djedkare complex, with the originalentrance under the north chapel.The north chapel is now all but gone. It is a single room, and on its south wall nextto the pyramid itself, there was an altar shaped in the hieroglyphic sign for a hetep (offering table). Behind the altarwas a stela.Inside, there are corridors leading to an antechamber and burial chamber, both of which originally hadgabled ceilings. Corridors, the antechamber and burial chamber all painted on their ceilings yellow stars on a bluebackground. In both of the chambers, the Pyramid Text was written in bas-relief painted in a blue green on all butthe west wall of the burial chamber. This color signifies the morning and the belief in rebirth. The west wall of theburial chamber was coated with a layer of alabaster that was painted white, black, yellow, blue and red, the fivecolors of the royal palace facade. 172
  • 173. DjedefptahThamphthis is the Greek name of an ancient Egyptian ruler (pharaoh) of the 4th dynasty in the Old Kingdom, whomay have ruled around 2600 BC for between two to nine years. His original Egyptian name is lost, but it may havebeen Djedefptah or Ptahdjedef ("he endures like Ptah") after William C. Hayes.[1] Thamphthis is one of the shadowyrulers of the Old Kingdom, since he is completely unattested in contemporary sources. For this reason, his historicalfigure is discussed intensely by historians and egyptologists. Since Thamphthis name was found in the historicalworks of Manetho, the Aegyptiacae,[2] egyptologists are trying to connect this ruler with contemporary kings tobuild up a continuous chronology, which resulted in controversies and debates.Wolfgang Helck points out thatKhentkaus I could have been the mother of Thamphthis, so Thamphthis would have been the son of king Shepseskaf.As a possible wife of Thamphthis he proposes a princess named Bunefer, who may have been the daughter ofShepseskaf. She was a priestess of Shepseskaf.[7][8]In the Manethonian tradition of the historian Sextus JuliusAfricanus, who translated Manetho, Thamphthis is described as the last ruler of the 4th dynasty with a reign of nineyears.A further source for the chronology of rulers of the Old Kingdom is the Royal Canon of Turin, composed duringthe 19th dynasty around 1300 BC. It names kings which are missed in many other kinglists. But the Turin Canon isdamaged at several spots, so many royal names are fragmentary or completely lost in lacunae today. For this reasonit cannot be excluded that Thamphthis name was originally present in this document too, since the Aegyptiacae ofManetho are mostly consistent with the Turin Canon. In column III, line 12 king Khafra is mentioned, after him, in line13, a lacunae appears. After king Shepseskaf, mentioned in line 15, a second lacunae appears. Whilst line 13 can beassigned to a king Baufra, the missing line 16 could have originally held Thamphthis name. These lacunae cover twoyears during which a king could have reigned.[10]The Royal kinglist of Saqqara from the tomb of Tjuneroy (19thdynasty) lists nine kings for the 4th dynasty, whilst the Abydos King List gives only six names. Curiously the Saqqara-Table has after Shepseskaf two cartouches before Userkaf, but both are heavily damaged, so the original names areno longer legible. Whilst one of these two cartouches once may have held Thamphthis name, the other cartoucheremains a mystery.[11]A rock inscription in the Wadi Hammamat made in the Middle Kingdom presents a list of thecartouche-names of Khufu, Djedefre, Baufra and prince Djedefhor (also recorded as Hordjedef). CuriouslyDjedefhors name is written in a cartouche, too. This leads to the possibility that he could have been a king for a veryshort while himself. If this was true, this fact would close the chronological gaps. But contemporary sources dontshow Djedefhor and Baufra as kings; they give to these two only the titles of princes and call them both "son of theking".[12] 173
  • 174. 174
  • 175. Пирамида Усеркафа 2624ВС 175
  • 176. The pyramid lying immediately to the north-east of Djosers Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara, belongs to Userkafwho was the traditional founder of 5th Dynasty. Today his mortuary monument is known as the Ruined Pyramid (el-haram el-makherbish) because of its poor condition - attributed to the removal of the limestone casing in antiquity.The most interesting remains here are the mortuary temple ruins, situated on the south side of the pyramid.Userkafs pyramid was first entered by Perring, through a robbers tunnel in 1839, but it was not known at the timewho the structure belonged to. The pyramid was later excavated by Cecil Firth in 1928, who discovered the ownersname, then in the 1950s Jean-Philippe Lauer continued investigations. The entrance to the robbers tunnel wascompletely buried by rubble during an earthquake in 1991.The pyramids original entrance was from a pavement in the court in front of the north face and led to a descendingpassage running south towards a T-shaped magazine or storeroom, an antechamber and the burial chamber. Theserooms were blocked off at the bottom of the passage by a large portcullis of pink granite. The antechamber liesdirectly under the centre of the pyramid and was lined with white limestone, as was the burial chamber which isabout twice the length of the former room. Both chambers have a gabled ceiling of enormous white limestone slabs.Archaeologists found remains of a black basalt sarcophagus, empty and undecorated, set into the floor of the burialchamber.In a departure from tradition the mortuary temple was situated on the south side of the pyramid - these structureshad previously been found on the north or east side of earlier pyramids. Archaeologists suggest several reasons forthis departure. It may have been due to the ground on the east being too uneven for building, or perhaps because ofa huge trench around Djosers pyramid enclosure or even for ideological reasons such as the flourishing of theHeliopolitan sun cult. Solar temples began to be introduced around this time. The whole plan of the temple seemsto have been untraditional. The usual elements face south, away from, rather than towards the pyramid and thesmall offering chapel with its false door on the east side of the pyramid (now ruined) is entirely separate from therest of the temple. The mortuary temple remains are today badly damaged, having been robbed for stone, but alsobecause of the position of a large Saite shaft tomb which was built within the structure.A valley temple and causeway (still unexcavated) led to the south-east corner of the pyramid complex and into anarea of storage chambers, a vestibule, an L-shaped entrance hall and a colonnaded court. The surviving remainssuggest that there was a staircase leading to a roof terrace near the entrance. The court contained pink granitepillars on three sides with hieroglyphic inscriptions of Userkafs names and titles and the floor was paved with basalt.Remains of the paving can still be seen. Around the sides of the court a basalt dado was beautifully decorated withnaturalistic scenes, including birds in a papyrus thicket (in Cairo Museum) and an orchard scene with birds caught ina net. There were also fragments of scenes of a boat with its crew and names of Upper and Lower Egyptian estates.The head of one of the oldest royal colossal statues - Userkaf wearing a memes headdress with uraeus, was foundhere in the debris of the court and is now on display in the Cairo Museum. The inner parts of the mortuary templeconsisted of a hall with eight pink granite columns and a chapel with niches for cult statues of the King.On the south-west corner of the complex and within the original enclosure wall, stood a small satellite pyramid, 21msquare, with a subterranean chamber entered from the northern side. Only the lower two levels of the core remaintoday. Another small pyramid with its own decorated mortuary temple is situated outside the south enclosure walland is thought to belong to an unnamed queen. Its underground chambers were a smaller version of those in theKings pyramid, but without the magazine.There are still many questions surrounding the location of Userkafs pyramid, and the whole history of the beginningof 5th Dynasty, which perhaps one day could be answered by further excavations at Saqqara, an area which isrevealing more information every year. 176
  • 177. 177
  • 178. Пирамида Сахура 2267ВС 178
  • 179. База пирамида равна 78,75 метров и имеет высоту 47 м , угол наклона граней 50 ° 11 . При измеренииплощади была отмечена строительная погрешность : юго-восточный угол на 1,58 м находится дальше навосток, что привело к искажению обычной квадратной базы пирамиды . В основе смещение находится навосточной стороне пирамиды и скрыто соседним храмом. Miroslav Verner: : Die Pyramide des Sahure Повосточной стороне пирамиды закладывается первоначальная ориентация. В данном случае речь идет ореконструкции пирамиды во времена Пепи II ,что подтверждается углеродным анализом. 179
  • 180. All of the pyramid complexes at Abusir are ruined, as much by stone thieves as from the ravages of time. Sahurescomplex, which he called "Sahures soul shines", was probably the first pyramid built on the pyramid field at Abusir,and is significant both because of its construction materials and the kind of decorative reliefs used within thecomplex. It was famous for its art in antiquity, and we today recognize the complex as another milestone of ancientEgyptian tomb architecture.Specifically, the pyramid is smaller than previous ones, using a reduced volume ofmaterial for its construction in comparison with 4th Dynasty examples, though this was compensated for by betterquality and more diverse types of stone. There was also a striking change in the layout of the mortuary temple and atthe same time, the relief decorations of the mortuary and valley temples and the causeway are so rich in subjectmatter, artistic conception and the quality of workmanship that is represents the highest level of the genre that hasyet been discovered from the Old Kingdom. Originally, there may have been some 10,000 square meters of suchreliefs in these architectural elements, so it is no wonder that Sahures pyramids complex, including its architecturalplan and scheme of relief decorations, became the conceptual starting point for the designers of later royal tombs ofthe 5th and 6th Dynasties.The early Egyptologist, Perring, first investigated the pyramid, and shortly after him,Lepsius also examined the structure, but perhaps because the pyramid looked so ruined, little attention was given toits excavation. Later, de Morgan reopened the entry corridor, but he too showed a lack of interest in furtherexplorations. Then, in the 20th century, Ludwig Borchardt finally recognized the pyramids significance. He wrote atwo-volume study, Das Grabdenkmal des Konigs Sahure ("The Funerary Monument of the King Sahure") that createda real interest within the Egyptology community. For many years, his work on the pyramid seemed complete, eventhough the pyramid was the subject of further studies.But in 1994 when it was decided to open the Abusir pyramidfield to tourists, new discoveries were made. Several of the monuments at Abusir, and particularly the pyramidscomplex of Sahure, were the subjects of restoration efforts. During this process, several huge blocks in the upperpart of Sahures causeway were discovered to be decorated with iconographically and artistically unique reliefs. Theycreated a new understanding of the decorative program within the complex.Surrounding Elements: Sahures valley temple has two landing ramps, one giving access from the east and one fromthe south. As a rule, there would only be one, an eastern landing ramp, allowing access from the Nile by way of anartificial channel. However, the reason for this has not been established.The valley temple has a long axis orientednorth-south with a southern and eastern ramp. Eight pink granite columns adorned the temples eastern entrance,while the temples south portico only had four such columns. The valley temple had a basalt floor, decorated wallsand an astronomical ceiling. Both entrances lead to a central room within the temple with