Endocrine System Notes

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This slideshow is intended for students in Mr. Hildebrandt's anatomy & physiology classes.

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Endocrine System Notes

  1. 1. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Seventh EditionThe Endocrine System Anatomy & Physiology II
  2. 2. Developmental Aspects of theEndocrine System• Most endocrine organs operate smoothly until old age • Menopause is brought about by lack of efficiency of the ovaries • Problems associated with reduced estrogen are common • Growth hormone production declines with age • Many endocrine glands decrease output with ageCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.41
  3. 3. Sometimes there are problems…
  4. 4. Endocrine System Function:• Second messenger system of the body• Uses chemical messages (hormones) that are released into the blood• Hormones control several major processes • Reproduction • Growth and development • Mobilization of body defenses • Maintenance of much of homeostasis • Regulation of metabolism Slide 9.1
  5. 5. Hormone Overview• Hormones are produced by specialized cells• Cells secrete hormones into extracellular fluids• Blood transfers hormones to target sites• These hormones regulate the activity of other cells• Three types: Amino acid, Steroid, & Lipid based
  6. 6. Mechanisms of Hormone Action• Hormones affect only certain tissues or organs (target cells or organs)• Target cells must have specific protein receptors• Hormone binding influences the working of the cellsCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.4
  7. 7. Control of Hormone Release• Hormone levels in the blood are maintained by negative feedback loop• A stimulus (3 types) triggers the release of more hormone• Hormone release stops once an appropriate level in the blood is reached Slide 9.10
  8. 8. Hormonal Stimuli of EndocrineGlands• Endocrine glands are activated by other hormones Figure 9.2a Slide 9.11
  9. 9. Humoral Stimuli of EndocrineGlands• Changing blood levels of certain ions stimulate hormone release Figure 9.2bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.12
  10. 10. Neural Stimuli of Endocrine Glands• Nerve impulses stimulate hormone release• Most are under control of the sympathetic nervous systemCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.13
  11. 11. Location of Major Endrocrine Organs Figure 9.3Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.14
  12. 12. Pituitary Gland “the master gland”• Grape-sized, hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus• Protected by the sphenoid bone• Two functional lobes • Anterior pituitary – glandular tissue • Posterior pituitary – nervous tissue
  13. 13. Pituitary - HypothalamusRelationship• Release of hormones is controlled by releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus• Hypothalamus produces two hormones that are transported to neurosecretory cells of the posterior pituitary• The posterior pituitary is not strictly an endocrine gland, but does release hormonesCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.21
  14. 14. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Figure 9.4Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.17
  15. 15. Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Figure 9.5Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.22b
  16. 16. Thyroid Gland• Found at the base of the throat• Two lobes and a connecting isthmus• Produces two hormones • Thyroid hormone • CalcitoninCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.23a
  17. 17. Parathyroid Glands • Tiny masses on posterior thyroid • Secrete parathyroid hormone
  18. 18. Adrenal Glands• “Two glands in one” • Cortex – outer glandular region in three layers • Medulla – inner neural tissue region• Sits on top of the kidneys
  19. 19. Pancreatic Islets• The pancreas is a mixed gland• The islets of the pancreas produce insulin and glucagon
  20. 20. Pineal Gland• Found on the third ventricle of the brain• Secretes melatonin • Helps establish the body’s wake and sleep cycles • May have other as-yet- unsubstantiated functionsCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.34
  21. 21. Thymus Gland• Located posterior to the sternum• Largest in infants and children• Produces thymosinCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 9.35
  22. 22. Hormones of the Ovaries• Estrogens• ProgesteronesHormones of the Testes• Interstitial cells of testes are hormone-producing• Produce several androgens• Testosterone most significant Slide 9.36
  23. 23. Hormones to know…ACTH Glucagon PTHADH Insulin Growth hormoneAldosterone LH TestosteroneCortisol Melatonin ThymosinEpinephrine Oxytocin ThyrocalcitoninEstrogen Progesterone ThyroxineFSH Prolactin TSH Slide 9.36

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