Central Utility Plant Roundtable

           September 23, 2010
Central Plant Roundtable


  • Planning                 Financing
    • Integrated             Incentives
    • Utility
  ...
Integrated Master Planning

 Strategic Framework For University Planning
   • Goals
   • Objectives
   • Policies     Driv...
Integrated Master Planning

 Strategic Framework For University Planning
   Goals        Objectives           Policies    ...
Integrated Master Planning

 Strategic Framework For University Planning
   Goals        Objectives           Policies    ...
Integrated Master Planning

 Strategic Framework For University Planning
   Goals        Objectives           Policies    ...
Integrated Master Planning

 Integrated Planning
   • Technical
   • Economic
   • Environmental
   • Political
   • Commu...
Integrated Master Planning

 Integrated Utility Planning


       Where we are            Where we want to be



         ...
Integrated Master Planning

 Integration of Planning


    Utility Master Plan                           Sustainability Pl...
Integrated Master Planning

 Business Case of Utility Operations
 • Status Quo – Business as Usual
      Capital cost of i...
Integrated Master Planning

 Specifics of Integration

   Utility Master Plan                 Sustainability Plan
    Capa...
Utility Master Plan

 Process
 Learn from Past – Yours and Ours

 Document an Owner’s Project Requirements
    Campus Goal...
Utility Master Plan

 Process
 Identify Opportunities
    Increase Efficiency – Capital and Operating Cost Window


 Ident...
Utility Master Plan

 Process
 Benchmarks are “Sanity Checks” and Leverage
    • Energy Usage and Cost/SF
    • Production...
15
           Utility Master Plan

                                                           On-Site Utilities           ...
Utility Master Plan



                     Early participation at a high level improves
                           effici...
Utility Master Plan




                      17
Utility Master Plan




                      19
Sustainability Planning

 Managing Carbon Footprint (Sustainability)
 Hand-in-hand with Energy Management
    • Utilities ...
Sustainability Planning

    Central Plants and Climate Commitments


Commuter
school with no
                         1% ...
Sustainability Planning

       Central Plants and Climate Commitments
                 2.7%             3.9%
Residential ...
Sustainability Planning

     Central Plants and Climate Commitments

                         Directly Financed Air   Sco...
Sustainability Planning

 Managing Carbon Footprint (Sustainability)
                                               Annual...
Sustainability Planning

 Managing Carbon Footprint (Sustainability)
                                            Cost per ...
Sustainability Planning
                                                                                       Estimated  ...
Sustainability Planning

                            By Energy Payback By GHG Mass   By GHG $/mton
       By capital $ (L-...
Integrated Master Planning

 Customized Criteria
 Decision criteria must fit culture/goals of organization
    • Identify ...
Commissioning/Start-Up


    Hands-On                Design
    Experience             Expertise

                    A
  ...
Commissioning/Start-Up
 University of Massachusetts - Central Heating Plant
                 Project Highlights
          ...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Project Goal
 To Deliver a Functional, Reliable Utility System
    • February 12, 2013
    • No D...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 In Support of this goal:
 Mitigate Performance Risk
 Assist with Planning and Scheduling
 Ensure ...
Commissioning/Start-Up
             The University of Alabama at Birmingham
 Conceptual Plan and Approach

               ...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Conceptual Plan and Approach
  Plant Operating Staff Involved Throughout Project
  • OPR Developm...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Conceptual Plan and Approach
  Plant Operating Staff Involved Throughout Project
  • Training
  •...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Project Overview
 Central Heating Plant / Cogeneration Construction and
 Integration with Existin...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Project Overview
 Roles and Responsibilities as the IE/CA/SU
 Assist Client and Design Team in De...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Approach
 START-UP ENGINEER (Independent Engineer)
   • Design versus Cx Roles
   • Technical Ins...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Approach
 COMMISSIONING AGENT
   • Work with Engineer of Record / Start-up Engineer to
     Estab...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Costs
 Typically 2 to 5% of the overall project cost.
 Turnover process may require an additional...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Costs
 View Costs as “Shifted” instead of as “Additional”
    Without Commissioning
   Design    ...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Costs vs. Benefits

 $5,000,000                                                                  ...
Commissioning/Start-Up

 Challenges
 Proper planning early in the project with the right people
 All parties embrace a for...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Entire System from Plant and End User
 Think
 Get your hands dirty
 Find the BTU...
Training

 UConn Example
   • Stan Nolar
   • Plant turned over without Operator training
   • Operators need to know WHY ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Project Approach: Utility System

   A Utility System is a Balance of ALL Three
...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Plant Assessment
 Efficiency is:
     •   A system that operators/supervisors re...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Plant Assessment
 Efficiency is:
     •   Training and Documentation
     •   Au...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

  Chilled Water - What is Evaluated?
  Chiller
  Condenser Water – can include to...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

  Overall Plant Efficiencies – Wire to Water
            Component        kW/Ton ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

  Cooling Tower Opportunities
  Towers typically provide the greatest return on
 ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

  Cooling Tower Opportunities
   Maintenance
    • Clean fill regularly
    • Pro...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Cooling Tower Opportunities
  Chiller Efficiency and Tower Water Temperatures
  ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Cooling Tower Opportunities
  “Lift” Determines Chiller Energy Usage
      85º C...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