walls that are alsodecorated with polychrome reliefs. The predominant theme here is of the king in the likeness of a sphinx tradingover a series of captive and bound enemies of Egypt. The central room in turn leads to the causeway that then leadsto the mortuary temple. The room also had a stairway to a roof terrace.Little remains of the causeway except for thelarge, rough limestone blocks of its base ramp. The corridor was originally roofed and had walls decorated inpolychrome base relieve and a ceiling with small openings for illumination. The causeway connected the pyramidand mortuary temple to a valley temple that today is much ruined.In 1994, Zahi Hawass decided to clean andreconstruct parts of Sahures causeway, but in doing so he encountered a few surprises. While cleaning the upperpart of the causeway, huge limestone blocks were unearthed that contained iconographically and artistically uniquereliefs. Among others, some of the reliefs depict the bringing of the gilded capstone for Sahures pyramid, thecelebrations and performances accompanying the completion of the pyramid, and perhaps most importantly, agroup of impoverished Bedouins that hunger has caused to be only skin and bones.The scene depicting emaciated Bedouins is mirrored in what was once considered unique images in the Causeway ofUnass Pyramid. Until recently, that scene was considered proof of the decline of the standard of living among oasisdwellers in the Western Desert, resulting from the end of the wet phase of the Sahara and the beginning of an arid,hot climate in the middle of the third millennium BC. However, some now believe, based on the broader context ofother scenes from Sahures causeway, that the impoverished Bedouins may have been brought into the pyramidtown to demonstrate the hardship and dangers the pyramid builders had to contend with in brining better qualitystone from the remote, wild and inaccessible mountains.The mortuary temple, as is common, lies on the east side ofthe pyramid on a foundation of two layers of rough limestone blocks. It is divided into an inner section and outersection by a central corridor. This corridor divided the complex into public and private sections, but also served as a 180
  • 181. central lane connecting the pyramid courtyard and the small cult pyramid. The corridor was paved in basalt, and itslimestone walls have scenes of sea battles and expeditions to Asia, though only fragments remain. A stairway at thenorthern end led to a roof terrace.In the outer part of the temple one finds the entrance hall and the open,columned courtyard. The entrance hall, built of fine quality limestone had an excellent decorative program. In theseruins, a pink granite dado were found.The open courtyard contained 16 monolithic pink granite columns, each ofwhich was shaped like the trunk and crown of a palm tree, atop a floor of irregular black basalt slabs. To the ancientEgyptians, these symbolized fertility and eternal life, and some Egyptologists believe that the open courtyardrepresented the sacred palm grove in Buto, Egypts ancient "national cemetery". The columns were decorated withthe names and title of Sahure, along with the goddess Nekhbet in the southern part of the courtyard, and the cobragoddess Wadjet in the northern half. At one time the columns supported an architrave bearing the royal titles, andon it rested limestone ceiling slabs decorated with stars. On the courtyard walls we find the scenes, though veryfragmented, of Sahures victory of the Asians and Libyans, along with the spoils of those battles. In the northwestcorner of the courtyard once stood an alabaster altar with scenes depicting the symbols of Egyptian unification(between northern and southern Egypt), along with scenes of offerings made to Sahure. Between the columns theremay have originally stood statues of the pharaoh.A corridor encircles the courtyard, and on its walls are scenes of Sahure fishing and hunting birds and other desertgame. There is also a significant scene of the royal entourage and under the depiction of Neferirkare, we find textthat was added, stating, "Neferirkare, King of Upper and Lower Egypt". This is one reason many Egyptologists feelthat Neferirkare rather then Shepseskare Ini succeeded Sahure.This courtyard served more then the cult of Sahure. Athousand years later, it also served the cult of Sekhmet, probably because of a fine relief sculpture of the liongoddess. Her consort was Ptah, and together they were the principle gods of nearby Memphis. Later still, the earlyChristians in Egypt also founded a church in this courtyard.The entrance to the inner section of the tomb is a stairwaylocated in the middle of the west wall of the central, dividing corridor. The stairway passes between two six-stalkpapyrus pillars that are set into deep niches. They supported an architrave, part of which has been found in an oilpress at St. Jeremiah monastery in Saqqara.The stairs lead to an important section of the temple, a chapel with fiveniches. The statues that once stood in the niches are all probably destroyed. The walls of this chapel were covered indecorated limestone, with the exception of the niches in the west wall and the dado. The niches and dado arecovered in pink granite. The limestone ceiling was decorated with an astronomical theme and the floor was made ofalabaster.A path from the rear of the chapel, which only the funerary priests could use, leads to the Offering Hall.This was probably the most important room in the temple to the Kings cult. This room too has an alabaster floorwith an astronomical ceiling decorated with stars. Here, the walls are decorated with scenes depicting divinitiescarrying offerings for the dead king. This room sits adjacent to the East wall of the pyramid and there is anenormous, granite false door on the rooms west wall. The door should have had inscriptions of magical spells, andthe names and titles of Sahure, but it does not. This has led some Egyptologists to believe that it was once covered ineither copper or gold that was inscribed with this information. The ancient Egyptians believed that the spirit of thedead king would come here through the false door for his meals. Food offerings stood ready for him on a stone alter.Annexes adjoin the Offering Hall and were probably used for storage and other functions connected to the hall.Some of these rooms were plumbed with copper pipe, with drainage to a central canal paved over with limestone. Infact, there was some 180 meters of pipe running through the temple. Another section of the annex was designatedas a treasure chamber, where ritual objects used by the cult priests were stored. Parts of the southern section ofannexes include two storied storage chambers.The southern end of the central corridor also leads to the mainpyramid courtyard, the smaller cult pyramid, and to a portico with two pink, granite columns that then led to anecropolis. The necropolis is most likely where Sahures close relatives are buried, though it has not beeninvestigated.The enclosed, cult pyramid, though small in comparison to the main pyramid, nevertheless has twosteps and an inner chamber, though nothing was found inside. Though the cult pyramid was greatly damaged bystone thieves, we can tell that the entrance corridor first descended before rising into the inner chamber.The Pyramid: Due to the pyramids complexs ruined condition, exact specifications and the pyramids appearance isimpossible to determine. The pyramid is probably founded upon a platform made of at least two layers of limestone 181
  • 182. blocks, but this assumption relies on the study of other relics in the area, as the foundation has never beeninvestigated. The core was built of horizontal layers of rough limestone blocks and it originally had six core layers.The casing was of fine, white limestone from the quarries near modern Maasara. It is interesting to note that adesign flaw within the pyramids architecture resulted in the southeast corner being 1.58 meters too far to the east.Therefore, the pyramid is not completely square.The entrance to the pyramid is on the north face just above groundlevel. At first there is a short, descending corridor that leads to a small vestibule. Behind the vestibule is a pinkgranite portcullis, after which the next corridor has a gradual incline, becoming level near the antechamber. Theantechamber and burial chamber are so ruined that their exact plan cannot be determined, though the antechamberlies directly beneath the pyramids vertical axis. 182
  • 183. Пирамида Нефериркара 2604ВС 183
  • 184. The 5th Dynasty pyramid of Neferirkare is the second pyramid at the southern end of Abusir, slightly to the north-east of Neferefres unfinished monument. Now the most imposing and the tallest structure at Abusir with anestimated intended height of about 70m (it is even now about 45m) and a base of about 105m each side, thepyramid was built on Abusirs highest point. The monuments ancient name was Pyramid of the Ba of Neferirkareand it was also unfinished during the kings lifetime. We are not certain of the length of Neferirkares reign andfigures between 14 and 24 years have been suggested - he was possibly quite old when he came to the throne.Neither is it known why he succeeded Sahure rather than Sahures own son, though it is suggested by someEgyptologists that the two kings could have been brothers. His pyramid complex may have been completed by hissuccessors but we know that part of the causeway and the valley temple were usurped by Nyuserre.Neferirkares pyramid, seen across the mortuary temple of Khentkaus II. The second pyramid at the southern end ofAbusir, slightly to the north-east of Neferefres unfinished monumentThere is evidence to suggest that Neferirkares pyramid was planned as a step pyramid and today four of the originalsix steps remain. At some point there was a change in design and the steps were filled with loose masonry and thenconverted to become a true pyramid, enlarged and provided with a casing of red granite. The pyramids entrance isin the centre of its northern side and a straight descending passage then took two turns before arriving at thevaulted antechamber and a burial chamber. The substructure was very badly damaged by stone robbers and no traceof a sarcophagus or burial equipment has been found.A mortuary temple for the king, on the eastern side of the pyramid seems to have been hastily finished, and like thatof Neferefre, the original stone offering hall and chapels or statue niches were enlarged and completed in mudbrick.The entrance to the mortuary temple led through a vestibule with six pairs of columns to a large central porticoedcourtyard which in turn led to the inner areas and magazines.In 1893 portions of rare 5th Dynasty hieratic papyri texts began to appear on the antiquities market and LudwigBorchardt subsequently tracked down a few stray texts found by local villagers at Abusir. During excavations ofNeferirkares mortuary complex, it was discovered that the temple archive, dating mainly to the reign of Djedkare-Isesi, had been stored in administrative buildings here. The collection is known as the Abusir Papyri and describesthe cult administration, inventories, accounts and records of building work, as well as priestly duties and dailyofferings. The archive represents a great deal of important knowledge about the economic history of the OldKingdom pyramid cults. It was from this record that the pyramid complex of Neferefre, Neferirkares eldest son, wasdiscovered, as well as details describing six sun-temples at Abu Ghurob. Neferirkares own sun temple had beencompleted within his lifetime and seems to have been the largest of these structures to the north of Abusir, but sofar has not been found.When Neferirkare died his causeway and valley temple had not been completed and they were usurped by Nyuserrelater in 5th Dynasty, who incorporated them into his own burial complex.Neferirkare was the first ruler to write his name in a double cartouche, one with his prenomen Kakai, and the otherwith a sa-Re (son of Re) name, Neferirkare, a custom which was then followed by all Egyptian kings.Close to the south of Neferirkares pyramid, the king constructed a small pyramid for his consort Khentkawes. TheQueens monument was not excavated at the time Ludwig Borchardt first investigated the pyramid of Neferirkare,and was dismissed as a mastaba until the Czech expedition took a closer look in the mid 1970s and discovered thesmall pyramid was more complicated than it looked.The pyramids remains today are only about 4m high after much damage by stone robbers, and the construction ofthe three level core and the subterranean chambers was of a simple design, with a descending passage leading fromthe north wall to a burial chamber. A fragment of a red granite sarcophagus and fragments of mummy wrappingswere found in the burial chamber, confirming the evidence of the Queens burial. Construction of the Queenspyramid was halted, possibly at Neferirkares death, and was resumed in Year 10 of an un-named king according to a 184
