Air Barrier: (aka “Building Wrap”) is a plastic-like membrane which is attached to the sheathing of the home and is used to minimize the leakage of air from inside the home to the exterior, and also minimize the infiltration of exterior air to the interior of the home. The air barrier also protects the sheathing, framing, insulation, etc. from condensed water caused by the temperature differential between the exterior and interior.
Attic ventilation: -Soffit Vent: Allows air circulation in the attic by allowing air to escape via the underside of the soffit -Ridge Vent: Allows air to escape the attic through an opening in the roof’s ridge -Gable Vent: Allows air to escape the attic through a louvered vent usually placed in the sidewall of the building, but yet still in the attic area -Roof Turbine: Encourages air circulation in the attic through convection
Soffit Vent The soffit vent is required for this building because there is no other form of attic ventilation (i.e. ridge, gable, turbine, etc.). The air in the attic is allowed to exit through the small perforations in the vinyl soffit panel. This then keeps the attic’s air temperature closer to that of the interior of the home. Because of this, the cost for energy to condition the air in the home will be lower than if the attic were not vented.
Ridge Vent A ridge vent is a small opening in the ridge of the roof which allows the attic air to escape. This is especially effective in warmer climates. When the hot air rises, it escapes the attic. This then brings down the temperature of the attic and thereby lowering the energy costs.
Gable Vent A gable vent is an opening (generally louvered) in the eave of a gable. This allows the air in the attic to escape and circulate with the exterior air.
Roof Turbine A roof turbine is a mechanical device located on the roof of a building. Its spinning motion circulates the air in the attic.
Backhoe: A backhoe is a hydraulically-powered machine used primarily for the excavation of earth. Backhoes will often be seen on a construction site digging the trenches for the footings of the building. A variety of bucket widths are available for the backhoe.
24” wide bucket
Batter Boards: A temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation.
Brick arch #1
Brick arch #2
Brick Arch with Keystone
Brick Bond 1 – Running Bond A running course consists of multiple bricks laid in the stretcher position with generally a 3/8” gap between each brick for the mortar joint (or head joint). Vertically, the bricks are staggered.
Brick Bond 2 – Herringbone Pattern (Straight) A herringbone pattern consists of bricks laid in a “basket weave”-type pattern. Generally, a herringbone pattern will be seen laid at a 45° angle. This pattern, however, is laid in the vertical/horizontal position.
Shiners (Stretcher Rowlocks)
Brick Size 1 Modular Brick – 3-5/8” x 7-5/8” x 2-1/4”
Brick Size 2 - Roman Roman Brick – 3-5/8” x 11-5/8” x 1-5/8”
Bulldozer A bulldozer is machine/vehicle used for the mass excavation of earth. With its bucket-like appendage, it shoves material from one location to another until the grading of the site is sufficient for construction.
Brick Clad Structure
EIFS Clad Structure
Stone Clad Structure Stone cladding / Random Ashlar pattern
Wood Board Clad Structure
Wood Shingle/Shake Clad Structure Wood shakes – series of square planks with inconsistent dimensions attached to the sheathing of the structure to form a veneer
Code Requirements – Egress Window IBC Requirements: Min. clear opening of 5.7 SF If on ground floor, min. of 5.0 SF Min. clear opening height of 24” Min. clear opening width of 20” Bot. of clear opening no more than 44” AFF If in basement, window well of 9 SF (36” min. dimension)
This window: 7-1/2” AFF 72” Wide (Double Window) 72” High 36 SF Total (18 Individually) 9 SF clear opening clearance Based on the standards set by the IBC, this window meets code
Concrete Joints -Control Joint: an intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure -Isolation Joint: a joint created between two or more members to allow expansion/contraction and also to isolate them from one another to minimize the effects of the concrete’s cracking in the process of expansion/contraction
Isolation Joint In these pictures, the brick veneer is being separated from the concrete slab. This minimizes the effects of expansion/contraction of the concrete as so not to impede on the brick veneer.
CMU: -(aka “Concrete Masonry Unit”, “Cinderblock”) is a masonry unit composed primarily of concrete and small aggregates. The block typically is used for structural applications such as foundations and load-bearing masonry walls. The most common dimensions of the block are 15-5/8” x 7-5/8” x 7-5/8”. The dimensions of the block directly correlate with those of a modular clay brick. Every 3 brick courses plus 3 mortar joints equals roughly the height of one CMU.
3 masonry units equals the height of one CMU (including the mortar joints)
Standard CMU = 15-5/8” x 7-5/8” x 7-5/8”
3-5/8” x 7-5/8” x 15-5/8” CMU (aka - 4” CMU)
7-5/8” x 3-5/8” x 15-5/8” CMU 7-5/8” x 7-5/8” x 15-5/8” CMU
Decorative Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) – Split Block/Split Face Block
Decorative Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) – Ribbed Block
Doors – Exterior Flush
Panel Stile Top Rail Lock Rail Bottom Rail
Panel Bottom Rail Stile Lock Rail Top Rail
Transom Transom: small, Usually fixed piece of glass directly above a door Sidelight Sidelight: fixed glass located on either, or both sides of a door
Electrical components - Transformer Transformer: an electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current
Power Pole Pole mounted transformer Electrical lines to service heads
Service Heads Service Head: the point of entry of electricity, from a power pole/transformer, into the residence.