  CHW Pumping System Rules
          Applies to Plant, Distribution and Building
...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

  CHW Pumping System Rules (continued)
          Applies to Plant, Distribution a...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 CHW Pumping System Opportunities
  Variable flow systems reduce operating cost
 ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 CHW Pumping System Opportunities
  Total Chilled Water Flow Versus Load


      ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 CHW Pumping System Opportunities
  CHW pumping ~15% - 25% of total system operat...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 CHW Pumping System Opportunities
  3,000 Ton Campus – MN University
  •   High h...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 CHW Pumping System Opportunities
  1,000 Ton Industrial Site - California
  •   ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Other CHW System Lessons Learned
              Issues                    Lessons...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

  Boiler System - What is Evaluated?
  Boilers
  Deaerator
  Feedwater System
  S...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Hospital Steam System
 (3) Watertube Boilers
      •   25,000 PPH each, 32 MMBTU...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Hospital Steam System
 High pressure feedwater pumps
 Distribution pressure 15 /...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Steam Operating Data
 120 Million pounds/year produced
 13,000 PPH average with ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Expected Useful Life
 Boilers
    • Watertube Boilers 40 – 50+ years
    • Firet...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Improve Operating Efficiencies
                    Boiler and Burners
 Reduce lo...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Improve Operating Efficiencies
                     Boiler and Burners
 Boiler B...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Improve Operating Efficiencies
 Reduce Lost Condensate
    • Methodist Hospital ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Improve Operating Efficiencies
 Economizers
 Typical Boiler Economizer
    • Cap...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Economizers                   325 Deg F


                                      ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Improve Operating Efficiencies
 Flash Steam and Blowdown Heat Recovery
   •   Pu...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 Improve Operating Efficiencies
 Consider Conversion to Hot Water
 Cost/Savings
 ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

  Improve Operating Efficiencies
  Cogeneration – Steam Turbine Generator




   ...
Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning)

 UConn Plant Retro-Commissioning
 Sponsored by Connecticut Power & Light
    • Op...
Renewable Energy

 Technology
 Solar
    •    Domestic Hot Water
    •    Space Heating
    •    Photovoltaic

 Wind
 Biom...
Renewable Energy

 Consideration
 Scale
   •     Demonstration
   •     Production

 Green Power




                     ...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives
 Tax Exemptions
 Tax Credits
 Grants
 Loans
 Production Incentive




                      ...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:     Federal
 Corporate Depreciation
 Corporate Tax Credits
 Grant Program
 Loan Program
 Pr...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:        Federal
 Corporate Depreciation
    •   Five year accelerated cost recovery
        ...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:        Federal
 Corporate Tax Credits
    •   Business Energy Investment Tax Credit
       ...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:          Federal
 Corporate Tax Credits
    •   Business Energy Investment Tax Credit
    •...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:       Federal
 Grant Program
   •   Tribal Energy Grant Program
   •   Renewable Energy Gra...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:       Federal
 Grant Program
   •   Tribal Energy Grant Program
        • Competitive solic...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:       Federal
 Grant Program
   •   Tribal Energy Grant Program
   •   Renewable Energy Gra...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:       Federal
 Grant Program
   •   Tribal Energy Grant Program
   •   Renewable Energy Gra...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:       Federal
 Loan Program
   •   Clean Renewable Energy Bonds
   •   Qualified Energy Con...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives:         Federal
 Production Incentive
    •   Complements Production Tax Credit
    •   Pay...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives: State
 Connecticut
    Tax Exemptions
       Property Tax
       Sales Tax

    Grants
    ...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives: State
 Maine
   Tax Exemptions
         Sales Tax (Community Wind Systems only)

   Grants
...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives: State
 Maine
   Policies
         Energy Standards for Public Buildings
         Green Powe...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives: State
 Massachusetts
   Tax Exemptions
      Excise Tax

   Grants
      Green Communities ...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives: State
 Massachusetts
   Policies
       Green Power Purchasing
       Renewable Energy Trus...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives: State
 New Hampshire
   Tax Exemptions
      Property

   Loans
      State
      Local Opt...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives: State
 New Hampshire
   Policies
       Renewable Portfolio Standard




                  ...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives: State
 Rhode Island
    Tax Exemptions
       Sales

    Loans
       State
       Local Op...
Renewable Energy

 Incentives: State
 Vermont
   Tax Exemptions
      Sales
      Property (Local Option)

   Loans
      ...
New Environmental Rules

 Pace of Regulation Unparalleled?
 Boiler MACT/CISWI Rules
 Greenhouse Gas Regulations
 New Ambie...
Boiler MACT/CISWI

 Critical Importance for Utility Plan
 Quartet of inter-related rules
 Definitions unsettled (RCRA – so...
Boiler MACT

 Key Requirements
 PM, HCl, Hg, D/F, CO
 Control required for solid fuel, oil units
 Energy assessment
    • ...
Greenhouse Gas Regulations

 Scary
 GHG to be regulated under PSD
 Tailoring Rule
 Cannot trigger PSD until June 2011
 No ...
New NAAQS

 Scarier
 TOUGH new standards for NO2, SO2
 Applies immediately to major NSR sources
    •   1 year delay for m...
New NAAQS




