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  • 1. Cognitive Theories
    By: Charles, Lauren, Ashley, Sean, Alaina, Emily
  • 2. Cognitive(View learning and remembering as a behavior to be studied)
    Allan Paivio- believes in presenting information both visual and verbal form enhances recall and recognition.
    Dual coding theory- we process both images and language.
    Three sub processes- representational, referential, and associative.
    Possible shortcoming- placed equal emphasis on verbal and non verbal learning.
    Robert Gagne- worked on cognitive learning hierarchies.
    Five main categories of learning
    Verbal Information
    Intellectual Skills
    Cognitive Strategies
    Motor Skills
    Attitudes
    Nine Events of Instruction
    Gain Attention of Learners, Inform Learners of the objective, Stimulate recall of prior learning, Present the stimulus or lesson, Provide learning guidance and instruction, Elicit performance, Provide feedback, Assess performance, Enhance retention and transfer.
  • 3. Cognitive(View learning and remembering as a behavior to be studied)
    Howard Gardner- Developed the multiple intelligences.
    Linguistic-verbal-has a strong ability with language
    Logical-mathematical-has a strong ability of reasoning
    Spatial-visual-has a strong sense of the way things look
    Body-kinesthetic-has a strong ability in hands on things
    Musical-has a strong connection with understanding music
    Interpersonal-has a strong connection with communicating with others
    Intrapersonal-has a strong connection with oneself
    Naturalist-has a strong connection with nature
    Benjamin Bloom- classified learning into three domains
    Cognitive domain, affective domain, psychomotor domain
    Blooms taxonomy-six levels
    Knowledge-learner can recall information
    Comprehension- learner can predict and explain
    Application-learner can solve problems and use information
    Analysis-learner can see patterns and organize information
    Synthesis-learner uses old ideas to create new ones
    Evaluation-learner can compare, judge, and value ideas
  • 4. Cognitive Load Theory of Multimedia Learning
    John Sweller: Originator
    Three types of cognitive load:
    extraneous cognitive load
    under the control of instructional designers.  This form of cognitive load is generated by the manner in which information is presented to learners.
    intrinsic cognitive load
    the idea that all instruction has an inherent difficulty associated with it and this may not be altered by an instructor.
    germane (effective) cognitive load
    the load dedicated to the processing, construction and automation of schemas (i.e. organized pattern of thought or behavior) and is encouraged to be promoted. 
  • 5. Classroom Implications
    Teachers
    In this theory, teachers should use germane cognitive load, which is influenced by the instructional designer. It is the teacher’s responsibility to find the best way to present information to students so that they can fully learn and remember material. This may include using technology as a tool, which students are familiar with.
    Students
    increases in effort or motivation can increase the cognitive resources devoted to a task.
    Personal Thoughts:
    I agree with this theory because it seems that the germane cognitive load would be the most effective out of the three. Teachers really should be able to analyze their students and find effective ways to communicate new information in the best way possible, making learning as easy as possible for the students.
  • 6. Albert Bandura
    Although Bandura is generally a behavioral theorist, towards the end of his career he began identifying himself as a cognitive theorist, a new theory that was just starting to take root.
    Bandura is often called the father of the cognitivist movement.
    He is largely famous for his Social Cognitive Theory, which states that people acquire behaviors through observation of others and then imitating what they observed.
  • 7. Albert Bandura Cont.
    Bandura is most well known for his Bobo doll experiment
    He showed a group of young children a video of an adult beating up a Bobo doll and shouting aggressive phrases. The children were then moved to a play room where there was a Bobo doll. The children began to punch, kick, and jump on the doll and shout at the doll, just like they had seen in the video.
  • 8. Albert Bandura Cont.
    Bandura established that there were steps involved in his modeling process:
    Attention
    Retention
    Reproduction
    Motivation
    Past, promised, and vicarious reinforcement
    Past, promised, and vicarious punishments
  • 9. Attribution Theory
    • Initially associated with Fritz Heider, but the original attribution model was developed by Bernard Weiner
    • 10. Explains connections with how people interpret/explain causes for failures and success
    • 11. Perceptions determine future efforts for success and achievement
    • 12. People tend to attribute their own success internally and failures externally but others success as external and failures as internal
    Alaina
  • 13. Attribution Theory
    • Teachers can control perception of teaching with positive comments and feedback
    • 14. Students can assume failure due to changeable, controllable factors instead of poor instruction or luck
    • 15. In my experience, it’s hard not to blame external factors, such as time restrictions or poor teaching. This theory reminds me of the motion picture He’s Just Not That into You because it displays how women create every explanation except the obvious one to avoid rejection. I could take advantage of this theory by encouraging student effort and insisting good grades come from individual sufficient efforts. I would incorporate the philosophy that every student learns at different paces and project this to my students.
    Alaina
  • 16. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer)
    • Also Known as the “Multimedia Principle”
    • 17. Developed by Richard Mayer
    • 18. Theory States that “people learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone” (Mayer, p. 47)
    • 19. Relies on the utilization of sensory, working, and long-term memory.
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Continued.
    • Three Main Assumptions:
    • 20. There are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information (sometimes referred to as Dual-Coding theory);
    • 21. Each channel has a limited capacity
    • 22. Learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information based upon prior knowledge
    • 23. Uses in Classroom
    • 24. Online Scavenger hunts for informative Videos
    • 25. Mock games centered around Team Q & A with built in video prompts
    • 26. Memory Challenge built around matching Video clips to audio prompts
  • Credits
    http://create.alt.ed.nyu.edu/courses/2174/reading/Paas_Renkl_Sweller_EP.pdf
    www.education.com
    http://www.learning-theories.com
    Mayer, R. E.; R. Moreno (1998). “A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles”. http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf