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Urinary System Notes

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  • 1. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology The Urinary System Anatomy & Physiology II Mr. Hildebrandt
  • 2. Urinary System FunctionsRegulates homeostasis: Water & Electrolytes Blood pressure & pH Red blood cell productionElimination of waste products: Nitrogenous wastes Toxins Drugs
  • 3. Urinary system Organs Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra
  • 4. The KidneysAgainst dorsal body wallRight kidney is slightly lower than the left3 Regions: Renal cortex – outer region Renal medulla – inside the cortex Renal pelvis – inner collecting tube
  • 5. Kidney CharacteristicsAttached to ureters, renal blood vessels, and nerves at renal hilusAtop each kidney is an adrenal glandRenal capsule - Surrounds each kidneyKidney stones – filtrate concentrates, crystallizes and forms stony masses
  • 6. UretersSlender tubes attaching thekidney to the bladder Continuous with the renal pelvis Enters posterior portion of the bladderRuns behind the peritoneumPeristalsis aids gravity inurine transport
  • 7. Urinary Bladder Smooth, collapsible, muscular sac Temporarily stores urine
  • 8. UrethraThin-walled tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body by peristalsisRelease of urine is controlled by two sphinctersBoth sphincter muscles must open to allow micturition (voiding)
  • 9. Urethra Gender Differences Function: Females – only carries urine Males – carries urine & sperm cells Length: Females – 3–4 cm (1 inch) Males – 20 cm (8 inches)
  • 10. Nephrons: filter “junk” out of blood Structural & functional units of kidneys Responsible for forming urine Nephron structures: Glomerulus Bowman’s capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct
  • 11. Urine Formation ProcessesFiltration - Water andsmall solutes (filtrate) areforced out of glomerulus &into Bowman’s capsuleReabsorption - Bloodcapillaries reabsorb 99% ofwater, glucose, amino acids,& ions from renal tubuleSecretion - Hydrogen &potassium move back intorenal tubules resulting inurine
  • 12. Formation of Urine
  • 13. Characteristics of Urine Colored somewhat yellow due to the pigment urochrome and other solutes 1.8 liters produced per day Slightly aromatic pH normally 6ish Sterile
  • 14. Maintaining the Balance Water intake must equal water output Blood pH must remain between 7.35 and 7.45 to maintain homeostasis Kidneys increase water volume & sodium in blood to control blood pressure Kidneys recognize hypoxia (low oxygen levels) & responds: Erythropoietin is released in blood Bone marrow produces more RBCs