            103
New
NAAQS




        104
New
NAAQS




        105
Tougher SSM Provisions

 Scariest?
 Emission limits apply during startup,
 shutdown and malfunction
 Boiler MACT complianc...
Central Utility Plant Roundtable

           September 23, 2010
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Central Utility Plant Roundtable

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View the Central Utility Plant Roundtable presentation put on by Sebesta Blomberg in Massachusetts on September 23, 2010. Please contact Dave Vettraino for additional information at dvettraino@sebesta.com

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Transcript of "Central Utility Plant Roundtable"

  1. 1. Central Utility Plant Roundtable September 23, 2010
  2. 2. Central Plant Roundtable • Planning Financing • Integrated Incentives • Utility • Sustainability MACT • Commissioning/Start-Up Permit Strategies Fuel/Energy Choices • Retro-Engineering Efficiency • Renewable Energy Cost of Service 1
  3. 3. Integrated Master Planning Strategic Framework For University Planning • Goals • Objectives • Policies Drivers of Integrated Approach • Perception 3
  4. 4. Integrated Master Planning Strategic Framework For University Planning Goals Objectives Policies Perception To be one of the top 3 public research universities in the world over the next decade 10% energy reduction and 15% overall renewable energy goals by 2010 All new buildings are to be LEED® Silver 4
  5. 5. Integrated Master Planning Strategic Framework For University Planning Goals Objectives Policies Perception To be competitive all dormitories must be cooled Must provide reliable heating, cooling and electric power services without creating additional debt obligations 5
  6. 6. Integrated Master Planning Strategic Framework For University Planning Goals Objectives Policies Perception Raise our profile as a nationally ranked research university Develop a plan for building the capacity to meet our goals 6
  7. 7. Integrated Master Planning Integrated Planning • Technical • Economic • Environmental • Political • Community 7
  8. 8. Integrated Master Planning Integrated Utility Planning Where we are Where we want to be Present Future Gap Analysis --- Needs Development 8
  9. 9. Integrated Master Planning Integration of Planning Utility Master Plan Sustainability Plan Utility Campus Capacity Demand Production Consumption Cost of Service Resource Use Fuel Choices Water Reduction Impacts Economic * Environmental * Community Not a single answer or silver bullet 9
  10. 10. Integrated Master Planning Business Case of Utility Operations • Status Quo – Business as Usual Capital cost of infrastructure Operating expense of services delivered Performance relative to GOPP • Alternates/Measures for Strategic Framework (GOPP) Incremental cost 10
  11. 11. Integrated Master Planning Specifics of Integration Utility Master Plan Sustainability Plan Capacity/Configuration Carbon Footprint Growth LEED Cost/Schedule Campus Efficiency Emissions/Emissions Control Utility Efficiency Permitting Constraints Renewable Energy/RE Credits Financial Analysis Capital Cost Operating Cost Source of Capital Legislature/Trustees ESCO Other PPP 11
  12. 12. Utility Master Plan Process Learn from Past – Yours and Ours Document an Owner’s Project Requirements Campus Goals – Objectives – Policies Collaborate, Communicate, Coordinate Stakeholders Include Staff, Operations, Students, Community 12
  13. 13. Utility Master Plan Process Identify Opportunities Increase Efficiency – Capital and Operating Cost Window Identify Limitations Financial – Physical – Environmental – Operational Maintain a Macro View Major Utilities – Heating, Cooling, Electric Other Utilities – Water, Sanitary, Storm, Comm, Security, BAS 13
  14. 14. Utility Master Plan Process Benchmarks are “Sanity Checks” and Leverage • Energy Usage and Cost/SF • Production efficiency • Carbon footprint Utility Planning is Incomplete Unless it Incorporates: • Sustainable and Green Design Principles • Phasing/Implementation Plan • Permitting Strategy • Capital Strategy • Campus Standards (with Updates) 13
  15. 15. 15 Utility Master Plan On-Site Utilities Parameters Fuel Flexibility Staff Analysis Cogeneration Chilled Water Chilled Water RFP: Utilities Load Growth Central Plant Procurement Capital Cost Condensate Natural Gas Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution Projections Projections Distributed Utility Rate Electricity Efficiency Hydraulic Modeling Analysis Electric Energy Review Client Return Steam Steam Plants Fuel Architect of the Capitol, Washington DC X X X X X X X X X X X X University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio X X X X X X X X X X X X Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois X X X X X X X X X X X X University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Lobo Energy, Albuquerque, New Mexico X X X X X X X X X X X X Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado X X X X X X X X X X X Miami University, Oxford, Ohio X X X X X X X X X X X X X Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin X X X X X X X X X University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada X X X X X X X X X X Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana X X X X X X X X X X X X X University of Minnesota – SE Steam Plant Minneapolis, MN X X X X X X X X X X X X Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, La