  • 185. block from the pyramid, and she is then named as Kings Mother Khentkawes. It would appear that the pyramid wascompleted by her son (Neferefre or Nyuserre?).The owner had been named as Kings Wife Khentkawes on a graffito found by Perring, and the Czech teamconfirmed the name of Khentkawes (II) and her titles, which were inscribed on a pillar in her mortuary temple. Therewas also a relief in the courtyard depicting the Queen seated on a throne, holding a papyrus sceptre and wearing auraeus - a symbol of kingship at that time. The mortuary temple built on the east side of her pyramid has been foundto be quite extensive, although badly damaged. Constructed in two stages, the inner parts were of limestone, withan altar, a granite false door and magazines.The additions to the mortuary temple were built of mudbrick and included the first example of a cult pyramids in anOld Kingdom queens complex, which also had its own enclosure wall, emphasising the ladys importance.Khentkawes name and titles are the same as a Queen Khentkawes (I), daughter of Menkaure, who owns a largemastaba at Giza and it was originally thought that the two monuments belonged to the same queen - both of whomare depicted wearing the royal uraeus. Egyptologists now suggest that the two ladies may have been related, butmust have been separated by one or two generations. They both seemed to have played an important role as aregent to a young king.In the mortuary temple of Khentkawes another collection of papyrus was found, similar to those from Neferirkareand Neferefres temples (the Abusir Papyri), providing more details of the function of the mortuary cult. 185
  • 186. Солнечный храм Ниусерра 2456ВС 186
  • 187. 187
  • 188. http://www.anse-egypt.com/articles/Nuzzolo-SAK36_2007.pdfhttp://www.anse-egypt.com/articles/Nuzzolo_sun-temples.pdf 188
  • 189. Пирамида Пепи II 2279ВСPepi IIs pyramid complex (originally known as Pepis Life is Enduring) is located in Saqqara, close to many other OldKingdom pharaohs. His pyramid is a modest affair compared to the great pyramid builders of the Fourth Dynasty, butwas comparable to earlier pharaohs from his own dynasty. It was originally 78.5 metres high, but erosion andrelatively poor construction has reduced it 52 metres.The pyramid was the center of a sizable funerary complex, complete with a separate mortuary complex, a small,eastern satellite pyramid. This was flanked by two of his wives pyramids to the north and north-west (Neith and IputII respectively), and one to the south-east (Udjebten), each with their own mortuary complexes. Perhaps reflectingthe decline at the end of his rule, the fourth wife, Ankhenespepy IV was not given her own pyramid but was insteadburied in a store room of the Iputs mortuary chapel. Similarly, Prince Ptahshepses, who likely died near the end ofPepi IIs reign, was buried in the funerary complex of a previous pharaoh, Unas, within a "recycled" sarcophagusdating to the 4th Dynasty.The ceiling of the burial chamber is decorated with stars, and the walls are lined with passages from the Pyramidtexts. An empty black sarcophagus bearing the names and titles of Pepi II was discovered inside.Following in the tradition of the final pharaoh of the Fifth Dynasty, Unas and of his more immediate predecessorsTeti, Pepi I and Merenre, the interior of Pepi IIs pyramid is decorated with what has become known as the pyramidtexts, magical spells designed to protect the dead. Well over 800 individual texts (known as "utterances") are knownto exist, and Pepi IIs contains 675 such utterances, the most in any one place.It is thought that this pyramid complex was completed no later than the thirtieth year of Pepi IIs reign. No notablefunerary constructions of note happened again for at least 30, and possibly as long as 60 years, due indirectly to thekings incredibly long reign. This meant there was a significant generational break for the trained stonecutters,masons, and engineers who had no major state project to work on and to pass along their practical skills. This may 189
  • 190. help explain why no major pyramid projects were undertaken by the subsequent regional kings of Herakleopolisduring the First Intermediate Period.The complex was first investigated by John Shae Perring, but it was Gaston Maspero who entered it first in 1881.Gustav Jéquier investigated in detail between 1926 and 1936. Jéquier was the first excavator to start actually findingany remains from the tomb reliefs, and he was the first to publish a thorough excavation report on the complex.Only two statues identified as representing Pepi II exist, even though he was the longest reigning monarch of AncientEgypt. Even more curious, both of these portraits depict Pepi II as a young child. The first of these, in the BrooklynMuseum, depicts Queen Ankhenesmerire II balancing the youthful Pepi II on her lap, with Pepi II wearing the royalnemes headdress signifying kingship.The second, a small statue in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo shows Pepi II as a naked child, squatting on the childwith his legs apart with his right hand (now missing) touching his mouth (a symbolic gesture of childhood for the godHorus). No other statues of Pepi II are known, though portraits of him as a grown man appear as relief carvings on hisfunerary complex. 190
  • 191. Пирамида Шепсескафа-Аменемхета III 2633ВС 191
  • 192. Amenemhat III attempted to build his first pyramid at Dahshur, but it turned out to be a disaster. Even with the nearby Bent Pyramid as a reminder, Amenemhat IIIs architects built the pyramid on unstable subsoil. The Bent Pyramid isbuilt upon compacted gravel, while Amenemhat IIIs is built on hard clay. The builders compounded this mistake bybuilding the pyramid in one of the lowest locations of any pyramid in Egypt. It lies only 33 feet above sea level.Further problems arose from the shear number of corridors and chambers within the substructure, and the reliancethat the builders placed on their ceilings which had no real stress relieving devices above the kings burial chamber.Early on ground water from the nearby Nile Valley seeped into the pyramids substructure causing structuraldamage, causing menacing cracks to appear in the corridor and chamber walls soon after the pyramid wascompleted. Even before the limestone was applied to the queen chambers, the weight of the pyramid was pushingdown on the ceiling with such force that the walls sank in places up to three cn (two inches) into the pavements. 192
  • 193. Today the pyramid named "Amenemhat is Mighty" is a sad dark ruin on the Dahshur field, aptly sometimes calledthe Black Pyramid. Even though it took 15 years to build, rather then being buried in this pyramid, Amenemhat IIIchose to build a second pyramid at Hawara, closer to his beloved Fayoum.The pyramid was first written about byPerring, who apparently lacked the time to explore the ruins at all. His campsite had been attacked by Bedouins, andit would seem that Perring lost his interest in Dahshur. The Lepsius expedition seems to have noticed it in 1843, butthat was all, until around the early 1900s. It was de Morgan, assisted by George Legrain and Jequier who finallycarried out extensive excavations. Yet at that time, excavations methods remained crude, and many questions aboutthe pyramid remained to be answered. In fact, their investigation was never completed. Finally, between 1976 and1983, a team from the German Archaeological Institute of Cairo lead by Arnold, carried out a modern, extensiveexamination.The valley temple for this complex is badly damaged but it is one of the first 12 Dynasty valley templesto have been located and partially cleared. It was very simple, with two broad open courts built on ascendingterraces. Interestingly, the side walls of the first court were thickened to form a pylon like gateway. Within theseruins was found a limestone model of the subterranean corridors and chambers of a 13th Dynasty pyramid that hasnot yet been discovered. However, some Egyptologists believe that this model, though varying somewhat, wasactually of Amenemhat IIIs pyramid at Hawara.Originally a broad, open causeway built between two brick walls firstled to the valley temple and then continued, connected the valley temple to Amenemhat IIIs mortuary temples andpyramids complex. North of the causeway was a mudbrick settlement for the priests.The mortuary temple connected to the pyramid was relatively small and simple, consisting of an entrance, an opencourtyard with eighteen granite columns in the shape of eight stemmed papyrus plants. However, it was badlydamaged and the layout is really a guess. Behind the courtyard we believe was a long, offering hall. Two plastered,whitewashed mudbrick enclosure walls surrounded the pyramid, with the inner wall dividing the outer opencourtyard of the mortuary temple from the inner sanctuary. This inner wall was also decorated with niches, while theouter wall did not. It is uncertain whether there was a north chapel.One must wonder about the architects of thispyramid, and their level of expertise. The pyramid core was built of mudbrick, just as earlier 12th Dynasty pyramids.However, it liked the stone wings and framework of the earlier pyramids. The builders attempted to strengthen thestructure by building the core in step form. The outer mantle was made of five meter this blocks of fine whitelimestone held together with a system of wooden dovetail joining pegs. Near the top of the pyramid, the walls angleof inclination decreased. The pyramid was capped off with a beautiful dark gray granite pyramidion, discovered inthe rubble in 1990, that was originally 1.3 meters tall. All four sides of the pyramidion bore inscriptions and religioussymbols. The underside was beveled to fit into the casing block below.However, there are questions about thepyramidion. One inscription containing the name of Amun was destroyed, presumably on purpose during the reignof Akhenaten, The pyramidion must have already fallen off by that time, or it was never placed on the pyramid apex.It may have even been a symbolic pyramid on the complex grounds.For the first time, we see a single pyramid builtto accept the remains of both a king and several of his queens. Therefore, the substructure is rather complex, anddiffers entirely from earlier 12th Dynasty pyramids. In fact, even given the number of expected burials, it was morecomplex then the underground layout of earlier pyramids. The subterranean area is divided into two parts, one ofwhich was for the king and the other for two of his consorts. The two sections are connected by a corridor. Near thesoutheast corner on the east side of the pyramid, at the lowest foundation layer, is located the entrance to the kingstomb.Most of the kings section of the pyramid lies under the eastern quadrant of the pyramid. From the entrance, astairway, for the first time since the 3rd Dynasty, led down to an a chamber with a niche high in the wall for thekings canopic chest. This to a short stairway that in turn leads to an entrance corridor and an entire system ofpassageways, shafts, barriers and chambers at various levels, all of it covered in fine white limestone. In fact, thereare more underground chambers and passages than any other pyramids since the 3rd Dynasty.This entrance corridorruns for about twenty meters before turning to the north. However, prior to arriving at this first turn, a corridor leadsoff to the south from the entrance corridor that eventually arrives at the queens section of the pyramid. At the endof the original entrance corridor a right turn is made leading to a short corridor. A second corridor to the queenschambers leads west off this short passage. The short passage then led to another right 90 degree passage headingback in the direction of the pyramids entrance.Following the corridor we find another left 90 degree turn leading 193