Service Head Electrical lines from power pole/transformer To the electrical meter
Electrical Meter Meter: the means by which electrical consumption is measured. The meter will get its power from the service head. From here, the power is routed to the electrical panel.
Duplex Receptacle Duplex Receptacle: electrical component by which electrical devices can be connected
Framing Elements - #1 Anchor Bolt Anchor Bolt: the anchor bolt provides the physical connection between the concrete slab and the sole plate
Framing Elements - #2 Sill Plate Sole Plate: the strip of wood that lies immediately on top of a concrete or masonry foundation in wood frame construction. This allows for the connection of the floor joists and rim joists.
Framing Elements - #3 Floor Joist Floor Joists: the framing element which supports the load of the subflooring (in this picture, you see the floor joists for the attic)
Framing Elements - #4 Subflooring Subflooring: the framing element which lies directly on top of the floor joists. To this, finished flooring is applied (in this picture, you see the subflooring of the attic)
Framing Elements - #5 Sole Plate Sole Plate: the horizontal piece of dimensional lumber at the bottom of the studs in a wall in a light frame building.
Framing Elements - #6 Stud
Framing Elements - #7 Top Plate
Framing Elements - #8 Ceiling Joist
Framing Elements - #9 Rafter
Framing Elements - #10 Roof Decking
Framing Elements - #11 Sheathing
Framing Elements - #12 Stringer
Front End Loader: -typically used to either transport material from one area to a separate vehicle or to transport that load to another area. The front-end loader is used as a means to move materials in bulk from one place to another with efficiency.
Gypsum Board Gypsum Board: an interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces; also called drywall, plasterboard.
Heat Pump: Advantage: Allows exterior air to be conditioned for inside the building. Makes the air inside comfortable (temperature and humidity. Disadvantage: Costly Can be noisy
Compressor Unit: -moves outdoor air across coils containing refrigerant to heat/cool air. The air is then pumped inside to be conditioned
Air Handling Unit: conditions the air for inside the building (temperature, humidity, etc.)
Air Handling Unit Refrigerant lines from compressor/condensor
Batt/Blanket Insulation Batt/Blanket Insulation: assists in preventing heat transfer from exterior to interior or interior to exterior.
Loose fill insulation Loose fill insulation: assists in preventing heat transfer from exterior (the attic in this case) to the interior of the home (and visa versa in the winter).
Foamed Insulation Foamed Insulation: used primarily to fill small cracks where air infiltration might otherwise become an issue. The foam insulation expands on contact to seal any holes/cracks to prevent air infiltration.
Rigid Board Insulation Rigid Board Insulation: generally applied to the exterior of the home rather than the interior. Often used as a face to apply EIFS. Acts in much the same way as the other types of insulation by limiting the amount of heat transfer from one side to the other.
Lintel Lintel: a beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening
Mortar Joint 1: -Tooled, 3/8” joint, commercial building (Home Depot in Tiger Town) Type S Mortar
Mortar Joint 2: Tooled, 3/8” joint, commercial, Type S Mortar
OSB Oriented Strand Board: a building panel composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure
Plumbing – Lavatory (1-1/2” Drain Line)
Plumbing – Water Closet (3” Drain Line)
Plumbing – Roof Vent Plumbing Roof Vent: allows for the equalization of pressure between the interior of the house, the exterior of the house, and the sanitary sewer lines
Plumbing – Kitchen Sink (Drop-in)
Plywood Plywood: wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer or veneers of plywood. Veneer: a thin layer, sheet, or facing
Gutter Gutter: collects rain water runoff from the roof and distributes it to the downspouts so that it can be returned to the ground in a controlled manner.
Downspouts Downspouts: collects the water from the gutter and funnels that water to the ground in an orderly manner.
Splashblock Splashblock: diminishes the impact of erosion caused by rain water exiting the downspout
Underlayment Underlayment: a layer of waterproof material such as building felt between roof sheathing and roofing
Clay Tile Roof
Wood Shingle Roof Shingle: small unit of water-resistant material nailed in overlapping fashion with many other such units to render a wall or sloping roof watertight.
Wood Shingle Roof
Metal Panel Roof Typical materials used for metal panel roofs include galvanized and aluminized steel
Ridge Ridge: the level intersection of two roof planes
Valley Valley: a trough formed by the intersection of two roof slopes
Eave Eave: the horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof
Rake Rake: the sloping edge of a steep roof
Soffit Soffit: the undersurface of a horizontal element of a building, especially the underside of a stair or a roof overhang
Fascia Fascia: the exposed vertical face of an eave
Stone – Random Rubble
Random Ashlar Pattern
Weep Hole Weep Hole: small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly
Window 1 – Double Hung Double hung window: a window with two overlapping sashes that slide vertically in tracks