Crosse, WI X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota X X X X X X X X X X Towson University, Towson, Maryland X X X X X X X X X X X X University of Minnesota – West Bank, Minneapolis, MN X X X X X X X X X X X X X X University of MN – Academic Health Ctr. Minneapolis, MN X X X X X X X X X X X X Luther Midelfort – Mayo Health System Eau Clair, WI X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Brandeis University, Boston, Massachusetts X X X X X X X X X X X X North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina X X X X X X X X X X X X X University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 15 X X X University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario X X X X X X X X X X General Services Administration, Washington, DC X X X X X X X X
  16. 16. Utility Master Plan Early participation at a high level improves efficiency and project outcome Opportunity to Data Collection Add Value Charrette Analysis Base Case Alternatives Findings Recommendations Planning Design Construction Operation 16
  17. 17. Utility Master Plan 17
  18. 18. Utility Master Plan 19
  19. 19. Sustainability Planning Managing Carbon Footprint (Sustainability) Hand-in-hand with Energy Management • Utilities biggest impact • Supply and demand-side management • New challenge to evaluate other actions Transportation Refrigerant management program Waste management New Decision Tools • More than just simple payback • Integrate new criteria 22
  20. 20. Sustainability Planning Central Plants and Climate Commitments Commuter school with no 1% 2% central plant 3% 6% infrastructure 2% 2% Electricity Natural Gas Air Travel* Fleet Fuel 23% Farm Aviation School 61% Business Cars Commuting* 20
  21. 21. Sustainability Planning Central Plants and Climate Commitments 2.7% 3.9% Residential 0.3% school with 0.0% natural gas 0.3% 2.3% central plant Electricity Steam Plant 40.1% Gas (House Heat) Campus Fleet Facilities Fleet Air Travel* 50.3% Business Cars* Commuting* 21
  22. 22. Sustainability Planning Central Plants and Climate Commitments Directly Financed Air Scope 2 T&D Losses Travel 3% 4% Co-gen Electricity Residential 9% Student Commuting school with 4% coal-fired Faculty / Staff co-gen Commuting 9% Co-gen Steam 35% Purchased Electricity 33% Other On-Campus Refrigerants Stationary Direct 1% & Chemicals Agriculture Transportation 1% 0% 1% 22
  23. 23. Sustainability Planning Managing Carbon Footprint (Sustainability) Annual GHG Reduction by Technology 4,500 4,000 3,772 3,500 3,326 3,540 3,351 3,000 Metric Tons, CO2 2,857 2,902 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 4 0 Energy Eff. Cogeneration Wind Turbine Biomass Anaerobic Photovoltaic Green Power Gasifier Digester 23
  24. 24. Sustainability Planning Managing Carbon Footprint (Sustainability) Cost per Metric Ton CO2 Avoided $450 $350 $333.03 $252.32 $250 $/Metric Ton $150 $80.21 $50 $12.33 -$10.58 -$11.67 -$17.97 -$50 Energy Eff. Cogeneration Wind Turbine Biomass Anaerobic Photovoltaic Green Power Gasifier Digester -$150 24
  25. 25. Sustainability Planning Estimated Avoided Estimated Annual Simple Emissions Implementation Cost Payback (metric tons ECMs Description Cost Avoidance (yrs) CO2 / yr) 11 Use of Existing HVAC Scheduling Capability $1,000 $1,600 0.6 13 18 Recommission Controls $2,000 $9,100 0.2 36 29 Ammonia Refrigeration Plant Strategies - Lansing Rink $2,000 $8,500 0.2 24 5 Upgrade Exit Sign Lighting to LED $2,000 $400 5.0 1 33 Interlock Condenser Recirculation Pumps - MSL Chiller Plant $2,000 $200 10.0 1 20 Insulate Steam PRVs $4,000 $500 8.0 4 8 Add Photocell Lighting Control For Daylit Areas $6,000 $1,500 4.0 4 4B Change Other HID Lighting to Fluorescent $8,000 $1,600 5.0 5 21 Add Humidifier Isolation Valves $10,000 $300 33.3 2 16 Add Occupancy Based Temperature Reset/Schedule $11,000 $13,100 0.8 74 7 Install Occupancy Sensor Lighting Control $13,000 $5,800 2.2 17 3A Convert Incandescents to CFLs (Standard Applications) $17,000 $5,400 3.1 16 2 Upgrade Fluorescent Lighting to T-8 System. $22,000 $4,100 5.4 12 23 Add Variable Speed Drives to Pumps $40,000 $8,700 4.6 25 26 Replace Chiller Plant - Jesup $58,000 $4,300 13.5 12 3B Convert Incandescents to CFLs (Art Gallery and Other) $59,000 $5,000 11.8 14 6 Install Lighting Scheduling Control in Select Areas $88,000 $41,300 2.1 118 30 Pool Cover - Chandler $96,000 $26,400 3.6 100 9 Add Skylights to Reduce Daytime Lighting $119,000 $5,600 21.3 16 22 Add Variable Speed Drives to Fans $151,000 $23,500 6.4 67 32 Gas Cogeneration Options - Chander (Phase II) $163,000 $11,500 14.2 27 Change Athletic Center Metal Halide Lighting to 4A Fluorescent $262,000 $47,400 5.5 136 31 Pool Dehumification Options - Chandler $424,000 $38,200 11.1 66 25
  26. 26. Sustainability Planning By Energy Payback By GHG Mass By GHG $/mton By capital $ (L-H) (L-H) (H-L) (H-L) 11 18 4A 18 5 29 6 11 18 11 30 29 29 16 16 16 33 6 22 6 20 7 31 7 8 3A 18 20 4B 30 32 30 21 8 23 3A 16 23 29 8 7 5 7 23 3A 4B 9 4B 2 2 3A 2 23 4A 3B 4A 26 22 11 5 3B 20 26 22 6 33 2 33 30 31 4B 3B 9 3B 8 26 22 26 20 21 32 32 21 32 4A 9 5 31 31 21 33 9 26
  27. 27. Integrated Master Planning Customized Criteria Decision criteria must fit culture/goals of organization • Identify specific criteria to be used • Develop weighting to properly meet goals Cannot operate solely in the vacuum of economics Data collection mechanisms also critical • Quality, consistent data • Facilitate third-party review Don’t forget environmental compliance costs!!! 27