  • 194. past a set of annexes before a final left 90 degree turn finally takes us to a small antechamber and then the burialchamber. The burial chamber is somewhat offset from the vertical axis of the pyramid, but was probably suppose tobe directly under it. Apparently the builders lacked the knowledge that others before them had demonstrated. Theburial chamber is also sheathed in fine white limestone, and oriented east-west. Though Amenemhat III was notburied in this pyramid, there was a pink granite sarcophagus within the burial chamber near the west wall. Thesarcophagus had a vaulted top and niches that imitated the perimeter wall of Djosers Step Pyramid at Saqqara. Nearthe north end of the east side of the sarcophagus was a set of eyes for the occupant to lookout in the direction of thesunrise and resurrection.There were two means of getting from the kings section of the pyramid to the queenssection, the direct route from the short, second corridor and the more complex corridor leading south off of theentrance corridor. While the first connecting corridor leads almost directly to the queens burial chamber, the secondpassage, sometimes called the "South Tomb", contains a labyrinth of passageways and six chapels, including a kachapel. Apparently this part of the substructure also imitates a section of Djosers pyramids complex. Lehner believesthis section of the tomb acted as a counterpart to the kings burial suite, acting somewhat like an internalized cultpyramid.The queens section mostly lies under the southern quadrant of the pyramid. There was a second outside entrance tothe queens chambers lying opposite that of the kings entrance, only on the west side of the pyramid. Here, therewas also a descending stairway leading to a chamber with a niche above the doorway for the canopic chest of QueenAat. A corridor out of this chamber that first passes a short corridor on the left leading to the burial chamber ofQueen Aat, who was about 35 when she died It then continues past a second northern corridor that leads to theburial chamber of the second queen, who may have been Neferuptah. This queen was probably around 25. Thebones of both queens were found within their chambers. On the west wall of each burial chamber weresarcophaguses that were very similar to that of the kings. However, the sarcophagus of the second queen lacked theniches found on Amenemhat IIIs sarcophagus.Though thieves had long ago broken into this pyramid, a few items offunerary equipment were found in the queens chambers. Within Aats chambers there were two mace headsdiscovered along with seven alabaster cases in the form of ducks, an alabaster unguent jar and scattered pieces ofjewelry. Thought the canopic chest was broken, all the pieces were found and it contained one canopic jar. In thesecond queens chambers were found an obsidian vassals decorated with gold bands, three alabaster duck shapedvessels, granite and alabaster mace heads and jewelry. There wee also parts of this queens stone shrine, originallyencased in gold and containing a ka statue.Along with the bones of the two queens, four additional burials werediscovered within the pyramid. Because the name of Amenemhat IV appears on the valley temple, some believe thattwo of these burials may have been that king and the last regent of the 12 Dynasty, Queen Sobekneferu. If so, thepyramid was most likely reopened after having been previously sealed. Amenemhat IV and Queen Sobekneferu mayhave begun pyramids at Mazghuna, but these were far from completed and it would appear that no burials tookplace.The pyramid was presumable sealed in year 20 of Amenemhat IIs reign. This took the form of not only filling theentrance stairways with limestone blocks, but also the kings chamber and antechambers, the queens burialchambers and the entrance corridors to the ka chapels. Other chambers and corridors were filled with mudbrick.This may have been a precaution against the pyramids collapse, but chambers in Amenemhat IIIs pyramid atHawara were similarly filled.Outside the pyramid, between the first and second enclosure walls on the north is a rowof ten shaft tombs for the remainder of the royal family. We know that the second tomb from the east belongs tothe kings daughter, Princess Nubheteptikhered. The first tomb on the east was usurped by King Auibre Hor, aninsignificant ruler of the 13th Dynasty. The wooden statue of his Ka found within this tomb is one of the mostvaluable objects in the Egyptian Antiquities Museum. King Hors mummy was found within a wooden coffindiscovered in the tomb, along with some items of funerary equipment. This included a wooden canopic chest thatbore the name of Nimaatre, a name for Amenemhat III. However, the view these days among Egyptologists seems tobe that the name refers to a Khendjer, a successor of Hors. Khendjer later took the name Userkare. There seems tobe considerable confusion around this particular burial among archaeologists.The remnants of the monument arelocated one mile south of the pyramid of Amenemhat III. Several tombs of princesses, the queen and the vizier werefound west of the site. Beautiful jewels were found in the tombs of princesses. 194
  • 195. 195
  • 196. The Black Pyramid of Amenemhat III (Dahshur), with all its wide passageways, had multiple structural deficits. Thepyramid was built in one of the lowest regions of Egypt, only 10 meters above sea level. There are myriad corridors andchambers underground, and there are not enough stress relievers to hold up the ceilings. The pyramid is not verysturdy, as it was built with mud brick instead of the traditional stone. The low elevation, corridors, and unstable buildingmaterial allowed groundwater from the Nile to seep into the walls, causing the entire pyramid to sink into the groundand crack. 196
  • 197. 197
  • 198. 198
  • 199. 199
  • 200. Пирамида Аменемхета I в Лиште 1939 – 1909 BC ?A block with the cartouche of Khufu in Amenemhet Is pyramid 200
  • 201. The causeway ran in a straight line on the axis of the pyramid and temple, but interestingly, was built without a roof. Itswalls were nevertheless apparently decorated with scenes depicting processions of foreigners, estates, nobles and gods.Regrettably, this generation of pyramids utilized mudbrick in their construction, which is always a problem from thestandpoint of preservation. Today, the pyramid stands mostly in ruins that only rise about 20 meters above the Lishtground level, though at one time its size was reasonably close to those built in the Old Kingdom. The core of thepyramid was made of small rough blocks of local limestone with a loose fill of sand, debris and mudbrick. Remarkably,and probably for spiritual reasons, pyramid includes relief decorated blocks from a number of Old Kingdom monuments.They include granite blocks from the pyramid complexes, particularly their caseways and valley temples, of Kufu, Khafre,Unas and Pepi (II?). They were used to line and block this pyramids descending passage. This may suggest that thecauseways and valley temples of these earlier kings may have already been ruined during the time of Amenemhet I. Thecasing for the pyramid was made from fine white Tura limestone.The entrance of the descending passage way is in the north face of the pyramid about ground level. It was covered bythe North Chapel, and upon the kings burial, a red granite false door at the rear of the chapel sealed the entrance. Theentrance corridor, which was line with pink granite and sealed with blocks of the same material, gradually descends t asquare chamber that lay on the pyramids vertical axis. Here, a vertical shaft in the floor dropped to the burial chamberthat today is troubled by local ground water. All efforts to pump the ground water out have so far failed.There seems to have been no small cult pyramid. The pyramid and mortuary temple were surrounded by no less thantwo perimeter walls, the outer being made of mudbrick and the inner one made from limestone. Between these walls atthe rear (west) have been discovered 22 shaft tombs apparently belonging to the royal women. Fragmentaryinscriptions have provided some information on these individuals, including the kings daughter, Neferu, who was theprincipal wife of Senwosret I, the kings mother, Nefret, and a principal wife, Nefrytatenen, who was the mother ofSenwosret I. On the southwest corner of the pyramid was also found the tomb of Amenemhet Is vizier Antefiker. Nearthe northeast side of the pyramid between the enclosure walls are two mastabas of unknown ownership.This pyramid was in effect very different then its predecessors. To a certain extent, it incorporated elements of both theold pyramids and the Theban tombs, including the style of some reliefs, the two terraces of the pyramid and temple, thecentral shaft to the burial chamber and the open causeway.Restoring ancient monuments of Khaemwaset 1284ВС -1224ВСKhaemweset restored the monuments of earlier kings and nobles. Restoration texts were found associated with thepyramid of Unas at Saqqara, the tomb of Shepseskaf called the Mastabet el-Faraun, the sun-Temple of Nyuserre, thePyramid of Sahure, the Pyramid of Djoser, and the Pyramid of Userkaf. Inscriptions at the pyramid temple of Userkafshow Khaemweset with offering bearers, and at the pyramid temple of Sahure Khamwaset offers a statue of thegoddess Bast.[4]Khaemweset restored a statue of Prince Kawab, a son of King Khufu. The inscription on the throne reads:It is the Chief Directing Artisans and Sem-Priest, the Kings Son, Khaemweset , who was glad over this statue of theKings Son Kawab, and who took it from what was cast (away) for debris (?), in [...] .. of his father, the King of South andNorth Egypt, Kheops. Then the S[em-Priest and Kings Son, Kha]em[waset] decreed that [it be given] a place of favor ofthe Gods in company with the excellent Blessed Spirits at the Head of the Spirit (Ka) chapel of Ro-Setjau, -so greatly didhe love antiquity and the noble folk who were aforetime, along with the excellence (of) all that they had made, so well,and repeatedly ("a million times"). 201
