• “ It is not that men are ill-fed, but that they have no pleasure in the work by which they make their bread and therefore look to wealth as the only means of pleasure” HMD Whether directly or indirectly involved in the actual production, Morris advocated close collaboration between designer and craftsmen ad refused to use machines even for the manufacturing of wallpapers or printed fabrics HMD
The Arts and Crafts Movement was directed towards process and in ending or at least reducing the alienation between an artisan and the product of his or her labor HMD
Architecture Founded the Society for the protection of Ancient Buildings 1877
Eco-Socialism : Socialism, Marxism, Ecology, and Environmentalism . In the 1880s Morris became actively involved with the Socialist movement in Britain in the hope of crating social equality and reducing the pressures for production and consumption that fueled the capitalist system.
The Kelmscott Press founded 1891 He drew the typefaces himself Morris’s objective to make the book itself an object of beauty, even if some historians find it less well-suited to reading, perhaps a result of the distraction of elements other than type. HMD
William Morris (1834 – 1896), a forerunner of the British arts and crafts movement, set design standards for wallpaper and fabrics. Founder of renowned Victorian designers, Morris & Company, he produced exceptional textiles, stained glass and tapestries. Disappointed by the drabness of mass-produced, mid-19th century tapestries, Morris obtained a loom and taught himself to weave the type of tapestries he visualized. With Morris & Company, he re-established tapestry-making as a vital, distinctive art form, and left a legacy of technique and craftsmanship in 150 intricate tapestry patterns. The methods of craftsmen were, for Ruskin, the basis for joyful work and the equality among the arts in which craftsmen and artist alike shared in the act of human labor. HMD
The Crystal Palace at Sydenham Hill, London. It was designed by Sir Joseph Paxton for the Great Exhibition of 1851 and rebuilt in 1852–54 at Sydenham Hill but was destroyed in 1936.
http://forum.sydenham.org.uk/viewtopic.php?p=9689&sid=b25b822a414d3d3a1754bdad59738f63 This is the link to the Crystal Palace
Pre-Raphaelite The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, Frederic George Stephens, Thomas Woolner and William Holman Hunt.
The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo . They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art. Hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular, they objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, the founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts. They called him "Sir Sloshua", believing that his broad technique was a sloppy and formulaic form of academic Mannerism. In contrast, they wanted to return to the abundant detail, intense colours, and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian and Flemish art.
John Everett Millais was born in Southampton in 1829. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite art movement and during his lifetime painted more than thirty major works of art. In this picture his subject is 'Ophelia' from William Shakespeare's 'Hamlet' who driven out of her mind by Hamlet's neglect and the murder of her father drowns in a stream ...
privat.ub.uib.no/bubsy/astro.htm The Pre-Raphaelites have been considered the first avant-garde movement in art, though they have also been denied that status, because they continued to accept both the concepts of history painting and of mimesis, or imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art. However, the Pre-Raphaelites undoubtedly defined themselves as a reform-movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, and published a periodical, The Germ, to promote their ideas. Their debates were recorded in the Pre-Raphaelite Journal Camille Paglia On Pre-Raphaelite Art Camille Paglia On Pre-Raphaelite Art
Ironically, the success of Morris and company depended almost entirely upon and exclusive market, thus bolstering the capitalist system he hoped to eliminate by the renewal of craft.
Artists of the Aesthetics Movement attempted to identify and give visible form to subjective experience through the decorative abject or product. Wikipedia The Aesthetic Movement is a loosely defined movement in literature, fine art, the decorative arts, and interior design in later nineteenth-century Britain. Generally speaking, it represents the same tendencies that Symbolism or Decadence stood for in France, or Decadentismo stood for in Italy, and may be considered the British branch of the same movement. It belongs to the anti-Victorian reaction and had post-Romantic roots, and as such anticipates Modernism. It took place in the late Victorian period from around 1868 to 1901, and is generally considered to have ended with the trial of Oscar Wilde.