  28. 28. Commissioning/Start-Up Hands-On Design Experience Expertise A Working Plant Rigorous Collaborative Commissioning Approach Process 28
  29. 29. Commissioning/Start-Up University of Massachusetts - Central Heating Plant Project Highlights • 10 MW CT/4 MW ST • 100,000 PPH HRSG • (3) 125,000 PPH Package Boilers • Dual Fuel Plant Issues: Coordination with old plant Operation CM Scope Execution/Schedule Project Completion 29 29
  30. 30. Commissioning/Start-Up Project Goal To Deliver a Functional, Reliable Utility System • February 12, 2013 • No Disruption to Critical Facilities Phased/ Parallel Construction: • Steam Plant • Steam/ Condensate Distribution • Condensate Recovery - 20 Buildings 30 Month Construction Schedule Cannot Slip! 30
  31. 31. Commissioning/Start-Up In Support of this goal: Mitigate Performance Risk Assist with Planning and Scheduling Ensure System Reliability Document Operation of System and Components 31
  32. 32. Commissioning/Start-Up The University of Alabama at Birmingham Conceptual Plan and Approach Project Management Team Commissioning Agent Engineer of Record Construction Management & Other Design Team Members Construction Teams 32
  33. 33. Commissioning/Start-Up Conceptual Plan and Approach Plant Operating Staff Involved Throughout Project • OPR Development • DID/Design Review • Start-up/Commissioning Plan Devedlopment • Submittal Review • Construction Testing Observation • O&M Manual Review 33
  34. 34. Commissioning/Start-Up Conceptual Plan and Approach Plant Operating Staff Involved Throughout Project • Training • Turnover package review • Observe operations equipment / system startup • Observe Functional Testing • Performance / Emissions / Reliability Testing 34
  35. 35. Commissioning/Start-Up Project Overview Central Heating Plant / Cogeneration Construction and Integration with Existing Campus Systems Project Challenges • Maintain Operations in Existing Facilities • Financial Controls • System Operations • Reliability • Construction Phasing • Verifiable Metrics for Performance 35
  36. 36. Commissioning/Start-Up Project Overview Roles and Responsibilities as the IE/CA/SU Assist Client and Design Team in Delivering a Successful Project Ensure Design Intent Achieved Core Member of the Project Quality Assurance Team 36
  37. 37. Commissioning/Start-Up Approach START-UP ENGINEER (Independent Engineer) • Design versus Cx Roles • Technical Insurance • Fresh Perspective • Identify Issues • Value Engineering • Equipment/System Performance • Evaluate Design Criteria/Operating Conditions • Evaluate / Protect Design Intent • Resource Available to Team 37
  38. 38. Commissioning/Start-Up Approach COMMISSIONING AGENT • Work with Engineer of Record / Start-up Engineer to Establish and Document Performance Criteria – Design Intent Document • Develop Commissioning Plan • Develop Commissioning Specification • Validate Actual Operation against Design Intent 38
  39. 39. Commissioning/Start-Up Costs Typically 2 to 5% of the overall project cost. Turnover process may require an additional person to manage Formal documentation of testing activities – Formal test procedures, checklists and datasheets – Staff hours for testing are relatively the same 39
  40. 40. Commissioning/Start-Up Costs View Costs as “Shifted” instead of as “Additional” Without Commissioning Design Construction First Year of Operation With Commissioning Fine-tuning Contractor Callbacks Design Construction And Cx Project Costs over Time 40
  41. 41. Commissioning/Start-Up Costs vs. Benefits $5,000,000 Benefits $4,500,000 Received from Commissioning $4,000,000 Actual Cost of $3,500,000 Commissioning $3,000,000 "Baseline" cost $2,500,000 of Commissioning $2,000,000 $1,500,000 $1,000,000 $500,000 $0 A- S- O- N- D- J- F- M- A- M- J- J- A- S- O- N- D- J- F- 98 98 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 M- A- 00 00 00 00 41
  42. 42. Commissioning/Start-Up Challenges Proper planning early in the project with the right people All parties embrace a formal program/roles and responsibilities Need an Owner that fully supports a formal program Involvement of Owner’s operators in the startup/commissioning process 42
  43. 43. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Entire System from Plant and End User Think Get your hands dirty Find the BTU/KW not needed Recover usable energy Highest short and long term impact Many low-cost / no-cost opportunities 43
  44. 44. Training UConn Example • Stan Nolar • Plant turned over without Operator training • Operators need to know WHY as well as HOW MATEP Example • Dean Larson • Formal power plant training and turnover process 44
  45. 45. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Project Approach: Utility System A Utility System is a Balance of ALL Three Components 45
  46. 46. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Plant Assessment Efficiency is: • A system that operators/supervisors really understand • Operational flexibility • Continuous commissioning with periodic recertification • Instrumentation – M&V Efficiency is much more than lowest kW/Ton or $/Ton-hr or heat rate (BTU/PPH) or $/KLB 46