  • 202. These (things) shall be for (for) all life, stability and prosperity, enduring upon earth, [for the Chief Directing Artisans andSem-Priest, the Kings Son, Kha]emwaset , after he has (re)established all their cult procedures of this temple, which hadfallen into oblivion [in the remembrance] of men.He has dug a pool before the noble sanctuary (?), in work (agreeing) with his wishes, while pure channels existed, forpurity, and to bring libations from (?) the reservoir (?) of Khefren, that he may attain (the status of) given life. (Kitchen).[4]Some of these restorations took place during his later tenure as Sem-Priest. The work on the pyramid of Djoser is datedto year 36 of Ramesses II. Some of the inscriptions mention Khaemweset’s title as Chief of the Artificers or Chief ofCrafts. Hence, some of these restorations were undertaken after his promotion as the High Priest of Ptah in Memphisabout the 45th year of the reign of Ramesses II.[3]Khaemweset held the position of Crown Prince to the throne between Year 50 and Year 55 of his fathers reign when hedied. He was succeeded in this position by his full brother Merneptah.[2] He also served as Governor of Memphis.On the south face of Unass Pyramid there is an hieroglyphic inscription that dates to the time of Ramses II c. 1250 b.c.e.Khaemwaset, high preist to Ptah in Memphis had restored the pyramid by order of his father Ramses II, and hadreapplied the name of Unas, which had disappeared.Amenemhat I, who founded Egypts 12th Dynasty, was most likely the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom, after the FirstIntermediate Period, to build any sort of substantial pyramid. He did this at Lisht, near the Faiyum Oasis, which wasgrowing in importance during this time. In fact, his pyramid named "Cult Places of Amenemhats Appearance" mostlikely was built very near his new capital of Itj-towy. In addition, the old, important canal called Bahr el-Libeini may haverun very close to the escarpment at the foot of Amenemhat Is pyramid, thus providing it with a harbor.Amenemhat I also established a new tradition. In the Old Kingdom, the name of the pyramid usually was inclusive of theassociated structures, including the pyramid town that so often grew up around the pyramids. However, fromAmenemhats time on, the major components of the complex each had their own names.It was Maspero who, in 1882, was the first archaeologist to descend into the interior of Amenemhat Is pyramid. Then,in 1894 and 1895, the French archaeological expedition under the direction of Gautier and Jequier continued toinvestigate this pyramid. It was further explored by a team from the Metropolitan Museum of New York from 1902 until1934 under the direction of Albert Lythgoe and Arthur Mace.Unfortunately, a local Muslim cemetery is located atop Amenemhat Is valley temple. This component of the complexhas not been seriously investigated both because of the cemetery, and the fact that its remains are below the level ofground water in the area.The mortuary temple is located on the east side of the pyramid and this component of the complex was called "High(rises up) Amenemhets Beauty". It is much smaller and simpler then Old Kingdom mortuary temples that lies on a levelbelow the pyramids base. This may architecturally reflect back to an influence from Mentuhotep IIs terraced temple atDeir el-Bahari. Hardly anything remains of this temple, and so reconstructing its layout is difficult at best. Fragmentaryinscriptions and reliefs found in the ruins suggest that it may have been rebuilt during the reign of Senusret I. Only theupper end of the mortuary temples courtyard, which was originally open and had decorated walls, has beeninvestigated. It may have been modeled on Mentuhotep IIs complex as well.Some relief fragments were found among the ruins of the mortuary temple and can be dated from the time ofAmenemhat I. However, some seem to have been recreation of Old Kingdom scenes. Inscriptions from one such reliefseem to indicate that from year 20 of Amenemhat Is rule, his son Senusret I was a co-regent of his father. These reliefs 202
  • 203. appear to have had as their theme, the Sed Festival of Amenemhet which would have been held close to his 30th yearof rule.We do know that there was an offering hall from the limestone false door and granite altar found in the ruins. The altaris carved, depicting Nile gods and figures representing the nomes bringing offerings. In addition, foundation depositswere discovered that contained an ox skull, paint grinders and model vases of pottery and alabaster. Also found herewere bricks with plaques of copper, alabaster and faience, one of which was inscribed with the pyramids name.The causeway ran in a straight line on the axis of the pyramid and temple, but interestingly, was built without a roof. Itswalls were nevertheless apparently decorated with scenes depicting processions of foreigners, estates, nobles and gods.Regrettably, this generation of pyramids utilized mudbrick in their construction, which is always a problem from thestandpoint of preservation. Today, the pyramid stands mostly in ruins that only rise about 20 meters above the Lishtground level, though at one time its size was reasonably close to those built in the Old Kingdom.The core of the pyramid was made of small rough blocks of local limestone with a loose fill of sand, debris andmudbrick. Remarkably, and probably for spiritual reasons, pyramid includes relief decorated blocks from a number ofOld Kingdom monuments. They include granite blocks from the pyramid complexes, particularly their caseways andvalley temples, of Khufu, Khafra, Unas and Pepi (II?). They were used to line and block this pyramids descendingpassage. This may suggest that the causeways and valley temples of these earlier kings may have already been ruinedduring the time of Amenemhat I. The casing for the pyramid was made from fine white Tura limestone.The entrance of the descending passage way is in the north face of the pyramid about ground level. It was covered bythe North Chapel, and upon the kings burial, a red granite false door at the rear of the chapel sealed the entrance. Theentrance corridor, which was line with pink granite and sealed with blocks of the same material, gradually descends t asquare chamber that lay on the pyramids vertical axis. Here, a vertical shaft in the floor dropped to the burial chamberthat today is troubled by local ground water. All efforts to pump the ground water out have so far failed.There seems to have been no small cult pyramid. The pyramid and mortuary temple were surrounded by no less thentwo perimeter walls, the outer being made of mudbrick and the inner one made from limestone. Between these walls atthe rear (west) have been discovered 22 shaft tombs apparently belonging to the royal women. Fragmentaryinscriptions have provided some information on these individuals, including the kings daughter, Neferu, who was theprincipal wife of Senusret I, the kings mother, Nefret, and a principal wife, Nefrytatenen, who was the mother ofSenusret I. On the southwest corner of the pyramid was also found the tomb of Amenemhat Is vizier Antefiker. Nearthe northeast side of the pyramid between the enclosure walls are two mastabas of unknown ownership.This pyramid was in effect very different then its predecessors. To a certain extent, it incorporated elements of both theold pyramids and the Theban tombs, including the style of some reliefs, the two terraces of the pyramid and temple, thecentral shaft to the burial chamber and the open causeway. 203
  • 204. Мастаба 17Большая мастаба №17 — самая большая из известных, исключаямастабу Нефермаат. Она, и это общепризнанно,— лучшая мастаба вЕгипте и самая ранняя частная каменная гробница, содержащая ста-рейший каменный гроб.Помещение в ней много грандиозней, чем впирамиде Снофру. Поэтому она — главный объект исследований. Ксо-жалению, на ней нет ни одного иероглифа, ни внутри, ни снаружи.Когда профессором Масперо в 1882 годубыл отрыт фасад, «табличка»на ложной двери, обычно исписанная, оказалась совершенно пустой.Позже дверьбыла украдена «на камень».Полный размер мастабы по уровню фундамента — 4122х2064 дюй-ма, или 200х100локтей. Внешняя поверхность мастабы была из черно-го кирпича, а внутренний объем — из обломков чистогокамня и мер-геля, уложенных в регулярные слои строителями граничащей с нейпирамиды. В поисках хотькакого-то входа в 1891 году Петри очистилсеверную и восточную стороны. Затем очистил всю вершину поосигребня. И, наконец, спустился в 48-футовую шахту сквозь все теломогилы позади ниши ложной двери.Последнее дало возможность уви-деть часть кирпичных защитных стен, видимо, находящихся в яме, со-держащей помещение. Но опасность работ в осколочном грунте, всеувеличивающаяся с глубиной, прервала их. Вэтом году он выгреб все,что нападало в старую яму, и попытался увеличить ее для безопаснойработы.Внутренние помещения, без всякой связи с внешним миромпосле возведения мастабы, были помещены вскальную яму. Захоро-нение должно было произойти вскоре после завершения строительствакамеры икоридоров, но до того как 100 000 тонн камней и осколковусилиями строителей Пирамиды легли слоями вгромадную массу надними. А со стороны оказались видимыми только стены мастабы из са-манного кирпича,углубленные в скалу.Интерьер гробницы поражает еще больше, чем верхнее строение.Длинный коридор — около 8 футов высоты, 4футов ширины и более чем40 футов длины. Скругленные углы дверных проемов — не встречавше-гося нигдетипа. Назначение их не ясно, поскольку саркофаг слишкомвелик, чтоб пройти коридоры, и должен был быть 204
  • 205. «встроен», а внутрен-ний гроб не столь велик, чтоб не смочь пройти углы. Скругления сде-ланы послезавершения строительства стесыванием камня по краснымлиниям, прочерченным на стенах. Визуальный эффектот смелых широ-ких скруглений — большая вместительность помещений. Главный холл— более 20 футов длины,16 футов высоты и 7 футов ширины. Здесь надпроходом и нишей видны гигантские блоки перекрытия. Размеры:218— длина, 103,5 — глубина и 50 дюймов — ширина, вес около 38 тонн. 205
  • 206. Пирамида Лепсиуса №1Also uncertain is the attribution of an unfinished, partly mud-brick pyramid which is located in Abu Roash,the so calledLepsius 1 pyramid (A1); anyhow the substructure excavated in the rock clearly points to the end of the 3 th /beginningof the 4 th dynasty (Swelim 1983).Abu Rawash is only a few kilometers north of Giza, but it is rarely visited because there is really very little to see. Mostof the monuments built there are in complete ruin. The best known of these is a pyramid built by the 4th Dynasty king,Djedefra (Radjedef). Then, perhaps, the second most noticeable ruins are those of the structure that the Lepsiusexpedition believed was a pyramid. As the northernmost of any pyramid ruins discovered at that time, they assigned itthe number one. This is a mudbrick structure built in the easternmost hills promontory. This structure was originallydiscovered by J. Perring in the 1830s, and was also investigated by Vyse, who luckily didnt blow it up. Later, Bisson de laRoque also briefly examined the structure, but the most recent and comprehensive work appears to have beencompleted by NabilSwelim, an Egyptian archaeologist, in the mid 1980s. 206
  • 207. There seems to remain some debate about whether this is indeed a pyramid, and if so, who built it. Verner doesntseem altogether sure that it even is a pyramid, and while Lehner refers to the structure as a pyramid, he seems tobelieve it was possibly a provincial step pyramid, such as others scattered as for south as Elephantine. Provincialpyramids are most often small, step pyramid that in general are believed to have not been built as tombs.However, many of the provincial pyramids seem to have little or no substructure, were as Lepsius number 1 does. Andwhile some questions seem to remain about its status as a pyramid, the majority opinion among current Egyptologistssuggests that it most likely was, in fact, at least meant to be.In Swelims view, who should by all rights be most familiar with the structure, it was indeed an enormous mudbrick steppyramid, with about one quarter of its core made up of a rock outcropping. Of course, this made the structure strong,plus quick and cheap to build. Swelim dates it to the end of the 3rd Dynasty and believes that it most likely was built onthe instructions of Huni.However, Verner brings up a number of arguments against Swelims conclusions. To begin with, he points out that thestructure is located on the farthest edge of the Nile flood zone and not in an elevated position like many otherpyramids. In addition, Verner tells us that there are at least thirty rock cut tombs of the 5th Dynasty and 6th Dynastythat are honeycombed in the rock outcropping that Swelim believes was incorporated into the structures core.If the structure was built at the end of the 3rd Dynasty, Verner remains skeptical that it would have been so destroyedat the end of the 4th Dynasty that tombs would be built in the outcropping used as part of its core. It should also bepointed out that mudbrick would have been an unusual material to have been used in a royal pyramid of the 3rd or 4thDynasty. However, Middle Kingdom dates can be excluded by the rock cut core (this kind of substructures is out offashion already at the end of fourth dynasty), even though mudbrick pyramids were built in that era. Of course, thetombs built in the outcropping would suggest, if anything, that it might be older then thought, rather then newer.Yet many if not most Egyptologists do seem to think that it is a pyramid that either belonged to Huni, or possiblyanother king named Neferka.In building the pyramid, mudbricks was laid over the rock outcropping and the remainder of the core, inclined inward at75-76 degrees in accretion layers. Actually, the use of an outcropping was not unique. For example, we also find asimilar structure in the pyramid of Senusret II at Dahshur, along with other kings.When it was discovered, much of the mudbrick had been stripped away from its position, but it is estimated that thebase length of the pyramid was about 215 meters. Theoretically, it should have had a height of between 107 and 150meters, though when discovered, the rubble pile was only about 20 meters in tall. Within the structure the rockoutcropping (core) was penetrated from the north by a 25 degree sloping corridor leading south before communicatingwith a square funerary chamber.Within the pyramid, the burial chamber would have laid under the vertical axes of the pyramid, as was customary.The mudbrick monument of Abu Rawash, which would have been comparable in size to the Zawyet el Aryan unfinishedpyramid Nebkara. 207
