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Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
Nervous system notes
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Nervous system notes

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This slideshow is designed for students in Mr. Hildebrandt's Anatomy & Physiology classes.

This slideshow is designed for students in Mr. Hildebrandt's Anatomy & Physiology classes.

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  • 1. The Nervous System Anatomy & Physiology Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
  • 2.
    • Functions of the Nervous System
    • Sensory input – gathering information
      • To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body
    • Integration - To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed
    • Motor output
      • A response to stimuli
      • Activates muscles or glands
  • 3.
    • Classification of the Nervous System
    • Central nervous system (CNS):
      • Brain
      • Spinal cord
    • Peripheral nervous system (PNS):
      • Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
  • 4.
    • The Peripheral Nervous System
    • Sensory (afferent) division - Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system
    • Motor (efferent) division - Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system.
        • Somatic system :
        • voluntary
        • Autonomic system :
        • involuntary
  • 5.
    • Autonomic Nervous System
    • The involuntary branch of the nervous system
    • Consists of only motor nerves
    • Divided into two divisions
      • Sympathetic division – “fight or flight” response
      • Parasympathetic division – “housekeeping”
  • 6.
    • Nervous System Histology
    • Neurons = nerve cells
      • Cells specialized to transmit electrochemical messages
      • Major regions of neurons
        • Cell body – nucleus and metabolic center of the cell
        • Processes – fibers that extend from the cell body
  • 7.
    • Neuron Anatomy
      • Dendrites – conduct impulses toward the cell body
    • Cell body (soma): contains organelles & Nissl substance (specialized rough ER)
      • Axons – conduct impulses away from the cell body
      • Schwann cells – produce myelin sheaths in jelly-roll like fashion
      • Nodes of Ranvier – gaps in myelin sheath along the axon
  • 8.
    • Classification of Neurons
    • Sensory (afferent) neurons
      • Carry impulses from the sensory receptors
        • Cutaneous sense organs
        • Receptors – detect stretch or tension
    • Interneurons (association): “connector”
    • Motor (efferent) neurons
      • Carry impulses from the central nervous system
  • 9.
    • Neuron Classification
    Figure 7.6
  • 10.
    • Electrochemical Nerve Impulses
    • Dendrite depolarization – a stimulus depolarizes the dendrite’s membrane
    • Sodium (Na + ) flows inside the membrane with the help of Na+ pumps
    • This exchange of ions initiates an (+) action potential in the neuron
  • 11.
    • The Action Potential
    • If the action potential (nerve impulse) starts, it is propagated to the end of the axon
    • Potassium (K+) ions rush out of the neuron after sodium ions rush in, which repolarizes the membrane
    • The sodium-potassium pump restores the original configuration - which is resting potential (-)
      • *** This action requires ATP ***
  • 12.
    • Continuation of the Nerve Impulse between Neurons
    • Impulses are able to cross the synapse to another neuron
      • Neurotransmitter is released from a neuron’s axon terminal
      • The dendrite of the next neuron has receptors that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter
      • An action potential is started in the dendrite
  • 13.
    • How Neurons Communicate at Synapses
    Figure 7.10
  • 14.
    • The Reflex Arc
    • Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli
    • Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector
  • 15.
    • Regions of the Brain
    • Cerebral hemispheres
    • Diencephalon
    • Brain stem
    • Cerebellum
  • 16.
    • Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)
    • Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain
    • Include more than half of the brain mass
    • The surface is made of ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci)
  • 17.
    • Specialized Area of the Cerebrum
    Figure 7.13c
  • 18.
    • Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum
    Figure 7.13c
  • 19.
    • Diencephalon
    • Sits on top of the brain stem
    • Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres
    • Three parts:
      • Thalamus
      • Hypothalamus
      • Epithalamus
  • 20.
    • Brain Stem
    • Attaches to the spinal cord
    • Parts of the brain stem:
      • Midbrain
      • Pons
      • Medulla oblongata
  • 21.
    • Cerebellum
    • Two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces
    • Provides involuntary coordination of body movements
    • “ Arbor vitae” design of white & grey matter
  • 22.
    • Spinal Cord Anatomy
    • Extends from the medulla oblongata to the region of T12
    • Below T12 is the cauda equina (a collection of spinal nerves)
    • Carries sensory and motor information
    Figure 7.18
  • 23.
    • Cranial Nerves
    • 12 pairs of nerves that mostly serve the head and neck
    • Numbered in order, front to back
    • Most are mixed nerves, but three are sensory only
  • 24.
    • Cranial Nerves
    • I Olfactory nerve – sensory for smell
    • II Optic nerve – sensory for vision
    • III Oculomotor nerve – motor fibers to eye muscles
    • IV Trochlear – motor fiber to eye muscles
    • V Trigeminal nerve – sensory for the face; motor fibers to chewing muscles
    • VI Abducens nerve – motor fibers to eye muscles
  • 25.
    • Cranial Nerves
    • VII Facial nerve – sensory for taste; motor fibers to the face
    • VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve – sensory for balance and hearing
    • IX Glossopharyngeal nerve – sensory for taste; motor fibers to the pharynx
    • X Vagus nerves – sensory and motor fibers for pharynx, larynx, and viscera
    • XI Accessory nerve – motor fibers to neck and upper back
    • XII Hypoglossal nerve – motor fibers to tongue
  • 26.
    • Use a Mnemonic Device!
    “ On Old Olympus’ Towering Top A Fierce Viking Grew Vines and Hops”
  • 27.
    • Use a Mnemonic Device!
    “ Some say money matters but my brother says big brains matter more.”
  • 28.
    • The Brachial Plexus (Arm)
    • Spinal Nerves to know:
      • Ulnar Nerve – Motor & Sensory, “the funny bone”
      • Radial Nerve – Motor & Sensory
      • Median Nerve – Motor & Sensory
  • 29.
    • The Lumbrosacral Plexus (Leg)
    • Spinal Nerves :
      • Sciatic – M,S
      • Femoral – M,S
      • Obturator – M,S
      • Tibial – M,S
      • Common Fibular – M,S
  • 30. “ You just nailed me in the head!” - Travis Bogumill (21) Eau Claire, WI 1998

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