  47. 47. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Plant Assessment Efficiency is: • Training and Documentation • Automatic operation with confidence • Being able to respond and control the system • System designed to serve the campus – not itself • No calls Efficiency is much more than lowest kW/Ton or $/Ton-hr or heat rate (BTU/PPH) or $/KLB 47
  48. 48. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Chilled Water - What is Evaluated? Chiller Condenser Water – can include tower Make-up Water Water Treatment/Filtration Chiller Plant HVAC Refrigerant Leak Detection Winter/Free Cooling System Controls Electrical MCC/Switchgear 48
  49. 49. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Overall Plant Efficiencies – Wire to Water Component kW/Ton HP/Ton % of Total Chilled Water Pumps .08 - .12 .10 - .15 15% Condenser Water Pumps .04 - .08 .05 - .10 9% Tower Fans .04 - .08 .05 - .10 9% Chiller .55 - .62 .70 - .78 67% TOTAL .90 1.13 100% Where to look 49
  50. 50. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Cooling Tower Opportunities Towers typically provide the greatest return on investment for new construction or upgrades Tower fans and tower pumps are ~18% of total energy to produce chilled water Typically 15 year life with fill work at 7-10 years for packaged towers Longer expected life on field erected towers, 30+ years 50
  51. 51. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Cooling Tower Opportunities Maintenance • Clean fill regularly • Protect tower finish – stainless is good investment • Adjust fan pitch to full load amps (FLA) Operational Adjustments • Reset tower water temperature setpoints (don’t operate at 85º just because of design conditions) • Optimize flows – design flows are not necessarily the most efficient if fan, pump, and chiller energy considered 51
  52. 52. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Cooling Tower Opportunities Chiller Efficiency and Tower Water Temperatures • Minimum of 2% - 2.5% gain in efficiency (lower kW/ton) for every degree tower temperature is lowered • Cooler tower temperatures increase capacity of chillers – capable of more tons and colder water • Tower performance tied to ambient Wet Bulb temperatures that are lower than design 99% of the time – use fans and reduce compressor energy • Based on area of country and usage profiles, 1 kW of fan energy will save 2-3 kW of compressor energy 52
  53. 53. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Cooling Tower Opportunities “Lift” Determines Chiller Energy Usage 85º CTW 75º CTW Energy 44º CHW 53
  54. 54. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) CHW Pumping System Rules Applies to Plant, Distribution and Building ANY extra throttling increases operating cost NEVER pump chilled water when there is already enough differential pressure to flow a user/building Variable flow systems (with 2-way valves) can save money over constant flow systems ANY constant speed pump in the system (other than chiller pump) can increase operating cost, hurt system performance, and impact nearby users 54
  55. 55. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) CHW Pumping System Rules (continued) Applies to Plant, Distribution and Building Typical HVAC control valves can start to be forced open at 25+ PSI throttling Wire to Water efficiency of multiple small pumps is lower than fewer large pumps properly controlled 55
  56. 56. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) CHW Pumping System Opportunities Variable flow systems reduce operating cost NO uncontrolled booster pumps! Keep decoupler open – no series pumping Select 2-way control valves for maximum system design differential pressure 56
  57. 57. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) CHW Pumping System Opportunities Total Chilled Water Flow Versus Load 3-Way Valves CHW Constant Flow Design GPM Load 2-Way Valves LOAD 57
  58. 58. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) CHW Pumping System Opportunities CHW pumping ~15% - 25% of total system operating cost Variable flow systems w/VFD’s need very few balance valves 58
  59. 59. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) CHW Pumping System Opportunities 3,000 Ton Campus – MN University • High head constant speed building pumps at twice peak campus flow rate, undersized secondary pumps • Upgrade secondary pumps, bypass building pumps saving $12,000 per year, increasing site DT by 2.5º nets an additional $5500 - 13% of entire system 59
  60. 60. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) CHW Pumping System Opportunities 1,000 Ton Industrial Site - California • Install VFD on secondary pump, 2-way valves, and system DT improved by 4º nets 560,000 KWH ($48,000) per year savings or 16% of entire system 20,000 Ton Industrial Site - Caribbean • VFD’s on secondary pumps, bypass building pumps, improve site DT nets 5.2 million KWH ($700,000) savings 60
  61. 61. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Other CHW System Lessons Learned Issues Lessons Learned CHW Goes Where it Wants, Not Understand System Hydraulics Where You Want it to Go and Control 10° Coils and 18° Chillers/Pumps Match System Components, Now and Future Can’t Get Design Tons out of Tons are Flow and ΔT, Adjust Chiller Either to get Tons Can’t Monitor Performance or Instrumentation Provides a Impact of Changes in Operation Payback – Do It! Successful Chilled Water Systems are Designed, They Don’t Just Happen 61