  • 208. Учитывая расположение спроектированного некрополя Абу Роаш 4-й династии на котором найдены мастабысемьи Джедефры ,возможно предположить ,что это первоначальный проект Джедефры ,который на раннейстадии был оставлен по каким то неизвестным причинам. В построенной рядом каменной пирамиде Абу Роашон был погребен позднее. 208
  • 209. http://www.egypt.edu/pdf/adresses/abou-rawach/abourawach-hd.pdfhttp://www.enotes.com/topic/Djedefrehttp://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/abu-rawash.html 209
  • 210. Туринский царский канонhttp://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.htmlhttp://sitemaker.umich.edu/mladjov/files/egypt_traditional_kinglist.pdfhttp://ancient-cultures.info/attachments/File/List_of_Egyptian_Rulers.pdf 210
  • 211. 211
  • 212. 212
  • 213. Генеалогическое древо династийhttp://www.egyptology.ru/berlev/2-2.pdfhttp://www.egyptology.ru/berlev/Sotis.pdfhttp://www.egyptology.ru/berlev/goldenname.pdf 213
  • 214. Что же произошло в 11 год царя Сену? (некоторые замечанияк гипотезе О.Д.Берлева)Роман А. Орехов (ЦЕИ РАН)"Мудрые мужи перед потопом, предсказывавшие кару небес водой или огнем, вследствие которой будетуничтожено все живое, построили в Верхнем Египте на вершинах гор множество пирамид из камня, дабы найти вних спасение от грозящей катастрофы". (Аль-Балхи, IX в. "Тысячи и многое иное"1)Название моего доклада - это логическое продолжение темы, впервые озвученной на II научной историко-археологической межвузовской конференции в октябре 2002 года . Его первая часть под названием"Идеологические аспекты пирамидного строительства в эпоху III-IV династий" была посвящена сопоставлениюданных классических и древнеегипетских источников. Необходимо коротко остановиться на сутипредложенной мной тогда гипотезы. Прежде всего, она связывает строительство монументальных пирамидДревнего царства не с утверждением или последующем усилением деспотической власти богов-фараонов, а сбедствием, обрушившемся на Египет во времена второго царя III династии - Джосера, известного в то времяпод своим Горовым именем - Нечерирхет. Семилетняя засуха, вызванная резким обмелением Нила, поставилатогда на порог смерти все египетское население. Постулируя столь радикально проблему влияния нильскогопаводка на ход исторических событий, мы расходимся в оценке этого влияния с мнением многих авторитетныхисследователей. В частности, Ж.Вандье, собравший в своем фундаментальном труде описание всех случаевголода в Древнем Египте (известных на момент публикации монографии), был убежден, что недостаточныйподъем Нила хотя и требовал порой мучительных ограничений, но никогда не представлял опасности длягосударства3. Однако египтолог уточняет, что это было возможно при условии, "когда страна или областьхорошо управлялись" 4. К сожалению, мы не имеем сведений относительно того, что представлял из себяадминистративный аппарат в эпоху Джосера и существовал ли он вообще в достаточно развитом состоянии.Более того, мы убеждены в обратном - именно строительство монументальных пирамид способствоваловозникновению и упрочению древнеегипетского государства5. Другими словами, это строительствоспособствовало формированию не только административного аппарата, но и такой структуры организациилюдей, при которой управляемый государством труд мог быть направлен на выполнение любыхгосударственных работ. Возвращаясь к проблеме отсутствия паводка в эпоху Джосера, мы вынужденыконстатировать, что его причины носили катастрофический характер. Религиозное сознание египтян не могло вто время осмыслить это явление как природное, а видело в нем Замаровский В. Их величества пирамиды. Москва, 1981, С. 36.2Конференция "Открытия минувшего лета" состоялась 29-30 октября 2002 г. на историческом факультетеМосковского городского педагогического университета. Материалы конференции находятся в печати.3 Vandier J. La famine dans 1Egypte ancienne. Le Caire, 1940, p. 48-49. 214
  • 215. исключительно кару богов первого порога, которые по представлениям жителей Долины иотвечали за это половодье. Если засуха, как кара, могла обрушиться на Египет (зажатый в силугеографических особенностей между двух пустынь) в любой момент, то этот страх неизбежноналожил отпечаток на последующую идеологию. Каждый царь, восходя на престол, сотворялдля божества пирамиду как "возмещение (jsw)" за милости, изливаемые этим божеством наземлю Египта. Больше всех в этом строительстве преуспели цари IV династии - Снофру и его сынХнум-Хуфу. Первый воздвиг за время своего двадцатичетырехлетнего правления четырепирамиды, второй спроектировал "Горизонт", сооружение, включающее в себя по крайнеймере две большие пирамиды и сфинкс. В последнем, по гипотезе Р.Штадельмана, он и пожелалувековечить собственный облик6. Основная проблема нашего исследования на данныймомент заключается в следующем. Единственное внятное сообщение о великой засухе дошлоло нас от эпохи Птолемеев, т.е. времени более позднего, нежели правление Джосера и егоприемников. Можно ли утверждать, что это событие в действительности могло произойти в Штыс. до Р.Х., а если да, то почему оно не нашло отражения в документах Древнего царства,когда возводились сами пирамиды? Согласно гипотезе О.Д.Берлева, семилетняя засуха - этовполне реальное событие эпохи правления Джосера 7. Анализ некоторых положений этойгипотезы, а также формулировка вытекающих из нее выводов - основная цель нашего доклада.Елавное достоинство теории О.Д.Берлева состоит в том, что в ней исторические событиянаходятся в тесном взаимодействии с выводами астрономии. Астрономия в некоторомсмысле наука более точная, чем история и там, где исторические факты начинают "плясать"или противоречить друг другу, астрономия прочно ставит их на место. Что же особенногосделал О.Д.Берлев? Прежде всего он сопоставил два источника - текст "Стелы голода",выбитый на скале острова Сехель, в районе первого нильского порога, и сообщениеримского писателя Клавдия Элиана (III в. по Р.Х.), сохраненное в лексиконе Свиды (X в. поР.Х.). Элиан, в частности, упоминал древнеегипетскую легенду о неизвестном царе Сениусе иего приближенном, великом враче и писце священных книг Яхиме. По легенде, Яхим вступает вборьбу со звездой зла, Сириусом, и укрощает ее огненный пыл, способный уничтожить страну.Элиан также уточняет и время этого противостояния, оно произошло "при наипервейшемпоявлении Сириуса". Исходя из титулатуры, выбитой на цоколе царской статуи, обнаруженнойвозле коллонады при ступенчатой пирамиде в Саккара, Берлев установил, что под царемСениусом у Элиана упомянут никто иной, как царь Нижнего Египта Сену, он же Нечерирхет,первый фараон, построивший каменную пирамиду. Его соратник, упомянутый у Элиана какЯхим, - это прославленный мудрец и архитектор Древнего царства Имхотеп. Единственнаяприжизненная титулатура Имхотепа выбита на том же пьедестале рядом с именем царя Сену.Следовательно, как справедливо полагает О.Д.Берлев, события, о которых повествует Элиан.могли происходить во времена Джосера.4 Ibid, p. 49.5 Данная гипотеза принадлежит К.Мендельсону, - Ламберг-Карловски К., Саблов Дж. ДревниеЦивилизации.Ближний Восток и Мезоамерика. Москва, 1992, С. 134-135.6 Stadelman R. Die ägyptischen Pyramiden. Vom Ziegelbau zum Weltwunder. Mainz am Rhein, 1991, S.125-126;Stadelman R. The Great Sphinx of Giza - creation of Khufu/ Cheops. - Abstracts of Papers, EightInternationalCongress of Egyptologists. Cairo, 2000. p.p. 174-175.7 Берлев О. Д. Два периода Сотиса между годом 18 царя Сену, или Тосортроса, и годом 2фараона АнтонинаПия. - "Древний Египет; язык-культура-сознание". Москва, 1999, С. 42-62. 215
  • 216. Вторая часть сообщения Элиана упоминает "наипервейший" восход Сириуса. Остановимся наэтом моменте более подробно. Как известно, разлив Нила за несколько недель до егонаступления предваряется гелиакическим восходом Сириуса, т.е. первой видимостью звездына утреннем небе. Приблизительно в это же время по египетскому календарю начинался Новыйгод. В Александрийском календаре, принятом во времена императора Августа, дата утреннеговосхода Сириуса остается приблизительно постоянной, поэтому Александрийский год (египетский год в 365 дней + дополнительные четверть суток) приблизительно совпадает сгодом Сириуса. Между ними существует точное цифровое соотношение: 1460александрийских лет равняются 1461 египетскому году 8. Отсюда вытекает, что через 1461египетский год утренний восход Сириуса опять придется на ту же дату в египетском календаре.Открытие периодов "возвращения" Сириуса в эту исходную точку (т.н. апокастасис)принадлежит древнегреческому математику Теону Александрийскому Старшему. Теон,начиная с утреннего восхода Сириуса в 139 г. по Юлианскому календарю, который пришелся напервое число месяца Тота по египетскому календарю, высчитал, что в годы - 4241, 2781, 1321утренний восход Сириуса приходился также на первое число месяца Тота9. Но Теон сообщал инечто иное. Из его труда явствует, что отсчет периода Сотис велся от времени легендарногоегипетского правителя, которого он сопоставлял с Августом, а на египетский манер называлМенофреосом10. Благодаря Теону эта эра так и получила название эра "аро Menofreos", т.е. отМенофреоса. Перед многими египтологами встал вопрос, кто из фараонов, правивших около1321 года, оказался прототипом для носителя греческого имени Менофреос, поскольку всеони, начиная со В.В.Струве и поддержавшего его позднее К.Зете, были убеждены, что Теонподразумевал дату первого апокастасис от 139 года. Вероятно поэтому их выбор и пал нафараона XIX династии Сети 1, время правления которого приблизительно совпадало срасчетной датой, т.е. 1321 годом". Как показал О.Д.Берлев на материале поздних папирусов,это было принципиальной ошибкой. Из его выводов следует, что Менофреос - это вовсе негрецизированная форма одного из имен царской титулатуры, а своего рода "прозвище"фараона Джосера -Мемфисец (ведь именно этого царя почитали родоначальником первоймемфисской династии). Следовательно, под Менофреосом Теон подразумевал Джосера, азначит совсем иную дату. Египтологи тогда не придали значения тому факту, что взнаменитом Туринском папирусе, этом своеобразном ключе ко всей древнеегипетскойхронологии, титул "Царь Верхнего и Нижнего Египта" только уι τодного Нечерирхета был выделен красным цветом . Поэтому можно предположить, чтосоставители анналов связывали с ним какое-то знаменательное событие. Но какое? Берлевубежден, что в 18 год правления Джосера, по юлианскому календарю в 2781 был введендревнеегипетский календарь в 365 дней. Уточним, что цифра 18 взята Берлевым из текста тойсамой сехельской стелы. Согласно главному выводу Олега Дмитриевича, оба источника - и стелас острова Сехель, и сообщение Элиана - подразумевают одно и тоже событие. Однако еслиВан-Дер-Варден Б. Рождение астрономии. Пробуждающаяся наука П. Москва, 1991, С. 24.9 Ван-Дер-Варден, Рождение астрономии..., С. 24.10 Стучевский И. А. Рамсес Π и Херихор. Из истории древнего Египта эпохи Рамессидов. Москва,1984, С.15-16.1 Стучевский, Рамсес II и Херихор..., С. 16.12 Wildling D. Die Rolle Ägyptischer Könige im Bewusstsein ihrer Nachweit. München, 1969, S. 65. 216