  62. 62. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Boiler System - What is Evaluated? Boilers Deaerator Feedwater System Steam/Condensate Chemical Treatment Make-Up/Combustion air - HVAC Fuel Systems Heat Recovery (if present) Controls Electrical MCC/Switchgear 62
  63. 63. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Hospital Steam System (3) Watertube Boilers • 25,000 PPH each, 32 MMBTUH Burner (80%) • 70% Seasonal Efficiency • Natural gas, #6 fuel oil • Bros Boilers: 1956 - 1964 150 PSIG rated/100 PSIG operating pressure (338o) Deaerator 63
  64. 64. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Hospital Steam System High pressure feedwater pumps Distribution pressure 15 / 25 / 60 / 100 PSIG 75% condensate return (used to be 50%) Serves 1 million square feet 64
  65. 65. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Steam Operating Data 120 Million pounds/year produced 13,000 PPH average with 40,000 PPH peak + and less than 4,000 PPH minimum Variable portion of steam cost is $15-$20/1000# with fuel at $13.00/1000# 160,000 Million BTU/year of fuel or $1.5 million ~170 KBtu/SF/yr (150,000 is target – reduce ~7% 65
  66. 66. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Expected Useful Life Boilers • Watertube Boilers 40 – 50+ years • Firetube Boilers 25 – 30 years • + Maintenance, water treatment, fuel Auxiliary Components • Deaerator : 25 years but regular inspections • Pumps: 15 – 20 years • Burners: 15 – 20 years Piping: 25–50 for Condensate, 50–100 Steam, FW 66
  67. 67. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Improve Operating Efficiencies Boiler and Burners Reduce lost condensate Heat Recovery • Economizers • Flash steam Recovery • Blowdown Economizer Water Treatment – RO (site specific) 67
  68. 68. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Improve Operating Efficiencies Boiler and Burners Boiler Burners • Oxygen and CO2 in flue gas • Flue gas temperature (versus combustion air) • Emissions Boiler: tube surface fouling – inside and out Case Study – Hospital Steam System • 500o flue gas temperature above ambient • Reduced to 5% O2 from 10% O2 (can go lower) • 7% efficiency improvement – reduced cost per 1000 LB by $1.20, over $100,000 per year 68
  69. 69. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Improve Operating Efficiencies Reduce Lost Condensate • Methodist Hospital improved from 50% condensate returned to 75% • Savings of approximately $50,000/year (3.5%) • Capture and return condensate • Maintain condensate receivers to prevent overflow to sanitary • Use Schedule 80 pipe for condensate • Trap program 69
  70. 70. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Improve Operating Efficiencies Economizers Typical Boiler Economizer • Captures flue gas heat to preheat feedwater or combustion air Condensing Economizer • Takes flue gas after feedwater economizer and lowers to ~170o, but it provides lower grade heat 70
  71. 71. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Economizers 325 Deg F Condensing Economizer 500 Deg F 4% Fuel 170 Deg F Savings Feedwater Economizer 5% Fuel Savings ($75,000) 71
  72. 72. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Improve Operating Efficiencies Flash Steam and Blowdown Heat Recovery • Pumped condensate return system with vented receivers have flash losses • 100 PSIG steam flashes 13.2% - 100 pounds of steam produced returns only 86.8 pounds of condensate • More 55o makeup and less 180o condensate returned • Capture flashed steam and use for 15 PSIG users, flash is reduced to 3.9% and reduces 100 PSIG steam usage • 10% more returned = 2.5% savings, $30K – 40K savings 72
  73. 73. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Improve Operating Efficiencies Consider Conversion to Hot Water Cost/Savings • 10% fuel savings possible, but expensive to get there with steam infrastructure in place • Steam loads will still exist so install special purpose steam generators or switch to another source (gas or electric) Required a Change in Distribution System • Two large supply return pipes • Does hospital have the room or can handle the disruption? 73
  74. 74. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) Improve Operating Efficiencies Cogeneration – Steam Turbine Generator 100 kW BPSTG (135-35 PSIG) 10,000 PPH <7 year payback 74
  75. 75. Retro-Engineering (Retro-Commissioning) UConn Plant Retro-Commissioning Sponsored by Connecticut Power & Light • Optimize Plant Operation & Equipment Run Selection • Improve Turbine Inlet Air Conditions: • Chilled Water and Condenser Water Temperature Reset: • Variable Primary Chiller Flow / Raise Delta T: • Modify RO Makeup • Install VFD’s on boiler forced draft fans • Interconnect plants/distribution system • Replace pressure reducing stations with backpressure steam turbine generators 75
  76. 76. Renewable Energy Technology Solar • Domestic Hot Water • Space Heating • Photovoltaic Wind Biomass Biogas Ground Source Heat Pumps 76
  77. 77. Renewable Energy Consideration Scale • Demonstration • Production Green Power 77
  78. 78. Renewable Energy Incentives Tax Exemptions Tax Credits Grants Loans Production Incentive 78
  79. 79. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Corporate Depreciation Corporate Tax Credits Grant Program Loan Program Production Incentive 79
  80. 80. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Corporate Depreciation • Five year accelerated cost recovery Solar Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Wind Combined Heat and Power Biomass 80