  • 217. это так, то почему мотивировка трагедии в памятниках несколько различается? Например,согласно тексту сехельской стелы, голод, поразивший Египет в 11 год правления Джосера, былвызван недостаточным усердием египтян в почитании главного божества первого порогаХнума13. После напрасного семилетнего ожидания Джосер обращается за советом к сынубога Птаха Имхотепу и тот указывает царю истинную причину засухи. Отныне Джосерунеобходимо возобновить почитание Хнума и всех богов первого порога. Джосер немедленноэто осуществляет и приводит в страну обильное половодье. Таким образом, время датировкистелы с острова Сехель, 18 год Нечерирхета-Джосера, - это время избавления от засухи, поБерлеву, первый день первого месяца сезона половодья. В сообщении Элиана эти событияпредставлены если и менее драматично, то более глобально. Источник засухи здесь,несомненно, звезда Сириус. Ее огненное дыхание буквально испепеляет страну. И именно сэтой звездой борется "Тот-младший", соратник царя Сену . Заметим, что сехельская стела такжеупоминает Сириус, правда в несколько ином качестве, представляя звезду спутницей Хнума-Ранаряду с Анукис . Здесь и Сатис (Сириус), и Анукис - божественные обитатели дома Хнума ипоэтому всецело зависят от своего владыки. Можно поэтому допустить, что Хнум-Раобращает гнев своей дочери против людей (в этом случае ситуация будет чем то напоминатьизвестный эпизод "Мифа о небесной корове"). Хотя текст стелы такой информации не содержит,это объяснение представляется наиболее правдоподобным. К мифологической основе сказаниямы вернемся чуть позже, а пока процитируем одно важное место из работы О.Д.Берлева:"В каникулярии года 18 царя Сену/Тосортроса отмечен восход звезды, принятой за источникизнурительной, всеиссушающей жары. В постархаические времена именно эту звезду считалиодним из благостных светил на небосводе, предвестницей ежегодного половодья, несущегожизнь Египту, богиней, управляющей годом, несомненно в 365 дней, отождествляемой с самойблагодетельной фигурой египетского пантеона Исидой. Следовательно, для того, чтобы этузвезду признали источником страшной опасности, светилом, несущим зло, надо, чтобы доканикулярии года 18 на нее не обращали внимания. Более того, нужно, чтобы иссушающая ииспепеляющая жара началась с гелиакического восхода звезды, когда она появляется последолгого отсутствия на небосклоне, перед самым восходом солнца, чтобы почти сразу погаснуть вего лучах. Кроме того, надо, чтобы было точно известно, что вчера этой звезды на этом месте небыло. Но вот она появилась - и сразу же началось страшное бедствие."(Берлев О. Д. Соч. у к., С.57).Следует отметить, что подобное решение проблемы не устраняет несколько достаточноспорных позиций. Первое, египтолог не объясняет почему звезда, несущая испепеляющуюжару, отождествляется тем не менее с самой благодетельной богиней Исидой. Второе - 18год не может быть назван годом открытия гелиакического восхода Сириуса, ибо в этом случаемы обесцениваем сообщение сехельской стелы, говорящей о семи годах засухи. Другимисловами, 18 год не может являться одновременно и годом открытия, и годом, с которогоначинается бедствие. Следовательно, если первый восход Сириуса привел к великойтрагедии, то он неизбежно должен был произойти в 11 год Джосера. Однако в таком случае11 год не может быть связан как с датой начала половодья, так и с датой введения календаря.Эта двусмысленность приводит нас к выводу, что если Элиан и сехельская стела говорят ободном явлении, то освещают его с различных временных точек. Предположим, чтогелиакический восход Сириуса в13 Barguet P. La stele de la famine ä Sehel. Le Caire, 1953 (далее - Sehe!); новейший перевод -Goedicke H.Comments on the "Famine Stela1 (Varia Aegyptiaca Supplement 5). San-Antonio, 1994, p.p. 51-57.14 Берлев О. Д. Два периода Сотиса..., С. 55.15 Sehel. 14. 217
  • 218. день X 11 года царя Джосера мог привести к засухе, точнее, мог обозначить только ее начало,поскольку звезда была видна несколько минут и далее, как считает Берлев, сразу должнапогаснуть в лучах восходящего солнца. Однако по истечении десяти дней Сириус становитсявиден на небе перед восходом солнца уже 40 минут. И это колличество времени продолжаетнарастать с каждым днем вплоть до его кульминационной точки, после чего он будет плавноопускаться к линии горизонта16. Сириус не виден на небе в течение 70-ти дней, ровностолько он находится в "доме Геба". Если мы отнимем от 365-ти дней цифру 70, то получим295 дней наблюдения Сириуса в ночное время, вплоть до его очередного ухода за горизонт.Значит, собственно сам гелиакический восход Сириуса не может быть признан за источникзасухи, но он может потенциально обозначить время ее начала. Если же звезда сама несетогненную испепеляющую силу, то она должна находиться на небе в течение достаточнодлительного периода времени (и не только ночью). Можно теоретически допустить, что попрошествии семи лет Джосер наконец узнает о причинах засухи и предпринимает необходимыемеры для ее устранения. Если в 18 году в Долину приходит долгожданное половодье, этостановится точкой отсчета в древнеегипетском календаре. Но в таком случае нам необходимопонять, - что же произошло в 11 год царя Сену?Мы допускаем, что Клавдий Элиан в столь необычной форме сообщил информацию опоследствиях взрыва спутника звезды Сириус А - Сириуса В (звезда Сириус, как доказаноастрономией - звезда двойная). Однако произошло это событие не в начале нашей эры, какпредполагалось ранее, а на заре возникновения самой древней цивилизации в ДолинеНила. Астрономические, точнее астрофизические аспекты взрыва Сириуса Взатрагиваются в специальной литературе и говорить о них не имеет смысла, за исключениемодного - почему все-таки в связи со взрывом звезды предполагалась несколько иная дата . Во IIв. по Р.Х. один из крупнейших астрономов эллинского мира Клавдий Птолемей в своемглавном труде "Мэгале синтаксис" (вошедшим в историю науки под арабским названием"Альмагест") включил Сириус в каталог красных звезд. Клавдий Птолемей сравнивал Сириус сМарсом и называл "Красной собачьей звездой". После Птолемея не было ни одного астронома,кто бы мог стоять своим авторитетом наравне со знаменитым александрийцем. Только в X векепоявляется подробный каталог звезд арабского астронома Аль-Суфи, в котором Сириуспредставлен как белая звезда. Датский астроном XIX века Шэллеруп счел, что причина стольразительного расхождения между очень авторитетными астрономами Π и X в.в. кроется вошибке переписчика Альмагеста, который не понял слово "Сайриос" и заменил его на"Ипокирос". Но в таком случае, это не принципиальная ошибка. Название звезды - Сириус -принято производить от греч.1А"сайриос", т.е. "жгучий", "знойный" . Слово "ипокирос" можно интерпретировать как "огненно-красный"19, т.е. мы допускаем, что переводчик использовал это слово в качестве синонима. Впоэме Гесиода "Труды и дни" раскрывается эта необычная черта Сириуса:16 Ван-Дер-Варден Б. Рождение астрономии..., С. 29-33.17 В нашей статье мы используем только историко-астрономический материал, взятый из статьи проф.Д.Я.Мартынова. Мартынов Д. Я. Красный Сириус// Земля и Вселенная 1 (1976), С. 36-39.18 Вейсман А. Д. Греческо-русский словарь (репринт 1899 г.). Москва, 1991, С. 1125; Карпенко Ю. А.Названия звездного неба. Москва, 1985, С. 66-67.19 Вейсман, Греческо-русский словарь..., С. 1290. 218
  • 219. "Тою порою...мужчиныСлабы: им Сириус темя и бедра насквозь прожигает, Сохнет от зноя их кожа"" .Как предполагается, Гесиод жил в VIII в. до Р.Х., а вот лесбосский поэт Алкей, современникСапфо, живший позднее автора Трудов и дней", оставил такое любопытное наблюдение:"В ту пору жены грязны И мужчины слабы: сушит головы им и ноги ЖаркийСириус..."21.Не Солнце, замечает проф. Ф.Ф.Зелинский, после восхода Сириуса, а сам Сириус обессиливаетмужчин; невзгоды знойного лета, с его слабостью и лихарадками, приписываютсянепосредственному воздействию лучей лютого Пса22. В III в. до Р.Х. для его умиротворениягреки приносили в жертву рыжую собаку23. Этот обычай позже перешел в Рим и сталособенно процветать в эпоху Антонинов (II в.)24. Когда в XX в. большая часть этих необычныхсведений была собрана, астрономы и предложили теоретическую модель, объясняющую стольразительные перемены в природе звезды. Прежде чем превратиться в белый карлик (состояниеСириуса В на данный момент), звезда была красным гигантом. Однако уязвимым звеном данноймодели, как показывали рассчеты, был чрезвычайно малый срок для этого превращения, -меньше тысячелетия (т.е. разница между X и II в.в.). И вот тогда впервые и появиласьальтернативная взрывная теория. Согласно этой модели, полтора тысячелетия назад Сириус Вдействительно мог взорваться. Расчеты показывают высокую вероятность данного события.Однако расчетный сброс почти двух солнечных масс должен был вызвать вспышку,сопоставимую со вспышкой сверхновой звезды, которая должна была увеличить блеск Сириусадо 11 или 13 отрицательных величин. Звезда в таком случае была бы видна и днем, и, болеетого, в течение нескольких лет. Учитывая близость Сириуса к земле (9 световых лет), этотвзрыв мог оказать крайне губительное влияние на всю земную биосферу. Тем не менее ничегоподобного в первые века отмечено не было. Значит остается предположить, что Сириус В могвзорваться в 11 год царя Сену/Джосера, точнее в 2788 г. до Р.Х., а 11 в. застал систему Сириуса встадии, близкой к заключительной, когда она остывая, выглядит оранжевой или красноватой,Закономерен вопрос, существуют ли древнеегипетские письменные источники эпохипирамид, которые могут подтвердить факт небесной, а впоследствии и земной катастрофы?Наиболее надежный источник, позволяющий говорить о необычной природе звезды, - этосамо древнеегипетское название Сириуса -Сопдет, буквально "острая", "проникающая" идаже "мощная" с характерным20 Зелинский Φ. Φ. Соперники христианства (статьи по истории античных религий) реприннт 1907 г.) Санкт-Петербург, 1995, С. 246.21 Перевод из Алкея приводится В.В.Вересаевым в примечаниях к поэме Гесиода "Труды и дни", - "Опроисхождении богов". Москва, 1990, С. 286-287.22 Зелинский, Соперники христианства..., С. 246.23 Мартынов, Красный Сириус..., С- 37.24 Там же, С. 37. 219
  • 220. иглообразным детерминативом25. Значение этого слова не выяснено до конца (особенно применительнок небесному телу). Тем не менее Л.Какоси, автор статьи о Сириусе в египтологическом лексиконе,небезосновательно видит в нем отражение агрессивных черт . В этой связи любопытную легендуприводит Юлий Гигин в своей "Астрономии":"У Пса на языке находится одна звезда, которая также зовется Пес, а на голове - вторая, которую, считаютИсида поместила под своим именем и назвала Сириус вследствие ослепительной белизны ее сияния, ведьэта звезда такова, что ее блеск кажется ярче, чем блеск других" .В этом отрывке мы видим различие между звездой Пса, расположенной на языке, и звездой Сириус,помещенной на голову Исидой, между тем как античная традиция локализовала Сириус на языке, или напасти животного28. Исходя из этого, мы вынуждены допустить, что древние греки обладалиинформацией о двуипостасности Сириуса. Применительно к древнеегипетским воззрениям это легкообнаружить в астрономическом декоре гробницы Сененмута, видного сановника царицы Хатшепсут(XVIII династия). Богиня Исида-Сириус представлена там одновременно в виде агрессивнойбегемотихи и в виде стройной молодой женщины29. Бегемотиха опирается на заостренное орудие,напоминающее внешней формой пикообразный детерминатив Сириуса. Заметим, что гибридные существа,соединяющие в себе образы бегемота, крокодила и льва, как правило, связываются в заупокойнойлитературе со стихией огня^°. Но и сам Сириус, как явствует из примеров, приводимых Л.Какоси, нередкоявляется олицетворением грозной испепеляющей силы"1. Греки воспринимали эту агрессивность черезобраз лютого пса ("кион"- отсюда, в частности, происходит слово каникулы), спутника великана Ориона;древние египтяне, для которых это отождествление по многим причинам было неприемлимым. - черезобраз уродливого гиппопотама. Единственное, что объединяет эти образы - это чудовищный оскал.Однако если допустить, что древнеегипетское обозначение Сириуса является отзвуком некихкатастрофических событий, то из этого следует, что до взрыва у звезды могло быть совершенно иноеназвание. Прежде всего на эту мысль наводит табличка из слоновой кости, найденная в некрополеАбидоса и относящаяся по времени к эпохе царя Джера (I династия)0 . На изображении отчетливо виднафигура лежащей коровы, меж рогов которой помещены знаки "rnpt" и "v;d Ниже изображения коровырасположен иероглиф "половодье". В целом, все изображение может быть интерпретировано следующимобразом: "Сотис, предвестница Нового года и наводнения" 35 . Учитывая, что уже в "Текстах пирамид"Сириус обновляет молодость (букв, "зелень" - др.-егип. - *4ν;ίΓ) умершего царя-Осириса, а такжеотождествляется с годом (др.-егип. - "гпрГ) можно допустить правомерность данной интерпретации34.К этому стоит добавить, что начиная с Древнего царства 25 Käkosy L. Sothis. Lexikon der Ägyptologie. Bd. V. Wiesbaden, 1984, Sp. 1110. 26 Käkosy, Sothis..., Sp. 1110. 27 Hygini, Astronomia, II, 35; издание - Гигин Юлий. Астрономия. Санкт-Петербург, 1997 (пер. А.И.Рубана). 28 Гигин, Астрономия..., С. 163, прим. 6. 29 Ван-Дер-Варден, Рождение астрономии..., илл. 4; Michalowski К. Art of Ancient Egypt. New-York, 1976, p. 107 (fig. 51). Ju Hormmg E. Das Totenbuch der Ägypter . Zürich-München. 1993,Spr. 144,24; 149; 208-209. 31 Käkosy, Sothis..., Sp. 1111-1112. 32 PetrieF. W. M. The royal tombs of the earliest Dynasties. Part II. London, 1901, p. 22, PL 5(1-3). JJ Ван-Дер-Варден, Рождение астрономии..., С. 21-22; Barta W. Zur Entwicklung des ägyptischen Kalenderwesens//Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 110 (1983), Heft l, S. 18. •4 Sethe K. Die altägyptischen Pyramiedentexte. Bd. 1-11, Leipzig, 1908-1922 (далее - Pyr.); Pyr. 965 a-b. 220
  • 221. иероглифическое написание Нового года осуществлялось с помощью рогов коровы и знака"года"35. "Wpj-rnpt" - это день "открытия года", день появления Сотис. Мог ли Сириус иметь своепервое название в качестве производного от "ренепет" или слово, чем-то напоминающее его посмыслу, например, похожее на urnpw "rnpf* -"быть юным", "юный" 6 или "rnptj" -относительное прилагательное женского рода с приблизительно похожим значением?Теоретически - да, практически это название в источниках не встречается, исключая те случаи,где Сириус просто отождествляется с "годом". Несмотря на некоторые трудности, решение уданной проблемы есть.В свое время С.Мерсер и Р.Антее обратили внимание, что в ряде изречений "Текстовпирамид" синонимом Сириуса может выступать понятие "Око Гора" или "Око Ра" 37. Не менееважен и другой факт - представления об "Оке" получили5Оширокое рапространение в додинастических культурах Египта . Однако информация,позволяющая утверждать, что древние египтяне стали свидетелями необычного природногоявления, могла изначально содержаться только в "Текстах пирамид":"Когда царь зародился в Нуне, Небо - еще не простерлось, Земля -еще не возникла, Опоры - еще не воздвиглись, Разлад - еще неслучился, Ужас - еще не пришел из-за Ока Гора19",Если хронологически представить события, описываемые в изречении, то "ужас (snd)" - этосамая последняя ступень космогенеза, перед которым находится только "разлад (hnnw)". Каквидно из других мест "Текстов пирамид", "разлад" - это начало борьбы между Гором иСетом за власть над миром. Сет поразил Гору его глаз, Гор лишил Сета мужской силы, оторвавего тестикулы40. Следовательно, "ужас из-за Ока Гора" - это последствия нанесенной Сетомраны, но вместе с этим, и утеря Сетом его созидательной силы. Поэтому царь всяческистремится не только к замирению обоих богов, но и их исцелению, что хорошо видно напримере "Текстов пирамид" . Пример более близкий для нас - нижнеегипетское имяДжосера - Сену (Snw), буквально "Два брата", т.е. Гор и Сет. Царь - это прежде всего таличность, в которой оба бога должны умиротвориться, либо Гор должен встать над Сетом,победив его враждебную природу, поставив ее на службу созидания.На основе "Текстов пирамид" исходный пункт мифа о противоборстве Гора и Сета может бытьпредставлен следующим образом. Небесный Гор зачинается Осирисом в Сириусе-Исиде ипребывает в ней, как в своего рода материнской плаценте42. По35 Орехов Р. А. Солярный и астральный аспекты образа Хатхор (по данным ранней иконографии и ТекстамПирамид), - "Древний Египет: язык-культура-сознание 1 . Москва, 1999, С. 183.36 Hannig R. Die Sprache der Pharaonen. Grosses Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch -Deutsch (2800-950 v. Chr.). Mainz,1995, Sp. 471.37 Орехов, Солярный и астральный аспекты..., С. 182. 8 Шеркова Т. А. Око Хора": символика глаза в до династическом Египте// ВДИ 4 (1996), С. 96 -115.39 Руг. 1040.40 Руг. 1463.41 Руг. 142-144.42 Руг. 632; 1636. 221
  • 222. всей видимости, Сета что-то не устраивает в мироздании и он наносит Гору удар4 . Поэтомуна следующей стадии мифа Гор представлен как "ослепленный свиньей", т.е. тем жеСетом44. Однако мы допускаем, что удар Сета был направлен как против Гора,пребывающего в Исиде, так и против самой Исиды. Если Гор поражается Сетом истановится "слепым (sp) то Исида неизбежно истекает кровью или пылает яростью.Отсюда вытекает, почему благодетельная Исида может отождествляться с Сириусом,несущим испепеляющую силу. Например, в одном изречении "Текстов саркофагов" слепойбог обитает в оке, которое дышит яростью против демиурга Атума и, одновременно, людивыходят из этого ока в качестве слез45. В заключительном эпизоде мифа, бог Тот исцеляетОко и возвращает ему его изначальные качества 4 . Обращает на себя внимание, что влегенде, приводимой Элианом, с Сириусом борется "Тот-младший", т.е. Имхотеп. Такимобразом, у Элиана скорее всего представлен один из вариантов позднего переосмысленияраннего мифа о борьбе за Око Гора. Из этого следует, что если наше предположениеверно, и письменные источники донесли определенную информацию о взрыве Сириуса, тоэта информация может быть осмыслена только через категории мифа об Оке Гора,составной части Осирического ритуала, ключа ко всей древнеегипетской мифологии.В заключении мне хочется процитировать текст другого мифа, сложившегося подвлиянием коптско-христианской традиции, но, имеющего в своей основе скорее теже катастрофические реалии эпохи Сену/Джосера:Приснился царю Суриду страшный сон. Снилось ему, что вся земля провалилась, а небопокрылось черными тучами. Падали с небес на землю звезды и, обратившись в белых птиц,уносили в своих когтях о без умевших от ст рах а людей. Вст рево женный эти м с но м, Сури дсоз вал гадателей и аст ролого в и спрашивал у них объяснение сна. Они предсказали емупотоп. Тогда Сурид повелел построить пирамиды и положить в них все свои сокровища, прахсвоих предков и книги, 4в которых заключались все науки Египта" ( Масуди, "Из коптскихпреданий о царе Суриде") 7 .3 Руг. 142 а.44 Руг. 1268 Ь.45 Buck A. de. The Egyptian Coffin Texts. Vol. IV. Chicago , 1 9 5 1 , Sp. 344 b-g.46 К сожалению, вариант мифа об исцелении Ока Гора Тотом дошел более подробно из глав"Книгимертвых", хотя некоторые намеки присутствуют уже в "Текстах пирамид", см. Hornung, DasTotenbuch...,Spr. 167. Более подробную информацию по этому вопросу можно найти в недавнопереизданной работеБ.А.Тураева, - Тураев Б. А. Бог Тот. Опыт исследования в области древнеегипетскойкультуры. Санкт-Петербург, 2002, С. 61, 101-103.47 Весленев В. М. Гизехские пирамиды и мастабаТи. Калуга, 1906, С. 21.
  • 223. Гипотеза Штадельманаhttp://www.cintronics.com/pdffiles/SneferuPyramids.pdf 223
  • 224. Хронология Miroslav Vernerhttp://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf%20library/verner_archiv_or_69.pdf 224
  • 225. 225
  • 226. 226
  • 227. 227
  • 228. 228
  • 229. 229
  • 230. 230
  • 231. 231
  • 232. 232
  • 233. 233
  • 234. 234
  • 235. 235
  • 236. 236
  • 237. 237
  • 238. 238
  • 239. 239
  • 240. 240
  • 241. 241
  • 242. 242
  • 243. 243
  • 244. 244
  • 245. 245
  • 246. 246
  • 247. 247
  • 248. 248
  • 249. 249
  • 250. 250
  • 251. 251
  • 252. 252
  • 253. 253
  • 254. 254
  • 255. 255
  • 256. 256
  • 257. 257
  • 258. 258
  • 259. 259
  • 260. 260
  • 261. 261
  • 262. 262
  • 263. 263
  • 264. 264
  • 265. 265
  • 266. 266
  • 267. Хронология Matt McClellanhttp://www.answersingenesis.org/contents/379/arj/v4/egyptian_chronology_genesis.pdf 267
  • 268. 268
  • 269. 269
  • 270. 270
  • 271. 271
  • 272. 272
  • 273. 273
  • 274. 274
  • 275. Новая хронология династий 275
  • 276. 276
  • 277. 277
  • 278. 278
  • 279. The First Intermediate Period, often described as a “dark period” in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximatelyone hundred years after the end of the Old Kingdom from ca. 2181-2055 BC. It included the seventh, eighth, ninth,tenth, and part of the eleventh dynasties. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period, especiallytowards the beginning of the era. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time in history where rule of Egypt wasroughly divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases resided at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, acity just south of the Faiyum region. The other resided at Thebes in Upper Egypt. It is believed that during this time,the temples were pillaged and violated, their existing artwork was vandalized, and the statues of kings were broken ordestroyed as a result of this alleged political chaos. These two kingdoms would eventually come into conflict, with theTheban kings conquering the north, resulting in reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part ofthe eleventh dynasty. The building projects of the Heracleopolitan kings in the North was very limited. Only onepyramid believed to belong to King Merikare (2065-2045 BC) has been identified at Saqqara. Also, private tombs thatwere built during the time pale in comparison to the Old Kingdom monuments, in quality and size. However, they areof a lower quality and are much simpler than their Old Kingdom parallels. Wooden rectangular coffins were still beingused, but their decorations became more elaborate during the rule of the Heracleopolitan kings. New Coffin Textswere painted on the interiors, providing spells and maps for the deceased to use in the afterlife. 279
  • 280. ЗаключениеA group of Egyptian researchers claims to have hit on an exact date for the construction of Khufus pyramid, thelargest of the three Great Pyramids at Giza. The team, led by Dr. Abdel-Halim Nureddin, says work on the pyramidwas started on 23 August, 2470 BC. The local governor told reporters that the date will now be celebrated asNational Giza Day. Nureddin said the team had proved the date using "historical facts and astronomical calculations."The claim was immediately dismissed by the countrys leading Egyptologist, Dr. Zahi Hawass, along with KamalWahid, general director of the Giza necropolis, who said the year can only be approximated. They did not commenton why the "exact" date found by the research team for the start of construction appeared to be almost a centurylater than the approximate date for the pyramids completion accepted by most Egyptologists - 2560 BC.However, Giza Governor Sayyed Abdel Aziz, who organized the research project, stood by the teams findings. Hesaid the work was carried out "under conditions of strict secrecy, to ensure the exactness of the research." He saidKhufus pyramid will now become a symbol for the province, and will feature on its emblem. Egyptologists generallyavoid putting precise Gregorian Calendar dates on events in the countrys pharaonic past, due to the different way inwhich the ancient calendar worked. Egyptians counted years from the inauguration of each pharaoh, meaning thatwith each new king the calendar would be reset to zero. As no single document exists listing all the pharaohs fromfirst to last, and due to the breaks in the record when the land was disunited (the intermediate periods), most datescan only be approximated to the nearest decade, or several decades. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (also known by theGreek version of his name, Cheops), is one of three colossal pyramids built by successive Old Kingdom pharaohs, at atime when the country was at the peak of its power, and intensely centralized, giving the rulers a level of control notenjoyed by those of later periods.The three pyramids were initially cased in polished white limestone, that ancient witnesses said would give off ablinding light in the hot desert sun that could be seen from vast distances. Ironically, the only surviving likeness ofthe great pharaoh who created the tallest pyramid is a hand-sized sculpture, now standing in a glass case in theEgyptian Museum in Cairo.Данная дата уточнена и соответствует 15 декабря 2706 ВС. В эту ночь царь Хуфу протянул свой шнур Сешат иначал строительство Великой Пирамиды, ставшей впоследствии Седьмым чудом света. 280

×