  81. 81. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Corporate Tax Credits • Business Energy Investment Tax Credit 30% -- solar, fuel cells, wind (<= 100 kW) 10% -- geothermal, microturbines and CHP • Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit Wind – $22/MWh Closed-Loop Biomass -- $22/MWh Geothermal -- $11/MWh Landfill Gas -- $11/MWh MSW -- $11/MWh Hydroelectric -- $11/MWh 81
  82. 82. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Corporate Tax Credits • Business Energy Investment Tax Credit • Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit Wind $22/MWh Closed-Loop Biomass $22/MWh Geothermal $11/MWh Landfill Gas $11/MWh MSW $11/MWh Hydroelectric $11/MWh Marine & Hydrokinetic $11/MWh (>= 150 kW) 82
  83. 83. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Grant Program • Tribal Energy Grant Program • Renewable Energy Grants • Rural Energy for America Program 83
  84. 84. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Grant Program • Tribal Energy Grant Program • Competitive solicitation • No open solicitations 84
  85. 85. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Grant Program • Tribal Energy Grant Program • Renewable Energy Grants 30% -- solar, fuel cells, wind 10% -- geothermal, microturbines and CHP • Rural Energy for America Program 85
  86. 86. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Grant Program • Tribal Energy Grant Program • Renewable Energy Grants 30% -- solar, fuel cells, wind 10% -- geothermal, microturbines and CHP • Rural Energy for America Program Grants or Loan Guarantees Up to 25% of Project Cost 86
  87. 87. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Loan Program • Clean Renewable Energy Bonds • Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds • U.S. DoE Loan Guarantee Program 87
  88. 88. Renewable Energy Incentives: Federal Production Incentive • Complements Production Tax Credit • Payments for Electricity Generated and Sold Local Government State Government Tribal Government Municipal Utility REC Native Corporations • Electricity Sold to Another Entity 88
  89. 89. Renewable Energy Incentives: State Connecticut Tax Exemptions Property Tax Sales Tax Grants Clean Energy Fund Loans DPUC Rebates Clean Energy Fund 89
  90. 90. Renewable Energy Incentives: State Maine Tax Exemptions Sales Tax (Community Wind Systems only) Grants Voluntary Renewable Resources Loans Small Business Low-Interest Loan Program Production Incentive Community Based Renewable Energy Rebates Solar and Wind Energy Rebate Program 90
  91. 91. Renewable Energy Incentives: State Maine Policies Energy Standards for Public Buildings Green Power Purchasing Renewable Resource Fund Renewable Portfolios Standard 91
  92. 92. Renewable Energy Incentives: State Massachusetts Tax Exemptions Excise Tax Grants Green Communities Program Commonwealth Wind Incentive Community Scale Wind Initiative Loans State: Commercial Wind Initiative Utilities Rebates Utilities 92
  93. 93. Renewable Energy Incentives: State Massachusetts Policies Green Power Purchasing Renewable Energy Trust Fund Renewable Portfolio Standard 93
  94. 94. Renewable Energy Incentives: State New Hampshire Tax Exemptions Property Loans State Local Option Programs Rebates State Utilities 94
  95. 95. Renewable Energy Incentives: State New Hampshire Policies Renewable Portfolio Standard 95
  96. 96. Renewable Energy Incentives: State Rhode Island Tax Exemptions Sales Loans State Local Option Programs Grants State Rebates State Utilities 96
  97. 97. Renewable Energy Incentives: State Vermont Tax Exemptions Sales Property (Local Option) Loans State Local Option Programs Grants State Rebates State Utilities 97
  98. 98. New Environmental Rules Pace of Regulation Unparalleled? Boiler MACT/CISWI Rules Greenhouse Gas Regulations New Ambient Air Quality Standards • 1-hour Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) • 1-hour Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) • 8-hour Ozone • PM2.5 coming soon Tougher SSM Provisions 98
  99. 99. Boiler MACT/CISWI Critical Importance for Utility Plan Quartet of inter-related rules Definitions unsettled (RCRA – solid waste) Cost of Operation • Fuel choice impacted • Flexibility curtailed • Assets retired prematurely • Reduce renewables opportunities 99
  100. 100. Boiler MACT Key Requirements PM, HCl, Hg, D/F, CO Control required for solid fuel, oil units Energy assessment • Qualified professional • Assess unit and end uses • Report to be submitted Even gas units = trouble with CO limit (1 ppm) Potentially troublesome for biomass 100
  101. 101. Greenhouse Gas Regulations Scary GHG to be regulated under PSD Tailoring Rule Cannot trigger PSD until June 2011 No idea what BACT will be • Biomass CO2 is NOT excluded • Energy efficiency? • Natural gas, combined cycle? Too many lawsuits to count… 101
  102. 102. New NAAQS Scarier TOUGH new standards for NO2, SO2 Applies immediately to major NSR sources • 1 year delay for minor NSR Most existing units unable to comply No new permit will be issued until exceedances are resolved 102
  103. 103. New NAAQS 103
  104. 104. New NAAQS 104
  105. 105. New NAAQS 105
  106. 106. Tougher SSM Provisions Scariest? Emission limits apply during startup, shutdown and malfunction Boiler MACT compliance Meet new 1-hour NAAQS 106
  107. 107. Central Utility Plant Roundtable September 23, 2010

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